The History of the Great Irish Famine of 1847 (3rd ed.) (1902) - With Notices of Earlier Irish Famines
349 Pages
English
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The History of the Great Irish Famine of 1847 (3rd ed.) (1902) - With Notices of Earlier Irish Famines

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349 Pages
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Title: The History of the Great Irish Famine of 1847 (3rd ed.) (1902)  With Notices Of Earlier Irish Famines
Author: John O'Rourke
Release Date: December 21, 2004 [EBook #14412]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE GREAT FAMINE ***
Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Martin Pettit and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team
THE HISTORY
OF THE
GREAT IRISH FAMINE
OF
1847,
WITH NOTICES OF EARLIER IRISH FAMINES.
BY THE
REV. JOHN O'ROURKE, P.P., M.R.I.A.
THIRD EDITION.
Dublin:
JAMES DUFFY AND CO., LTD.,
15 WELLINGTON QUAY.
1902.
[The right of translation and reproduction is reserved.]
TO
MY FELLOW COUNTRYMEN
THIS NARRATIVE
OF ONE OF THE MOST TERRIBLE EPISODES
IN THE CHEQUERED HISTORY
OF
OUR NATIVE LAND,
IS
RESPECTFULLY AND AFFECTIONATELY
DEDICATED.
CONTENTS.
PREFACE.
The Author of this volume has, for a considerable time, been of opinion, that the leading facts of the Great Irish Famine of 1847 ought to be put together without unnecessary delay. Several reasons occurred to him why such a work should be done: the magnitude of the Famine itself; the peculiarity of its immediate cause; its influence on the destiny of the Irish Race. That there should be no unnecessary delay inperforming the task was sufficientlyproved, he thought,
by the fact, that testimony of the most valuable ki nd, namely, contemporary testimony, was silently but rapidly passing away with the generation that had witnessed the Scourge.
Having made up his mind to undertake such a work, t he Author's first preparation for it was, to send query sheets to such persons as were supposed to be in possession of information on the subject. And he has here to express his gratitude and thanks to his numerous correspondents, for the kindness and promptness with which his queries were answered. He cannot recall even one case in which this was not done. But there is a dark side to the picture too. In looking over the query sheets now, it is sad to find how many of those whose signatures they bear have already passed from amongst us.
Other materials of great importance lay scattered over the Public Journals of the period; were buried and stowed away in Parliamentary Blue Books, and Parliamentary debates;—were to be sought for in pamphlets, in periodicals, and more especially in the Reports of the various Societies and Associations, which were appointed for dispensing the alms given with such free hand, to aid in saving the lives of the famishing people. Those Records will be found quoted and referred to in the course of the work.
Amongst them, it is but just to acknowledge, how much the Author owes to the Report of the Census Commissioners for 1851; to the "Transactions" of the Society of Friends; and to theIrish Crisis, by Sir Charles E. Trevelyan, Bart.; which originally appeared as an article in theEdinburgh Review for January, 1848, but was reprinted in a small volume of two hundred pages. Although far from agreeing with many of Sir Charles's conclusions (he was Secretary to the Treasury during the Famine), still the Author cheerfully acknowledges, that the statistical information in theIrish Crisisvery valuable to a student of the is history of the Famine period.
It was to be expected, that the alarm about the Potato Blight and the Famine would be first raised through the public Press. Thi s was done by letters from various localities, and by Special Reporters and Commissioners, who travelled through the country to examine the state of the people, as well as that of the potato crop. There was a Commissioner from the LondonTimesIreland at in this period. His letters written to that Journal were afterwards collected, and they made an octavo volume of nearly eight hundred pages.
The English people, and many in Ireland, long adhered to the opinion, that there was much exaggeration in the Irish Newspapers regarding both the Blight and the Famine; but subsequent investigation showed, that there was very little, if any, exaggeration; nay, that the real facts were often understated. As to the Famine, several of the gentlemen sent by the Charitable Societies to make Reports, wrote back, that there was no exaggeration whatever, and, for a very sufficient reason, namely, that, in their opinion, it was impossible to exaggerate the dreadful condition in which they found the people.
Another mode of acquiring information adopted by the Author was, to visit those parts of the country in which the Famine had raged with the greatest severity. On such occasions he not only had the advantage of examining the localities, but of conversing with persons whose knowledge of that awful Calamity made them valuable and interesting guides.
As to the rest, it is left to the kindness of the Reader.
ST. MARY'S, MAYNOOTH,
1st December, 1874.
CONTENTS.
PREFACE.
CHAPTER I.
The Potato--Its introduction into Europe--Sir Walter Raleigh--The Potato of Virginia--The Battata, or sweet Potato--Sir John Hawkins--Sir Francis Drake--Raleigh's numerous exploring expeditions--Story of his distributing Potatoes on the Irish coast on his way from Virginia groundless--Sir Joseph Banks--His history of the introduction of the Potato--Thomas Heriot--His description of the Opanawk a correct description of the Potato--That root in Europe before Raleigh's time--Raleigh an "Undertaker"--The Grants made to him--The Famine after the War with the Desmonds--Introduction of the Potato into Ireland--Did not come rapidly in to cultivation--Food of the poorest--Grazing--Graziers--Destruction of Irish Manufactures--Causes of the increasing culture of the Potato--Improvement of Agriculture--Rotation of Crops--Primate Boulter's charity--Buys Corn in the South to sell it cheaply in the North--Years of scarcity from 1720 to 1740--The Famine of 1740-41--The Great Frost--No combined effort to meet this Famine--Vast number of Deaths--The Obelisk at Castletown (Note)--Price of Wheat--Bread Riots--Gangs of Robbers--"The Kellymount Gang"--Sev ere punishment--Shooting down Food-rioters--The Lord Li eutenant's Address to Parliament--Bill "for the more effectual securing the payments of rents and preventing the frauds of tenants"--This Bill the basis of legislation on the Land Question up to 1870--Land thrown into Grazing--State of the Catholics--Renewal of the Penal Statutes--Fever and bloody flux--Deaths--State of P risoners--Galway Physicians refuse to attend Patients--The Races of Galway changed to Tuam on account of the Fever in Galway--Balls and Plays!--Rt. Rev. Dr. Berkeley's account of the Famine--The "Groans of Ireland"--Ireland a land of Famine--Dublin Bay--The Coast--The Wicklow Hills--Killiney--Obelisk Hill--What the Obelisk was built for--The Potato more cultivated than ever after 1741--A gricultural literature of the time--Apathy of the Gentry denounced--Comparative yield of Potatoes a hundred years ago and at present--Arthur Young on the Potato--Great increase of its culture in twe nty years--The disease called "curl" in the Potato (Note)--Failure of the Potato in 1821--Consequent Famine in 1822--Government grants--Charitable collections--Highprice of Potatoes--Skibbereen in 1822--Half of the
superficies of the Island visited by this Famine--S trange apathy of Statesmen and Landowners with regard to the ever-in creasing culture of the Potato--Supposed conquest of Ireland--Ireland kept poor lest she should rebel--The English colony always regarded as the Irish nation--The natives ignored--They lived i n the bogs and mountains, and cultivated the Potato, the only food that would grow in such places--No recorded Potato blight before 17 29--The probable reason--Poverty of the English colony--Jea lousy of England of its progress and prosperity--Commercial jealousy--Destruction of the Woollen manufacture--Its immedia te effect--William the Third's Declaration--Absenteeism--Mr. M 'Culloch's arguments (Note A.)--Apparently low rents--Not real ly so--No capital--Little skill--No good Agricultural Impleme nts--Swift's opinion--Arthur Young's opinion--Acts of Parliament--The Catholics permitted to be loyal--Act for reclaiming Bogs--Pension to Apostate Priests increased--Catholic Petition in 1792--The Relief Act of 1793--Population of Ireland at this time--the Forty-shil ling Freeholders--Why they were created--Why they were abolished--the cry of over-population,
CHAPTER II.
The Potato Blight of 1845--Its appearance in England--In Ireland--Weather--Scotland--Names given to the Blight--First appearance of the Blight in Ireland--Accounts of its progress--Th e Royal Agricultural Improvement Society of Ireland--Its action--The Dublin Corporation--O'Connell--His plan for meeting the Crisis--Deputation to the Lord Lieutenant--How it was received--Lord H eytesbury's Reply--It displeases the Government--TheTimes' Commissioner--His suggestions--Mr. Gregory's Letter--Mr. Crichton's--Sir James Murray on the Blight--Action of the Clergy--the Man sion House Committee--Resolutions--Analysis of five hundred letters on the Blight--Partial cessation of the Rot caused by the Blight--Report of Professors Lindley and Playfair--Estimated loss--Query Sheets sent out--Corporation Address to the Queen--Her Reply--Address of the London Corporation asking for Free Trade--The Potato Blight made a party question--Dean Hoare's Letter--Failure of remedies,
CHAPTER III.
Lord Heytesbury and Sir Robert Peel--The Potatoes of last year!--Is there a stock of them?--Sir R. Peel and Free Trade--Strength of his Cabinet--Mr. Cobden proposes a Committee of Inquiry--His speech--Its effect--Committee refused--D'Israeli's attack on Sir R. Peel (Notecause for)--Sir Robert puts forward the Potato Blight as the repealing the Corn Laws--The extent of the Failure not exaggerated--Sir James Graham and Sir R. Peel--Appointments of Drs. Lindley and Playfair to investigate the Blight--Sir R. Peel announces that he is a convert to the repeal of the Corn Laws--States his views, but does not reason on them--The Quarterly Review--Spec ial Commissioners--Mr. Buller's letter--Sir James Graha m and the
Premier--Proceeding by Proclamation instead of by O rder in Council--Sir James's sharp reply--Agitation to stop distillation--County Meetings proposed by the Lord Lieutenant--Ca binet Council--The Premier puts his views before it in a memorandum--The Corn Laws--Some of the Cabinet displeased with his views--On the 6th November he submits another memorandum to the Cabinet--Lord Stanley dissents from the Premier's views--The Cabinet meet again next day and he concludes the memorandum--On the 29th November he sends to each of his colleagues a more detailed exposition of his views--Several reply--Another mem. brought before them on the 2nd December--The Cabinet in permanent session--On the 5th of December Sir Robert resigns--Lord John R ussell fails to form a Government--The old Cabinet again in power--Mr. Gladstone replaces Lord Stanley,
CHAPTER IV.
Meeting of Parliament--Queen's Speech--The Premier's speech on the Address--Goes into the whole question of Free T rade--The protectionists--Lord Brougham's views (Note)--The twelve nights' debate on the Corn Laws--No connection between it a nd the Famine--Stafford O'Brien's speech--Sir James Graham's reply--Smith O'Brien's speech--His imprisonment (Note B.)--O'Connell's motion--His speech--Sir Robert Peel replies--Substantially agrees with O'Connell--Bill for the protection of life in Ireland--Its first reading opposed by the Irish members--O'Connell lea ds the Opposition in a speech of two hours--Mr. D'Israeli mistaken in calling it his last speech--His account of it--He misrepresents it--The opinions expressed in it were those O'Connell always held. Break up of the Tory party--Lord George Bentinck becomes leader of the Protectionists--Their difficulty in opposing the Co ercion Bill--Ingenious plan of Lord George--Strange combination against the Government--Close of Debate on Coercion Bill--Gover nment defeated by a majority of 73--Measures to meet the Famine--Delay--Accounts from various parts of the country--Great distress--"Are the Landlords making any efforts?"--Notice for rent--The bailiff's reply--Number of Workhouses open--Number of persons in the m--Sir Robert Peel's speech on his resignation--Accident to him--His death--The Peels--Sir Robert's qualities and character--His manner of dealing with the Famine--His real object the repeal of the Corn Laws,
CHAPTER V.
John Russell Prime Minister--He confers important offices on some Irish Catholics--His address to the electors of Lon don--Its vagueness--Addresses of some of the other new Minis ters--The Irish difficulty greater than ever--Young and Old Ireland--TheTimes on O'Connell and English rule in Ireland--Overtures of the Whig Government--O'Connell listens to them--The eleven measures--Views of the advanced Repealers--Lord Miltown's let ter to
O'Connell--Dissensions in the Repeal Association--T he "Peace Resolutions"--O'Connell's letters--He censures theNation newspaper--Debate in the Repeal Association--Thomas Francis Meagher's "Sword speech"--The Young Ireland party l eave Conciliation Hall in a body--Description of the sce ne (Note)--Reflections--Sir Robert Peel's speech after his resignation--Lord John Russell's speech at Glasgow--His speech on the Irish Coercion Bill--His speech after becoming Prime Mini ster--The Potato Blight reappears--Accounts from the Province s--Father Mathew's letter--Value of the Potato Crop of 1846-- Various remedies, theories, and speculations--State of the weather--Mr. Cooper's observations at Markree Castle--Lord Monteagle's motion in the House of Lords for employing the people--Pro fitable employment the right thing--The Marquis of Lansdowne replies--It is hard to relieve a poor country like Ireland--Lord D evon's opinion--The Premier's statement about relief--The wonderful cargo of Indian meal--Sir R. Peel's fallacies--Bill for Baronial Sessions--Cessation of Government Works--The Mallow Relief Committee--B eds of stone!--High rents on the poor--The Social Conditio n of the Hottentot as compared with that of Mick Sullivan--Rev. Mr. Gibson's views--Mr. Tuke's account of Erris (Note)--Close of the Session of Parliament,
CHAPTER VI.
The Labour-rate Act passed without opposition: entitled, An Act to Facilitate the Employment of the Labouring Poor--Its provisions--GovernmentMinutethem--Heads of Minute--Rate of explaining wages--Dissatisfaction with it--Commissary-General Hewetson's letter--Exorbitant prices--Opinion expressed on thi s head by an American Captain--The Government will not order food as Sir R. Peel did--Partial and unjust taxation--Opposition to the Labour-rate Act--Reproductive employment called for--Lord Devon's opinion--Former works not to be completed under the Act--Minute of 31st of August--Modified by Mr. Labouchere's letter of 5th of September--People taxed who paid a rent of £4 a year--In many cases a hardship--Barren works the great blot of the Labour-rate Act--Arguments against the Act--Resources of the country should have been developed--Panic among landowners--Rev. Mr. Mo ore's letters--Level roads a good thing--Food better--A cry of excessive population raised--Ireland not overpeopled--Employ the people on tilling the soil--Sir R. Routh takes the same view--Relief Committee of Kells and Fore--Reproductive employment--Plan su ggested--Address to the Lord Lieutenant--True remedy--O'Connell on the Famine--Writes from Darrynane on the subject--Money in the hands of Board of Works--Compulsory reclamation of waste lands--Drainage Bill--Mr. Kennedy's opinion--Who is to bla me?--The Government, the landlords, or the people?--O'Connel l for united action--Outdoor relief will confiscate property--Proposed Central Committee--Several Committees meet in Dublin--Mr. M onsell's letter--His views--Against unproductive labour--Mon ey wasted--
Appeal to the Government--Cork deputation to the Prime Minister--His views--Henowsees great difficulties in reclaiming waste lands--Platitudes--Change of views--Requisition for meeti ng in Dublin--Unexpected publication of the "Labouchere Letter" a uthorizing reproductive works--Verdict of the Government against itself,
CHAPTER VII.
The Measures of Relief for 1846-7--Difficulties--Shortcomings of the Government--Vigorous action of other countries--Com missary General Routh's Letter on the state of the depôts--Replies from the Treasury--Delay--Incredulity of Government--English Press--Attacks both on the Landlords and People of Ireland--Not the time for such attacks--View of theMorning Chronicle--Talk about exaggeration--Lieutenant-Colonel Jones--Changes his opinion--His reason for doing so--Mr. Secretary Redington's ideas--Extraordinary Baronial Presentments--Presentments for the County Mayo beyo nd the whole rental of the county!--The reason why--Unfini shed Public Works--Lord Monteagle--Finds fault with the action of the Government, although a supporter of theirs--Expense s divided between landlord and tenant--Discontent at rate of wages on public works being 2d. per day under the average wages of the district--Founded on error--Taskwork--Great dissatisfaction a t it--Combination--Attempt on the Life of Mr. W.M. Hennessy--True way to manage the people (Note)--Stoppage of Works--Captain Wynne--Dreadful destitution--Christmas eve--Opposition to Taskwork continues--Causes--Treasury Minute on the subject--Colonel Jones on Committees--Insulting his officers--Insult to Mr . Cornelius O'Brien, M.P.--Captain Wynne at Ennistymon--A real Irish Committee--Major M'Namara--His version of the Ennistymon affair (Note)--Charges against the Gentry of Clare by Captain Wynne--Mr. Millet on Ennistymon--Selling Tickets for the Public Works--Feeling of the Officials founded often on ignorance and pre judice--The Increase of Deposits in the Savings' Banks a Proof of Irish Prosperity--How explained by Mr. Twistleton, an official--Scarcity of silver--The Bank of Ireland authorized to issue it--The Public Works of 1845-6 brought to a close in August, 1846--The Labour-rate Act--Difficulty of getting good Officials--The Baronies--Issues to them--Loans--Grants--Total--Sudden and enormous Increase of Labourers on the Works under the Labour-rate Act--How distributed over the Provinces--Number of Officials superintending the P ublic Works--Correspondence--Number of Letters received at Central Office--Progress of the Famine--Number employed--Number see king employment who could not get it--The Death-roll,
CHAPTER VIII.
Operations of the Commissariat Relief Department--N ot to interfere with Mealmongers or Corn Merchants--Effects of this Rule--Deputation from Achill (Note)--Organization of the Commissariat Relief Department--Reports on the Potato Crop--The Blight in Clare-
-Commissary-General Hewetson's opinion--Commissary-General Dobree's Report--Depôts--Universality of the Blight--Rules with regard to Food Depôts--Fault of the Treasury--Scarcity of Food--Depôts besieged for it in the midst of harvest--Depôts to be only on the West Coast--What was meant by the West Coast--C oroner's Inquests at Mallow--Rev. Mr. Daly--Lord Mountcashel --Famine Demonstration at Westport--Sessions at Kilmacthomas --Riot at Dungarvan--Captain Sibthorpe's Order--Mr. Howley's Advice--Attempt to rescue Prisoners--Captain Sibthorpe asks leave to fire--Refused by Mr. Howley--Riot Act read--Leave to fire given--People retire from the town--Two men wounded--The carter's reason for fighting--Lame Pat Power--Death of Michael Fleming, the carter--Formidable bands traverse the country--Advice of th e Clergy--Carrigtuohill--Macroom--Killarney--Skibbereen--March on that town by the workmen of Caheragh--Dr. Donovan's account o f the movement--The military, seventy-five in number, posted behind a schoolhouse--Firmness and prudence of Mr. Galwey, J.P.--Biscuits ordered from the Government Store--Peace preserved- -Demonstration at Mallow--Lord Stuart de Decies--Deputation from Clonakilty to the Lord Lieutenant--Ships prevented from sailing at Youghal--Sir David Roche--Demonstrations simultaneo us--Proclamation against food riots--Want of mill-power--No mill-power in parts of the West where most required--Sir Rando lph Routh's opinion--Overruled by the Treasury--Mr. Lister's Account of the mill-power in parts of Connaught--Meal ground at Deptford, Portsmouth, Plymouth, and Rotherhithe; also in Essex and the Channel Islands--Mill-power at Malta--Quantity of wheat there--Five hundred quarters purchased--The French--The Irish handmill, or quern , revived--Samples of it got--Steel-mills--Mill-power useless from failure of water-supply--Attempt to introduce whole corn boiled as food,
CHAPTER IX.
The Landlords and the Government--Public Meetings--Reproductive Employment demanded for the People--The "Labouchere" Letter--Presentments under it--Loans asked to construct Railways--All who received incomes from land should be taxed--Deputation from the Royal Agricultural Society to the Lord Lieutenant-- They ask reproductive employment--Lord Bessborough answers cautiously--The Prime Minister writes to the Duke of Leinster on the subject--Views expressed--Defence of his Irish Famine policy--Severe on the Landlords--Unsound principles laid down by him--Corn in the haggards--Mary Driscoll's little stack of barley--Second Deputation from the Royal Agricultural Society to the Lord Lie utenant--Its object--Request not granted--The Society lectured on the duties of its Members--Real meaning of the answer--Progress of the Famine--Deaths from starvation--O'Brien's Bridge--Rev. Dr. Vaughan--Slowness of the Board of Works--State of Tuam--Inquest on Denis M'Kennedy--Testimony of his Wife--A fortnight's Wages due to him--Received only half-a-crown in three weeks--Evidence of the Steward of the Works; of Rev. Mr. Webb; of Dr. Donovan--Remarks
of Rev. Mr. Townsend--Verdict--TheTimes on the duties of Landlords--Landlords denounce the Government and the Board of Works--Mr. Fitzgerald on the Board and on the farmers--Meeting at Bandon--Lord Bernard--Inquest on Jeremiah Hegarty-- The Landlord's "cross" on the barley--Mary Driscoll's e vidence; her husband's--Post-mortemby Dr. Donovan--The Parish examination Priest of Swinford--Evictions--TheMorning Chroniclethem-- on Spread and Increase of Famine--The question of providing coffins--Deaths at Skibbereen--Extent of the Famine in 1846--Deaths in Mayo--Cases--Edward M'Hale--Skibbereen--The diary of a day--Swelling of the extremities--Burning beds for fuel--Mr. Cummins's account of Skibbereen--Killarney Relief Committee-- Father O'Connor's Statement--Christmas Eve!--A visit to Skibbereen twenty years after the great Famine,
CHAPTER X.
The Landlords' committee--A new Irish party--Circular--The "Great Meeting of Irish Peers, Members of Parliament and Landlords" in the Rotunda--The Resolutions--Spirit of those Resol utions--Emigration--great anxiety for it--Opening of Parlia ment--Queen's Speech--England on her Trial--Debate on the Address --Lord Brougham on Irish Landlords--Lord Stanley on the Famine--Smith O'Brien's speech--Defends the Landlords--Mr. Labouchere, the Irish Secretary, defends the Government--The Irish Agricu ltural population were always on the brink of starvation, and when the Blight came it was impossible to meet the disaster--The views of the Morning Chroniclethe Government of Ireland--Mr. Labouchere on quotes the Poor-law Enquiry of 1835 and the Devon C ommission--Change of the Government's views on the Famine--Gri ffith's estimate of the loss by the Blight--Extent of Irish Pauperism--Lord George Bentinck points out the mistakes of the Government--The people should have been supplied with food in remote districts--He did not agree with the political economy of non-interference--Mr. D'Israeli's manipulation of Lord George's speech--Letter of Rev. Mr. Townsend of Skibbereen--Fourteen funerals waiting w hilst a fifteenth corpse was being interred--Quantity of co rn in London, Liverpool and Glasgow--Lord John Russell's speech--He regarded the Famine as a "national calamity"--Absurd reason for not having summoned Parliament in Autumn--Sir Robert Peel's vi ew--The Prime Minister on the state of Ireland--His views-- His plans--Defends the action of the Government--Defends unproductive work--Reason for issuing the "Labouchere Letter"--Quotes Smith O'Brien approvingly--Mr. O'Brien's letters to the Landlords of Ireland (Note)--Confounding the questions of temporary relief and p ermanent improvement--Fallacy--Demoralization of labour--The Premier's "group of measures"--Soup kitchens--Taskwork--Break down of the Public Works--Food for nothing--Mode of payment of loans--£50,000 for seed--Impossibility of meeting the Famine compl etely--The permanent measures for Ireland--Drainage Act--Recla mation of waste lands--Sir Robert Kane's "Industrial Resources" of Ireland--
Emigration again--Ireland not over-peopled--Description of England and Scotland in former times by Lord John Russell-- His fine exposition of "the Irish question"--Mr. P. Scrope's Resolution--A count out--Bernal Osborne--Smith O'Brien--The good absentee landlords--The bad resident landlords--Sir C. Napie r's view--Mr. Labouchere's kind words--Confounds two important questions--Mr. Gregory's quarter-acre clause--Met with some opposi tion--Irish liberals vote for it--The opponents of the quarter-acre clause--Lord George Bentinck's attack on the Government (Note),
CHAPTER XI.
Lord George Bentinck's Railway Scheme; he thought the finishing of the railways would be useful; he was a practical man, and wished to use the labour of the people on useful and profi table work--The state of England in 1841-2--The remedy that relieved England ought to have the same effect in Ireland--Under certain a rrangements, there could have been no Irish Famine--Tons of Blue books--No new Acts necessary for Railways--1,500 miles of Rai lway were passed--Only 123 miles made--Lord George Bentinck's speech--Waste of power--Traffic--Great Southern and Western Railway--Principles of the Railway Bill--Shareholders--What employment would the Railway Bill give?--Mode of raising the m oney--£20,000,000 paid to slave-owners--Why not do the same thing for Ireland?--Foreign Securities in which English money has been expended--Assurances of support to Lord George--The Irish Members in a dilemma--The Irish Party continue to meet--Meeting at the Premier's in Chesham Place--Smith O'Brien waits on Lord George--The Government stake their existence on postponing the second reading of Lord Bentinck's Bill--Why? No goo d reason--Desertion of the Irish Members--Sir John Gray on the question--The Prime Minister's speech--The Chancellor of the Exchequer's speech a mockery--Loans to Ireland (falsely) asserted not to have been repaid--Mr. Hudson's speech--The Chancellor going o n no authority--Mr. Hudson's Railway Statistics--The Chancellor of the Exchequer hard on Irish Landlords--His way of givin g relief--Sir Robert Peel on the Railway Bill--The Railway Bill a doomed measure--Peel's eulogium on industry in general, an d on Mr. Bianconi in particular--Lord G. Bentinck's reply--H is arguments skipped by his opponents--Money spent on making Railways--The Irish vote on the Bill--Names,
CHAPTER XII.
State of the Country during the Winter of 1847--State of Clare--Capt. Wynne's Letter--Patience of the suffering people--E nnis without food--The North--Belfast--great distress in it--Letter to theNorthern Whig--Cork--rush of country people to it--Soup--Society of Friends--The sliding coffin--Deaths in the streets--One hundred bodies buried together!--More than one death every hour in the Wo rkhouse--Limerick--Experience of a Priest of St. John's--Dublin--Dysentery