The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln - A Narrative And Descriptive Biography With Pen-Pictures And Personal - Recollections By Those Who Knew Him

The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln - A Narrative And Descriptive Biography With Pen-Pictures And Personal - Recollections By Those Who Knew Him

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln by Francis Fisher Browne This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln A Narrative And Descriptive Biography With Pen-Pictures And Personal Recollections By Those Who Knew Him Author: Francis Fisher Browne Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14004] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LIFE OF LINCOLN *** Produced by Audrey Longhurst and the PG Online Distributed Proofreading Team. "How beautiful to see Once more a shepherd of mankind indeed. Who loved his charge, but never loved to lead; One whose meek flock the people joyed to be, Not lured by any cheat of birth, But by his clear-grained human worth, And brave old wisdom of sincerity! They knew that outward grace is dust; They could not choose but trust In that sure-footed mind's unfaltering skill, And supple-tempered will That bent like perfect steel to spring again and thrust.

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln
by Francis Fisher Browne
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln
A Narrative And Descriptive Biography With Pen-Pictures And Personal
Recollections By Those Who Knew Him

Author: Francis Fisher Browne
Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14004]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LIFE OF LINCOLN ***
Produced by Audrey Longhurst and the PG Online Distributed
Proofreading Team.
"How beautiful to see
Once more a shepherd of mankind indeed.
Who loved his charge, but never loved to lead;
One whose meek flock the people joyed to be,
Not lured by any cheat of birth,
But by his clear-grained human worth,
And brave old wisdom of sincerity!
They knew that outward grace is dust;
They could not choose but trust
In that sure-footed mind's unfaltering skill,
And supple-tempered will
That bent like perfect steel to spring again and thrust.
His was no lonely mountain-peak of mind,
Thrusting to thin air o'er our cloudy bars,
A sea-mark now, now lost in vapors blind;
Broad prairie rather, genial, level-lined,
Fruitful and friendly for all human kind,
Yet also nigh to heaven and loved of loftiest stars.
"Great captains, with their guns and drums,
Disturb our judgment for the hour,
But at last silence comes;
These all are gone, and, standing like a tower,
Our children shall behold his fame,
The kindly-earnest, brave, foreseeing man,Sagacious, patient, dreading praise, not blame,
New birth of our new soil, the first American."
JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
FROM AN UNPUBLISHED ORIGINAL DRAWING
BY JOHN NELSON MARBLE
THE EVERY-DAY LIFE OF
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
A NARRATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE
BIOGRAPHY WITH PEN-PICTURES
AND PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS
BY THOSE WHO KNEW HIM
BY FRANCIS FISHER BROWNE
Compiler of "Golden Poems," "Bugle Echoes, Pose ofthe Civil War," "Laurel-Crowned Verse," etc.
NEW AND THOROUGHLY REVISED EDITION, FROM NEW PLATES, WITH
AN ENTIRELY NEW PORTRAIT OF LINCOLN, FROM A
CHARCOAL STUDY BY J.K. MARBLE
CHICAGO
BROWNE & HOWELL COMPANY
1913
v FRANCIS FISHER BROWNE
1843-1913
The present revision of "The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln" was the last
literary labor of its author. He had long wished to undertake the work, and had
talked much of it for several years past. But favorable arrangements for the
book's republication were not completed until about a year ago. Then, though
by no means recovered from an attack of pneumonia late in the previous winter,
he took up the task of revision and recasting with something of his old-time
energy. It was a far heavier task than he had anticipated, but he gave it
practically his undivided attention until within three or four weeks of his death.
Only when the last pages of manuscript had been despatched to the printer did
he yield to the overwhelming physical suffering that had been upon him for a
long time past. His death occurred at Santa Barbara, California, on May 11.
Francis Fisher Browne was born at South Halifax, Vermont, on December 1,
1843. His parentage, on both sides, was of the purest New England stock.
Early in his childhood, the family moved to Western Massachusetts, where the
boy went to school and learned the printing trade in his father's newspaper
office at Chicopee. As a lad of eighteen, he left the high school in answer to the
government's call for volunteers, serving for a year with the 46th Massachusetts
Regiment in North Carolina and with the Army of the Potomac. When the
vi regiment was discharged, in 1863, he decided to take up the study of law.
Removing to Rochester, N.Y., he entered a law office in that city; and a year or
two later began a brief course in the law department of the University of
Michigan. He was unable to continue in college, however, and returned to
Rochester to follow his trade.
Immediately after his marriage, in 1867, he came to Chicago, with the definite
intention of engaging in literary work. Here he became associated with "The
Western Monthly," which, with the fuller establishment of his control, he
rechristened "The Lakeside Monthly." The best writers throughout the West
were gradually enlisted as contributors; and it was not long before the
magazine was generally recognized as the most creditable and promising
periodical west of the Atlantic seaboard. But along with this increasing prestige
came a series of extraneous setbacks and calamities, culminating in a
complete physical breakdown of its editor and owner, which made the
magazine's suspension imperative.FRANCIS F. BROWNE
The six years immediately following, from 1874 to 1880, were largely spent in a
search for health. During part of this time, however, Mr. Browne acted as literary
editor of "The Alliance," and as special editorial writer for some of the leading
Chicago newspapers. But his mind was preoccupied with plans for a new
periodical—this time a journal of literary criticism, modeled somewhat after
such English publications as "The Athenæum" and "The Academy." In the
furtherance of this bold conception he was able to interest the publishing firm of
Jansen, McClurg & Co.; and under their imprint, in May, 1880, appeared the
first issue of THE DIAL, "a monthly review and index of current literature." At
about the same time he became literary adviser to the publishing department of
the house, and for twelve years thereafter toiled unremittingly at his double
task-work. In 1892, negotiations were completed whereby he acquired Messrs.
vii McClurg & Co.'s interest in the periodical. It was enlarged in scope, and made a
semi-monthly; and from that time until his death it appeared uninterruptedly
under his guidance and his control.
Besides his writings in THE DIAL and other periodicals, Mr. Browne is the
author of a small volume of poems, "Volunteer Grain" (1895). He also compiled
and edited several anthologies,—"Bugle Echoes," a collection of Civil War
poems (1886); "Golden Poems by British and American Authors" (1881); "The
Golden Treasury of Poetry and Prose" (1883); and seven volumes of "Laurel-
Crowned Verse" (1891-2). He was one of the small group of men who, in 1874,
founded the Chicago Literary Club; and for a number of years past he has been
an honorary member of that organization, as well as of the Caxton Club(Chicago) and the Twilight Club (Pasadena, Cal.). During the summer of 1893
he served as Chairman of the Committee on the Congress of Authors of the
World's Congress Auxiliary of the Columbian Exposition.
THE PUBLISHERS
ix
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
The original edition of this book was published about twenty years after
Lincoln's death at the close of the Civil War. At that time many of the men who
had taken a prominent part in the affairs, military and civil, of that heroic period,
many who had known Lincoln and had come in personal contact with him
during the war or in his earlier years, were still living. It was a vivid conception
of the value of the personal recollections of these men, gathered and recorded
before it was too late, that led to the preparation of this book. It was intended to
be, and in effect it was, largely an anecdotal Life of Lincoln built of material
gathered from men still living who had known him personally. The task was
begun none too soon. Of the hundreds who responded to the requests for
contributions of their memories of Lincoln there were few whose lives extended
very far into the second quarter-century after his death, and few indeed survive
after the lapse of nearly fifty years,—though in several instances the author has
been so fortunate as to get valuable material directly from persons still living
(1913). Of the more than five hundred friends and contemporaries of Lincoln to
whom credit for material is given in the original edition, scarcely a dozen are
living at the date of this second edition. Therefore, the value of these
reminiscences increases with time. They were gathered largely at first hand.
They can never be replaced, nor can they ever be very much extended.
This book brings Lincoln the man, not Lincoln the tradition, very near to us.
x Browning asked, "And did you once see Shelley plain? And did he stop and
speak to you?" The men whose narratives make up a large part of this book all
saw Lincoln plain, and here tell us what he spoke to them, and how he looked
and seemed while saying it. The great events of Lincoln's life, and impressions
of his character, are given in the actual words of those who knew him—his
friends, neighbors, and daily associates—rather than condensed and remolded
into other form. While these utterances are in some cases rude and unstudied,
they have often a power of delineation and a graphic force that more than
compensate for any lack of literary quality.
In a work prepared on such a plan as this, some repetitions are unavoidable;
nor are they undesirable. An event or incident narrated by different observers is
thereby brought out with greater fulness of detail; and phases of Lincoln's
many-sided character are revealed more clearly by the varied impressions of
numerous witnesses whose accounts thus correct or verify each other. Some
inconsistencies and contradictions are inevitable,—but these relate usually to
minor matters, seldom or never to the great essentials of Lincoln's life and
personality. The author's desire is to present material from which the reader
may form an opinion of Lincoln, rather than to present opinions and judgments
of his own.
Lincoln literature has increased amazingly in the past twenty-five years.
Mention of the principal biographies in existence at the time of the original
edition was included in the Preface. Since then there have appeared, among
the more formal biographies, the comprehensive and authoritative work by
Nicolay and Hay, the subsequent work by Miss Ida Tarbell, and that by
Herndon and Weik, besides many more or less fragmentary publications. Someadditions, but not many, have been made to the present edition from these
sources. The recently-published Diary of Gideon Welles, one of the most
xi valuable commentaries on the Civil War period now available, has provided
some material of exceptional interest concerning Lincoln's relations with the
members of his Cabinet.
In re-writing the present work, it has been compressed into about two-thirds of
its former compass, to render it more popular both in form and in price, and to
give it in some places a greater measure of coherency and continuity as an
outline narrative of the Civil War. But its chief appeal to the interest of its
readers will remain substantially what it was in the beginning, as set forth in its
title, "The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln, by Those Who Knew Him."
F.F.B.
SANTA BARBARA, CAL., April, 1913.
xiii
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
This book aims to give a view, clearer and more complete than has been given
before, of the personality of Abraham Lincoln. A life so full of incident and a
character so many-sided as his can be understood only with the lapse of time.
A sense of the exhaustless interest of that life and character, and the
inadequacy of the ordinarily constructed biography to portray his many-
sidedness, suggested the preparation of a work upon the novel plan here
represented. Begun several years ago, the undertaking proved of such
magnitude that its completion has been delayed beyond the anticipated time.
The extensive correspondence, the exploration of available sources of
information in the books, pamphlets, magazines, and newspapers of a quarter
of a century, and in the scraps and papers of historical collections, became an
almost interminable task. The examination and sifting of this mass of material,
its verification amidst often conflicting testimony, and its final molding into
shape, involved time and labor that can be estimated only by those who have
had similar experience.
To the many who have kindly furnished original contributions, to others who
have aided the work by valuable suggestions and information, to earlier
biographies of Lincoln—those of Raymond, Holland, Barrett, Lamon,
Carpenter, and (the best and latest of all) that of Hon. I.N. Arnold—hearty
acknowledgment is made. Much that was offered could not be used. In the
choice of material, from whatever source, the purpose has been to avoid mere
xiv opinions and eulogies of Lincoln and to give abundantly those actual
experiences, incidents, anecdotes, and reminiscences which reveal the phases
of his unique and striking personality.
It scarcely need be pointed out that this work does not attempt to give a
connected history of the Civil War, but only to sketch briefly those episodes with
which Lincoln is personally identified and of which some knowledge is
essential to an understanding of his acts and character. Others are brought into
prominence only as they are associated with the chief actor in the great drama.
Many of them are disappearing,—fading into the smoky and lurid background.
But that colossal central figure, playing one of the grandest roles ever set upon
the stage of human life, becomes more impressive as the scenes recede.
F.F.B.
CHICAGO, October, 1886.xv
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
Ancestry—The Lincolns in Kentucky—Death of Lincoln's
Grandfather—Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks—Mordecai
Lincoln—Birth of Abraham Lincoln—Removal to Indiana—
Early Years—Dennis Hanks—Lincoln's Boyhood—Death of
Nancy Hanks—Early School Days—Lincoln's First Dollar—
Presentiments of Future Greatness—Down the Mississippi—
Removal to Illinois—Lincoln's Father—Lincoln the
Storekeeper—First Official Act—Lincoln's Short Sketch of
His Own Life
CHAPTER II
A Turn in Affairs—The Black Hawk War—A Remarkable
Military Manoeuvre—Lincoln Protects an Indian—Lincoln
a n d Stuart—Lincoln's Military Record—Nominated for the
Legislature—Lincoln a Merchant—Postmaster at New Salem
—Lincoln Studies Law—Elected to the Legislature—
Personal Characteristics—Lincoln's Love for Anne Rutledge
—Close of Lincoln's Youth
CHAPTER III
Lincoln's Beginning as a Lawyer—His Early Taste for
Politics—Lincoln and the Lightning-Rod Man—Not an
Aristocrat—Reply to Dr. Early—A Manly Letter—Again in the
Illinois Legislature—The "Long Nine"—Lincoln on His Way
to the Capital—His Ambition in 1836—First Meeting with
Douglas—Removal of the Illinois Capital—One of Lincoln's
E a r l y Speeches—Pro-Slavery Sentiment in Illinois—
Lincoln's Opposition to Slavery—Contest with General
Ewing—Lincoln Lays out a Town—The Title "Honest Abe"
CHAPTER IV
Lincoln's Removal to Springfield—A Lawyer without Clients
or Money—Early Discouragements—Proposes to become a
Carpenter—"Stuart & Lincoln, Attorneys at Law"—"Riding
th e Circuit"—Incidents of a Trip Round the Circuit—Pen
Pictures of Lincoln—Humane Traits—Kindness to Animals—
Defending Fugitive Slaves—Incidents in Lincoln's Life as a
Lawyer—His Fondness for Jokes and Stories
xvi
CHAPTER V
Lincoln in the Legislature—Eight Consecutive Years of
Service—His Influence in the House—Leader of the WhigParty in Illinois—Takes a Hand in National Politics—
Presidential Election in 1840—A "Log Cabin" Reminiscence
—Some Memorable Political Encounters—A Tilt with
Douglas—Lincoln Facing a Mob—His Physical Courage—
Lincoln as Duellist—The Affair with General Shields—An
Eye-Witness' Account of the Duel—Courtship and Marriage
CHAPTER VI
Lincoln in National Politics—His Congressional Aspirations
—Law-Partnership of Lincoln and Herndon—The
Presidential Campaign of 1844—Visit to Henry Clay—
Lincoln Elected to Congress—Congressional Reputation—
Acquaintance with Distinguished Men—First Speech in
Congress—"Getting the Hang" of the House—Lincoln's
Course on the Mexican War—Notable Speech in Congress
—Ridicule of General Cass—Bill for the Abolition of Slavery
—Delegate to the Whig National Convention of 1848—
Stumping the Country for Taylor—Advice to Young
Politicians—"Old Abe"—A Political Disappointment—
Lincoln's Appearance as an Officer Seeker in Washington
—"A Divinity that Shapes Our Ends"
CHAPTER VII
Lincoln again in Springfield—Back to the Circuit—His
Personal Manners and Appearance—Glimpses of Home-Life
—His Family—His Absent-Mindedness—A Painful Subject
—Lincoln a Man of Sorrows—Familiar Appearance on the
Streets of Springfield—Scenes in the Law-Office—
Forebodings of a "Great of Miserable End"—An Evening
Whit Lincoln in Chicago—Lincoln's Tenderness to His
Relatives—Death of His Father—A Sensible Adviser—Care
of His Step-Mother—Tribute From Her
CHAPTER VIII
Lincoln as a Lawyer—His Appearance in Court—
Reminiscences of a Law-Student in Lincoln's Office—An
"Office Copy" of Byron—Novel Way of Keeping Partnership
Accounts—Charges for Legal Services—Trial of Bill
Armstrong—Lincoln before a Jury—Kindness toward
Unfortunate Clients—Refusing to Defend Guilty Men—
Courtroom Anecdotes—Anecdotes of Lincoln at the Bar—
Some Striking Opinions of Lincoln as a Lawyer
xvii
CHAPTER IX
Lincoln and Slavery—The Issue Becoming More Sharply
Defined—Resistance to the Spread of Slavery—Views
Expressed by Lincoln in 1850—His Mind Made Up—Lincoln
as a Party Leader—The Kansas Struggle—Crossing Swordswith Douglas—A Notable Speech by Lincoln—Advice to
Kansas Belligerents—Honor in Politics—Anecdote of
Lincoln and Yates—Contest for the U.S. Senate in 1855—
Lincoln's Defeat—Sketched by Members of the Legislature
CHAPTER X
Birth of the Republican Party—Lincoln One of Its Fathers—
Takes His Stand with the Abolitionists—The Bloomington
Convention—Lincoln's Great Anti-Slavery Speech—A
Ratification Meeting of Three—The First National
Republican Convention—Lincoln's Name Presented for the
Vice-Presidency—Nomination of Fremont and Dayton—
Lincoln in the Campaign of 1856—His Appearance and
Influence on the Stump—Regarded as a Dangerous Man—
His Views on the Politics of the Future—First Visit to
Cincinnati—Meeting with Edwin M. Stanton—Stanton's First
Impressions of Lincoln—Regards Him as a "Giraffe"—A Visit
to Cincinnati
CHAPTER XI
The Great Lincoln-Douglas Debate—Rivals for the U.S.
Senate—Lincoln's "House-Divided-against-Itself" Speech—
A n Inspired Oration—Alarming His Friends—Challenges
Douglas to a Joint Discussion—The Champions Contrasted
—Their Opinions of Each Other—Lincoln and Douglas on
the Stump—Slavery the Leading Issue—Scenes and
Anecdotes of the Great Debate—Pen-Picture of Lincoln on
the Stump—Humors of the Campaign—Some Sharp
Rejoinders—Words of Soberness—Close of the Conflict
CHAPTER XII
A Year of Waiting and Trial—Again Defeated for the Senate
—Depression and Neglect—Lincoln Enlarging His
Boundaries—On the Stump in Ohio—A Speech to
Kentuckians—Second Visit to Cincinnati—A Short Trip to
Kansas—Lincoln in New York City—The Famous Cooper
Institute Speech—A Strong and Favorable Impression—
Visits New England—Secret of Lincoln's Success as an
Orator—Back to Springfield—Disposing of a Campaign
Slander—Lincoln's Account of His Visit to a Five Points
Sunday School
xviii
CHAPTER XIII
Looking towards the Presidency—The Illinois Republican
Convention of 1860—A "Send-Off" for Lincoln—The National
Republican Convention at Chicago—Contract of the Leading
Candidates—Lincoln Nominated—Scenes at the Convention
—Sketches by Eye-Witnesses—Lincoln Hearing the News—The Scene at Springfield—A Visit to Lincoln at His Home—
Recollections of a Distinguished Sculptor—Receiving the
Committee of the Convention—Nomination of Douglas—
Campaign of 1860—Various Campaign Reminiscences—
Lincoln and the Tall Southerner—The Vote of the Springfield
Clergy—A Graceful Letter to the Poet Bryant—"Looking up
Hard Spots"
CHAPTER XIV
Lincoln Chosen President—The Election of 1860—The
Waiting-Time at Springfield—A Deluge of Visitors—Various
Impressions of the President-Elect—Some Queer Callers—
Looking over the Situation with Friends—Talks about the
Cabinet—Thurlow Weed's Visit to Springfield—The Serious
Aspect of National Affairs—The South in Rebellion—
Treason at the National Capital—Lincoln's Farewell Visit to
His Mother—The Old Sign, "Lincoln & Herndon"—The Last
Day at Springfield—Farewell Speech to Friends and
Neighbors—Off for the Capital—The Journey to Washington
—Receptions and Speeches along the Route—At Cincinnati:
A Hitherto Unpublished Speech by Lincoln—At Cleveland:
Personal Descriptions of Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln—At New York
City: Impressions of the New President—Perils of the
Journey—The Baltimore Plot—Change of Route—Arrival at
the Capital
CHAPTER XV
Lincoln at the Helm—First Days in Washington—Meeting
P u b l i c — Me n and Discussing Public Affairs—The
Inauguration—The Inaugural Address—A New Era Begun—
Lincoln in the White House—The First Cabinet—The
President and the Office-Seekers—Southern Prejudice
against Lincoln—Ominous Portents, but Lincoln not
Dismayed—The President's Reception Room—Varied
Impressions of the New President—Guarding the White
House
CHAPTER XVI
Civil War—Uprising of the Nation—The President's First Call
fo r Troops—Response of the Loyal North—The Riots in
Baltimore—Loyalty of Stephen A. Douglas—Douglas's
Death—Blockade of Southern Ports—Additional War
xix Measures—Lincoln Defines the Policy of the Government—
His Conciliatory Course—His Desire to Save Kentucky—The
President's First Message to Congress—Gathering of Troops
in Washington—Reviews and Parades—Disaster at Bull
Run—The President Visits the Army—Good Advice to an
Angry Officer—A Peculiar Cabinet Meeting—Dark Days for
Lincoln—A "Black Mood" in the White House—Lincoln's
Unfaltering Courage—Relief in Story-Telling—A Pretty Good