The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 09: 1564-65

The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 09: 1564-65

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The Project Gutenberg Ebook Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1564-65, by Motley #9 in our series by John LothropMotleyCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country beforedownloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do notchange or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom ofthis file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. Youcan also find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers*****Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1564-65Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4809] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was firstposted on March 12, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE DUTCH REPUBLIC, 1564-65 ***This etext was produced by David Widger [NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, or pointers, at the end of the file for those who may wish to sample theauthor's ...

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The Project Gutenberg Ebook Rise of the DutchRepublic, 1564-65, by Motley #9 in our series byJohn Lothrop MotleysCuorpey triog chth leacwk st haer ec ocphyarniggihnt gl aawll so fvoerr  ytohue r wcooruldn.t rByebefore downloading or redistributing this or anyother Project Gutenberg eBook.vTiheiws inhge atdhiesr  Psrhoojeulcdt  bGeu ttehne bfierrsgt  tfihlien. gP lseeaesne  wdhoe nnotremove it. Do not change or edit the headerwithout written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and otherinformation about the eBook and ProjectGutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included isimportant information about your specific rights andrestrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation toProject Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain VanillaElectronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and ByComputers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousandsof Volunteers*****Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1564-65
Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4809] [Yes,we are more than one year ahead of schedule][This file was first posted on March 12, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*E**B OSTOAK RTT HOE FD TUHTEC HP RROEJPEUCBTL IGC,U 1T5E6N4B-6E5R *G**This etext was produced by David Widger<widger@cecomet.net>[NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, orpwiosinht teor ss, aamt tphlee  tehned  aouft thhoer' sfi lied efoars  tbheofsoer ew hmoa kminagyan entire meal of them. D.W.]
MOTLEY'S HISTORY OF THENETHERLANDS, PG EDITION,VOLUME 9.THE RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLICJOHN LOTHROP MOTLEY, D.C.L., LL.D.55811564-1565 [CHAPTER V.]Return of the three seigniors to the statecouncil—Policy of Orange—Corruptcharacter of the government—Efforts of thePrince in favor of reform—Influence ofArmenteros—Painful situation of Viglius—Hisanxiety to retire—Secret charges against himtransmitted by the Duchess to Philip—Ominous signs of the times— Attention ofPhilip to the details of persecution—Execution of Fabricius, and tumult atAntwerp—Horrible cruelty towards theProtestants—Remonstrance of theMagistracy of Bruges and of the four Flemishestates against Titelmann—Obduracy ofPhilip—Council of Trent—Quarrel forprecedence between the French and
precedence between the French andSpanish envoys—Order for the publication ofthe Trent decrees in the Netherlands—Opposition to the measure—Reluctance ofthe Duchess— Egmont accepts a mission toSpain—Violent debate in the councilconcerning his instructions—Remarkablespeech of Orange—Apoplexy of Viglius—Temporary appointment of Hopper—Departure of Egmont— Disgraceful scene atCambray—Character of the Archbishop—Egmont in Spain—Flattery and bribery—Council of Doctors—Vehement declarationsof Philip—His instructions to Egmont at hisdeparture —Proceedings of Orange inregard to his principality—Egmont's report tothe state council concerning his mission—Hisvainglory— Renewed orders from Philip tocontinue the persecution—Indignation ofEgmont—Habitual dissimulation of the King—Reproof of Egmont by Orange—Assemblyof doctors in Brussels—Result of theirdeliberations transmitted to Philip—Universalexcitement in the Netherlands—Newpunishment for heretics—Interview atBayonne between Catharine de Medici andher daughter, the Queen of Spain—Mistaken views upon this subject—Diplomacy of Alva—Artful conduct ofCatharine—Stringent letters from Philip tothe Duchess with regard to the inquisition—Consternation of Margaret and of Viglius —New proclamation of the Edicts, theInquisition, and the Council of Trent—Fury ofthe people—Resistance of the leading
seigniors and of the Brabant Council—Brabant declared free of the inquisition—Prince Alexander of Parma betrothed toDonna Maria of Portugal—Her portrait—Expensive preparations for the nuptials—Assembly of the Golden Fleece—Oration ofViglius—Wedding of Prince Alexander.tThhee  Crearmdianinald ehra do fl etfht et hyee aNr,e tinh etrhlea nsdpsr,i nwg aosf  ownhei cohfanarchy, confusion, and corruption. At first therehad been a sensation of relief.Philip had exchanged letters of exceeding amitywith Orange, Egmont, and Horn. These threeseigniors had written, immediately upon Granvelle'sretreat, to assure the King of their willingness toobey the royal commands, and to resume theirduties at the state council. They had, however,assured the Duchess that the reappearance of theCardinal in the country would be the signal for theirinstantaneous withdrawal. They appeared at thecouncil daily, working with the utmost assiduityoften till late into the night. Orange had three greatobjects in view, by attaining which the country, inhis opinion, might yet be saved, and the threatenedconvulsions averted. These were to convoke thestates- general, to moderate or abolish the edicts,and to suppress the council of finance and theprivy council, leaving only the council of state. Thetwo first of these points, if gained, would, ofcourse, subvert the whole absolute policy whichPhilip and Granvelle had enforced; it was,therefore, hardly probable that any impression
would be made upon the secret determination ofthe government in these respects. As to thecouncil of state, the limited powers of that body,under the administration of the Cardinal, hadformed one of the principal complaints against thatminister. The justice and finance councils weresinks of iniquity. The most barefaced depravityreigned supreme. A gangrene had spread throughthe whole government. The public functionarieswere notoriously and outrageously venal. Theadministration of justice had been poisoned at thefountain, and the people were unable to slake theirdaily thirst at the polluted stream. There was nolaw but the law of the longest purse. The highestdignitaries of Philip's appointment had become themost mercenary hucksters who ever converted thedivine temple of justice into a den of thieves. Lawwas an article of merchandise, sold by judges tothe highest bidder. A poor customer could obtainnothing but stripes and imprisonment, or, if taintedwith suspicion of heresy, the fagot or the sword,but for the rich every thing was attainable. Pardonsfor the most atrocious crimes, passports, safeconducts, offices of trust and honor, were disposedof at auction to the highest bidder. Against all thissea of corruption did the brave William of Orangeset his breast, undaunted and unflinching. Of allthe conspicuous men in the land, he was the onlyone whose worst enemy had never hinted throughthe whole course of his public career, that hishands had known contamination. His honor wasever untarnished by even a breath of suspicion.The Cardinal could accuse him of pecuniaryembarrassment, by which a large proportion of his
revenues were necessarily diverted to theliquidation of his debts, but he could not suggestthat the Prince had ever freed himself fromdifficulties by plunging his hands into the publictreasury, when it might easily have been opened to.mihIt was soon, however, sufficiently obvious that asdesperate a struggle was to be made with themany-headed monster of general corruption aswith the Cardinal by whom it had been so long fedand governed. The Prince was accused of ambitionand intrigue. It was said that he was determined toconcentrate all the powers of government in thestate council, which was thus to become anomnipotent and irresponsible senate, while theKing would be reduced to the condition of aVenetian Doge. It was, of course, suggested that itwas the aim of Orange to govern the new Tribunalof Ten. No doubt the Prince was ambitious. Birth,wealth, genius, and virtue could not have beenbestowed in such eminent degree on any manwithout carrying with them the determination toassert their value. It was not his wish so much as itwas the necessary law of his being to impresshimself upon his age and to rule his fellow-men.But he practised no arts to arrive at the supremacywhich he felt must always belong to him, what evermight be his nominal position in the politicalhierarchy. He was already, although but just turnedof thirty years, vastly changed from the brilliant andcareless grandee, as he stood at the hour of theimperial abdication. He was becoming careworn inface, thin of figure, sleepless of habit. The wrongs
of which he was the daily witness, the absolutism,the cruelty, the rottenness of the government, hadmarked his face with premature furrows. "They saythat the Prince is very sad," wrote Morillon toGranvelle; "and 'tis easy to read as much in hisface. They say he can not sleep." Truly might themonarch have taken warning that here was a manwho was dangerous, and who thought too much."Sleekheaded men, and such as slept o' nights,"would have been more eligible functionaries, nodoubt, in the royal estimation, but, for a briefperiod, the King was content to use, to watch, andto suspect the man who was one day to be hisgreat and invincible antagonist. He continuedassiduous at the council, and he did his best, byentertaining nobles and citizens at his hospitablemansion, to cultivate good relations with largenumbers of his countrymen. He soon, however,had become disgusted with the court. Egmont wasmore lenient to the foul practices which prevailedthere, and took almost a childish pleasure in diningat the table of the Duchess, dressed, as weremany of the younger nobles, in short camletdoublet with the wheat-sheaf buttons.The Prince felt more unwilling to compromise hispersonal dignity by countenancing the flagitiousproceedings and the contemptible supremacy ofArmenteros, and it was soon very obvious,therefore, that Egmont was a greater favorite atcourt than Orange. At the same time the Countwas also diligently cultivating the good graces ofthe middle and lower classes in Brussels, shootingwith the burghers at the popinjay, calling every
man by his name, and assisting at jovial banquetsin town-house or guild-hall. The Prince, although attimes a necessary partaker also in these popularamusements, could find small cause for rejoicing inthe aspect of affairs. When his business led him tothe palace, he was sometimes forced to wait in theante-chamber for an hour, while SecretaryArmenteros was engaged in private consultationwith Margaret upon the most important matters ofadministration. It could not be otherwise thangalling to the pride and offensive to the patriotismof the Prince, to find great public transactionsentrusted to such hands. Thomas de Armenteroswas a mere private secretary—a simple clerk. Hehad no right to have cognizance of importantaffairs, which could only come before his Majesty'ssworn advisers. He was moreover an infamouspeculator. He was rolling up a fortune with greatrapidity by his shameless traffic in benefices,charges, offices, whether of church or state. Hisname of Armenteros was popularly converted intoArgenteros, in order to symbolize the man whowas made of public money. His confidentialintimacy with the Duchess procured for him alsothe name of "Madam's barber," in allusion to thefamous ornaments of Margaret's upper lip, and tothe celebrated influence enjoyed by the barbers ofthe Duke of Savoy, and of Louis the Eleventh. Thisman sold dignities and places of high responsibilityat public auction. The Regent not only connived atthese proceedings, which would have been baseenough, but she was full partner in the disgracefulcommerce. Through the agency of the Secretary,she, too, was amassing a large private fortune.
"The Duchess has gone into the business ofvending places to the highest bidders," saidMorillon, "with the bit between her teeth." Thespectacle presented at the council-board was oftensufficiently repulsive not only to the cardinalists,who were treated with elaborate insolence, but toall men who loved honor and justice, or who felt aninterest in the prosperity of government. There wasnothing majestic in the appearance of the Duchess,as she sat conversing apart with Armenteros,whispering, pinching, giggling, or disputing, whileimportant affairs of state were debated, concerningwhich the Secretary had no right to be informed. Itwas inevitable that Orange should be offended tothe utmost by such proceedings, although he washimself treated with comparative respect. As forthe ancient adherents of Granvelle, the Bordeys,Baves, and Morillons, they were forbidden by thefavorite even to salute him in the streets.Berlaymont was treated by the Duchess withstudied insult. "What is the man talking about?" shewould ask with languid superciliousness, if heattempted to express his opinion in the state-council. Viglius, whom Berlaymont accused ofdoing his best, without success, to make his peacewith the seigniors, was in even still greater disgracethan his fellow- cardinalists. He longed, he said, tobe in Burgundy, drinking Granvelle's good wine. Hispatience under the daily insults which he receivedfrom the government made him despicable in theeyes of his own party. He was described by hisfriends as pusillanimous to an incredible extent,timid from excess of riches, afraid of his ownshadow. He was becoming exceedingly pathetic,