The Handbook to English Heraldry

The Handbook to English Heraldry


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Project Gutenberg's The Handbook to English Heraldry, by Charles BoutellThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: The Handbook to English HeraldryAuthor: Charles BoutellEditor: A. C. Fox-DaviesIllustrator: R. B. UttingRelease Date: October 24, 2007 [EBook #23186]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE HANDBOOK TO ENGLISH HERALDRY ***Produced by Louise Hope, Jeannie Howse, Ted Garvin and theOnline Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netThis text uses utf-8 (unicode) file encoding. If the apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you mayhave an incompatible browser or unavailable fonts. First, make sure that the browser’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set toUnicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change your browser’s default font.In the printed book, all illustrations were line drawings using the conventional color representations explained in Chapter V. For thise-text, some illustrations are also shown in “colorized” form. All colors were chosen to be “web-safe” for reliable display in allbrowsers; they are not intented to reproduce the exact shades of standard heraldry. When the text notes a misprint in the colors, itwas corrected for the colorized version.A few very long ...



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Project Gutenberg's The Handbook to English Heraldry, by Charles Boutell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Handbook to English Heraldry Author: Charles Boutell Editor: A. C. Fox-Davies Illustrator: R. B. Utting Release Date: October 24, 2007 [EBook #23186] Language: English *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE HANDBOOK TO ENGLISH HERALDRY *** Produced by Louise Hope, Jeannie Howse, Ted Garvin and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at This text uses utf-8 (unicode) file encoding. If the apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you may have an incompatible browser or unavailable fonts. First, make sure that the browser’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set to Unicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change your browser’s default font. In the printed book, all illustrations were line drawings using the conventional color representations explained in Chapter V. For this e-text, some illustrations are also shown in “colorized” form. All colors were chosen to be “web-safe” for reliable display in all browsers; they are not intented to reproduce the exact shades of standard heraldry. When the text notes a misprint in the colors, it was corrected for the colorized version. A few very long paragraphs in the “Grammar of Heraldry” section have been broken up to give better access to illustrations. see caption Seal of Sir Richard de Beauchamp, K.G., Fifth Earl of Warwick: died A.D. 1439. No. 448.—See pages 208, 321. see caption Seal of Sir Thomas de Beauchamp, K.G., Third Earl of Warwick: died A.D. 1369. Date of the Seal, 1344. No. 446.—See No. 447, page 320, also see page 321. “To describe ... emblazoned Shields.” —Milton T H E H A N D B O O K T O E N G L I S H H E R A L D R Y BY CHARLES BOUTELL, M.A. AUTHOR OF “THE MONUMENTAL BRASSES OF ENGLAND,” EDITOR AND PART AUTHOR OF “ARMS AND ARMOUR IN ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES,” ETC. WITH NEARLY FIVE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS Drawn and Engraved on Wood by Mr. R. B. Utting and Others ELEVENTH EDITION THOROUGHLY REVISED WITH AN ADDITIONAL CHAPTER BY A. C. FOX-DAVIES OF LINCOLN’S INN BARRISTER-AT-LAW see caption Royal Arms (1340-1405) LONDON: REEVES & TURNER 1914 Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co. at the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh PREFACE TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION This standard work of reference has been revised throughout, and enlarged by the addition of an extra chapter on Peerage Dignities. A. C. FOX-DAVIES. Lincoln’s Inn, November 1913. PREFACE TO THE TENTH EDITION In the revision of this well-known work I have held my hand, rather than the contrary, trying to bear always in mind that it was the hand-book of Mr. Charles Boutell and not a production of my own. My alterations have been concerned chiefly in bringing the volume up to date, a necessity imposed by the creation of new orders of knighthood, and change of Sovereign. I have certainly omitted a few remarks which I have thought might be the cause of leading students of the science astray: I have altered ambiguous wording to emphasise the real, and I have no doubt the originally intended meaning. But in many points which, being deductions, are naturally matters of opinion, I have left herein various expressions of Mr. Boutell’s opinion, with which I can hardly say I personally altogether agree or would myself put forward. I hold that it is no part of an editor’s duty to air his own opinions under the protection or repute of another’s name, and herein I have inserted nothing for which my own opinion is the only authority. A. C. FOX-DAVIES. Lincoln’s Inn, June 1908. see caption No. 2.—St. Edward. No. 1.—St. George. No. 3.—St. Edmund. AUTHOR’S PREFACE This Volume, specially prepared for the use of students at an early period of their study of English Heraldry, commends itself also to those inquirers who may desire to obtain some general information on the same subject, without having any intention to devote to Heraldry much either of their time or of their serious regard. The success, no less extraordinary than gratifying, of my larger work on Heraldry, led me to hope that a not less favourable reception might be extended to a simpler and much shorter essay, more decidedly elementary in its aim and character, and yet as far as possible within its limits complete. Such a treatise I have endeavoured to produce in this Volume. Inseparably associated with the History of our Country, and more particularly when our national History becomes the Biography of eminent Englishmen, English Heraldry has the strongest claims upon the attention not only of all Historians, but also of all who desire to become familiar with their writings. In like manner, Heraldry may be studied with no less of advantage than of satisfaction by all Artists, whether Architects, Sculptors, Painters, or Engravers. Nor is it too much to assert that some knowledge of Heraldry, in consequence of its singular and comprehensive utility, ought to be estimated as a necessary element of a liberal education. In confirmation of my own views, I am tempted to quote the following passage from M. Gourdon de Genouillac’s introduction to his excellent “Grammaire Héraldique,” published at Paris: —“Le blason,” says M. de Genouillac, “est une langue qui s’est conservée dans sa pureté primitive depuis les siècles, langue dont la connaissance, est indispensable aux familles nobles, qui y trouvent un signe d’alliance ou de reconnaissance, aux numismates, aux antiquaires, aux archéologues, enfin à tous les artistes, gens de lettres, &c.; cependant cette langue est presque inconnue, et la plupart des personnes qui possedent le droit de porter des armoiries seraient fort en peine de les expliquer selon les termes techniques!” Heraldry, indeed, I believe to be a study worthy to be universally regarded with affectionate respect, as it certainly is eminently qualified to inspire such a sentiment in every class of student. In this spirit I have here treated the elements of the Heraldry of England, confident that, of those who may accompany me as far as I shall lead them, very many will not be content to stop where I shall take leave of them. Thus much I promise my companions—I will be to them a faithful guide. They may trust to my accuracy. I have made no statement, have adduced no example, nor have I exhibited any illustration, except upon authority. I myself like and admire what is real and true in Heraldry; and it is by the attractiveness of truth and reality that I desire to win for Heraldry fresh friends, and to secure for it firm friendships. It will be understood that from the authority, the practice, and the associations of the early Heraldry of the best and most artistic eras, I seek to derive a Heraldry which we may rightly consider to be our own, and which we may transmit with honour to our successors. I do not suggest the adoption, for present use, of an obsolete system. But, while I earnestly repudiate the acceptance and the maintenance amongst ourselves of a most degenerate substitute for a noble Science, I do aspire to aid in restoring Heraldry to its becoming rank, and consequently to its early popularity, now in our own times. This is to revive the fine old Heraldry of the past, to give to it a fresh animation, and to apply it under existing conditions to existing uses and requirements: not, to adjust ourselves to the circumstances of its first development, and to reproduce as copyists its original expressions. It is not by any means a necessary condition of a consistent revival of early Heraldry, that our revived Heraldry should admit no deviation from original usage or precedent. So long as we are thoroughly animated by the spirit of the early Heralds, we may lead our Heraldry onwards with the advance of time. It is for us, indeed, to prepare a Heraldry for the future, no less than to revive true Heraldry in the time now present. We may rightly modify, therefore, and adapt many things, in order to establish a true conformity between our Heraldry and the circumstances of our own era: for example, with advantage as well as propriety we may, in a great measure, substitute Badges for Crests; and we shall do well to adopt a style of drawing which will be perfectly heraldic, without being positively unnatural. The greater number of my Illustrations have been engraved only in outline, with the twofold object of my being thus enabled to increase the number of the examples, and to adapt the engravings themselves to the reception of colour. It will be very desirable for students to blazon the illustrations, or the majority of them, in their proper tinctures: and those who are thoroughly in earnest will not fail to form their own collections of additional examples, which, as a matter of course, they will seek to obtain from original authorities. With the exception of a few examples, my Illustrations, considerably over 400, have all been executed expressly for this work; and they all have been engraved by Mr. R. B. Utting. The chief exceptions are thirteen admirable woodcuts of Scottish Seals, all of them good illustrations of Heraldry south of the Tweed, originally engraved for Laing’s noble quarto upon “The Ancient Seals of Scotland,” published in Edinburgh. Scottish Heraldry, I must add, as in any particulars of law and practice it may differ from our Heraldry on this side of the Tweed, I have left in the able hands of the Heralds of the North: at the same time, however, the Heraldry of which I have been treating has so much that is equally at home on either side of “the Border,” that I have never hesitated to look for my examples and authorities to both the fair realms which now form one Great Britain. C. B. handwritten signature CONTENTS PAGE Preface to Present Edition vii Author’s Preface ix List of Illustrations xix CHAPTER I Introductory— Early Popularity of Heraldry in England— Origin of English Heraldry; Definition; Characteristics; Development; Early Uses; Not connected with Earlier Systems— Ancient Heraldry— Past and Present Treatment of the Subject 1 CHAPTER II Early Heraldic Authorities— Seals; Monumental Effigies, &c.; Rolls of Arms, Official Heraldic Records, &c.— Earliest Heraldic Shields and Banners— Allusive Quality of Early Armory— Attributed Arms 10 CHAPTER III The English Heraldry that is now in existence— First Debasement of Heraldry— Later Debasement— Revival of English Heraldry— Heraldic Art 20 CHAPTER IV Grammar of Heraldry: Section I.— Language— Nomenclature— Style and Forms of Expression— Blazon— The Shield: its Parts, Points, Divisions, Dividing Lines, Varieties of Form, and Heraldic Treatment 29 CHAPTER V Grammar of Heraldry: Section II.— Tinctures: Metals, Colours, Furs— Varied Fields— Law of Tinctures— Counter- changing— Diaper— Disposition— Blazoning— Emblazoning in Tinctures 40 CHAPTER VI Grammar of Heraldry: Section III.— The Ordinaries:— Chief: Fesse: Bar: Pale: Cross; its Heraldic Varieties: Bend: Saltire: Chevron: and Pile 49 CHAPTER VII Grammar of Heraldry: Section IV.— The Subordinaries:— Canton or Quarter: Inescutcheon: Oile: Tressure: Bordure: Flanches: Lozenge, Mascle, Rustre: Fusil: Billet: Gyron: Frette— The Roundles 64 CHAPTER VIII Grammar of Heraldry: Section V.— Miscellaneous Charges:— Human Beings: Animals: Birds: Fish: Reptiles and Insects: Imaginary Beings: Natural Objects: Various Artificial Figures and Devices— Appropriate Descriptive Epithets 73 CHAPTER IX Grammar of Heraldry: Section VI.— The Lion and the Eagle in Heraldry 83 CHAPTER X Grammar of Heraldry: Section VII.— Glossary of Titles, Names, and Terms 100 CHAPTER XI Marshalling:— Aggroupment: Combination: Quartering: Dimidiation: Impalement: Escutcheon of Pretence: Marshalling the Arms of Widowers, Widows, and others: Official Arms; and the Accessories of Shields 158 CHAPTER XII Cadency:— Marks of Cadency are temporary, or permanent: the Label: the Bordure: the Bendlet, Barrulet, and Canton: Change of Tincture: Secondary Charges: Single Small Charges: Differences of Illegitimacy: Cadency of Crests, Badges, &c.: Modern Cadency 176 CHAPTER XIII Differencing:— Differencing to denote Feudal Alliance or Dependency: Differencing without any Alliance— Augmentation— Abatement 194 CHAPTER XIV Crests 209 CHAPTER XV Badges 220 CHAPTER XVI Supporters 237 CHAPTER XVII Flags:— The Pennon: the Banner: the Standard: the Royal Standard: the “Union Jack”: Ensigns: Military Standards and Colours: Blazoning: Hoisting and Displaying Flags 246 CHAPTER XVIII The Royal Heraldry of England and Scotland:— Shields of Arms of the Reigning Sovereigns of England, of Scotland, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: Crests: Supporters: Mottoes: Crowns: Banners: Armorial Insignia of the late Prince Consort; of the Prince and Princess of Wales; of the other Princes and Princesses 258 CHAPTER XIX Orders of Knighthood and Insignia of Honour:— Feudal Knighthood— Orders of Knighthood: Knights of St. John: Knights Templars: the Order of the Garter; of the Thistle; of St. Patrick; of the Bath; of St. Michael and St. George; of the Star of India— The Order of Merit— The Royal Victorian Order— The Imperial Service Order— The Victoria Cross— The Albert Medal— Naval and Military Medals— Foreign Insignia bestowed on British Subjects 273 CHAPTER XX Precedence Genealogies 295 CHAPTER XXI The College of Arms— The Lyon Office of Scotland— Grants of Arms— Tax on “Armorial Bearings,” and on “Arms Found” 304 CHAPTER XXII Miscellaneous:— Coins— Seals— Heraldry in Architecture, in Monuments, in Illuminations, in Encaustic Tiles— Heraldic Personal Ornaments, and various Heraldic Decorations— Conclusion 316 CHAPTER XXIII Peerage Dignities:— The Dignity of Earl— Of Baron— The Parliament of 1295— Landed Qualifications— Creation of the Title Duke of Cornwall— The Title of Marquis— The Premier Baron of England— The Peerage of Scotland— Scottish Remainders— Daughter Inherits in her own Right— Determination of an Abeyance— The Right to Create Peers of Ireland— Rights and Privileges of a Peeress— The Daughters of Peers— Anomalies of the English Scale of Precedence 327 General Index 335 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page numbers are from the original text. Some illustrations have been shifted slightly from their original location; links lead directly to the illustration. Illustrations 4-315 are in the separate file containing chapters I-X. Words in italics were added by the transcriber. There is no Figure 208. NO. PAGE A1rm. s of St. George A2rm. s of St. Edward ix A3rm. s of St. Edmund A4rm. s of Sir Walter Scott, of Abbotsford 1 La5n. ce Flag, Bayeux Tapestry 6 L6an. ce Flag, Bayeux Tapestry 6 A7n.cient Shield, from a Greek Vase 8 A8n.cient Shield, from a Greek Vase 8 A9n.cient Shield, from a Greek Vase 8 A10n.cient Shield, from a Greek Vase 8 of Walter Innes 11 of William Innes 11 B13a.nner of Templars 14 B14a.nner of Leicester 14 S15h.ield of Brittany 14 1S6h.ield of Waldegrave 14 S17h.ield of Fitz Warine 14 S18h.ield of Whitworth 14 T19he. Escarbuncle 15 S20h.ield of Montacute 17 2S0Ah.ield of Montacute 70 T21he. Planta Genista 17 2A2rm. s assigned to William I. 18, 259 A23rm. s assigned to the Saxon Princes 18 S24h.ield of Prince John of Eltham 26 B25a.dge of Richard II., Westminster Hall 27 2B6a.dge of Richard II., Westminster Hall 27 T2h7e. Points of an Heraldic Shield 33 2S8h.ield divided per Pale 33 S29h.ield divided per Fesse 33 S30h.ield divided Quarterly 33 S31h.ield divided per Bend 33 S32h.ield divided per Bend Sinister 33 3S3h.ield divided per Saltire 33 3S4h.ield divided per Chevron 33 S35h.ield divided per Tierce 33 S36h.ield Quarterly of Eight 34 3C7o.mpound Quartering 34 B38o.rder and Dividing Lines 35 Shield 36 H40e.raldic Shield 36 H41e.raldic Shield 36 4H2e.raldic Shield 36 H43e.raldic Shield 37 4H4e.raldic Shield 37 4M5o.dern Shield 37 C46a.rtouche 37 L47o.zenge 37 A48rm. s of Provence 38 S49h.ield Couché 38 5S0ym. bolisation of Or 40 S51y.mbolisation of Argent 40 S52ym. bolisation of Azure 40 S53ym. bolisation of Gules 40 S54y.mbolisation of Sable 40 5S5ym. bolisation of Vert 40 S56ym. bolisation of Purpure 40 57, 57A. Ermine 41, 42 E58rm. ines 41 5E9rm. inois 41 41 41 41 C63o.unter Vair 41 6P4o.tent 41 C65o.unter Potent 41 6C6o.mponée 43 C67o.unter Componée 43 6A8rm. s of Earl de Warrenne 45 A69rm. s of Jerusalem 44 7A0rm. s of Fenwick 44 A71 C. hief 50 A72rm. s of Le Botiler 50 A73rm. s of De Brus 50 7A4rm. s of De Clintone 50 A75rm. s of De Clintone 50 7A6rm. s of De Clifford 50 A77rm. s of De Pateshulle 50 A78rm. s of Le Vavasour 50 7A9rm. s of De Hemenhale 51 A80rm. s of De Dageworthe 51 A81rm. s of De Harecourt 51 8A2rm. s of Wake 51 A83rm. s of De Huntercumbe 52 A84rm. s of De la Mere 52 8A5rm. s of Fitzalan of Bedale 53 A86rm. s of De Valence 53 8A7rm. s of Erskine 53 A88rm. s of Grandison 53 C89ro. ss Fimbriated 54 C90ro. ss Pointed 54 9G1re. ek Cross 55 Cross 55 T9a3u. Cross 55 9C4ro. ss Quadrate 55 C95ro. ss Patriarchal 55 9C6ro. ss Lourchée 55 9A7rm. s of De Molines 56 A98rm. s of Bishop Anthony Bec 56 A99rm. s of William de Vesci 56 1C00ro. ss Fleurie 56 1C01ro. ss Fleurettée 56 1C02ro. ss Pommee 56 1C03ro. ss Botonee 57 1C04ro. ss Crosslet 57 1C05ro. ss Clechée 57 1C06ro. ss Patee 57 1C07ro. ss Maltese 57 10C8ro. ss Potent 57 1C09ro. ss Avellane 57 1C10ro. ss Botonée Fitchée 57 1A11rm. s of Le Scrope 58 11A2rm. s of De Radclyffe 58 11A3rm. s of Le Boteler 58 1A14rm. s of De Bohun, Earl of Hereford 59 1A15rm. s of De Bohun (differenced) 59 1A16rm. s of De Montford 60 1A17rm. s of De Bray 60 Bendy 60 1B19a.rry Bendy 60 1A20rm. s of St. Andrew 60 12A1rm. s of De Neville 60 1A22rm. s of De Neville 60 1A23rm. s of De Stafford 61 1A24rm. s of De Clare 61 1E25a.rly Shield of De Clare 62 1A26rm. s of De Chandos 62 1A27rm. s of De Prian 62 1A28rm. s of De Passett 62 1A29rm. s of De Kyrkeby 65 13A0rm. s of Blundell 65 13A1rm. s of De Mortimer 66 1A32rm. s of Darcy 66 13A3rm. s of De Wyllers 66 1A34rm. s of De Balliol 66 Tressure Flory 67 1T36re.ssure Flory Counterflory 67 1D37o.uble Tressure Flory 67 1A38rm. s of Scotland 67, 260 1A39rm. s of De Waltone 68 1A40rm. s of Richard, Earl of Cornwall 68 1F41la.nche 69 1F42la.sques 69 1M43a.scle 69 14R4u.stre 69 1A45rm. s of De Burgh, Earl of Kent 69 14A6rm. s of Deincourt 70 14A7rm. s of Campbell 70 14A8 F. rette 71 1A49rm. s of De Etchingham 71 1T5r0e.llis Clouée 71 1B51e.zant 72 1T5o2.rteau 72 15F3o.untain 72 1A54n.nulet 72 1S55h.ield of Douglas 74 15S6h.ield of Douglas 74 1S57h.ield of Douglas 74 1S58h.ield of Isle of Man 74 1S59h.ield of St. Alban’s Abbey 75 16E0a.rly Martlet 77 1M61a.rtlet 77 1B62a.nner of De Barre 77 16D3o.lphin 78 1A64rm. s of De Lucy 78 1E65s.callop 78 166.Moon A, B, C, Crescent, Increscent, Decrescent 80 167.Stag At Gaze 81 1S68ta.g Tripping 81 1S69ta.g At Speed 81 1S70ta.g’s Head Cabossed 85 17L1io.n Rampant 85 17L2io.n Rampant Guardant 85 17L3io.n Passant 85 1L7i4o.n Passant Guardant 85 1L7i5o.n Statant 85 17L6io.n Statant Guardant 85 17Li7o.n Couchant 86 1L7i8o.n Sejant 86 1L7i9o.n Dormant 86 1L80io.n Salient 86 18Li1o.n Double queued 86 1L82io.n Coward 86 18L3io.n’s Head 87 18L4io.n’s Face 87 18L5io.n’s Jambe 87 1D86e.mi Lion Rampant 87 18A7rm. s of England 87, 259 1A88rm. s of Richard I. 88 1A89rm. s of Prince John 88 1A90rm. s of Richard I. 88 1A91rm. s of Le Strange 89 1A92rm. s of Giffard 89 1A93rm. s of Mowbray 89 1A94rm. s of De Lacy 89 1A95rm. s of De Segrave 89 1A96rm. s of De Percy 90 1A97rm. s of De Longespée 90 1C98re. st of Black Prince 91 1C99re. st &c., Richard II. 91 Shield in Westminster Abbey 93 2I0m1p. erial Eagle 93 20R2o.yal Eagle 93 2A03rm. s of Earl of Cornwall 94 of Euphemia Leslie 94 20S5h.ield of Piers Gaveston 95 2A06rm. s of Montacute and Monthermer 95 2A07 V. ol 96 2A09rm. s of De la Mere 96 21S0h.ield at St. Albans 97