The elementary forms of the religious life, a study in religious sociology
476 Pages
English

The elementary forms of the religious life, a study in religious sociology

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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES
k
THE ELEMENTARY FORMS OF THE
RELIGIOUS LIFE
EMILE DURKHEIM
The Elementary Forms
of
the
Religious Life
TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY
JOSEPH WARD SWAIN
M. A.
LONDON GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN LTD
RUSKIN HOUSE MUSEUM STREET
FIRST PUBLISHED IN I915
SECOND IMPRESSION I926 THIRD IMPRESSION I954
FOURTH IMPRESSION 1957
FIFTH IMPRESSION I964
This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private
itudv, research, criticism or review, as permitted under
the Copyright Act, ig^G, no portion may be reproduced hy any process without written permission. Enquiry should be made to the publisher.
(g)
George Allen
&
Unwin
Ltd.
1
91
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BV HOLLEN STREET PRESS LTD
LONDON
W.
I
College
Library
H-10
CûtO
.%
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Subject of our Study
I.
:
Religious Sociology and the Theory of
Knowledge
—Principal subject
—Secondary
more
easily
analysis of the simplest religion known they are to determine the elementary forms of the religious life
of the
book
:
—Why
a
found and explained
in the primitive religions
:
II.
the genesis of the fundamental subject of research notions of thought or the categories Reasons for believing that

their origin is religious and consequently social restating the theory of knowledge is thus seen ...

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Published 10 January 2011
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Language English
Document size 24 MB
THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES k THE ELEMENTARY FORMS OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE EMILE DURKHEIM The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY JOSEPH WARD SWAIN M. A. LONDON GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN LTD RUSKIN HOUSE MUSEUM STREET FIRST PUBLISHED IN I915 SECOND IMPRESSION I926 THIRD IMPRESSION I954 FOURTH IMPRESSION 1957 FIFTH IMPRESSION I964 This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private itudv, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, ig^G, no portion may be reproduced hy any process without written permission. Enquiry should be made to the publisher. (g) George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1 91 PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BV HOLLEN STREET PRESS LTD LONDON W. I College Library H-10 CûtO .% CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Subject of our Study I. : Religious Sociology and the Theory of Knowledge —Principal subject —Secondary more easily analysis of the simplest religion known they are to determine the elementary forms of the religious life of the book : —Why a found and explained in the primitive religions : II. the genesis of the fundamental subject of research notions of thought or the categories Reasons for believing that — their origin is religious and consequently social restating the theory of knowledge is thus seen . —How . . way . of . j BOOK PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS I CHAPTER I * Definition of Religious Phenomena and of Religion Usefulness of a preliminary definition of religion ; method to be followed in seeking this definition Why the usual definitions should be examined I. first II. III. —Religion defined by the supernatural and mysterious Criticism the nption of mystery 24 not primitive —Religion defined connection with the idea of God or a spiritual being. —Religions without gods Rites in religions which imply no idea of divinity 29 and —Search a positive definition Distinction between — of —First characteristic division of things ^.between sacred and profane—Distinctive characteristics of this definition — Definition of —Definition of relation to religion .36 IV. — Necessity of another characteristic to distinguish magic from exclude —The idea of the Church—Do individualistic : in rites for Defiinition — .......... — ....... — .......... — is 23 deistic beliefs beliefs : rites . in beliefs . . . . . , . . . religion the idea of a Church ?......... religions 42 CHAPTER II Leading Conceptions of the Elementary Religion Animism I. Distinction of animism and naturism I. The three theses of animism Genesis of the idea of the soul Forma- — tion of the idea of spirits the cult of nature ....... .......... ; ; 48 ; Transformation of the cult of spirits into 49 14503.35 vi II. first thesis Contents PACE of for — Distinction of the idea the soul from —Criticism of the the idea of the soul that a double —Dreams do not account —Death does not explain the trans—Criticism of the second formation of a soul into a —The cult of the souls the dead not primitive —The anthromoporphic IV. —Criticism of the third reservations on point— Examination Spencer's criticism of instinct said to be proved— Difference of the facts by which between a soul and the of nature— Religious anthropomorphism not primitive \ V. — Conclusion animism reduces religion to nothing more than a system of . 55 III. .......... thesis spirit of is 60 thesis instinct it ; this this is spirits . is : of hallucinations .......... . . . . . . . . . . 65 68 CHAPTER II. III' Leading Conceptions of the Elementary Religion Naturism — {continued) History of the theory Exposition of Max MUller's naturism If the object of religion is to express natural forces, it is bard to see II. how it has maintained itself, for it expresses them in an erroneous I. — — .......... ...... religion 71 73 III. manner— Pretended distinction between —Naturism does not explain the division profane ........... of things into sacred and mythology . 78 and 84 CHAPTER IV TOTEMISM AS AN ELEMENTARY RELIGION I. II. —Brief history of the question totemism — Reasons of method which our study Australia —The place which totemism of for of ...... will be given specially to the will be given to facts from I 88 America ........... BOOK II 93 THE ELEMENTARY BELIEFS CHAPTER ToTEMic Beliefs I. II. III. —Definition of the clan—The totem as name the clan—Nature the acquired which the totem things which serve as totems—Ways .102 —The totems phratries matrimonial — totem as emblem—Totem designs engraved or carved upon objects; tatooings or designs upon the body .113 —Sacred character the totemic emblem—The churinga—The totemic emblems 119 nurtunja— The waninga—Conventional character of The Totem as Name and as Emblem in of is of ; of classes . . . ^The ic . . . . of of CHAPTER Totemic Beliefs I. — {continued) Man kill II —Sacred character the totemic animals—Prohibition to eat them, them or pick the totemic plants— Different moderations given these the prohibitions — Prohibition contact— The sacred character of of of . The Totemic Animal and animal is less marked than that of the emblem . . .128