The History of England, from the Accession of James II — Volume 3
444 Pages
English
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The History of England, from the Accession of James II — Volume 3

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444 Pages
English

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The History of England from the Accession of James II., by Thomas Babington Macaulay This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: The History of England from the Accession of James II. Volume 3 (of 5) Author: Thomas Babington Macaulay Release Date: June 23, 2008 [EBook #2612] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF ENGLAND *** Produced by Martin Adamson and David Widger THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES II, VOLUME 3 (of 5) (Chapters XI-XVI) by Thomas Babington Macaulay. Philadelphia Porter & Coates Contents CHAPTER XI CHAPTER XII CHAPTER XIII. CHAPTER XIV CHAPTER XV CHAPTER XVI DETAILED CONTENTS CHAPTER XI William and Mary proclaimed in London Rejoicings throughout England; Rejoicings in Holland Discontent of the Clergy and of the Army Reaction of Public Feeling Temper of the Tories Temper of the Whigs Ministerial Arrangements William his own Minister for Foreign Affairs Danby Halifax Nottingham Shrewsbury The Board of Admiralty; the Board of Treasury The Great Seal The Judges The Household Subordinate Appointments The Convention turned into a Parliament The Members of the two Houses required to take the Oaths Questions relating to the Revenue Abolition of the Hearth Money Repayment of the Expenses of the United Provinces Mutiny at Ipswich The first Mutiny Bill Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act Unpopularity of William Popularity of Mary The Court removed from Whitehall to Hampton Court The Court at Kensington; William's foreign Favourites General Maladministration Dissensions among Men in Office Department of Foreign Affairs Religious Disputes The High Church Party The Low Church Party William's Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury Nottingham's Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity The Toleration Bill The Comprehension Bill The Bill for settling the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy The Bill for settling the Coronation Oath The Coronation Promotions The Coalition against France; the Devastation of the Palatinate War declared against France CHAPTER XII State of Ireland at the Time of the Revolution; the Civil Power in the Hands of the Roman Catholics The Military Power in the Hands of the Roman Catholics Mutual Enmity between the Englishry and Irishry Panic among the Englishry History of the Town of Kenmare Enniskillen Londonderry Closing of the Gates of Londonderry Mountjoy sent to pacify Ulster William opens a Negotiation with Tyrconnel The Temples consulted Richard Hamilton sent to Ireland on his Parole Tyrconnel sends Mountjoy and Rice to France Tyrconnel calls the Irish People to Arms Devastation of the Country The Protestants in the South unable to resist Enniskillen and Londonderry hold out; Richard Hamilton marches into Ulster with an Army James determines to go to Ireland Assistance furnished by Lewis to James Choice of a French Ambassador to accompany James The Count of Avaux James lands at Kinsale James enters Cork Journey of James from Cork to Dublin Discontent in England Factions at Dublin Castle James determines to go to Ulster Journey of James to Ulster The Fall of Londonderry expected Succours arrive from England Treachery of Lundy; the Inhabitants of Londonderry resolve to defend themselves Their Character Londonderry besieged The Siege turned into a Blockade Naval Skirmish in Bantry Bay A Parliament summoned by James sits at Dublin A Toleration Act passed; Acts passed for the Confiscation of the Property of Protestants Issue of base Money The great Act of Attainder James prorogues his Parliament; Persecution of the Protestants in Ireland Effect produced in England by the News from Ireland Actions of the Enniskilleners Distress of Londonderry Expedition under Kirke arrives in Loch Foyle Cruelty of Rosen The Famine in Londonderry extreme Attack on the Boom The Siege of Londonderry raised Operations against the Enniskilleners Battle of Newton Butler Consternation of the Irish CHAPTER XIII. The Revolution more violent in Scotland than in England Elections for the Convention; Rabbling of the Episcopal Clergy State of Edinburgh Question of an Union between England and Scotland raised Wish of the English Low Churchmen to preserve Episcopacy in Scotland Opinions of William about Church Government in Scotland Comparative Strength of Religious Parties in Scotland Letter from William to the Scotch Convention William's Instructions to his Agents in Scotland; the Dalrymples Melville James's Agents in Scotland: Dundee; Balcarras Meeting of the Convention Hamilton elected President Committee of Elections; Edinburgh Castle summoned Dundee threatened by the Covenanters Letter from James to the Convention Effect of James's Letter Flight of Dundee Tumultuous Sitting of the Convention A Committee appointed to frame a Plan of Government Resolutions proposed by the Committee William and Mary proclaimed; the Claim of Right; Abolition of Episcopacy Torture William and Mary accept the Crown of Scotland Discontent of the Covenanters Ministerial Arrangements in Scotland Hamilton; Crawford The Dalrymples; Lockhart; Montgomery Melville; Carstairs The Club formed: Annandale; Ross Hume; Fletcher of Saltoun War breaks out in the Highlands; State of the Highlands Peculiar Nature of Jacobitism in the Highlands Jealousy of the Ascendency of the Campbells The Stewarts and Macnaghtens The Macleans; the Camerons: Lochiel The Macdonalds; Feud between the Macdonalds and Mackintoshes; Inverness Inverness threatened by Macdonald of Keppoch Dundee appears in Keppoch's Camp Insurrection of the Clans hostile to the Campbells Tarbet's Advice to the Government Indecisive Campaign in the Highlands Military Character of the Highlanders Quarrels in the Highland Army Dundee applies to James for Assistance; the War in the Highlands suspended Scruples of the Covenanters about taking Arms for King William The Cameronian Regiment raised Edinburgh Castle surrenders Session of Parliament at Edinburgh Ascendancy of the Club Troubles in Athol The War breaks out again in the Highlands Death of Dundee Retreat of Mackay Effect of the Battle of Killiecrankie; the Scottish Parliament adjourned The Highland Army reinforced Skirmish at Saint Johnston's Disorders in the Highland Army Mackay's Advice disregarded by the Scotch Ministers The Cameronians stationed at Dunkeld The Highlanders attack the Cameronians and are repulsed Dissolution of the Highland Army; Intrigues of the Club; State of the Lowlands CHAPTER XIV CHAPTER XIV Disputes in the English Parliament The Attainder of Russell reversed Other Attainders reversed; Case of Samuel Johnson Case of Devonshire Case of Oates Bill of Rights Disputes about a Bill of Indemnity Last Days of Jeffreys The Whigs dissatisfied with the King Intemperance of Howe Attack on Caermarthen Attack on Halifax Preparations for a Campaign in Ireland Schomberg Recess of the Parliament State of Ireland; Advice of Avaux Dismission of Melfort; Schomberg lands in Ulster Carrickfergus taken Schomberg advances into Leinster; the English and Irish Armies encamp near each other Schomberg declines a Battle Frauds of the English Commissariat Conspiracy among the French Troops in the English Service Pestilence in the English Army The English and Irish Armies go into Winter Quarters Various Opinions about Schomberg's Conduct Maritime Affairs Maladministration of Torrington Continental Affairs Skirmish at Walcourt Imputations thrown on Marlborough Pope Innocent XI. succeeded by Alexander VIII. The High Church Clergy divided on the Subject of the Oaths Arguments for taking the Oaths Arguments against taking the Oaths A great Majority of the Clergy take the Oaths The Nonjurors; Ken Leslie Sherlock Hickes Collier Dodwell Kettlewell; Fitzwilliam General Character of the Nonjuring Clergy The Plan of Comprehension; Tillotson An Ecclesiastical Commission issued. Proceedings of the Commission The Convocation of the Province of Canterbury summoned; Temper of the Clergy The Clergy ill affected towards the King The Clergy exasperated against the Dissenters by the Proceedings of the Scotch Presbyterians Constitution of the Convocation Election of Members of Convocation; Ecclesiastical Preferments bestowed, Compton discontented The Convocation meets The High Churchmen a Majority of the Lower House of Convocation Difference between the two Houses of Convocation The Lower House of Convocation proves unmanageable. The Convocation prorogued CHAPTER XV The Parliament meets; Retirement of Halifax Supplies voted The Bill of Rights passed Inquiry into Naval Abuses Inquiry into the Conduct of the Irish War Reception of Walker in England Edmund Ludlow Violence of the Whigs Impeachments Committee of Murder Malevolence of John Hampden The Corporation Bill Debates on the Indemnity Bill Case of Sir Robert Sawyer The King purposes to retire to Holland He is induced to change his Intention; the Whigs oppose his going to Ireland He prorogues the Parliament Joy of the Tories Dissolution and General Election Changes in the Executive Departments Caermarthen Chief Minister Sir John Lowther Rise and Progress of Parliamentary Corruption in England Sir John Trevor Godolphin retires; Changes at the Admiralty Changes in the Commissions of Lieutenancy Temper of the Whigs; Dealings of some Whigs with Saint Germains; Shrewsbury; Ferguson Hopes of the Jacobites Meeting of the new Parliament; Settlement of the Revenue Provision for the Princess of Denmark Bill declaring the Acts of the preceding Parliament valid Debate on the Changes in the Lieutenancy of London Abjuration Bill Act of Grace The Parliament prorogued; Preparations for the first War Administration of James at Dublin An auxiliary Force sent from France to Ireland Plan of the English Jacobites; Clarendon, Aylesbury, Dartmouth Penn Preston The Jacobites betrayed by Fuller Crone arrested Difficulties of William Conduct of Shrewsbury The Council of Nine Conduct of Clarendon Penn held to Bail Interview between William and Burnet; William sets out for Ireland Trial of Crone Danger of Invasion and Insurrection; Tourville's Fleet in the Channel Arrests of suspected Persons Torrington ordered to give Battle to Tourville Battle of Beachy Head Alarm in London; Battle of Fleurus Spirit of the Nation Conduct of Shrewsbury CHAPTER XVI William lands at Carrickfergus, and proceeds to Belfast State of Dublin; William's military Arrangements William marches southward The Irish Army retreats The Irish make a Stand at the Boyne The Army of James The Army of William Walker, now Bishop of Derry, accompanies the Army William reconnoitres the Irish Position; William is wounded Battle of the Boyne Flight of James Loss of the two Armies Fall of Drogheda; State of Dublin James flies to France; Dublin evacuated by the French and Irish Troops Entry of William into Dublin Effect produced in France by the News from Ireland Effect produced at Rome by the News from Ireland Effect produced in London by the News from Ireland James arrives in France; his Reception there Tourville attempts a Descent on England Teignmouth destroyed Excitement of the English Nation against the French The Jacobite Press The Jacobite Form of Prayer and Humiliation Clamour against the nonjuring Bishops Military Operations in Ireland; Waterford taken The Irish Army collected at Limerick; Lauzun pronounces that the Place cannot be defended The Irish insist on defending Limerick Tyrconnel is against defending Limerick; Limerick defended by the Irish alone Sarsfield surprises the English Artillery Arrival of Baldearg O'Donnel at Limerick The Besiegers suffer from the Rains Unsuccessful Assault on Limerick; The Siege raised Tyrconnel and Lauzun go to France; William returns to England; Reception of William in England Expedition to the South of Ireland Marlborough takes Cork Marlborough takes Kinsale Affairs of Scotland; Intrigues of Montgomery with the Jacobites War in the Highlands Fort William built; Meeting of the Scottish Parliament Melville Lord High Commissioner; the Government obtains a Majority Ecclesiastical Legislation The Coalition between the Club and the Jacobites dissolved The Chiefs of the Club betray each other General Acquiescence in the new Ecclesiastical Polity Complaints of the Episcopalians The Presbyterian Conjurors William dissatisfied with the Ecclesiastical Arrangements in Scotland Meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland State of Affairs on the Continent The Duke of Savoy joins the Coalition Supplies voted; Ways and Means Proceedings against Torrington Torrington's Trial and Acquittal Animosity of the Whigs against Caermarthen Jacobite Plot Meeting of the leading Conspirators The Conspirators determine to send Preston to Saint Germains Papers entrusted to Preston Information of the Plot given to Caermarthen Arrest of Preston and his Companions CHAPTER XI William and Mary proclaimed in London—Rejoicings throughout England; Rejoicings in Holland—Discontent of the Clergy and of the Army—Reaction of Public Feeling—Temper of the Tories—Temper of the Whigs—Ministerial Arrangements—William his own Minister for Foreign Affairs—Danby—Halifax—Nottingham Shrewsbury The Board of Admiralty; the Board of Treasury—The Great Seal—The Judges—The Household—Subordinate Appointments—The Convention turned into a Parliament—The Members of the two Houses required to take the Oaths Questions relating to the Revenue—Abolition of the Hearth Money—Repayment of the Expenses of the United Provinces—Mutiny at Ipswich—The first Mutiny Bill—Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act—Unpopularity of William—Popularity of Mary—The Court removed from Whitehall to Hampton Court—The Court at Kensington; William's foreign Favourites—General Maladministration—Dissensions among Men in Office—Department of Foreign Affairs—Religious Disputes—The High Church Party—The Low Church Party—William's Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity—Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury—Nottingham's Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity—The Toleration Bill—The Comprehension Bill—The Bill for settling the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy—The Bill for settling the Coronation Oath—The Coronation—Promotions—The Coalition against France; the Devastation of the Palatinate—War declared against France THE Revolution had been accomplished. The decrees of the Convention were everywhere received with submission. London, true during fifty eventful years to the cause of civil freedom and of the reformed religion, was foremost in professing loyalty to the new Sovereigns. Garter King at arms, after making proclamation under the windows of Whitehall, rode in state along the Strand to Temple Bar. He was followed by the maces of the two Houses, by the two Speakers, Halifax and Powle, and by a long train of coaches filled with noblemen and gentlemen. The magistrates of the City threw open their gates and joined the procession. Four regiments of militia lined the way up Ludgate Hill, round Saint Paul's Cathedral, and along Cheapside. The streets, the balconies, and the very housetops were crowded with gazers. All the steeples from the Abbey to the Tower sent forth a joyous din. The proclamation was repeated, with sound of trumpet, in front of the Royal Exchange, amidst the shouts of the citizens. In the evening every window from Whitechapel to Piccadilly was lighted up. The state rooms of the palace were thrown open, and were filled by a gorgeous company of courtiers desirous to kiss the hands of the King and Queen. The Whigs assembled there, flushed with victory and prosperity. There were among them some who might be pardoned if a vindictive feeling mingled with their joy. The most deeply injured of all who had survived the evil times was absent. Lady Russell, while her friends were crowding the galleries of Whitehall, remained in her retreat, thinking of one who, if he had been still living, would have held no undistinguished place in the ceremonies of that great day. But her daughter, who had a few months before become the wife of Lord Cavendish, was presented to the royal pair by his mother the Countess of Devonshire. A letter is still extant in which the young lady described with great vivacity the roar of the populace, the blaze in the streets, the throng in the presence chamber, the beauty of Mary, and the expression which ennobled and softened the harsh features of William. But the most interesting passage is that in which the orphan girl avowed the stern delight with which she had witnessed the tardy punishment of her father's murderer. 1 The example of London was followed by the provincial towns. During three weeks the Gazettes were filled with accounts of the solemnities by which the public joy manifested itself, cavalcades of gentlemen and yeomen, processions of Sheriffs and Bailiffs in scarlet gowns, musters of zealous Protestants with orange flags and ribands, salutes, bonfires, illuminations,