The History of Education; educational practice and progress considered as a phase of the development and spread of western civilization
414 Pages
English
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The History of Education; educational practice and progress considered as a phase of the development and spread of western civilization

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414 Pages
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION, by ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEYCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloadingor redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do notchange or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of thisfile. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can alsofind out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****Title: THE HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAuthor: ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEYRelease Date: February, 2005 [EBook #7521] [This file was first posted on May 13, 2003]Edition: 10Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO Latin-1*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION ***Anne Soulard, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.THE HISTORY OF EDUCATIONEDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND PROGRESS CONSIDERED AS A PHASE OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF WESTERN CIVILIZATIONBYELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEYTO MY WIFE FOR ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION, by ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY
Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.
This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the header without written permission.
Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can also find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.
**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts**
**eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971**
*****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****
Title: THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
Author: ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY
Release Date: February, 2005 [EBook #7521] [This file was first posted on May 13, 2003] Edition: 10 Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO Latin-1
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION ***
Anne Soulard, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION
EDUCATIONAL PRACTICEAND PROGRESS CONSIDERED AS A PHASEOFTHEDEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OFWESTERN CIVILIZATION
BY
ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY
TO MY WIFE FOR THIRTY YEARS BEST OF COMPANIONS IN BOTH WORK AND PLAY
PREFACE
The present volume, as well as the companion volume ofReadings, arose out of a practical situation. Twenty-two years ago, on entering Stanford University as a Professor of Education and being given the history of the subject to teach, I found it necessary, almost from the first, to begin the construction of a Syllabus of Lectures which would permit of my teaching the subject more as a phase of the history of the rise and progress of our Western civilization than would any existing text. Through such a study it is possible to give, better than by any other means, that vision of world progress which throws such a flood of light over all our educational efforts. The Syllabus grew, was made to include detailed citations to historical literature, and in 1902 was published in book form. In 1905 a second and an enlarged edition was issued, [1] and these volumes for a time formed the basis for classwork and reading in a number of institutions, and, though now out of print, may still be found in many libraries. At the same time I began the collection of a series of short, illustrative sources for my students to read.
It had been my intention, after the publication of the second edition of the Syllabus, to expand the outline into a Text Book which would embody my ideas as to what university students should be given as to the history of the work in which they were engaged. I felt then, and still feel, that the history of education, properly conceived and presented, should occupy an important place in the training of an educational leader. Two things now happened which for some time turned me aside from my original purpose. The first was the publication, late in 1905, of Paul Monroe's very comprehensive and scholarly Text Book in the History of Education, and the second was that, with the expansion of the work in education in the university with which I was connected, and the addition of new men to the department, the general history of education was for a time turned over to another to teach. I then began, instead, the development of that introductory course in education, dealing entirely with American educational history and problems, out of which grew myPublic Education in the United States.
The second half of the academic year 1910-11 I acted as visiting Lecturer on the History of Education at both Harvard University and Radcliffe College, and while serving in this capacity I began work on what has finally evolved into the present volume, together with the accompanying book of illustrativeReadings. Other duties, and a deep interest in problems of school administration, largely engaged my energies and writing time until some three years ago, when, in rearranging courses at the university, it seemed desirable that I should again take over the instruction in the general history of education. Since then I have pushed through, as rapidly as conditions would permit, the organization of the parallel book of sources and documents, and the present volume of text.
In doing so I have not tried to prepare another history of educational theories. Of such we already have a sufficient number. Instead, I have tried to prepare a history of the progress and practice and organization of education itself, and to give to such a history its proper setting as a phase of the history of the development and spread of our Western civilization. I have especially tried to present such a picture of the rise, struggle for existence, growth, and recent great expansion of the idea of the improvability of the race and the elevation and emancipation of the individual through education as would be most illuminating and useful to students of the subject. To this end I have traced the great forward steps in the emancipation of the intellect of man, and the efforts to perpetuate the progress made through the organization of educational institutions to pass on to others what had been attained. I have also tried to give a proper setting to the great historic forces which have shaped and moulded human progress, and have made the evolution of modern state school systems and the world-wide spread of Western civilization both possible and inevitable.
To this end I have tried to hold to the main lines of the story, and have in consequence omitted reference to many theorists and reformers and events and schools which doubtless were important in their land and time, but the influence of which on the main current of educational progress was, after all, but small. For such omission I have no apology to make. In their place I have introduced a record of world events and forces, not included in the usual history of education, which to me seem important as having contributed materially to the shaping and directing of intellectual and educational progress. While in the treatment major emphasis has been given to modern times, I have nevertheless tried to show how all modern education has been after all a development, a culmination, a flowering-out of forces and impulses which go far back in history for their origin. In a civilization such as we of to-day enjoy, with roots so deeply embedded in the past as is ours, any adequate understanding of world practices and of present-day world problems in education calls for some tracing of development to give proper background and perspective. The rise of modern state school systems, the variations in types found to-day in different lands, the new conceptions of the educational purpose, the rise of science study, the new functions which the school has recently assumed, the world- wide sweep of modern educational ideas, the rise of many entirely new types of schools and training within the past century—these and many other features of modern educational practice in progressive nations are better understood if viewed in the light of their proper historical setting. Standing as we are to-day on the threshold of a new era, and with a strong tendency manifest to look only to the future and to ignore the past, the need for sound educational perspective on the part of the leaders in both school and state is given new emphasis.
To give greater concreteness to the presentation, maps, diagrams, and pictures, as commonly found in standard historical works, have been used to an extent not before employed in writings on the history of education. To give still greater concreteness to the presentation I have built up a parallel volume ofReadings, containing a large collection of illustrative source material designed to back up the historical record of educational development and progress as presented in this volume. The selections have been fully cross-referenced (R. 129; R. 176; etc.) in the pages of the Text. Depending, as I have, so largely on the companion volume for the necessary supplemental readings, I have reduced the
chapter bibliographies to a very few of the most valuable and most commonly found references. To add to the teaching value of the book there has been appended to each chapter a series of questions for discussion, bearing on the Text, and another series of questions bearing on the Readings to be found in the companion volume. In this form it is hoped that the Text will be found good in teaching organization; that the treatment may prove to be of such practical value that it will contribute materially to relieve the history of education from much of the criticism which the devotion in the past to the history of educational theory has brought upon it; and that the two volumes which have been prepared may be of real service in restoring the subject to the position of importance it deserves to hold, for mature students of educational practice, as the interpreter of world progress as expressed in one of its highest creative forms.
ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEYStanford University, Cal. September4, 1920
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION: THE SOURCES OF OUR CIVILIZATION
PART I THE ANCIENT WORLD FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF OUR WESTERN CIVILIZATION GREECE— ROME—CHRISTIANITY
CHAPTER I. THEOLD GREEK EDUCATION I. GREECEAND ITS PEOPLEII. EARLYEDUCATION IN GREECE
CHAPTER II. LATER GREEK EDUCATION III. THENEW GREEK EDUCATION
CHAPTER III. THEEDUCATION AND WORK OFROMEI. THEROMANS AND THEIR MISSION II. THEPERIOD OFHOMEEDUCATION III. THETRANSITION TO SCHOOL EDUCATION IV. THESCHOOL SYSTEM AS FINALLYESTABLISHED V. ROME'S CONTRIBUTION TO CIVILIZATION
CHAPTER IV. THERISEAND CONTRIBUTION OFCHRISTIANITYI. THERISEAND VICTORYOFCHRISTIANITYII. EDUCATIONAL AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION OFTHEEARLYCHURCH III. WHAT THEMIDDLEAGES STARTED WITH
PART II THEMEDIAEVAL WORLD THEDELUGEOFBARBARISM; THEMEDIAEVAL STRUGGLETO PRESERVEAND REËSTABLISH CIVILIZATION
CHAPTER V. NEW PEOPLES IN THEEMPIRE
CHAPTER VI. EDUCATION DURINGTHEEARLYMIDDLEAGES I. CONDITION AND PRESERVATION OFLEARNING
CHAPTER VII. EDUCATION DURINGTHEEARLYMIDDLEAGES I. SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED
CHAPTER VIII. INFLUENCES TENDINGTOWARD A REVIVAL OFLEARNINGI. MOSLEM LEARNINGFROM SPAIN II. THERISEOFSCHOLASTIC THEOLOGY III. LAW AND MEDICINEAS NEW STUDIES IV. OTHER NEW INFLUENCES AND MOVEMENTS
CHAPTER IX. THERISEOFTHEUNIVERSITIES
PART III THETRANSITION FROM MEDIAEVAL TO MODERN ATTITUDES THERECOVERYOFTHEANCIENT LEARNING; THEREAWAKENINGOF SCHOLARSHIP; AND THERISEOFRELIGIOUS AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
CHAPTER X. THEREVIVAL OFLEARNING
CHAPTER XI. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OFTHEREVIVAL OFLEARNING
CHAPTER XII. THEREVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY
CHAPTER XIII. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OFTHEPROTESTANT REVOLTS I. AMONGLUTHERANS AND ANGLICANS
CHAPTER XIV. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OFTHEPROTESTANT REVOLTS II. AMONGCALVINISTS AND CATHOLICS
CHAPTER XV. EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OFTHEPROTESTANT REVOLTS III. THEREFORMATION AND AMERICAN EDUCATION
CHAPTER XVI. THERISEOFSCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
CHAPTER XVII. THENEW SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND THESCHOOLS I. HUMANISTIC REALISM II. SOCIAL REALISM III. SENSEREALISM IV. REALISM AND THESCHOOLS
CHAPTER XVIII. THEORYAND PRACTICEBYTHEMIDDLEOFTHEEIGHTEENTH CENTURYI. PRE-EIGHTEENTH-CENTURYEDUCATIONAL THEORIES II. MID-EIGHTEENTH-CENTURYEDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS
PART IV MODERN TIMES THEABOLITION OFPRIVILEGE; THERISEOFDEMOCRACY; A NEW THEORYFOR EDUCATION EVOLVED; THESTATETAKES OVER THESCHOOL
CHAPTER XIX. THEEIGHTEENTH A TRANSITION CENTURYI. WORK OFTHEBENEVOLENT DESPOTS OFCONTINENTAL EUROPEII. THEUNSATISFIED DEMAND FOR REFORM IN FRANCEIII. ENGLAND THEFIRST DEMOCRATIC NATION IV. INSTITUTION OFCONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN AMERICA V. THEFRENCH REVOLUTION SWEEPS AWAYANCIENT ABUSES
CHAPTER XX. THEBEGINNINGS OFNATIONAL EDUCATION I. NEW CONCEPTIONS OFTHEEDUCATIONAL PURPOSEII. THENEW STATETHEORYIN FRANCEIII. THENEW STATETHEORYIN AMERICA
CHAPTER XXI. A NEW THEORYAND SUBJECT-MATTER FOR THEELEMENTARYSCHOOL I. THENEW THEORYSTATED II. GERMAN ATTEMPTS TO WORK OUT A NEW THEORYIII. THEWORK AND INFLUENCEOFPESTALOZZI IV. REDIRECTION OFTHEELEMENTARYSCHOOL
CHAPTER XXII. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN PRUSSIA I. THEBEGINNINGS OFNATIONAL ORGANIZATION II. A STATESCHOOL SYSTEM AT LAST CREATED
CHAPTER XXIII. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN FRANCEAND ITALYI. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN FRANCEII. NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN ITALY
CHAPTER XXIV. THESTRUGGLEFOR NATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN ENGLAND I. THECHARITABLE-VOLUNTARYBEGINNINGS II. THEPERIOD OF PHILANTHROPIC EFFORT (1800-33) III. THESTRUGGLEFOR NATIONAL EDUCATION IV. THEDEVELOPMENT OFA NATIONAL SYSTEM
CHAPTER XXV. AWAKENINGAN EDUCATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THEUNITED STATES I. EARLYNATIONAL ATTITUDES AND INTERESTS II. AWAKENINGAN EDUCATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS III. SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC INFLUENCES IV. ALIGNMENT OFINTERESTS, AND PROPAGANDA
CHAPTER XXVI. THEAMERICAN BATTLEFOR FREESTATESCHOOLS I. THEBATTLEFOR TAX SUPPORT II. THEBATTLETO ELIMINATETHEPAUPER-SCHOOL IDEA III. THEBATTLETO MAKETHESCHOOLS ENTIRELYFREEIV. THEBATTLETO ESTABLISH SCHOOL SUPERVISION V. THEBATTLETO ELIMINATESECTARIANISM VI. THEBATTLETO ESTABLISH THEAMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL VII. THESTATEUNIVERSITYCROWNS THESYSTEM
CHAPTER XXVII. EDUCATION BECOMES A GREAT NATIONAL TOOL I. SPREAD OFTHESTATE-CONTROL IDEA II. NEW MODIFYINGFORCES III. EFFECT OFTHESECHANGES ON EDUCATION
CHAPTER XXVIII. NEW CONCEPTIONS OFTHEEDUCATIONAL PROCESS I. THEPSYCHOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OFELEMENTARYINSTRUCTION II. NEW IDEAS FROM HERBARTIAN SOURCES III. THEKINDERGARTEN, PLAY, AND MANUAL ACTIVITIES IV. THEADDITION OFSCIENCESTUDYV. SOCIAL MEANINGOFTHESECHANGES
CHAPTER XXIX. NEW TENDENCIES AND EXPANSIONS I. POLITICAL II. SCIENTIFIC III. VOCATIONAL IV. SOCIOLOGICAL V. THESCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION OFEDUCATION
CONCLUSION: THEFUTURE
LIST OF PLATES
1. THE CLOISTERS OF A MONASTERY, NEAR FLORENCE, ITALY 2. THE LIBRARY OF THE CHURCH OF SAINT WALLBERG, AT ZUTPHEN, HOLLAND 3. SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS 4. A LECTURE ON THEOLOGY BY ALBERTUS MAGNUS 5. STRATFORD-ON-AVON GRAMMAR SCHOOL 6. EDUCATIONAL LEADERS IN PROTESTANT GERMANY 7. THE FREE SCHOOL AT HARROW 8. MAP SHOWING THE SPREAD OF JESUIT SCHOOLS IN NORTHERN TERRITORY BY THE YEAR 1725 9. TWO TABLETS ON THE WEST GATEWAY AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY 10. JOHN AMOS COMENIUS (1592-1670) 11. JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI 12. FELLENBERG'S INSTITUTE AT HOFWYL 13. TWO LEADERS IN THE REGENERATION OF PRUSSIA 14. FRANCOIS PIERRE GUILLAUME GUIZOT (1787-1874) 15. JOHN POUNDS' RAGGED SCHOOL AT PORTSMOUTH 16. AN ENGLISH VILLAGE VOLUNTARY SCHOOL 17. TWO LEADERS IN THE EDUCATIONAL AWAKENING IN THE UNITED STATES 18. TWO LEADERS IN THE REORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL THEORY
LIST OF FIGURES
1. THE GREEK CONCEPTION OF THE WORLD 2. ANCIENT GREECE AND THE AEGEAN WORLD 3. THE CITY-STATE OF ATTICA 4. DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION OF ATHENS AND ATTICA, ABOUT 430 B.C. 5. A GREEK BOY 6. AN ATHENIAN INSCRIPTION 7. GREEK WRITING-MATERIALS 8. A GREEK COUNTING-BOARD 9. AN ATHENIAN SCHOOL 10. GREEK SCHOOL LESSONS 11. GROUND-PLAN OF THE GYMNASIUM AT EPHESOS, IN ASIA MINOR 12. SOCRATES (469-399 B.C.) 13. EVOLUTION OF THE GREEK UNIVERSITY 14. THE GREEK UNIVERSITY WORLD 15. THE KNOWN WORLD ABOUT 150 A.D. 16. THE EARLY PEOPLES OF ITALY, AND THE EXTENSION OF THE ROMAN POWER 17. THE PRINCIPAL ROMAN ROADS 18. THE GREAT EXTENT OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 19. A ROMAN FATHER INSTRUCTING HIS SON 20. CATO THE ELDER (234-148 B.C.) 21. ROMAN WRITING-MATERIALS 22. A ROMAN COUNTING-BOARD 23. A ROMAN PRIMARY SCHOOL 24. A ROMAN SCHOOL OF RHETORIC 25. THE ROMAN VOLUNTARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, AS FINALLY EVOLVED 26. ORIGIN OF OUR ALPHABET 27. THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY TO THE END OF THE FOURTH CENTURY 28. A BISHOP 29. A BENEDICTINE MONK, ABBOT, AND ABBESS 30. SHOWING THE FINAL DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE AND THE CHURCH 31. A BODYGUARD OF GERMANS 32. THE GERMAN MIGRATIONS 33. THE KNOWN WORLD IN 800 34. A GERMAN WAR CHIEF 35. ROMANS DESTROYING A GERMAN VILLAGE 36. A PAGE OF THE GOTHIC GOSPELS 37. A TYPICAL MONASTERY OF SOUTHERN EUROPE 38. BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF A MEDIEVAL MONASTERY 39. INITIAL LETTER FROM AN OLD MANUSCRIPT 40. A MONK IN A SCRIPTORIUM 41. CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE, AND THE IMPORTANT MONASTERIES OF THE TIME 42. WHERE THE DANES RAVAGED ENGLAND 43. AN OUTER MONASTIC SCHOOL 44. THE MEDIAEVAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION SUMMARIZED 45. A SCHOOL: A LESSON IN GRAMMAR 46. AN ANGLO-SAXON MAP OF THE WORLD 47. AN EARLY CHURCH MUSICIAN 48. A SQUIRE BEING KNIGHTED 49. A KNIGHT OF THE TIME OF THE FIRST CRUSADE 50. EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 51. SHOWING CENTERS OF MOSLEM LEARNING 52. ARISTOTLE 53. THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME, AT PARIS 54. THE CITY-STATES OF NORTHERN ITALY 55. FRAGMENT FROM THE RECOVERED "DIGEST" OF JUSTINIAN 56. THE FATHER OF MEDICINE, HIPPOCRATES OF COS 57. A PILGRIM OF THE MIDDLE AGES 58. A TYPICAL MEDIAEVAL TOWN (PRUSSIAN) 59. THE EDUCATIONAL PYRAMID 60. TRADE ROUTES AND COMMERCIAL CITIES 61. SHOWING LOCATION OF THE CHIEF UNIVERSITIES FOUNDED BEFORE 1600 62. SEAL OF A DOCTOR, UNIVERSITY OF PARIS 63. NEW COLLEGE, AT OXFORD 64. A LECTURE ON CIVIL LAW BY GUILLAUME BENEDICTI 65. LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN, IN HOLLAND 66. A UNIVERSITY DISPUTATION 67. A UNIVERSITY LECTURE AND LECTURE ROOM 68. PETRARCH (1304-74) 69. BOCCACCIO (1313-75) 70. DEMETRIUS CHALCONDYLES (1424-1511) 71. BOOKCASE AND DESK IN THE MEDICEAN LIBRARY AT FLORENCE 72. TWO EARLY NORTHERN HUMANISTS 73. AN EARLY SIXTEENTH-CENTURY PRESS 74. AN EARLY SPECIMEN OF CAXTON'S PRINTING 75. THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO CHRISTIAN EUROPE BEFORE COLUMBUS 76. SAINT ANTONINUS AND HIS SCHOLARS 77. TWO EARLY ITALIAN HUMANIST EDUCATORS 78. GUILLAUME BUDAEUS (1467-1540) 79. COLLÈGE DE FRANCE 80. JOHANN REUCHLIN (1455-1522) 81. JOHANN STURM (1507-89) 82. DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (1467-1536) 83. SAINT PAUL'S SCHOOL, LONDON 84. GIGGLESWICK GRAMMAR SCHOOL 85. THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN STUDIES 86. JOHN WYCLIFFE (1320?-84) 87. RELIGIOUS WARFARE IN BOHEMIA 88. SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS 89. HULDREICH ZWINGLI (1487-1531) 90. JOHN CALVIN (1509-64) 91. A FRENCH PROTESTANT (c. 1600) 92. TWO EARLY VERNACULAR SCHOOLS 93. THE FIRST PAGE OF WYCLIFFE'S BIBLE 94. LUTHER GIVING INSTRUCTION 95. JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN (1485-1558) 96. EVOLUTION OF GERMAN STATE SCHOOL CONTROL 97. A CHAINED BIBLE 98. A FRENCH SCHOOL OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 99. A DUTCH VILLAGE SCHOOL 100. JOHN KNOX (1505?-72) 101. IGNATIUS DE LOYOLA (1491-1556) 102. PLAN OF A JESUIT SCHOOLROOM 103. AN URSULINE 104. A SCHOOL OF LA SALLE AT PARIS, 1688 105. THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS BY 1792 106. TENDENCIES IN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE, 1500 TO 1700 107. MAP SHOWING THE RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS IN AMERICA 108. HOMES OF THE PILGRIMS, AND THEIR ROUTE TO AMERICA 109. NEW ENGLAND SETTLEMENTS, 1660 110. THE BOSTON LATIN GRAMMAR SCHOOL 111. WHERE YALE COLLEGE WAS FOUNDED 112. AN OLD QUAKER MEETING-HOUSE AND SCHOOL AT LAMPETER, PENNSYLVANIA 113. NICHOLAS KOPERNIK (COPERNICUS) (1473-1543) 114. TYCHO BRAKE (1546-1601) 115. GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) 116. SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) 117. WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) 118. FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) 119. THE LOSS AND RECOVERY OF THE SCIENCES 120. RENÉ DESCARTES (1596-1650) 121. FRANCOIS RABELAIS (1483-1553) 122. JOHN MILTON (1608-74) 123. MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE (1533-92) 124. JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) 125. AN ACADEMIE DES ARMES 126. A SAMPLE PAGE FROM THE "ORBIS PICTUS" 127. PART OF A PAGE FROM A LATIN-ENGLISH EDITION OF THE "VESTIBULUM" 128. AUGUSTUS HERMANN FRANCKE (1663-1727) 129. A FRENCH SCHOOL BEFORE THE REVOLUTION 130. A HORN BOOK 131. THE WESTMINSTER CATECHISM 132. THOMAS DILWORTH (?-1780) 133. FRONTISPIECE TO NOAH WEBSTER'S "AMERICAN SPELLING BOOK" 134. TITLE-PAGE OF HODDER'S ARITHMETIC 135. A "CHRISTIAN BROTHERS" SCHOOL 136. AN ENGLISH DAME SCHOOL 137. GRAVEL LANE CHARITY-SCHOOL, SOUTHWARK 138. A CHARITY-SCHOOL GIRL IN UNIFORM 139. A CHARITY-SCHOOL BOY IN UNIFORM 140. ADVERTISEMENT FOR A TEACHER TO LET 141. A SCHOOL WHIPPING-POST 142. AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY GERMAN SCHOOL 143. CHILDREN AS MINIATURE ADULTS 144. A PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY 145. FREDERICK THE GREAT 146. MARIA THERESA 147. MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755) 148. TURGOT (1727-81) 149. VOLTAIRE (1694-1778) 150. DIDEROT (1713-84) 151. JOHN WESLEY (1707-82) 152. NATIONALITY OF THE WHITE POPULATION, AS SHOWN BY THE FAMILY NAMES IN THE CENSUS OF 1790 153. THE STATES-GENERAL IN SESSION AT VERSAILLES 154. ROUSSEAU (1712-78) 155. LA CHALOTAIS (1701-83) 156. ROLLAND (1734-93) 157. COUNT DE MIRABEAU (1749-91) 158. TALLEYRAND (1758-1838) 159. CONDORCET (1743-94) 160. THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE 161.
LAKANAL (1762-1845) 162. THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) 163. THE ROUSSEAU MONUMENT AT GENEVA 164. BASEDOW (1723-90) 165. IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804) 166. THE SCENE OF PESTALOZZI'S LABORS 167. FELLENBERG (1771-1844) 168. THE SCHOOL OF A HANDWORKER 169. THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA, 1740-86 170. A GERMAN LATE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY SCHOOL 171. DINTER (1760-1831) 172. DIESTERWEG (1790-1866) 173. THE PRUSSIAN STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM CREATED 174. AN OLD FOUNDATION TRANSFORMED 175. COUNT DE FOURCROY (1755-1809) 176. VICTOR COUSIN (1792-1867) 177. OUTLINE OF THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE FRENCH STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM 178. EUROPE IN 1810 179. THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY, SINCE 1848 180. COUNT OF CAVOUR (1810-61) 181. OUTLINE OF THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE ITALIAN STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM 182. A RAGGED-SCHOOL PUPIL 183. ADAM SMITH (1723-90) 184. THE REVEREND T. R. MALTHUS (1766-1834) 185. THE CREATORS OF THE MONITORIAL SYSTEM 186. THE LANCASTRIAN MODEL SCHOOL IN BOROUGH ROAD, SOUTH-WARE, LONDON 187. MONITORS TEACHING READING AT "STATIONS" 188. PROPER MONITORIAL-SCHOOL POSITIONS 189. ROBERT OWEN (1771-1858) 190. LORD BROUGHAM (1778-1868) 191. AN ENGLISH VILLAGE SCHOOL IN 1840 192. EXPENDITURE FROM THE EDUCATION GRANTS, 1839-70 193. LORD T. B. MACAULAY (1800-59) 194. WORK OF THE SCHOOL BOARDS IN PROVIDING SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS 195. THE ENGLISH EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AS FINALLY EVOLVED 196. THE FIRST SCHOOLHOUSE BUILT BY THE FREE SCHOOL SOCIETY IN NEW YORK CITY 197. "MODEL" SCHOOL BUILDING OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SOCIETY 198. EVOLUTION OF THE ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE AMERICAN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 199. DATES OF THE GRANTING OF FULL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE 200. THE FIRST FREE PUBLIC SCHOOL IN DETROIT 201. THE PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL ELECTIONS OF 1835 202. THE NEW YORK REFERENDUM OF 1850 203. STATUS OF SCHOOL SUPERVISION IN THE UNITED STATES BY 1861 204. A TYPICAL NEW ENGLAND ACADEMY 205. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES 206. THE FIRST HIGH SCHOOL IN THE UNITED STATES 207. HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES BY 1860 208. COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ESTABLISHED BY 1860 209. THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL LADDER 210. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF DENMARK 211. THE PROGRESS OF LITERACY IN EUROPE BY THE CLOSE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 212. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 213. THE JAPANESE TWO-CLASS SCHOOL SYSTEM 214. THE CHINESE EDUCATIONAL LADDER 215. BARON JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-73) 216. CHARLES DARWIN (1809-82) 217. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-95) 218. MAN POWER BEFORE THE DAYS OF STEAM 219. THRESHING WHEAT A CENTURY AGO 220. A CITY WATER-SUPPLY, ABOUT 1830 221. THE GREAT TRADE ROUTES OF THE MODERN WORLD 222. AN EXAMPLE OF THE SHIFTING OF OCCUPATIONS 223. THE PHILIPPINE SCHOOL SYSTEM 224. THE FIRST MODERN NORMAL SCHOOL 225. TEACHER-TRAINING IN THE UNITED STATES BY 1860 226. EVOLUTION OF THE ELEMENTARY-SCHOOL CURRICULUM, AND OF METHODS OF TEACHING 227. AN "USHER" AND HIS CLASS 228. REDIRECTED MANUAL TRAINING 229. HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903) 230. THOMAS H. HUXLEY (1825-95) 231. A REORGANIZED KINDERGARTEN 232. THE PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 233. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TRADES IN MODERN INDUSTRY 234. SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF AMERICAN CHILDREN, FOURTEEN TO TWENTY YEARS OF AGE 235. ABBÉ DE L'ÉPÉE (1712-89) 236. THE REVEREND THOMAS H. GALLAUDET TEACHING THE DEAF AND DUMB 237. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS MAINTAINED BY THE STATE 238. KARL GEORG VON RAUMER (1783-1865) 239. THE ESTABLISHED AND EXPERIMENTAL NATIONS OF EUROPE 240. THE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
In addition to the List of Readings and the Supplemental References given in the chapter bibliographies, the following works, not cited in the chapter bibliographies, will be found in most libraries and may be consulted, on all points to which they are likely to apply, for additional material:
I. GENERAL HISTORIES OF EDUCATION
1. Davidson, Thomas.History of Education. 292 pp. New York, 1900.  Good on the interpretation of the larger movements of history.
*2. Monroe, Paul.Text Book in the History of Education. 772 pp.  New York, 1905.  Our most complete and scholarly history of education. This volume  should be consulted freely. See analytical table of contents.
3. Munroe, Jas. P.The Educational Ideal. 262 pp. Boston, 1895.  Contains very good short chapters on the educational reformers.
*4. Graves, F. P.A History of Education. 3 vols. New York, 1909- 13. Vol. I.Before the Middle Ages. 304 pp. Vol. II. During the Middle Ages. 314 pp. Vol. III.In Modern Times. 410 pp. These volumes contain valuable supplementary material, and good chapter bibliographies.
5. Hart, J. K.Democracy in Education. 418 pp. New York, 1918.  An interpretation of educational progress.
6. Quick, R. H.Essays on Educational Reformers. 508 pp. 2d ed.,  New York, 1890.  A series of well-written essays on the work of the theorists in  education since the time of the Renaissance.
*7. Parker, S. C.The History of Modern Elementary Education. 506  pp. Boston, 1912.  An excellent treatise on the development of the theory for our modern  elementary school, with some good descriptions of modern practice.
II. GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. Cubberley, E. P.Syllabus of Lectures on the History of Education. 358 pp. New York. First ed., 1902; 2d ed., 1905. Gives detailed and classified bibliographies for all phases of the subject. Now out of print, but may be found in most normal school and college libraries, and many public libraries.
III. CYCLOPAEDIAS
*1. Monroe, Paul, Editor.Cyclopedia of Education. 5 vols. New  York, 1911-13.  The most important Cyclopaedia of Education in print. Contains  excellent articles on all historical points and events, with good  selected bibliographies. A work that should be in all libraries, and  freely consulted in using this Text. Its historical articles are too  numerous to cite in the chapter bibliographies, but, due to the  alphabetical arrangement and good cross-referencing, they may be found  easily.
*2.Encylopaedia Britannica. 11th ed., 29 vols. Cambridge, 1910-11. Contains numerous important articles on all types of historical topics, and excellent biographical sketches. Should be consulted freely in using this Text.
IV. MAGAZINES
*1. Barnard'sAmerican Journal of Education. Edited by Henry Barnard. 31 vols. Hartford, 1855-81. Reprinted, Syracuse, 1902.Indexto the 31 vols. published by the United States Bureau of Education, Washington, 1892. A wonderful mine of all kinds of historical and educational information, and should be consulted freely on all points relating to European or American educational history.
In the chapter bibliographies, as above, the most important references are indicated with an asterisk (*).