The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI
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The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI

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Project Gutenberg's The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI Author: Various Editor: Ida Husted Harper Release Date: September 21, 2009 [EBook #30051] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE, V6 *** Produced by Richard J. Shiffer and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net Transcriber's Note Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible, including obsolete and variant spellings and other inconsistencies. Text that has been changed to correct an obvious error is noted at the end of this ebook. Also, many occurrences of mismatched single and double quotes remain as they were in the original. This book contains links to individual volumes of "History of Woman Suffrage" contained in the Project Gutenberg collection. Although we verify the correctness of these links at the time of posting, these links may not work, for various reasons, for various people, at various times.

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Project Gutenberg's The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI, by Various
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI
Author: Various
Editor: Ida Husted Harper
Release Date: September 21, 2009 [EBook #30051]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE, V6 ***
Produced by Richard J. Shiffer and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
Transcriber's Note
Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible,
including obsolete and variant spellings and other inconsistencies. Text that
has been changed to correct an obvious error is noted at the end of this
ebook.
Also, many occurrences of mismatched single and double quotes remain as
they were in the original.
This book contains links to individual volumes of "History of Woman Suffrage"
contained in the Project Gutenberg collection. Although we verify the
correctness of these links at the time of posting, these links may not work, for
various reasons, for various people, at various times.
T H E H I S T O R Y
O FW OMAN S UFFRAGE
EDITED BY
IDA HUSTED HARPER
ILLUSTRATED WITH COPPERPLATE AND PHOTOGRAVURE
ENGRAVINGS
IN SIX VOLUMES
VOLUME VI
1900—1920
IN A TRUE DEMOCRACY EVERY CITIZEN HAS A VOTE
NATIONAL AMERICAN WOMAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION
COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY
NATIONAL AMERICAN WOMAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATIONMRS. CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT.
President of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance from its
founding in 1904 and of the National American Woman Suffrage
Association 1900-1904 and from 1915.
Standing in an automobile on the way from the railroad station in
New York after the campaign for ratification of the Federal
Suffrage Amendment was completed by Tennessee. (See page
652.)
[Pg iii]INTRODUCTION
WOMAN SUFFRAGE IN THE STATES OF THE UNION
In the preceding volume a full account is given of the forty years' continuous
effort to secure an amendment to the Federal Constitution which would confer
full suffrage on all the women of the United States possessing the qualifications
required of men. Antedating the beginning of this effort by thirty years was the
attempt to enfranchise women through the amendment of State constitutions.
After 1869 the two movements were contemporaneous, each dependent on the
other, the latter a long process but essential in some measure to the success of
the former. There is no way by which the progress of the movement for woman
suffrage can be so clearly seen as by a comparison of the State chapters in thisvolume with the State chapters in Volume IV, which closed with 1900. The
former show the remarkable development of the organized work for woman
suffrage, especially in the last decade, which brought the complete victory.
In Volume IV it was possible to give a résumé of the Laws specifically relating
to women and one was sent with each chapter for this volume. The space
occupied by the account of the work for the suffrage, however, made it
necessary to omit them. It required thousands of words to record the legislation
of the last twenty years relating especially to women in some of the States and
the large part of it to women in the industries, which they had scarcely entered
in 1900. The same is true of child labor. Every State shows a desire for
protective legislation. Many States provide for mothers' pensions, a modern
tendency. About half of the States now have equal guardianship laws. There is
a gradual increase in those enlarging the property and business rights of
[Pg iv]married women. The "age of consent" and the age for marriage have been
raised in most States where they were too low. In every State for a number of
years the large organizations of women have made a determined effort to
obtain better laws for women and children and Legislatures have yielded to
pressure. In every State as soon as women were enfranchised there was
improvement in laws relating to their welfare and that of children.
The Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment went into effect in August, 1920, and
the following winter there was a greater amount of advanced legislation in the
various States than had taken place in the preceding ten years collectively, and
the résumé of existing laws that had been prepared for this volume was soon at
least partially obsolete in many of them. A brief statement of Office Holding was
incorporated but its only value was in showing that in all States this was almost
exclusively limited to "electors." When the Federal Amendment was proclaimed
it carried with it eligibility to the offices. In some States it included Jury service
but in others it was held that for this special legislation was necessary. In all
States the professions and other occupations are open to women the same as
to men. In the way of Education every State University admits women, and the
vast majority of institutions of learning, except some of a religious character, are
co-educational. A few of the large eastern universities still bar their doors but
women have all needful opportunities for the higher education. Some
professional schools—law, medicine and especially theology—are still closed
to women but enough are open to them to satisfy the demand, and the same is
true of the technical schools. To meet the lack of space every chapter had to be
drastically cut after it was in type.
Women now have in a general sense equality of rights, although in every State
they have learned or will learn that this is not literally true and that further effort
will be required, but now, as never before, they are equipped for accomplishing
it. It will be a long time before they have equality of opportunity in the business
and political world but for the majority this will not be needed. Women will find,
however, that in the home, in club life and in all lines of religious, philanthropic,
educational and civic work the possession of a vote has increased their
influence and power beyond measure.[Pg v]TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
INTRODUCTION i
Position of women in regard to laws, office holding, education, etc.
CHAPTER I.
ALABAMA 1
Early work — Progress of organization — Conventions held, reports and
speeches made, activities of the association — Officers and workers —
Legislative action — Campaigns — Help of the National Association —
Action on ratification of the Federal Suffrage Amendment — Interest taken
by President Wilson, National Committees and party leaders —
Celebrations.
[This form is followed in all the State chapters, with names of officers,
workers, friends and enemies and many incidents; also results where
woman suffrage exists. The chapters are alphabetically arranged, I to
XLIX.]
CHAPTER L.
WOMAN SUFFRAGE IN THE TERRITORIES AND THE PHILIPPINES 713
ALASKA 713
Legislature gives suffrage to women — Privileges to Indian women —
Other laws — Women in prohibition campaign — Women's war work.
HAWAII 715
Congress refuses to let its Legislature control the suffrage — National
Suffrage Association protests — Its president, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt,
at Honolulu — Mrs. Pitman, of Brookline, Mass., holds meetings there —
Legislature sends resolution to Congress — Senator John F. Shafroth gets
Bill through Congress — Efforts of Hawaiian women with their Legislature.
THE PHILIPPINES 719
The National Suffrage Association demands franchise for their women —
Governor General Taft and Archbishop Nozaleda support the demand —
The U. S. Congress ignores it — Position of Filipino women —
Commissioner's wife describes their efforts for the suffrage.
[Pg vi]PORTO RICO 722
Status of suffrage for men — They demand their own Legislature —
National Suffrage Association asks that women may share in the suffrage
— Senator Shafroth shows that it can not be put into the Bill — Efforts of
Porto Rican women with its Legislature.
CHAPTER LI.
GREAT BRITAIN 726Situation as to woman suffrage at commencement of the present century
— Status of the Bill in Parliament in the first decade — Premier
CampbellBannerman advises "pestering" — Strong hostility of Premier Asquith —
Beginning of "militancy" — Its effect on the suffrage movement — Mrs.
Fawcett's opinion — Constitutional societies repudiate it — Labor party
supports woman suffrage — Treachery in Parliament — The Conciliation
Bill — Women left out of the Franchise Reform Bill — Deputation to
Premier Asquith — Lloyd George's attitude — Speaker Lowther kills Bill —
Suffragists go into politics — Great suffrage "pilgrimage" — Outbreak of
war — Important war work of the suffrage societies — Coalition
Government — Conference Committee on Electoral Reform Bill — Premier
Asquith supports Woman Suffrage — Lloyd George becomes Premier —
Suffrage clause in Bill gets immense majority in House of Commons — Big
fight in House of Lords but goes through — Royal assent given — Two
women elected to House of Commons — Oxford University opened to
women.
CHAPTER LII.
WOMAN SUFFRAGE IN BRITISH COLONIES 752
NEW ZEALAND, AUSTRALIA 752
CANADA 753
First Woman Suffrage Society in Ontario — The gaining of Woman
Suffrage in Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. Efforts
of the Women to secure action from the Legislature of each Province —
Victory in Ontario after long struggle — War time Woman Suffrage Act of
the Dominion Parliament — Granting of complete suffrage in 1918 — The
Legislatures of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia give Provincial suffrage —
Quebec refuses — Women of Newfoundland still disfranchised.
SOUTH AFRICA 767
The National Parliament persistently declines to enfranchise women —
Their strong efforts for the vote — Granted in several of the States — Mrs.
Carrie Chapman Catt, president of the International Woman Suffrage
Alliance, spends several months in South Africa conferring with the women.
INDIA 769
[Pg vii]
CHAPTER LIII.
WOMAN SUFFRAGE IN MANY COUNTRIES 771
FINLAND 771
NORWAY 774
DENMARK 776
ICELAND 779
SWEDEN 780
THE NETHERLANDS 783
BELGIUM 786
LUXEMBURG 788
RUSSIA 788
GERMANY 789
AUSTRIA 792HUNGARY 793
BOHEMIA 794
SWITZERLAND 795
ITALY 797
FRANCE 799
GREECE, SPAIN, PORTUGAL, PALESTINE, CHINA, JAPAN, SOUTH AND CENTRAL
AMERICA, MEXICO 802-804
CHAPTER LIV.
THE INTERNATIONAL WOMAN SUFFRAGE ALLIANCE 805
Desire of Early Leaders — International Council of Women — Miss
Anthony and Mrs. Catt call Conference in Washington on International
Suffrage Alliance — Ten Countries represented — Proceedings of
Conference — Plan of Temporary Organization — Declaration of Principles
— Valuable Reports on the Status of Women.
PERMANENT ORGANIZATION IN BERLIN IN 1904 809
CONFERENCE AND CONGRESS IN COPENHAGEN IN 1906 812
Delegates present, addresses, Memorials for Miss Anthony, reports, social
entertainments, Badge adopted.
CONGRESS IN AMSTERDAM IN 1908 817
Welcome of Dr. Aletta Jacobs, president of the National Suffrage
Association — Mrs. Catt's president's address — "Militants" present —
Entertainments — Victories in Finland and Norway — Jus Suffragii
established — A day in Rotterdam.
THE FIRST QUINQUENNIAL IN LONDON 828
Mrs. Catt's address — Mrs. Fawcett, president of the British Suffrage
Association, speaks, refers to "militants" — Mass meetings in Albert Hall —
In touch with Queens — Flag and Hymn selected — Resolutions adopted
— Officers elected — Dr. Shaw in the pulpits.
[Pg viii]CONGRESS IN STOCKHOLM 838
Honors to Mrs. Catt — Many delegates and eminent guests — Dr. Shaw
preaches in State church — Selma Lagerlöf speaks — Growth of Alliance
— Non-partisanship declared — Men's International League formed —
Beautiful outdoor entertainments — Tributes to Sweden.
CONGRESS IN BUDAPEST 847
Great number of delegates — Official welcome in Academy of Music —
Mrs. Catt's president's address — Dr. Jacobs presents Banner from
women of China — Royal Opera House opened for the Congress — Many
excursions — "Militant" methods discussed — Resolution on
commercialized vice — Activity of Men's League — Rosika Schwimmer,
national president, speaks — Officers elected.
CONFERENCE IN GENEVA 860
First meeting of Alliance after the World War — Miss Royden preaches in
National church — Mrs. Catt uses the War as text for great speech — It
brought Woman Suffrage to many countries — Women present from
thirtysix, including five members of Parliament — Delegates entertained by theMunicipality — Treasurer's report tells of help of United States — Congress
votes to continue the Alliance.
APPENDIX 872
Anti-suffrage Manifesto of Nebraska men.
SUFFRAGE MAPS 626-629
ANTHONY MEMORIAL BUILDING Opp. page 442
[Pg 1]CHAPTER I.
[1]ALABAMA
In 1902 Miss Frances Griffin of Verbena sent to the national suffrage
convention the following report as president of the State suffrage association:
"Two clubs in Alabama, in Huntsville and Decatur, are auxiliary to the National
American Woman Suffrage Association. The State president did some
aggressive work within the year, speaking in many different towns before
women's clubs and at parlor meetings. She devoted much time to work of this
character in Montgomery, hoping to bring to bear sufficient influence upon
members of the Constitutional Convention to secure some concessions for
women citizens. The results were bitterly disappointing, for it not only refused to
grant suffrage to tax-paying women but it gave to the husbands of tax-payers
the right to vote upon their wives' property! Women in the larger towns are
taking an interest in municipal and educational affairs. Some have been placed
on advisory boards in State institutions, such as the Girls' Industrial School, the
Boys' Reform School and others. All this means a gradual advance for the
suffrage sentiment, a general modifying of the anti-sentiment."
There were also short reports for 1903 and 1904, which, while showing no
practical, tangible results of the efforts of that earnest pioneer worker, are
interesting as evidences of the backward, unprogressive spirit against which
the women of Alabama have had to contend. These reports mark the end of the
first period of suffrage activity in the State, which had been maintained by a few
devoted women. The new era was ushered in by the organization in Selma in
[Pg 2]1910 of an Equal Suffrage Association which was the beginning of an
aggressive, tireless fight. Miss Mary Partridge, after seeing the defeat of a
constitutional amendment for prohibition in Alabama despite the earnest but
ineffectual efforts of the women who besieged the polls begging the men to
vote for it, decided that the time was ripe for a woman suffrage organization and
wrote for advice to Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, president of the National American
Woman Suffrage Association, who answered in part: "I cannot express to you
how happy I am that you are willing to begin the work in your State where very
little has been done for suffrage because of the great conservatism among the
women of the South. I am very glad if they are now beginning to realize their
absolutely helpless and unprotected position. We have the temperance
agitation to thank for arousing a great many women over all the country...."Shortly after the receipt of this letter Miss Partridge sent out a "call" in the
Selma papers and on March 29, 1910, Mrs. Frederick Watson, Mrs. F. T.
Raiford, Mrs. F. G. DuBose, Mrs. F. M. Hatch and Miss Partridge met at the
Carnegie Library and organized the association. This action was reported to Dr.
Shaw and she extended the greetings of the National Association with "thanks
and appreciation."
The Birmingham Equal Suffrage Association was the outgrowth of a small
group of women who had been holding study meetings in the home of Mrs. W.
L. Murdoch. The enthusiasm and earnest conviction resulting from them found
expression in a "call" for a woman suffrage organization and on Oct. 22, 1911,
the association was formed at a meeting held in the Chamber of Commerce,
where the following officers were elected: President, Mrs. Pattie Ruffner
Jacobs; first vice-president, Miss Ethel Armes; second, Mrs. W. L. Murdoch;
third, Mrs. W. N. Wood; corresponding secretary, Miss Helen J. Benners;
recording secretary, Mrs. J. E. Frazier; treasurer, Mrs. A. J. Bowron.
Special mention is made of these two societies because they constituted the
nucleus on which the State organization was formed. An urgent "call" was sent
out by the officers of the Birmingham society to "all men and women who wish
[Pg 3]to further the cause of woman suffrage to unite in a State organization at a
meeting in Birmingham Oct. 9, 1912." Selma sent six delegates who met with
the Birmingham suffragists at the Parish House of the Church of the Advent,
where the Alabama Equal Suffrage Association was organized and a
constitution and by-laws adopted. Mrs. Jacobs was elected president; Miss
Partridge, first vice-president; Mrs. Raiford, second; Mrs. Murdoch,
corresponding secretary; Mrs. Julian Parke, recording secretary; Mrs. C. M.
[2]Spencer, treasurer; Miss Partridge, State organizer.
The following delegates were appointed to attend the national convention in
Philadelphia in November; Mrs. Jacobs, Miss Amelia Worthington, Mrs. O. R.
Hundley, Mrs. DuBose, Miss Partridge, Mrs. Chappel Cory. The new State
organization affiliated at once with the National Association.
The first annual convention was held in Selma Jan. 29, 1913, with twenty-five
representatives from Selma, Birmingham, Huntsville and Montgomery. Mrs.
Jacobs was re-elected president and a splendid program of constructive work
was outlined for the ensuing year. The association was represented at the
meeting of the International Suffrage Alliance held in Budapest in June of this
year by Mrs. T. G. Bush of Birmingham.
The second State convention, held in Huntsville Feb. 5, 1914, was made
notable by the inspiring presence of three of Alabama's pioneer suffragists
—Mrs. Annie Buel Drake Robertson, Mrs. Humes, and Mrs. Virginia Clay
Clopton. The following local societies were represented by their presidents,
named in the order in which they were organized: Selma, Mrs. Parke;
Birmingham, Mrs. Hundley; Montgomery, Mrs. Sallie B. Powell; Huntsville, Mrs.
Clopton; Cullman, Mrs. Ignatius Pollak; Greensboro, Miss S. Anne Hobson;
Tuscaloosa, Mrs. Losey; Vinemont, Miss Mary Munson; Pell City, Miss Pearl
Still; Coal City, Mrs. J. W. Moore; Mobile, Miss Eugenie Marks. Mrs. Jacobs
was re-elected despite her wish to retire from office and her report of the pastyear told of a great amount of work done by all the members of the board.
[Pg 4]In January, 1915, a resolution to submit a woman suffrage amendment to the
State constitution to the voters was for the first time introduced in the
Legislature. It was referred to the Committee on Privileges and Elections in the
House and the Legislature afterwards adjourned until July. In the meantime the
women worked to secure pledges from the members of the committee to report
the bill favorably and 14 of the 16 gave their promise to do so. Instead of this it
was "postponed indefinitely." The women did not rest until they persuaded the
House to compel a report and then a hearing was granted to them. Among
those who worked in the Legislature were the legislative chairman, Mrs. O. R.
Hundley; Mrs. Jacobs, the State president; Mrs. Chappel Cory, president United
Daughters of the Confederacy; Miss Mollie Dowd, representing the wage
earners, and Miss Lavinia Engle of Maryland, field organizer for the National
Association. The bill came to a vote late in the session, when Representative
Joe Green, who had asked for the privilege of introducing it, spoke and voted
against it. The vote stood 52 ayes, 43 noes, a three-fifths majority being
necessary to submit an amendment. As the Legislature meets only once in four
years this was the only action ever taken on a State amendment.
At the State convention, held in Tuscaloosa in February of this year, reports
were made from 19 auxiliary branches and the organization of 23 non-auxiliary
branches was reported. The address of Dr. Shaw, the national president, gave
a great impetus to suffrage work in the State. Mrs. Jacobs and the other officers
were re-elected, except that Mrs. Frederick Koenig was made auditor.
On Feb. 9, 1916, the State convention was held in Gadsden and the evidences
of the growth of the suffrage movement were most heartening, 26 local
associations sending reports. Mrs. Parke was chosen for president, Mrs.
Jacobs having been elected auditor of the National Association.
The State convention was held in Birmingham Feb. 12-13, 1917, and the
officers re-elected except that Miss Worthington was made recording secretary.
It was followed by a "suffrage" school conducted by representatives of the
National Association, who generously gave the valuable help that a course of
[Pg 5]study under such able instructors afforded. Over 200 pupils attended. It was
reported that there were now 81 suffrage clubs in the State, which were being
merged into political organizations with the county as a unit, and there were
chairmen in 55 of the 67 counties. There were also chairmen in nine of the ten
congressional districts. A paid organizer had been at work. State headquarters
were maintained on the principal street in Selma and a bi-weekly press bulletin
issued which was used by thirty-four newspapers, while eight published weekly
suffrage columns. The Birmingham News got out a suffrage edition. Four
travelling suffrage libraries were kept in circulation. Automobile parades had
been given, a mass meeting held in Birmingham and street meetings in every
part of the State.
The State convention was held in Selma May 7-8, 1918. The reports made by
local and State officers showed that the suffragists had lent themselves and all
their machinery of organization to every form of war work. Mrs. Jacobs had
been appointed by Mr. McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury, State chairman of
the Woman's Liberty Loan Committee. Suffrage work was in no wise