The Empire of Russia
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The Empire of Russia

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The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Empire of Russia, by John S. C. Abbott
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Title: The Empire of Russia
Author: John S. C. Abbott
Release Date: March 6, 2005 [eBook #15269]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE EMPIRE OF RUSSIA***
E-text prepared by Curtis Weyant, Ronald Holder, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net)
Transcriber's Note:
Many place names are spelled differently in differe nt locations in this book; in most cases, these variations in spelling have been retained. Typographical errors i n people's names and other words have been corrected and marked with underlining and a message that will display the original spelling in the book.
THE MONARCHIES
OF
CONTINENTAL EUROPE.
THE
EMPIRE OF RUSSIA
FROM THE
REMOTEST PERIODS TO THE PRESENT TIME.
BY
JOHN S.C. ABBOTT
BOSTON:
GRAVES AND YOUNG,
24 CORNHILL.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by
MASO N BRO THERS,
In the Clerk's office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.
STEREO TYPED BY T.B. SMITH & SO N 82 & 84 BEEKMAN-ST
PREFACE.
The world is now too busy to read voluminous history. The interminable details of battles, and the petty intrigues of courtiers and mistresses, have lost their interest. In this volume it has been our object to trace perspicuously the path which Russia has trod from earliest infancy to the present hour. The career of this empire has been so wild and wonderful that the historian can have no occasion to call in the aid of fancy for the embellishment of his narrative.
The author has not deemed it necessary to incumber his pages with notes to substantiate his statements. The renowned Russian historian, Karamsin, who wrote under the patronage of Alexander I., gives ample authentication to all the facts which are stated up to the reign of that emperor. His voluminous history, in classic beauty, is unsurpassed by any of the annals of Greece or Rome. It has been admirably translated into French by Messrs. St. Thomas and Jauffret in eleven imperial quarto volumes. In the critical citations of this author, the reader, curious in such researches, will find every fact in the early history of Russia, here stated, confirmed.
There are but few valuable works upon Russia in the English language. Nearly all, which can be relied upon as authorities, are w ritten either in French or German. The writer would refer those who seek a more minute acquaintance with this empire, now rising so rapidly in importance, first of all to Karamsin.
The "Histoire Philosophique et Politique de Russie Depuis les Temps les Plus Reculés Jusqu'au Nos Jours, par J. Esneaux," Paris, five volumes, is a valuable work. The "Histoire de Russie par Pierre C harles Levesque," eight volumes, is discriminating and reliable. The various volumes of William Tooke upon Russian history in general, and upon the reign of Catharine, contain much information.
It is only since the reign of Peter the Great that Russia has begun to attract much attention among the enlightened nations of Europe. Voltaire's life of this most renowned of the Russian sovereigns, at its first publication, attracted much notice. Since then, many books have been written upon fragments of Russian history and individual reigns. From most of these the author has selected such events as have appeared to him most i nstructive and best adapted to give the reader a clear conception of th e present condition and future prospects of this gigantic empire. The path she has trod, since her first emergence into civilization from the chaos of barbarism, can be very distinctly traced, and one can easily count the concentric accretions of her growth. This narrative reveals the mistakes which have overwhelmed her with woe, and the wisdom which has, at times, secured for Russia peace and prosperity.
In writing these histories of the monarchies of Continental Europe, the author has no wish to conceal his abhorrence of aristocratic usurpation. Believing in the universal brotherhood of man, his sympathies are most cordially with the oppressed masses. If the people are weak and debased, the claim is only the more urgent upon the powerful and the wise to act the part of elder brothers, holding out the helping hand to those who have fallen. The author feels grateful for the reception which the first number of this series, the Empire of Austria, has received from the American public. He hopes that this volume will not prove less interesting or instructive. In the course of a few months it will be followed by the History of Italy.
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
PARENTAGE AND BIRTH OF RUSSIA.
FRO M500 B.C.TOA.D. 910.
PRIMEVAL RUSSIA.—EXPLO RATIO NSO FTHE GREEKS.—SCYTHIAN INVASIO N.—CHARACTER O FTHE SCYTHIANS.—SARMATIA.—ASSAULTS UPO NTHE RO MAN EMPIRE.—IRRUPTIO NO F THE ALAINS.—CO NQ UESTSO F TRAJAN.—THE GO THICINVASIO N,—THE HUNSTHEIR CHARACTERAND ASPECT.—THE DEVASTATIO NSO F ATTILA.—THE AVARS.—RESULTSO F CO MMING LING SO FTHESE TRIBES.—NO RMANS.—BIRTHO FTHE RUSSIAN EMPIRE—THE THREE SO VEREIG NS RURIC, SINEO USAND TRUVO R.—ADVENTURESO F ASCO LO DAND DIR.
—INTRO DUCTIO NO FHCRISTIANITY.—USURPATIO NO F—EXPEDITIO NAG AINSTCO NSTANTINO PLE.
CHAPTER II.
LOEG.—HIS
OCNQ UESTS.
GROWTH AND CONSOLIDATION OF RUSSIA.
FRO M910TO973.
EXPEDITIO NTO CO NSTANTINO PLE.—TREATYWITHTHE EMPERO R.—LAST DAYSO F OLEG. —HISDEATH.—IG O RASSUMESTHESCEPTER.—HISEXPEDITIO NTOTHEDO N.—DESCENT UPO N CO NSTANTINO PLE.—HIS DEFEAT.—SECO ND EXPEDITIO N.—PUSILLANIMITYO FTHE GREEKS.—DEATHO F IG O R.—REG ENCYO F OLG A.—HER CHARACTER.—SUCCESSIO NO F SVIATO SLAF.—HIS IMPIETYAND AMBITIO N.—CO NQ UESTO F BULG ARIA.—DIVISIO NO FTHE EMPIRE.—DEFEAT, RUINAND DEATHO F SVIATO SLAF.—CIVIL WAR.—DEATHO F OLEG. —FLIG HTO FVLADIMIR.—SUPREMACYO FYARO PO LK.
CHAPTER III.
REIGNS OF VLADIMIR, YAROSLAF, YSIASLAF AND VSEVOLOD.
FRO M973TO1092.
FLIG HTO F VLADIMIR.—HIS STO LEN BRIDE.—THE MARCH UPO N KIEF.—DEBAUCHERYO F VLADIMIR.—ZEALO US PAG ANISM.—INTRO DUCTIO NO F CHRISTIANITY.—BAPTISMINTHE DNIEPER.—ENTIRECHANG EINTHECHARACTERO FVLADIMIR.—HISGREATREFO RMS.—HIS DEATH.—USURPATIO NO F SVIATO PO LKTHE MISERABLE.—ACCESSIO NO F YARO SLAF.—HIS ADMINISTRATIO NAND DEATH.—ACCESSIO NO F YSIASLAF.—HIS STRANG E REVERSES,—HIS DEATH.—VSEVO LO DASCENDSTHETHRO NE.—HISTWOFLIG HTSTOPO LAND.—APPEALSTO THEPO PE.—WARS, FAMINEANDPESTILENCE.—CHARACTERO FVSEVO LO D.
CHAPTER IV.
YEARS OF WAR AND WOE.
FRO M1092TO1167.
CHARACTERO FSVEVO LO D.—SUCCESSIO NO FVSIATO PO LK.—HISISDCO MFITURE. —DEPLO RABLE CO NDITIO NO F RUSSIA.—DEATHO F SVIATO PO LK.—HIS CHARACTER. —ACCESSIO NO FMO NO MAQ UE.—CURIO USFESTIVALATKIEF.—ENERG YO FMO NO MAQ UE. —ALARMO FTHE EMPERO R AT CO NSTANTINO PLE.—HO RRO RSO F WAR.—DEATHO F MO NO MAQ UE.—HIS REMARKABLE CHARACTER.—PIO USELTTEROTIHS CHILDREN. —ACCESSIO NO F MSTISLAF.—HIS SHO RT BUT STO RMY REIG N.—STRUG G LES FO RTHE THRO NE.—FINALIVCTO RYO F YSIASLAF.—MO SCO WINTHE PRO VINCEO F SO UZDAL. —DEATHO F YSIASLAF.—WO NDERFUL CAREERO F RO STISLAF.—RISING PO WERO F MO SCO W.—GEO RG IEVITCH, PRINCEO FMO SCO W.
CHAPTER V.
MSTISLAF AND ANDRÉ.
FRO M1167TO1212.
CENTRALIZATIO NO FOPWERTAIKEF.—DEATHO FORSTISLAF.—HISERLIG IO US CHARACTER.—MSTISLAF YSIASLAVITCH ASCENDSTHE THRO NE.—PRO CLAMATIO NO FTHE KING.—ITS EFFECT.—PLANSO F ANDRÉ.—SCENES AT KIEF.—RETURNAND DEATHO F MSTISLAF.—WARINNO VG O RO D.—PEACECO NCLUDEDTHRO UG HO UTRUSSIA.—INSULTO F ANDRÉANDTISOCNSEQ UENCES.—GREATNESSO FOSULIDSPLAYEDYB ANDRÉ. —ASSASSINATIO NO F ANDRÉ.—RENEWALO F ANARCHY.—EMIG RATIO N FRO M NO VG O RO D. —REIG NO FIMCHEL.—VSEVO LO D III.—VEANG ELIZATIO NO F BULG ARIA.—DEATHO F VSEVO LO DIII.—HISQUEENMARIA.
CHAPTER VI.
THE GRAND PRINCES OF VLADIMIR, AND THE INVASION OF GENGHIS KHAN.
FRO M1212TO1238.
ACCESSIO NO F GEO RG ES.—FAMINE.—BATTLEO F LIPETSK.—DEFEATO F GEO RG ES.—HIS SURRENDER.—CO NSTANTINSEIZESTHESCEPTER.—EXPLO ITSO FMSTISLAF.—IMBECILITYO F CO NSTANTIN.—DEATHO FOCNSTANTIN.—GEO RG ES III.—NIVASIO NO FUBLG ARIA. —PRO G RESSO FTHEMO NARCHY.—RIG HTO FSUCCESSIO N.—CO MMERCEO FTHEDNIEPER. —GENG HISKHAN.—HISRISEANDCO NQ UESTS.—INVASIO NO FSO UTHERNRUSSIA.—DEATH O F GENG HIS KHAN.—SUCCESSIO NO F HIS SO N OUG ADAI.—MARCHO F BATI.—ENTRANCE INTORUSSIA.—UTTERDEFEATO FTHERUSSIANS.
CHAPTER VII.
THE SWAY OF THE TARTAR PRINCES.
FRO M1238TO1304.
RETREATO FGEO RG ESII.—DESO LATINGMARCHO FTHETARTARS.—CAPTUREO FVLADIMIR. —FALLO FMO SCO W.—UTTERDEFEATO FGEO RG ES.—CO NFLICTO FTO RJEK.—MARCHO F THETARTARSTO WARDTHESO UTH.—SUBJUG ATIO NO FTHEPO LO VTSI.—CAPTUREO FKIEF. —HUMILIATIO NO F YARO SLAF.—OVERTHRO WO FTHE GAUSSIAN KING DO M.—HAUG HTINESS O FTHE TARTARS.—REIG NO F ALEXANDER.—SUCCESSIO NO F YARO SLAF.—THE REIG NO F VASSULI.—STATEO F CHRISTIANITY.—INFAMYO F ANDRÉ.—STRUG G LES WITH DMITRI. —INDEPENDENCEO FTHEPRINCIPALITIES.—DEATHO FANDRÉ.
CHAPTER VIII.
RESURRECTION OF THE RUSSIAN MONARCHY.
FRO M1304TO1380.
DEFEATO FGEO RG ESANDTHETARTARS.—INDIG NATIO NO FTHEKHAN.—MICHELSUMMO NED TOTHEHO RDE.—HISTRIALANDEXECUTIO N.—ASSASSINATIO NO FGEO RG ES.—EXECUTIO N O FDMITRI.—REPULSEANDDEATHO FTHEEMBASSADO RO FTHEKHAN.—VENG EANCEO FTHE KHAN.—INCREASING PRO SPERITYO F RUSSIA. —THE GREAT PLAG UE.—SUPREMACYO F SIMO N.—ANARCHYINTHE HO RDE.—PLAG UEAND CO NFLAG RATIO N.—THE TARTARS
REPULSED.—RECO NQ UESTO F BULG ARIA.—THE GREAT BATTLEO F KO ULIKO F.—UTTER RO UTO FTHETARTARS.
CHAPTER IX.
DMITRI, VASSALI, AND THE MOGOL TAMERLANE
FRO M1380TO1462.
RECO VERYO F DMITRI.—NEW TARTARINVASIO N.—THE ASSAULTAND CAPTUREO F MO SCO W.—NEW SUBJUG ATIO NO FTHE RUSSIANS.—LITHUANIA EMBRACES CHRISTIANITY. —ESCAPEO FVASSALIFRO MTHEHO RDE.—DEATHO FDMITRI.—TAMERLANE—HISORIG IN AND CAREER.—HISNIVASIO NO FNIDIA.—DEFEATO F BAJAZET.—TAMERLANENIVADES RUSSIA.—PREPARATIO NSFO RRESISTANCE.—SUDDENRETREATO FTHETARTARS.—DEATH O F VASSALI.—ACCESSIO NO F VASSALI VASSILIEVITCH.—THEIDSPUTED SUCCESSIO N. —APPEALTOTHEHKAN.—REBELLIO NO FOYURI.—CRUELTYO FAVSSALI.—THE RETRIBUTIO N.
CHAPTER X.
THE ILLUSTRIOUS IVAN III.
FRO M1462TO1480.
IVAN III.—HIS PRECO CITYAND RISING PO WER.—THE THREE GREAT HO RDES.—RUSSIAN EXPEDITIO N AG AINST KEZAN.—DEFEATO FTHE TARTARS.—CAPTUREO F CO NSTANTINO PLE BYTHETURKS.—THEPRINCESSSO PHIA.—HERJO URNEYTORUSSIA,ANDMARRIAG EWITH IVAN III.—INCREASING RENO WNO F RUSSIA.—NEW DIFFICULTY WITHTHE HO RDE.—THE TARTARSINVADE RUSSIA.—STRIFE ONTHE BANKSO FTHE OKA.—LETTERO FTHE METRO PO LITANBISHO P.—UNPRECEDENTEDPANIC.—LIBERATIO NO FRUSSIA.
CHAPTER XI.
THE REIGN OF VASSILI.
FRO M1480TO1533.
ALLIANCEWITHHUNG ARY.—A TRAVELERFRO MGERMANY.—TREATYBETWEENRUSSIAAND GERMANY.—EMBASSAG ETO TURKEY.—CO URT ETIQ UETTE.—DEATHO FTHE PRINCESS SO PHIA.—DEATHO F IVAN.—ADVANCEMENTO F KNO WLEDG E.—SUCCESSIO NO F VASSILI. —ATTACKUPO NTHEHO RDE.—RO UTO FTHERUSSIANS.—THEGRANDPRINCETAKESTHE TITLEO FEMPERO R.—TURKISHENVO YTOMO SCO W.—EFFO RTSTOARMEURO PEAG AINST THETURKS.—DEATHO FTHEEMPERO RMAXIMILIAN,ANDACCESSIO NO FCHARLESV.TOTHE EMPIREO FGERMANY.—DEATHO FVASSILI.
CHAPTER XII.
IVAN IV.—HIS MINORITY.
FRO M1533TO1546.
VASSILI ATTHE CHASE.—ATTENTIO N TO DISTING UISHED FO REIG NERS.—THE AUTO CRACY. —SPLENDO RO FTHE EDIFICES.—SLAVERY.—ARISTO CRACY.—INFANCYO FVIAN IV. —REG ENCYO F HÉLÈNE.—CO NSPIRACIESAND TUMULTS.—WARWITH SIG ISMO NDO F PO LAND.—DEATHO FHÉLÈNE.—STRUG G LESO FTHENO BLES.—APPALLINGSUFFERING SO F DMITRI.—INCURSIO NO FTHE TARTARS.—SUCCESSFUL CO NSPIRACY.—IVAN IV.TATHE CHASE.—CO RO NATIO NO FIVANIV.
CHAPTER XIII.
THE REIGN OF IVAN IV.
FRO M1546TO1552.
THE TITLEO F TZAR.—MARRIAG EO F IVAN IV.—VIRTUESO F HIS BRIDE.—DEPRAVED CHARACTERO FTHE YO UNG EMPERO R.—TERRIBLE CO NFLAG RATIO NS.—INSURRECTIO NS. —THEREBUKE.—WO NDERFULCHANG EINTHECHARACTERO FIVANIV.—CO NFESSIO NSO F SINANDMEASURESO FREFO RM.—SYLVESTREANDALEXISADACHEF.—THECO DEO FLAWS. —REFO RMSINTHECHURCH.—ENCO URAG EMENTTOMENO FSCIENCEANDLETTERS.—THE EMBASSAG EO F SCHLIT.—WAR WITH KEZAN.—DISASTERSAND DISG RACE.—IMMENSE PREPARATIO N FO RTHE CHASTISEMENTO FTHE HO RDE.—THE MARCH.—REPULSEO FTHE TAUREDIANS.—SIEG EO FKEZAN.—INCIDENTSO FTHESIEG E.
CHAPTER XIV.
THE REIGN OF IVAN IV.—CONTINUED.
FRO M1552TO1557.
SIEG EO FKEZAN.—ARTIFICESO FWAR.—THEEXPLO SIO NO FMINES.—THEFINALASSAULT. —CO MPLETE SUBJUG ATIO NO F KEZAN.—GRATITUDEANDILBERALITYO FTHE TZAR. —RETURNTOMO SCO W.—JO YO FTHEINHABITANTS.—BIRTHO FANHEIRTOTHECRO WN. —INSURRECTIO NIN KEZAN.—THE INSURRECTIO N QUELLED.—CO NQ UESTO F ASTRACHAN. —THE ENG LISH EXPEDITIO NIN SEARCHO FA NO RTH-EAST PASSAG ETO INDIA.—THE ESTABLISHMENTAT ARCHANG EL.—CO MMERCIAL RELATIO NS BETWEEN FRANCEAND RUSSIA. —RUSSIANEMBASSYTOENG LAND.—EXTENSIO NO FCO MMERCE.
CHAPTER XV.
THE ABDICATION OF IVAN IV.
FRO M1557TO1582.
TERRO RO FTHEHO RDEINTAURIDE.—WARWITHGUSTAVUSVASAO FSWEDEN.—PO LITICAL PUNCTILIO S.—THE KING DO MO F LIVO NIA ANNEXEDTO SWEDEN.—DEATHO F ANASTASIA. —CO NSPIRACY AG AINSTVIAN.—HIS ABDICATIO N.—HIS RESUMPTIO NO FTHE CRO WN. —INVASIO NO FRUSSIABYTHETARTARSANDTURKS.—HERO ISMO F ZEREBRINO W.—UTTER DISCO MFITUREO FTHE TARTARS.—RELATIO NS BETWEEN QUEEN ELIZABETHO F ENG LAND, AND RUSSIA.—INTREPID EMBASSAG E.—NEW WARWITH PO LAND.—DISASTERSO F RUSSIA. —THEEMPERO RKILLSHISOWNSO N.—ANG UISHO FIVANIV.