The Faerie Queene — Volume 01
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The Faerie Queene — Volume 01


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Learn all about the services we offer
1141 Pages


The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Faerie Queene Volume 1, by Edmund SpenserThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online** This is a COPYRIGHTED Project Gutenberg eBook, Details Below ** ** Please follow the copyright guidelines in thisfile. **Please note, this eBook contains both copyrighted and public domain portions. Read the NOTE below for furtherinformation.Title: The Faerie Queene Volume 1Author: Edmund SpenserEditor: Jonathan BarnesRelease Date: January 21, 2005 [EBook #6930]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE FAERIE QUEENE VOLUME 1 ***Portions Copyright (C) 2004 by Jonathan BarnesA NOTE ON THIS EDITIONThis is an electronic edition of Volume One of Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene. You are encouraged to use and copyit.The edition includes the following elements:- an entirely new composite text, based on the edition of 1596 (the "Original Text")- details of departures, or proposed departures, from the copy text (the "Textual Appendix")- a modernized version of the Original Text (the "Shadow Text")- definitions of difficult words and phrases in the Shadow Text (the "Glossary").The Original Text was not scanned, but typed, and proofed against theScolar Press facsimile (see Bibliography). Editing took place ...



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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Faerie Queene Volume 1, by Edmund Spenser
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,
give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at
** This is a COPYRIGHTED Project Gutenberg eBook, Details Below ** ** Please follow the copyright guidelines in this
file. **
Please note, this eBook contains both copyrighted and public domain portions. Read the NOTE below for further
Title: The Faerie Queene Volume 1
Author: Edmund Spenser
Editor: Jonathan Barnes
Release Date: January 21, 2005 [EBook #6930]
Language: English
Portions Copyright (C) 2004 by Jonathan BarnesA NOTE ON THIS EDITION
This is an electronic edition of Volume One of Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene. You are encouraged to use and copy
The edition includes the following elements:
- an entirely new composite text, based on the edition of 1596 (the "Original Text")
- details of departures, or proposed departures, from the copy text (the "Textual Appendix")
- a modernized version of the Original Text (the "Shadow Text")
- definitions of difficult words and phrases in the Shadow Text (the "Glossary").
The Original Text was not scanned, but typed, and proofed against the
Scolar Press facsimile (see Bibliography). Editing took place between
November 1989 and July 1992, using EMACS.
Edition 10 (faeri10.txt) was prepared especially for Project Gutenberg in February 2003.
Thus edition (August 2004) corrects a few errors in the convention for italic type. A few definitions appearing in the wrong
place have also been fixed, as have anomalous top-bit set characters in the Hales Biography, which has been
reformatted to make it easier to read.
The edition is best viewed with a monospaced font. Plain ASCII text is used throughout. Accented, etc., characters are
indicated by symbols contained in curly brackets, e.g.:
{e/} = lower-case e + acute accent (pointing up to right) {e\} = lower-case e + grave accent (pointing up to left) {o^} =
lower-case o + circumflex accent {o"} = lower-case o + diaeresis mark {e~} = lower-case e + tilde {ae} = lower-case ae
diphthong {Ae} = ae diphthong with initial capital {AE} = fully capitalized ae diphthong etc.
In this way all the characters of the 1596 edition have been shown except the long "s", which has been throughout
converted to its modern equivalent. In Roman type, the long "s" most closely resembles a lower-case "f" lacking part of
the crossbar. It is used in the copy-text in nearly all places where this edition has an ordinary lower-case "s", except at the
ends of words and when preceding the letter "k". Using the oblique character in place of the long "s", then, the first lines
of the poem read:
Lo I the man, who/e Mu/e whilome did maske,
As time her taught in lowly Shepheards weeds,
Am now enfor/t a far vnfitter taske,
For trumpets /terne to chaunge mine Oaten reeds …
These rules are on occasion broken, apparently by mistake. The long "s" does nothing to aid comprehension, and
indeed causes problems, noted in the Textual Appendix: e.g. confusion between "besit" and "befit".
Special characters contained in the list of printers' contractions are noted in the preamble to that list.
Regions of text printed, or intended to be shown, in italic type are defined by underscores, thus: the second word is in
Spenser's original text of The Faerie Queene is here described as "Spenser's Text" and is in the public domain. The
biography by John W. Hales has passed out of copyright and was published by Messrs Macmillan. Copyright in all other
parts of this edition, including editorial treatment of Spenser's Text, is reserved. You may not sell the whole or any part of
this edition in any form whatsoever, nor may you supply it as an inducement to any party to purchase any product. Except
for private study, you may not alter the text in any way.
This edition is supplied as is. No warranty of any description is given in relation to the edition. Time and care have gone
into its preparation, but no guarantee of accuracy is implied or made.
In such a large work, despite the stringent and repeated manual and electronic checking that has been carried out, some
errors are bound to have slipped through. Please tell me about any that you find. All readers' emendations will be
gratefully acknowledged in future releases.
— Jonathan Barnes
jonathan.barnes[at] 20 August 2004Main components:
Editor's Introduction
Abbreviations Used
List of Proper Nouns
Table of Contents of Volume I
Introductory Matter
Books I-III
Printer's Contractions
Biographical Material
The start of each of these is marked with the string "=>"
Editor's Introduction
Purpose of the edition
The text of the poem
The form of the poem
The numbering system
How the Glossary works
The Textual Appendix
Suggestions for new readers
No endeavour of this kind would be possible without the work of previous editors and critics, and I offer thanks to all who
have advanced our understanding of Spenser and his work. In particular the scholarship of Professor A. C. Hamilton has
provided much enlightenment: his commentary (see Bibliography) is required reading for those who would explore the
secret meanings of The Faerie Queene. To the compilers and publishers of the monumental Oxford English Dictionary I
am deeply indebted. I wish also to acknowledge the assistance of the staff of the British Library, who kindly allowed me
to consult copies of the original editions.
When reading a book such as The Faerie Queene, it is tempting to minimize the looking up of difficult words, which are
often glossed, if at all, in the end pages. Although Spenser's use of certain words appears quaint and lumpish, the
language is superficially modern enough to enable the reader to "get by". Yet such an approach can lead only to a faulty
appreciation of the poem, and deprives one of much enchantment. Queen Elizabeth would have found nothing lumpish
about the language: her only impatience might have been with Spenser's weakness for archaisms. To her, the FQ will
have revealed Spenser's exact and liberal style in all its glory: his words almost always make perfect sense.
The purpose of this edition is to make the language of the poem readily accessible. Interruptions to consult separate
dictionaries and so on are eliminated, preserving as far as possible the flow of reading and accelerating one's
apprehension of the poem.
The sustained power and scope of Spenser's master-work, of his "sacred fury", comprise a feat unsurpassed in English
literature. But, by its very nature, language changes with time, and access to Spenser's magic kingdom is becoming ever
more difficult. I hope this edition provides a key.
No manuscript of The Faerie Queene is known; we depend for our text upon printed copies of the work.
The first of these appeared in 1590. It is a quarto edition, published by William Ponsonby, and contains Books I-III. The
Registers of the Stationers' Company for 1589 include the following entry:
Primo Die Decembris.—Master Ponsonbye. Entered for his Copye a book intituled the fayre Queene, dyposed into
xii. bookes &c. Aucthorysed vnder thandes of the Archb. of Canterbury & bothe the Wardens, vjd.The date of Spenser's letter to Raleigh is 23 January 1589 (1590 New Style); the book itself appeared some time after
25 March. The text was indifferently proof-read, and a list of corrigenda (Faults Escaped in the Print) accompanies it.
Moreover, there is variation between individual copies of the edition. Early copies contain only ten dedicatory sonnets,
while later ones contain the full set of seventeen: for Spenser had made the signal blunder of omitting Lord Burleigh from
the illustrious company of dedicatees. To confuse matters further, a few copies contain a mixture of pages from the
original and revised versions.
The quarto edition of 1596 was also published by Ponsonby, and contains Books I-VI, variously bound into one or two
volumes. Books I-III were completely reset, apparently not from the MS. but from a copy of 1590 heavily annotated by the
author. Some, but not all, of the corrections listed in the Faults Escaped were incorporated in 1596. The end of Book III
was changed, continuing rather than ending the story of Scudamour and Amoret. Spenser also added a new stanza at
the beginning of Book I, Canto xi, rewrote some single lines, and made sundry adjustments to others. This process
continued even as pages passed through the press, so that there is variation from copy to copy, made more complex by
the mixing of sheets from different printings during binding. No single copy of 1596 can therefore be said to be definitive.
1596 does, however, have the advantage of Spenser's personal supervision, and for this reason it is chosen as the core
of modern composite texts.
The third edition of The Faerie Queene was published by Mathew Lownes in 1609, ten years after Spenser's death. It is
a folio edition, and contains not only Books I-VI but also two cantos "which, both for Forme and Matter, appeare to be
parcell of some following Booke of the Faerie Queene, vnder the Legend of Constancie". This fragment comprises what
are now called the "Mutability Cantos".
The edition of 1609 is fundamentally a reprint of 1596. There is reason to suspect that its editor was guided, at least in
part, by some authorial source which has now been lost: an annotated copy of 1596, perhaps; or material found among
the assorted papers of the Mutability Cantos.
1609 is a conscientious edition which often achieves a higher degree of consistency and intelligibility than 1596 itself,
although it is plain that a more modern hand than Spenser's is responsible for many of its emendations: the punctuation,
for example, though often more logical, is blander than that of the editions produced in Spenser's lifetime. Furthermore,
the editor of 1609 virtually ignores 1590, even though knowledge of that text is often essential for filling in the gaps left by
errors in 1596.
The editions of 1611 onwards throw little light on problems raised by the three former editions.
A modern editor, then, must go to three different sources in order to assemble a text which tries to do justice to
Spenser's original intention.
The copy-text for this edition is the facsimile published in 1976 by Scolar Press (see Bibliography).
The basic unit of the poem is a verse or stanza made up of nine lines. This "Spenserian stanza", much imitated (for
example, by Byron), is Spenser's own invention. Typically, it consists of eight pentameters and a final alexandrine. Lines
are sometimes short or long, on occasion perhaps through typographical error (see for example II iii 26.9), but at other
times for deliberate effect (e.g. III iv 39.7, IV i 3).
The rhyming scheme is generally ababbcbcc, though this too is subject to change, whether by authorial oversight or
authorial intention (e.g. II ii 7, VII vii 28).
The stanzas are not numbered in the original editions.
Between 30 and 87 stanzas comprise a canto (Italian, "song"), a term borrowed from Lodovico Ariosto, the Italian poet,
whose work influenced Spenser.
A canto is preceded by a four-line verse called an argument. This summarizes what follows, often with particular
emphasis on its allegorical meaning. The metre of the argument is that of the Book of Common Prayer.
Each complete book is introduced by a proem, a group of between four and eleven stanzas preceding the argument of
Canto i.
Twelve cantos comprise a book. Book VII is incomplete.
Spenser's stated plan was to write twelve books, one on each of the twelve moral or private virtues; it is not known
whether he composed any more of The Faerie Queene than has survived. The Faerie Queene was to have been
followed by another epic poem of twelve more books, one on each of the political or public virtues. No trace of this work
has ever been found.
THE SHADOW TEXTThe Shadow Text is intended as no more than a lowly companion to the original. It makes no attempt to preserve metre
or rhyme, but renders a prosaic version, unifying the spelling in order to make the meaning easier to understand.
I have altered the punctuation for the shadow version, though not without trepidation. My aim has been to make crystal
clear the mechanical sense expressed by each stanza, but quite often this is impossible. For one thing, the original
pointing, rather than being used strictly logically, may also influence the rhythm or emphasis of the words when spoken
(and The Faerie Queene is a poem which should be read aloud—although perhaps not in its entirety!—to be fully
appreciated). For another, the functions of the punctuation marks themselves have undergone change since Spenser's
day. The semicolon, for example, is found in FQ introducing direct speech, where today a comma or a colon would be
used. Again, the comma is often required to carry long parentheses, themselves sprinkled with commas; these
passages can become very confusing, especially where Spenser has also adopted a contorted and latinistic word-order.
Then there are problems introduced by deliberately ambiguous pointing. Spenser's immense command of the language,
and his quicksilver gift for wordplay and puns, allow him, when he chooses, to pack great complexities of meaning into a
line or even a single word, and in this his punctuation is frequently his accomplice.
A famous example comes right at the beginning of Book I:
But on his brest a bloudie Crosse he bore,
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord,
For whose sweete sake that glorious badge he wore,
And dead as liuing euer him ador'd:
Is the meaning of line 4: "dead, as living, ever him adored", or: "dead, as living ever, him adored"? In fact, both meanings
are probably intended.
Thus it cannot be overemphasized that, where ambiguity is occasioned by the punctuation of the original, the Shadow
Text can do no more than propose what seems to me the more or most likely interpretation. Sometimes (as in the case
cited above) I suggest alternatives, but the pointing of the original poem should always be given precedence in case of
The Glossary does not seek to interpret the poem. From time to time it hints at what lies behind the bare words in order
to aid understanding, but its sole purpose is to make the language more accessible to the modern reader. Interpretation
is left to the teacher, and to the large and growing body of criticism devoted to The Faerie Queene.
In the Glossary and Textual Appendix, references to parts of the poem are given in the condensed form BCN.SN, where
B = book number (from 1 to 7), CN = canto number (from 01 to 12; canto 00 is the proem), and SN = stanza number
(from 1 to a maximum of 87; stanza 0 is the argument).
If a line within a stanza needs to be specified, it is preceded by a colon. Ranges of cantos, stanzas, or lines are indicated
by a dash.
For example:
401.31 Book IV, Canto i, stanza 31 611.11:3 Book VI, Canto xi, stanza 11, line 3 503.2-9 Book V, Canto iii, stanzas 2 to
9 503-4 Book V, Cantos iii-iv 207.0 Book II, Canto vii, Argument 100.3 Book I, Proem, stanza 3 500.1:2-4 Book V,
Proem, stanza 1, lines 2-4
In addition, a line of the Introductory Matter is specified by its number, preceded by a colon and a capital "I". For
example, "I:123" refers to line 123 in the Introductory Matter.
Entries relating to each line of Shadow Text are shown below that line. In cases where a glossed word appears more
than once in a line, plus signs are used if necessary to highlight the particular word being glossed. For example, in the
Till some end they find, +or+ in or out,
it is the first "or" which is glossed.
Editorial policy in the Glossary is as follows. Words which appear in modern concise dictionaries and whose meanings
are unchanged are rarely glossed. The reader is expected to understand words such as "quoth", "hither", and "aught" in
their modern senses. Where an apparently modern form has a different contextual meaning, it is glossed; and where the
modern sense is also to be understood, this is included in the definition. Similar senses are grouped with commas;changes in sense are indicated by semicolons. For example:
sad > heavy, heavily laden; sad
The commoner obsolete forms have been silently converted: "thee" to "you", "dost" to "does", "mought" to "might",
"whenas" to "when", and so on. Others (generally speaking, those less common words sufficiently distinct from their
modern counterparts to merit a separate entry in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary) have been unified to the spelling
preferred by that and its parent dictionary. This should allow the reader, during very close scrutiny of any passage, quickly
to find any of Spenser's words in the OED.
All the Glossary entries are context-sensitive: Spenser often uses the same word in several different ways. Thus no single
Glossary entry should be taken as generally definitive.
Types of entry
(a) Translations
An entry not enclosed in brackets should be read as a straight translation of the quoted text which can be directly
substituted for it.
For example, in stanza 1 of the proem to Book I, line 1:
whilom > formerly
Line 1 can thus be understood to mean:
Lo I, the man whose Muse formerly did mask
Very often, additional meanings are given in such definitions:
weeds > clothes, garb
These additional meanings may complement one another, indicating the hybrid sense which seems to be required, or
they may constitute a set of alternative meanings, any or all of which may have been intended by Spenser. Each entry in
any unbracketed list may always be substituted for the original without disturbing the syntax.
Similar senses are grouped with commas; changes in sense are indicated with semicolons. For example:
gentle > noble; courteous, generous
In this case, an apparently modern form has a different contextual meaning, and so it is glossed; and when the modern
sense is also to be understood, this is included in the definition:
dull > dull, lacklustre; blunt
Where the contrast between alternatives is particularly great, words are separated by or, also, etc.
Sometimes the meaning is forced or metaphorical. In these cases the straight "dictionary" meaning of the word is given
first, and hence, thus, or so are used to indicate contextual departure from this. For example:
style > literary composition; hence: poem, song (cf. SC,
"Januarie", 10)
In this example, parenthesized editorial comment has also been included.
Editorial comment in entries of this class is either enclosed in round brackets, as above, or set in "italic" type, as in this
bale > torment; infliction of death; also, mainly in northern usage: great consuming fire, funeral pyre; hence, perhaps:
A question-mark, as may be expected, indicates doubt, usually about words which are not found in the OED but whose
meaning might be inferred from the context. For example:
mill > ?mill-wheel; ?cogs of the mill (or because the sallow grows by water)
(b) Definitions
An entry in curly brackets should be read as a dictionary definition of the quoted text which cannot be directly fitted into
the syntax of the original line. For example:scrine > {Casket or cabinet for archival papers}
(c) Notes
Entries in round brackets should be read as if they were footnotes, typically giving background information or editorial
speculation. For example:
Muse > (The nine Muses are usually represented as the daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne (Memory); each goddess
presides over an area of the arts and sciences and gives inspiration to its practitioners)
chief > chief, first; best (here Spenser is addressing either Clio, the Muse of history, or Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry;
probably Clio. Clio is the first of the nine Muses in Hesiod's Theogony, and is usually represented with an open roll of
paper or a chest of books. Spenser calls her "thou eldest Sister of the crew" at TM 53. See 111.5:6- 8, 303.4:6,
706.37:9, 707.1:1)
It should be added that on occasion the distinction between a "note", requiring round brackets, and a "definition",
requiring curly brackets, is somewhat moot.
(d) Hints and expansions
Entries in square brackets are hints or expansions to make the quoted text more intelligible, and can be thought of as
being preceded by the qualifications "that is", "in other words", or "what Spenser appears to mean is". For example:
in his help > [to help him; in his armoury]
Such entries can be mentally substituted for the quoted word or phrase in order to aid comprehension.
Sometimes square brackets are employed in other sorts of definitions to indicate words which should be understood.
For example:
mask > {Disguise [herself]; take part in a masque or masquerade}
time > [her] term of apprenticeship
(e) Explanations of character-names
Most of the names of major characters in the poem have special meanings. These are briefly explained as follows:
Archimago > "Arch Mage", "Arch Magician"
Sometimes there is a qualifying parenthesis giving information on the etymology or adding comment:
Una > "One" (Latin; she is the sole Truth)
Character-names from the poem and from classical mythology are typically explained once only, on their first occurrence.
If you encounter a name which is not defined, then it has appeared somewhere before. The list of proper nouns will
quickly help you to find it.
A textual appendix, detailing actual or proposed departures from the copy-text, is incorporated. The Textual Appendix
(a) obvious misprints;
(b) lections from 1590 or 1609 which seem preferable;
(c) lections from 1590 or 1609 which throw light on the spelling,
punctuation or sense of 1596;
(d) illuminating conjectures or suggestions made by Spenserian
scholars and editors.
The four main sources for the text are quoted as follows:1590: the 1590 quarto edition (Books I-III) 1596: the 1596 quarto edition (Books I-VI) 1609: the 1609 folio edition (Books
I-VII) FE: the corrigenda (Faults Escaped in the Print) which accompany 1590 (Books I-III)
In the Textual Appendix, all original text is shown in "roman" type, except where it occurs in italic type in the sources. All
editorial comment in the Textual Appendix is shown in "italic" type.
(a) Departures from the text of 1596
Elfe > Elfe, 1596
The lection from 1590 and 1609 is to be preferred, since 1596 (with an extraneous comma) appears to be in error.
sawe > saw 1596, 1609
The lection from 1590 is to be preferred.
there > their 1590, 1596
The lection from 1609 is to be preferred.
that > omitted from 1596
The word has been supplied from the lection of 1590 and 1609.
who > omitted from 1596 and 1609
The word has been supplied from 1590.
has > omitted from 1590 and 1596
The word has been supplied from 1609.
wite > wote 1590 etc.; this correction is generally agreed.
All three editions contain a blatant error, which has been corrected by editorial conjecture.
those > these 1590 etc.: FE
All three editions are in error and the word has been supplied from FE.
Harrow > Horrow 1590, 1596: FE
The error occurs in 1590 and 1596, and was corrected in 1609 from
(b) Variants on the text of 1596
in her sight > to her might 1590
The variant occurs in 1590, but not in 1596 or 1609.
traile > trayle 1609
The variant occurs in 1609, but not in 1590 or 1596.
fair > fayre, 1590; Faire 1609
These two variants occur in 1590 and 1609, so that the word in question is different in all three editions.
hand > hond sugg. MorrisMorris (see Bibliography) suggested this alternative to the given text.
So that any reader will be able to start anywhere and understand any stanza immediately, I have glossed even the
common archaisms throughout (e.g. "gan", "eftsoons", "wont"). Occasionally, however, as with "squire", or "palmer", or
"foster", when repetitious glossing would be locally irritating, I have glossed the word once or twice only at the beginning
of each canto. Thus it is possible that you will alight somewhere and find an unknown word unglossed.
If this should happen, you will almost certainly be able to find the word glossed in at least one other place earlier in the
canto. Or, if it is does not seem to be glossed at all, you will find it in any competent concise English dictionary.
Readers who are new to The Faerie Queene and who are working without the help of a teacher may be daunted by its
sheer size. Such readers are invited to sample some of the poem before deciding to embark on a detailed reading.
If you are at present unfamiliar with Elizabethan spelling and usage, I recommend that, in the beginning, you read each
stanza first in the Shadow Text, just to get the mechanical meaning. Then go to the original and read that, for its structure,
for its rhythm and its music, and to absorb the idiom of the language. After a short while you will be able to read the
Original Text immediately, referring to the Shadow Text only when difficulty is encountered.
The following passages provide a brief survey of the variety of
Spenser's style.
101. The sequence in Error's den (101.11-27) is perhaps the most crudely allegorical in the FQ, and shows signs of
having been drafted before Spenser hit upon his "dark conceit". None the less, the whole of this canto should be read as
an introduction to the poem. Stanzas 39-41 are especially beautiful.
102.15-19. The first of many titanic battles between armed knights.
103.0-9. Una finds her champion in the gentle lion.
104.17-36. Spenser's rendition of the Seven Deadly Sins is grotesquely medieval in tone.
105.19-28. The goddess Night prepares to descend into hell. The quality of Spenser's imagination defeats what may
have been his original intention to produce a pastiche here. For example, the choice of the word "tarre" at 105.28:8
evinces artistry of the highest order.
107.1-7. The Redcross Knight brought low. You are challenged not to want to continue reading this canto!
107.38-41. Prince Arthur's "goodly reason, and well guided speach".
108.45-50. The spoiling of Duessa.
109.35-54. The counsel of Despair. The central stanzas are often quoted out of context; 109.40 was raided by Joseph
Conrad for his epitaph.
111.8-55. The Redcross Knight slays the dragon.
112.9-11. Spenser's sense of humour, at its most savage in Book III, here shows a gentler face.
204.16-32. The confession of Phedon. Spenser's handling of this old story is both vivid and economical.
205.28-34. Cymochles in the Bower of Bliss. The sensuousness of the poet's imagination is still, unbelievably,
developing, and has yet further to go.
207. Mammon's cave. One of Milton's favourite cantos. The word-picture of Mammon himself (207.3-4) is quite superb.
210.7-11. The long chronicle of Britain, often dismissed as tedious, nevertheless contains many striking images. See the
potted King Lear at 210.27-32.
212.30-33. Guyon tempted by the mermaids. The whole of this canto is recommended to the new reader; see especially
212.42-45, 212.58-82.
301.20-30. Britomart rescues the Redcross Knight.
302.17-27. Britomart falls for Arthegall.
304.17 is one of the most graphic stanzas in the FQ. Cymodoce's grief, 304.29-39, is wonderfully portrayed.
305.41-48. Timias's love for Belphoebe.