The Martyrs of Science, or, The lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler
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The Martyrs of Science, or, The lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Martyrs of Science, or, The lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler, by David Brewster This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: The Martyrs of Science, or, The lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler Author: David Brewster Release Date: July 7, 2008 [EBook #25992] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MARTYRS OF SCIENCE *** Produced by Bryan Ness, LN Yaddanapudi and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This book was produced from scanned images of public domain material from the Google Print project.) THE MARTYRS OF SCIENCE, OR THE LIVES OF GALILEO, TYCHO BRAHE, AND KEPLER. BY SIR DAVID BREWSTER, K.H. D.C.L., PRINCIPAL OF THE UNITED COLLEGE OF ST SALVATOR AND ST LEONARD, ST ANDREWS; FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE; AND MEMBER OF THE ACADEMIES OF ST PETERSBURG, STOCKHOLM, BERLIN, COPENHAGEN, GOTTINGEN, PHILADELPHIA, &c. &c. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 1841. G. S. TULLIS, PRINTER, CUPAR. [v] TO THE RIGHT HON. FRANCIS LORD GRAY, F.R.S., F.R.S.E.

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Published 08 December 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Martyrs of Science, or, The lives ofGalileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler, by David BrewsterThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: The Martyrs of Science, or, The lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and KeplerAuthor: David BrewsterRelease Date: July 7, 2008 [EBook #25992]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MARTYRS OF SCIENCE ***
Produced by Bryan Ness, LN Yaddanapudi and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (Thisbook was produced from scanned images of public domainmaterial from the Google Print project.)
THEMARTYRS OF SCIENCE,ORTHE LIVESOFGALILEO, TYCHO BRAHE, AND KEPLER.
BY
SIR DAVID BREWSTER, K.H. D.C.L.,
PRINCIPAL OF THE UNITED COLLEGE OF ST SALVATOR AND ST LEONARD,
ST ANDREWS; FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; VICE-PRESIDENT
OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH; CORRESPONDING MEMBER
OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE; AND MEMBER OF THEACADEMIES OF ST PETERSBURG, STOCKHOLM,BERLIN, COPENHAGEN, GOTTINGEN,PHILADELPHIA, &c. &c.
LONDON:JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.1841.G. S. TULLIS, PRINTER, CUPAR.
TO THERIGHT HON. FRANCIS LORD GRAY,F.R.S., F.R.S.E.My Lord,In submitting this volume to the public under your Lordship’sauspices, I avail myself of the opportunity thus afforded me ofexpressing the deep sense which I entertain of the friendship andkindness with which your Lordship has so long honoured me.Although in these days, when Science constitutes the power andwealth of nations, and encircles the domestic hearth with its mostsubstantial comforts, there is no risk of its votaries being eitherpersecuted or neglected, yet the countenance of those to whomProvidence has given rank and station will ever be one of the mostpowerful incitements to scientific enterprise, as well as one of its mostlegitimate rewards. Next to the satisfaction of cultivating Science, andthus laying up the only earthly treasure which we can carry along withus into a better state, is that of having encouraged and assistedothers in the same beneficent labours. That your Lordship may longcontinue to enjoy these sources of happiness is the earnest prayer of,My Lord,Your Lordship’sMost faithful and obedient servant,ST LEONARDS, ST ANDREWS,October 12, 1840.
CONTENTS.LIFE OF GALILEO.
DAVID BREWSTER.
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CHAPTER I.PECULIAR INTEREST ATTACHED TO HIS LIFE—HIS BIRTH—HIS EARLY STUDIES—HISPASSION FOR MATHEMATICS—HIS WORK ON THE HYDROSTATIC BALANCE—APPOINTEDLECTURER ON MATHEMATICS AT PISA—HIS ANTIPATHY TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF ARISTOTLE—HIS CONTENTIONS WITH THE ARISTOTELIANS—CHOSEN PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICSIN PADUA—ADOPTS THE COPERNICAN SYSTEM,BUT STILL TEACHES THE PTOLEMAICDOCTRINE—HIS ALARMING ILLNESS—HE OBSERVES THE NEW STAR IN 1604—HISMagnetical experiments,
CHAPTER II.COSMO, GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY,INVITES GALILEO TO PISA—GALILEO VISITSVENICE IN 1609,WHERE HE FIRST HEARS OF THE TELESCOPE—HE INVENTS ANDCONSTRUCTS ONE,WHICH EXCITES A GREAT SENSATION—DISCOVERS MOUNTAINS IN THEMOON,AND FORTY STARS IN THE PLEIADES—DISCOVERS JUPITERS SATELLITES IN 1610—EFFECT OF THIS DISCOVERY ON KEPLER—MANNER IN WHICH THESE DISCOVERIESWERE RECEIVED—GALILEO APPOINTED MATHEMATICIAN TO COSMO—MAYER CLAIMSTHE DISCOVERY OF THE SATELLITES OF JUPITER—HARRIOT OBSERVES THEM IN ENGLANDin October 1610,
CHAPTER III.GALILEO ANNOUNCES HIS DISCOVERIES IN ENIGMAS—DISCOVERS THE CRESCENT OFVENUSTHE RING OF SATURNTHE SPOTS ON THE SUN—SIMILAR OBSERVATIONSMADE IN ENGLAND BY HARRIOT—CLAIMS OF FABRICIUS AND SCHEINER TO THEDISCOVERY OF THE SOLAR SPOTS—GALILEOS LETTERS TO VELSER ON THE CLAIMS OFSCHEINER—HIS RESIDENCE AT THE VILLA OF SALVIATI—COMPOSES HIS WORK ONFloating Bodies, which involves him in new controversies,
CHAPTER IV.GALILEO TREATS HIS OPPONENTS WITH SEVERITY AND SARCASM—HE IS AIDED BY THESCEPTICS OF THE DAY—THE CHURCH PARTY THE MOST POWERFUL—GALILEOCOMMENCES THE ATTACK,AND IS ANSWERED BY CACCINI,A DOMINICAN—GALILEOSLETTER TO THE GRAND DUCHESS OF TUSCANY,IN SUPPORT OF THE MOTION OF THE EARTHAND THE STABILITY OF THE SUN—GALILEO VISITS ROME—IS SUMMONED BEFORE THEINQUISITION—AND RENOUNCES HIS OPINIONS AS HERETICAL—THE INQUISITIONDENOUNCES THE COPERNICAN SYSTEM—GALILEO HAS AN AUDIENCE OF THE POPE,BUT STILL MAINTAINS HIS OPINIONS IN PRIVATE SOCIETY—PROPOSES TO FIND OUT THELONGITUDE AT SEA BY MEANS OF JUPITERS SATELLITES—HIS NEGOTIATION ON THISSUBJECT WITH THE COURT OF SPAIN—ITS FAILURE—HE IS UNABLE TO OBSERVE THETHREE COMETS OF 1618,BUT IS INVOLVED IN THE CONTROVERSY TO WHICH THEY GAVErise,
CHAPTER V.URBAN VIII., GALILEOS FRIEND,RAISED TO THE PONTIFICATE—GALILEO GOES TO ROMETO OFFER HIS CONGRATULATIONS—THE POPE LOADS GALILEO WITH PRESENTS,ANDPROMISES A PENSION TO HIS SON—GALILEO IN PECUNIARY DIFFICULTIES,OWING TO THEDEATH OF HIS PATRON, COSMO—GALILEO AGAIN RASHLY ATTACKS THE CHURCH,NOTWITHSTANDING THE POPES KINDNESS—HE COMPOSES HIS SYSTEM OF THEWORLD,TO DEMONSTRATE THE COPERNICAN SYSTEM—ARTFULLY OBTAINS A LICENSE TOPRINT IT—NATURE OF THE WORK—ITS INFLUENCE ON THE PUBLIC MIND—THE POPERESOLVES ON SUPPRESSING IT—GALILEO SUMMONED BEFORE THE INQUISITION—HISTRIAL—HIS DEFENCE—HIS FORMAL ABJURATION OF HIS OPINIONS—OBSERVATIONS ONHIS CONDUCT—THE POPE SHEWS GREAT INDULGENCE TO GALILEO,WHO IS ALLOWED TOreturn to his own house at Arcetri as the place of his confinement,
CHAPTER VI.GALILEO LOSES HIS FAVOURITE DAUGHTER—HE FALLS INTO A STATE OF MELANCHOLY ANDILL HEALTH—IS ALLOWED TO GO TO FLORENCE FOR ITS RECOVERY IN 1638—BUT ISPREVENTED FROM LEAVING HIS HOUSE OR RECEIVING HIS FRIENDS—HIS friendCASTELLI PERMITTED TO VISIT HIM IN THE PRESENCE OF AN OFFICER OF THE INQUISITIONHE COMPOSES HIS CELEBRATED DIALOGUES ON LOCAL MOTION—DISCOVERS THEMOONS LIBRATION—LOSES THE SIGHT OF ONE EYE—THE OTHER EYE ATTACKED BYTHE SAME DISEASE—IS STRUCK BLIND—NEGOCIATES WITH THE DUTCH GOVERNMENTRESPECTING HIS METHOD OF FINDING THE LONGITUDE—HE IS ALLOWED FREEINTERCOURSE WITH HIS FRIENDS—HIS ILLNESS AND DEATH IN 1642—HIS EPITAPH
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enci Snd al,raMo,retcarahC cifitCOERSEURIT WHIH TNIS ANLNESATH D DEEIDN SRF SLISIHs HiHAP, alciSo2461 NITIPE SIH
CHAPTER I.KEPLERS BIRTH IN 1571—HIS FAMILY—AND EARLY EDUCATION—THE DISTRESSESAND POVERTY OF HIS FAMILY—HE ENTERS THE MONASTIC SCHOOL OF MAULBRONNAND IS ADMITTED INTO THE UNIVERSITY OF TUBINGEN,WHERE HE DISTINGUISHESHIMSELF,AND TAKES HIS DEGREE—HE IS APPOINTED PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY ANDGREEK IN 1594—HIS FIRST SPECULATIONS ON THE ORBITS OF THE PLANETS—ACCOUNTOF THEIR PROGRESS AND FAILURE—HIS “COSMOGRAPHICAL MYSTERYPUBLISHED—HEMARRIES A WIDOW IN 1597—RELIGIOUS TROUBLES AT GRATZ—HE RETIRES FROMTHENCE TO HUNGARY—VISITS TYCHO AT PRAGUE IN 1600—RETURNS TO GRATZ,WHICH
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CHAPTER II.FREDERICK II.PATRONIZES TYCHO—AND RESOLVES TO ESTABLISH HIM IN DENMARKGRANTS HIM THE ISLAND OF HUEN FOR LIFE—AND BUILDS THE SPLENDID OBSERVATORYOF URANIBURG—DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND,AND OF THE OBSERVATORY—ACCOUNT OFITS ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS—TYCHO BEGINS HIS OBSERVATIONS—HIS PUPILSTYCHO IS MADE CANON OF ROTHSCHILD,AND RECEIVES A LARGE PENSION—HISHOSPITALITY TO HIS VISITORS—INGRATITUDE OF WITTICHIUS—TYCHO SENDS ANASSISTANT TO TAKE THE LATITUDE OF FRAUENBURG AND KONIGSBERG—IS VISITED BYUlric, Duke of Mecklenburg—Change in Tycho’s fortunes,
CHAPTER III.TYCHOS LABOURS DO HONOUR TO HIS COUNTRY—DEATH OF FREDERICK II.—JAMES VI.OF SCOTLAND VISITS TYCHO AT URANIBURG—CHRISTIAN IV.VISITS TYCHO—THE DUKEOF BRUNSWICKS VISIT TO TYCHO—THE DANISH NOBILITY,JEALOUS OF HIS FAME,CONSPIRE AGAINST HIM—HE IS COMPELLED TO QUIT URANIBURG—AND TO ABANDONHIS STUDIES—CRUELTY OF THE MINISTER WALCHENDORP—TYCHO QUITS DENMARKWITH HIS FAMILY AND INSTRUMENTS—IS HOSPITABLY RECEIVED BY COUNT RANTZAUWHO INTRODUCES HIM TO THE EMPEROR RUDOLPH—THE EMPEROR INVITES HIM TOPRAGUE—HE GIVES HIM A PENSION OF 3000 CROWNS—AND THE CASTLE OFBENACH AS A RESIDENCE AND AN OBSERVATORY—KEPLER VISITS TYCHO—WHOobtains for him the Appointment of Mathematician to Rudolph,
CHAPTER IV.TYCHO RESUMES HIS ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS—IS ATTACKED WITH A PAINFULDisease—His Sufferings and Death in 1601—His Funeral—His Temper—HisTURN FOR SATIRE AND RAILLERY—HIS PIETY—ACCOUNT OF HIS ASTRONOMICALDISCOVERIES—HIS LOVE OF ASTROLOGY AND ALCHYMY—OBSERVATIONS ON THECHARACTER OF THE ALCHYMISTS—TYCHOS ELIXIR—HIS FONDNESS FOR THEMARVELLOUS—HIS AUTOMATA AND INVISIBLE BELLS—ACCOUNT OF THE IDIOT,CALLEDLEP,WHOM HE KEPT AS A PROPHET—HISTORY OF TYCHOS INSTRUMENTS—HIS GREATBrass Globe preserved at Copenhagen—Present state of the Island of Huen,
LIFE OF JOHN KEPLER.
LIFE OF TYCHO BRAHE.
CHAPTER I.TYCHOS BIRTH, FAMILY,AND EDUCATION—AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN TURNS HISATTENTION TO ASTRONOMY—STUDIES LAW AT LEIPSIC—BUT PURSUES ASTRONOMY BYSTEALTH—HIS UNCLES DEATH—HE RETURNS TO COPENHAGEN,AND RESUMES HISOBSERVATIONS—REVISITS GERMANY—FIGHTS A DUEL,AND LOSES HIS NOSE—VISITSAUGSBURG,AND MEETS HAINZEL—WHO ASSISTS HIM IN MAKING A LARGE QUADRANT—REVISITS DENMARK—AND IS WARMLY RECEIVED BY THE KING—HE SETTLES AT HISUNCLES CASTLE OF HERRITZVOLD—HIS OBSERVATORY AND LABORATORY—DISCOVERSTHE NEW STAR IN CASSIOPEIA—ACCOUNT OF THIS REMARKABLE BODY—TYCHOSMARRIAGE WITH A PEASANT GIRL—WHICH IRRITATES HIS FRIENDS—HIS LECTURES ONASTRONOMY—HE VISITS THE PRINCE OF HESSE—ATTENDS THE CORONATION OF THEEmperor Rudolph at Ratisbon—He returns to Denmark,
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HE AGAIN QUITS FOR PRAGUE—HE IS TAKEN ILL ON THE ROAD—IS APPOINTED TYCHOSASSISTANT IN 1601—SUCCEEDS TYCHO AS IMPERIAL MATHEMATICIAN—HIS WORKon the New Star of 1604—Singular specimen of it,
CHAPTER II.KEPLERS PECUNIARY EMBARRASSMENTS—HIS INQUIRIES RESPECTING THE LAW OFREFRACTION—HIS SUPPLEMENT TO VITELLIO—HIS RESEARCHES ON VISION—HISTREATISE ON DIOPTRICS—HIS COMMENTARIES ON MARS—HE DISCOVERS THAT THEORBIT OF MARS IS AN ELLIPSE,WITH THE SUN IN ONE FOCUS—AND EXTENDS THISDISCOVERY TO ALL THE OTHER PLANETS—HE ESTABLISHES THE TWO FIRST LAWS OFPHYSICAL ASTRONOMY—HIS FAMILY DISTRESSES—DEATH OF HIS WIFE—HE ISAPPOINTED PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS AT LINZ—HIS METHOD OF CHOOSING ASECOND WIFE—HER CHARACTER,AS GIVEN BY HIMSELF—ORIGIN OF HIS TREATISE ONGAUGING—HE GOES TO RATISBON TO GIVE HIS OPINION TO THE DIET ON THE CHANGEof Style—He refuses the Mathematical Chair at Bologna,
CHAPTER III.KEPLERS CONTINUED EMBARRASSMENTS—DEATH OF MATHIAS—LIBERALITY OFFERDINAND—KEPLERS “HARMONIES OF THE WORLD”—THE EPITOME OF THECopernican Astronomy—ItIS PROHIBITED BY THE INQUISITION—SIR HENRY WOTTON,the British Ambassador, invites Kepler to England—He declines the Invitation—NEGLECT OF GENIUS BY THE ENGLISH GOVERNMENT—TRIAL OF KEPLERS MOTHERHER FINAL ACQUITTAL—AND DEATH AT THE AGE OF SEVENTY-FIVE—THE STATES OFSTYRIA BURN PUBLICLY KEPLERS CALENDAR—HE RECEIVES HIS ARREARS OF SALARYFROM FERDINAND—THE RUDOLPHINE TABLES PUBLISHED IN 1628—HE RECEIVES AGOLD CHAIN FROM THE GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY—HE IS PATRONISED BY THE DUKEOF FRIEDLAND—HE REMOVES TO SAGAN,IN SILESIA—IS APPOINTED PROFESSOR OFMATHEMATICS AT ROSTOCH—GOES TO RATISBON TO RECEIVE HIS ARREARS—HISDEATH, FUNERAL,AND EPITAPH—MONUMENT ERECTED TO HIS MEMORY IN 1803—HIS FAMILY—HIS POSTHUMOUS VOLUME,ENTITLED “THE DREAM,OR LUNARAstronomy,
CHAPTER IV.NUMBER OF KEPLERS PUBLISHED WORKS—HIS NUMEROUS MANUSCRIPTS IN 22FOLIOVOLUMES—PURCHASED BY HEVELIUS,AND AFTERWARDS BY HANSCH—WHOPUBLISHES KEPLERS LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE AT THE EXPENSE OF CHARLES VI.—THE HISTORY OF THE REST OF HIS MANUSCRIPTS,WHICH ARE DEPOSITED IN THE LIBRARYof the Academy of Sciences at St Petersburg—General Character of Kepler—HIS CANDOUR IN ACKNOWLEDGING HIS ERRORS—HIS MORAL AND RELIGIOUSCHARACTER—HIS ASTROLOGICAL WRITINGS AND OPINIONS CONSIDERED—HISCHARACTER AS AN ASTRONOMER AND A PHILOSOPHER—THE SPLENDOUR OF HISDiscoveries—Account of his Method of Investigating Truth,
LIFEOFGALILEO.
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CHAPTER I.Peculiar interest attached to his Life—His Birth—His early studies—His passion forMathematics—His work on the Hydrostatic Balance—Appointed Lecturer onMathematics at Pisa—His antipathy to the Philosophy of Aristotle—His contentionswith the Aristotelians—Chosen professor of Mathematics in Padua—Adopts theCopernican system, but still teaches the Ptolemaic doctrine—His alarming illness—Heobserves the new Star in 1604—His magnetical experiments.
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