The
19 Pages
English

The 'Pioneer': Light Passenger Locomotive of 1851 - United States Bulletin 240, Contributions from the Museum - of History and Technology, paper 42, 1964

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Description

The Project Gutenberg EBook of The 'Pioneer': Light Passenger Locomotiveof 1851, by John H. WhiteThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: The 'Pioneer': Light Passenger Locomotive of 1851United States Bulletin 240, Contributions from the Museumof History and Technology, paper 42, 1964Author: John H. WhiteRelease Date: February 23, 2009 [EBook #28160]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LIGHT PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE ***Produced by Chris Curnow, Louise Pattison, Joseph Cooperand the Online Distributed Proofreading Team athttp://www.pgdp.netThis is Paper 42 from the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin 240, comprising Papers 34-44, which will also beavailable as a complete e-book.The front material, introduction and relevant index entries from the Bulletin are included in each single-paper e-book.Underlined Figure numbers link to high resolution copies of selected images.Corrections to typographical errors are underlined like this. Mouse over to view the original text.SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTIONUNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUMBULLETIN 240Smithsonian Press LogoSMITHSONIAN PRESSMUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGYContributionsFrom theMuseumof History andTechnologyPapers 34-44On Science and ...

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 08 December 2010
Reads 42
Language English
TehP orctjeut Gbeen ErgkooB fo  ehToiP'': Lneer PasightreL esgntovicomo5118f eooh Jby, ihW .H ne sihTetof rht eoBkoi  snyone anuse of aon tsoc ehwya eralthstmoant wid oisnirtcertsn  o Youver.tsoe whaig ,ti ypoc yam e-rr oayawt  iveret o smht frP ee us uiterndhe tiLecsn enilcdudeoject Gutenberg nilno rowww ta ehi tthwik ooeBs T ehlt:enoee' iPenbe.gutrgTirg.otimo over gecoLoaP tness :'rhgiLetin 240tes BulltideS at f8115nUmoeuus Mhe tomfr snoitubirtnoC ,per , palogychno deT ynatsro fiHat Dseearueb Fe: ,32 yraBE[ 9002196442, or: AuthH  .oJnhRelehWtiARSTOFT HI TPRS CEJOUG TBNET GREook #28160]Languga:eE gnilhs** **** APSSHG T KILBEOOTIVECOMOR LOENGEthe  of ed SUnituPlboisncitae udo twm euclincorPideeires ,seited Staf the UnnolaM suet saNitfitienci snd alyo snoitacilbup cal Mtions Natateloras hcTmehsuuelaM suue muBlltein.
Produced by Chris Curnow, Louise Pattison, Joseph Cooper and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY Contributions From the Museum of History and Technology Papers 34-44 On Science and Technology SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION · WASHINGTON, D.C. 1966
This is Paper 42 from the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin 240, comprising Papers 34-44, which will also be available as a complete e-book. The front material, introduction and relevant index entries from the Bulletin are included in each single-paper e-book. Underlined Figure numbers link to high resolution copies of selected images. Corrections to typographical errors are underlined like this. Mouse over to view the original text.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 240 Smithsonian Press Logo SMITHSONIAN PRESS
 muesuM tinU dnateta SedontiNas fot gn stideehnUtes  StaonalNati
Figure 1.—The "Pioneer." Figure 1.—The “Pioneer,” built in 1851, shown here as renovated and exhibited in the Museum of History and Technology, 1964. In 1960 the locomotive was given to the Smithsonian Institution by the Pennsylvania Railroad through John S. Fair, Jr. (Smithsonian photo 63344B.)
THE CUMBERLAND VALLEY RAILROAD SERVICE HISTORY OF THE “PIONEER” MECHANICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE “PIONEER” FOOTNOTES INDEX
John H. White
Contributions from The Museum of History and Technology: Paper 42
244 249 251
The “Pioneer”: Light Passenger Locomotive of 1851 In the Museum of History and Technology John H. White
rgpashd na domonrticles iginal aehsiro s muelbuphe tus Mer ss,ieehesnIt istory and Technt ehM suue mfoH aluris Hrytond aM ehuesufo mtaN nt mituemsTuseuo  fowkrnotsticstiecllcod ans onw gnilae eht htited to ldistribuitnoa erp builacscd ntieratuanl ot ,luc arbiseirpecito sand ns, taoinazio grficin  iedstreteins rehto dna stsilatr henlwayqciuerologysetting fodleifo stna porhfad s ct tin fhero,yihtsolygg oey, bologgy, ioloseipoC .hcae fo ted an, gylonochomueaN feht suM orst Ty.ratuHil g taeherehesa erumes, ocd in voliw ,ezis ni ovatticaliub phe tthca hfoe ta enod ed icordr repapee thffdienerubtstcejhT.srP eeecodings, begun in 8187 ,ra enietdn tor fedliub phe ,noitacrapes niformate  sho, ofp patrrerfmore ss)rtpal ravesen i yllanoisacco( aphsnogrofmoing istsc nooisncitactje Bs.edatub sno sler  detkrowe collecwhich armusei  na dnv lores niteeht ,sein .ImelullBue thsto tnne eov fhtetabn thf cole os ,rrape etalbup, 75peap largeonaw ssiusdei  n81 first of which otyrH sirulaN taublien pe be hav snoitcelloclaciofm euus Mhe tofdani goC rht eehonsfrom ntributi ehtlluBdehs ni s iedeunineter sin srto  depize,gno neid een nhtnstileultheire avatco reauq ro o902 papers relatni gott ehb tonas ed tof pheseretatn.noiniS 1 ecat Mf thm.Thuseu der snahco esraf  oontiburintConeserp ecelloc tthered shorter p,y ahevb ee nagtho coe ecllontirepaer sitalt gn mhtf oroisnbituontrd Citlens tgolonhceT dna yrtoisfH oumseMue laH reab saNitnoed Statethe UnitluB itel9591ni ,sid e ncumrian, rotceriDdetinU ,s teta SalontiNauemM suacilnoit si wohsonn he tas lpat ego  faehcp pare.Frank A. Taylorioevprenbes has i dehsilbup ylsuorm.te fparan sep bu rfoy aeT eherap34s onti Ps,sirpB se,44-moc 240. Eaculletin esp pare hfot eh
The “PIONEER”:  LIGHT PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE of 1851 In the Museum of History and Technology In the mid-nineteenth century there was a renewed interest in the light, single-axle locomotives which were proving so very successful for passenger traffic. These engines were built in limited number by nearly every well-known maker, and among the few remaining is the 6-wheel “Pioneer,” on display in the Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution. This locomotive is a true representation of a light passenger locomotive of 1851 and a historic relic of the mid-nineteenth century. The Author: John H. White is associate curator of transportation in the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum of History and Technology. The “Pioneer” is an unusual locomotive and on first inspection would seem to be imperfect for service on an American railroad of the 1850’s. This locomotive has only one pair of driving wheels and no truck, an arrangement which marks it as very different from the highly successful standard 8-wheel engine of this period. All six wheels of the Pioneer  are rigidly attached to the frame. It is only half the size of an 8-wheel engine of 1851 and about the same size of the 4—2—0 so common in this country some 20 years earlier. Its general arrangement is that of the rigid English locomotive which had, years earlier, proven unsuitable for use on U.S. railroads. These objections are more apparent than real, for the Pioneer , and other engines of the same design, proved eminently successful when used in the service for which they were built, that of light passenger traffic. The Pioneer’s  rigid wheelbase is no problem, for when it is compared to that of an 8-wheel engine it is found to be about four feet less; and its small size is no problem when we realize it was not intended for heavy service. Figure 2, a diagram, is a comparison of the Pioneer and a standard 8-wheel locomotive. Since the service life of the Pioneer  was spent on the Cumberland Valley Railroad, a brief account of that line is necessary to an understanding of the service history of this locomotive. The Cumberland Valley Railroad Exhibits of the “Pioneer” The Cumberland Valley Railroad (C.V.R.R.) was The Pioneer has been a historic relic since 1901. In the chartered on April 2, 1831, to connect the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers by a railroad fall of that year minor repairs were made to the through the Cumberland Valley in south-central locomotive so that it might be used in the Pennsylvania. The Cumberland Valley, with its rich sesquicentennial celebration at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. farmland and iron-ore deposits, was a natural north- On October 22, 1901, the engine was ready for south route long used as a portage between these two service, but as it neared Carlisle a copper flue burst. rivers. Construction began in 1836, and because of the The fire was extinguished and the Pioneer was pushed level valley some 52 miles of line was completed into town by another engine. In the twentieth century, the between Harrisburg and Chambersburg by November Pioneer  was displayed at the Louisiana Purchase 16, 1837. In 1860, by way of the Franklin Railroad, the Exposition, St. Louis, Missouri, in 1904, and at the line extended to Hagerstown, Maryland. It was not until Wheeling, West Virginia, semicentennial in 1913. In 1871 that the Cumberland Valley Railroad reached its 1927 it joined many other historic locomotives at the projected southern terminus, the Potomac River, by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad’s “Fair of the Iron Horse” extending to Powells Bend, Maryland. Winchester, which commemorated the first one hundred years of Virginia, was entered in 1890 giving the Cumberland that company. From about 1913 to 1925 the Pioneer Valley Railroad about 165 miles of line. The railroad also appeared a number of times at the Apple-blossom which had become associated with the Pennsylvania Festival at Winchester, Virginia. In 1933-1934 it was Railroad in 1859, was merged with that company in displayed at the World’s Fair in Chicago, and in 1948 1919. at the Railroad Fair in the same city. Between 1934  By 1849 the Cumberland Valley Railroad was in poorIannsdti tutMe,a rPchhi la1d9e4lp7h iiat,  Pweansn seylxvhainbiitae.d at the Franklin condition; the strap-rail track was worn out and new locomotives were needed. Captain Daniel Tyler was hired to supervise rebuilding the line with T-rail, and easy grades and curves. Tyler recommended that a young friend of his, Alba F. Smith, be put in charge of modernizing and acquiring new equipment. Smith recommended to the railroad’s Board of Managers on June 25, 1851, that “much lighter engines than those now in use may be substituted for the passenger transportation and thereby effect a great saving both in point of fuel and road repairs....” [1]  Smith may well have gone on to explain that the road was operating 3- and 4-car passenger trains with a locomotive weighing about 20 tons; the total weight was about 75 tons, equalling the uneconomical deadweight of 1200 pounds per passenger. Since speed was not an important consideration (30 mph being a good average), the use of lighter engines would improve the deadweight-to-passenger ratio and would not result in a slower schedule.
iths re with Smitno snaocmmneadarBoofd e Thga sdeernaM regat owt ehmotol colateivesuiltly burtsni dmih detcto. .. nemixa ep[orettcoi?n ]fo Captain Tyler a yb  .rMmliWhtrand aow nn  ie th. stnaw ruo ot eatqudeeaary he temtnujgdih si  nd ifh anrwict No ehtocolceps detitSminh .ad] [2 oht eorawdrdet them for.. have thr fo, e er weyaw noitudessap ser t aftesolhisrev somitolgnon trtpo] [3 tto Bhe ehtllofniwoer ghe time he made not ehr ao dybt agram core 2.Diib.aiFugehC lomuwir  tthPie eeonniraht g marpmocDiag 2.gurey.Finurt soCt ih dnisetiacprn ee breofeb sah naht seoconymi  nxEepsnreaterultimate etniaub yiw tg htspf d eed anrtce ynitcrotno p ionnera maisfa sat ton dao ni ylnos esinus Rur oof bngJ.y .  HitWh).ed 8-wheel engineo  f8115 .D(ariwit wg)inoleCthh a ,aibmuradnats ing mparPionthe s(ahee rrdwaed dlibitaui sors esntifyticapac riatioportranser tesgnPesa ohtytt ceroededthar p I .rMmliWtliu yb l of theake triaci hotm t  ooNwr fo gnitdob ruoye tht  aee mstlala l emsenbsneiglatiy reo thve t,42r581 nI:1cca rdoan  optSebeemselotuoi napssdeordance with a rwob ern dna  ea( oure at madeingnigne eht )pohs ebtho  dldou wes hosemn httaw ti improveecessaryw hcdluotnemihwspeexivnsot ne  bdmitld ang o(beitoeh nnadat  roRr oun ha b In)owas emace deifsitn of our Roadan dfaet rsat ohorh ugtra l ia casucriatsmsecnuow ll wce are aho asat en rvnni ooc sind meanamh ucveileb Irofrep e the maximum dutepfrromlahtuohgisthbi atylio  t elbj otegdu fo yew hchtw ih nniitioCondthe  in ylefas daoR ruo toe am ceyTh. esao dna dnot ehR  placed has beenignE sen fo  ehtd.pene Oe eripshuger nuriw ylralra t aththn  oint ehadsyni eE gn be will to ablej otegduroc tcer olythf r eirime eoRdaw eheri  nshall beenabled f  ontoucc aond ed lanigiro emosnes Engithe yof roemepfron taw sorefste ased b I nih netdetatiW.ich are fects wh geremidon webnidesi tnt rheulesy ot ruo.noHerP ithmy opinion of tfot eht irlawryar ctoas pur oC rieht  yticapa spe theequied rret esgn staarnivoba eht gnikam erftAet ds atseIgnnihe Eof tial e trt  oht eoRdai  ncompliance with  ehtoseRitulo noyof  BurrdoaI . idtamiemroedle ytheEred es sngina deppihom eht torav fstat rleabh was dered whic nafov ricedldiylibi oty tof aheenigH .sht fnE ey aginglcorde ac enE thtt aherdet  aldoushs negidedrawrofeb ecnooseph Winters, aceitnot irla,sJ umeCrlbed anllVame nyolpo eeht fe oft on eng thehtn S imt ahtoseg inur dspine thsaw senidegamad rid levi efot eh the timsburg athtobgne t de tahrer llcay,ertelanaiyocpm sca eawed hlaimho cey wrebmahC ot etuorene inng ehe tngerehhtiwerp tnes, ede tholwhame uotno  fhwci hiwll notprobably efo sesneopsnart hegtinrtare am s tni eondei lcdue Stn thent atems donPiai Roalr reb )31 reemun(y Lind (and Jenn)4W.ihelunbmre1 Th0..000$4d eexcitomocol owt esehe Cme tbecaves llye daVlrnamuebosspdir thI . alsnoitseuuoy rof epaior Rre qrs anoiserpsytf ibile thesquontif  oiccatnedasa  oslnected with the  efop raitsec nopxE eht osla dnas negiEne thf  oirlaeht ybt er dncurly isariecessnepn sehT.nxE eedllpo uhertcar nuit lufmetaet rleave therefore tu3$a ob nhw00i condich n thitio hciwroNac hcihw d aedusofe agameht irlao  fht eSmall Engine at A.stca nedico tnurccd reridu tngto t As ter.reaflbmao  ruatlehf d teenesprbel ileh draoB ruoy otiredtheing repaw ihhcw c so tfoam chee Ene negion seb wa eri dn art Theith.o Smngt edisie r shtr fot ilbu4 22a fo skaeps elciilroad astern Ra nna deWht eaMoce in disisThng ep ni:tras dn syayrg  tevlaylnerened esigbuiland eidobme mos ni dthn po us,eaide niseedisngdeb  ye small tank engf ,.t roC ehebmu FA.Sm. h,itsq E ,foor bac eht ne ths  aedusw nomSti.t( ilhgehdao492photian hsonht e ere).27lihWlettue qemselis tat ehestsoi nhtives wer locomotbut noe  aast il tcerid of redroe Cur thlandmberelRyV laao,diarln  atiare[cl a5]aeppgnir ni  ehtRailroad Advocat eni1 58 5rcdetiCuheermbs op tofiam hs not seht r repairtaken fode ,aw syld maga0119t ouab r,eenoiP.3 erugiF.burgbersCham at ordael yV laaldn.3noiP,reeba adhemplaig.Fe urdnob xna dalgr e, showing the saht etoN.o pmal ee rglad mplaadhe eas ght xnadnob1901out owin, shgnt  oiWA ccroidtrain ranters a ad eegamsenirew itns4].[ind ra tto hgnb amig ,adionehe Pnd tit a raer eht otni nndLinyen Jhe tofMiddletown, Pennysvlnaai .hT eeJ, ere thciacntdecco irrun gn raeut trg bionehe Pelssre ,oisus rendLiy nnpareas w ta deriubsirraHeS y
Columbia Pioneer Hudson River Railroad Cumberland Valley Railroad Lowell Machine Shop, 1852 Seth Wilmarth, 1851 Wt. 27-1/2 tons (engine only) 12-1/2 tons Cyl. 16-1/2 x 22 inches 8-1/2 x 14 inches Wheel diam. 84 inches 54 inches
htcnisb ,eyew s arm hifea s bus, afor ilt sno troiigen fne alety sporo pndh dna ,slevon sie of lightengine atsorgna vdcota Md. Sr.thmis  inalraV dyellaor