The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 11: 1566, part II

The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 11: 1566, part II


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The Project Gutenberg EBook Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1566 #12 in our series by John Lothrop MotleyCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloadingor redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do notchange or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of thisfile. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can alsofind out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers*****Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1566Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4812] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was firstposted on March 19, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE DUTCH REPUBLIC, 1566 ***This eBook was produced by David Widger [NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, or pointers, at the end of the file for those who may wish to sample the author'sideas before making ...



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The Project Gutenberg EBook Rise of the DutchRepublic, 1566 #12 in our series by John LothropMotleysCuorpey triog chth leacwk st haer ec ocphyarniggihnt gl aawll so fvoerr  ytohue r wcooruldn.t rByebefore downloading or redistributing this or anyother Project Gutenberg eBook.vTiheiws inhge atdhiesr  Psrhoojeulcdt  bGeu ttehne bfierrsgt  tfihlien. gP lseeaesne  wdho ennotremove it. Do not change or edit the headerwithout written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and otherinformation about the eBook and ProjectGutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included isimportant information about your specific rights andrestrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation toProject Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain VanillaElectronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and ByComputers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousandsof Volunteers*****Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1566
Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4812] [Yes,we are more than one year ahead of schedule][This file was first posted on March 19, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*E*B* OSTOAK RTTH OE FD TUHTEC HP RROEJPEUCBTL IGC,U 1T5E6N6B *E**RGThis eBook was produced by David Widger<>[NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, orpwiosinht teor ss, aamt tphlee  tehned  aouft thhoer' sfi lied efoars  tbheofsoer ew hmoa kminagyan entire meal of them. D.W.]
OMFO TTLHEEY'S HISTORYENDEITTHIOENR,L VAONLDUS,M PE G12.THE RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLICBy John Lothrop Motley5581VOLUME 2, Book 1., 15661566 [CHAPTER VIII.]Secret policy of the government—Berghenand Montigny in Spain— Debates at Segovia—Correspondence of the Duchess with Philip— Procrastination and dissimulation of theKing—Secret communication to the Pope—Effect in the provinces of the King's letters tothe government—Secret instructions to theDuchess—Desponding statements ofMargaret—Her misrepresentationsconcerning Orange, Egmont, and others—Wrath and duplicity of Philip—Egmont'sexertions in Flanders—Orange returns toAntwerp—His tolerant spirit—Agreement of
Antwerp—His tolerant spirit—Agreement of2d September—Horn at Tournay—Excavations in the Cathedral—Almostuniversal attendance at the preaching—Building of temples commenced—Difficultposition of Horn—Preaching in the Clothiers'Hall—Horn recalled—Noircarmes at Tournay— Friendly correspondence of Margaret withOrange, Egmont, Horn, and Hoogstraaten—Her secret defamation of these persons.Egmont in Flanders, Orange at Antwerp, Horn atTournay; Hoogstraaten at Mechlin, were exertingthemselves to suppress insurrection and to avertruin. What, meanwhile, was the policy of thegovernment? The secret course pursued both atBrussels and at Madrid may be condensed into theusual formula—dissimulation, procrastination, andagain dissimulation.It is at this point necessary to take a rapid surveyof the open and the secret proceedings of the Kingand his representatives from the moment at whichBerghen and Montigny arrived in Madrid. Those ill-fated gentlemen had been received with apparentcordiality, and admitted to frequent, butunmeaning, interviews with his Majesty. Thecurrent upon which they were embarked was deepand treacherous, but it was smooth and very slow.They assured the King that his letters, ordering therigorous execution of the inquisition and edicts, hadengendered all the evils under which the provinceswere laboring. They told him that Spaniards andtools of Spaniards had attempted to govern thecountry, to the exclusion of native citizens and
nobles, but that it would soon be found thatNetherlanders were not to be trodden upon like theabject inhabitants of Milan, Naples, and Sicily.Such words as these struck with an unaccustomedsound upon the royal ear, but the envoys, whowere both Catholic and loyal, had no idea, in thusexpressing their opinions, according to their senseof duty, and in obedience to the King's desire, uponthe causes of the discontent, that they werecommitting an act of high treason.When the news of the public preaching reachedSpain, there were almost daily consultations at thegrove of Segovia. The eminent personages whocomposed the royal council were the Duke of Alva,the Count de Feria, Don Antonio de Toledo, DonJuan Manrique de Lara, Ruy Gomez, Quixada,Councillor Tisnacq, recently appointed President ofthe State Council, and Councillor Hopper. SixSpaniards and two Netherlanders, one of whom,too, a man of dull intellect and thoroughlysubservient character, to deal with the local affairsof the Netherlands in a time of intense excitement!The instructions of the envoys had been torepresent the necessity of according three greatpoints—abolition of the inquisition, moderation ofthe edicts, according to the draft prepared inBrussels, and an ample pardon for pasttransactions. There was much debate upon allthese propositions. Philip said little, but he listenedattentively to the long discourses in council, and hetook an incredible quantity of notes. It was thegeneral opinion that this last demand on the part ofthe Netherlanders was the fourth link in the chain
of treason. The first had been the cabal by whichGranvelle had been expelled; the second, themission of Egmont, the main object of which hadbeen to procure a modification of the state council,in order to bring that body under the control of afew haughty and rebellious nobles; the third hadbeen the presentation of the insolent and seditiousRequest; and now, to crown the whole, came aproposition embodying the three points—abolitionof the inquisition, revocation of the edicts, and apardon to criminals, for whom death was the onlysufficient punishment.With regard to these three points, it was, aftermuch wrangling, decided to grant them undercertain restrictions. To abolish the inquisition wouldbe to remove the only instrument by which theChurch had been accustomed to regulate theconsciences and the doctrines of its subjects. Itwould be equivalent to a concession of religiousfreedom, at least to individuals within their owndomiciles, than which no concession could be morepernicious. Nevertheless, it might be advisable topermit the temporary cessation of the papalinquisition, now that the episcopal inquisition hadbeen so much enlarged and strengthened in theNetherlands, on the condition that this branch ofthe institution should be maintained in energeticcondition. With regard to the Moderation, it wasthought better to defer that matter till, theproposed visit of his Majesty to the provinces. If,however, the Regent should think it absolutelynecessary to make a change, she must cause anew draft to be made, as that which had been sent
was not found admissible. Touching the pardongeneral, it would be necessary to make manyconditions and restrictions before it could begranted. Provided these were sufficiently minute toexclude all persons whom it might be founddesirable to chastise, the amnesty was possible.Otherwise it was quite out of the question.Meantime, Margaret of Parma had been urging herbrother to come to a decision, painting thedistracted condition of the country in the liveliestcolors, and insisting, although perfectly aware ofPhilip's private sentiments, upon a favorabledecision as to the three points demanded by theenvoys. Especially she urged her incapacity toresist any rebellion, and demanded succor of menand money in case the "Moderation" were notaccepted by his Majesty.It was the last day of July before the King wrote atall, to communicate his decisions upon the crisiswhich had occurred in the first week of April. Thedisorder for which he had finally prepared aprescription had, before his letter arrived, alreadypassed through its subsequent stages of the field-preaching and the image-breaking. Of coursethese fresh symptoms would require muchconsultation, pondering, and note- taking beforethey could be dealt with. In the mean time theywould be considered as not yet having happened.This was the masterly procrastination of thesovereign, when his provinces were in a blaze.His masterly dissimulation was employed in the
direction suggested by his councillors. Philip neveroriginated a thought, nor laid down a plan, but hewas ever true to the falsehood of his nature, andwas indefatigable in following out the suggestionsof others. No greater mistake can be made than toascribe talent to this plodding and pedanticmonarch. The man's intellect was contemptible, butmalignity and duplicity, almost superhuman; haveeffectually lifted his character out of the regions ofthe common-place. He wrote accordingly to saythat the pardon, under certain conditions, might begranted, and that the papal inquisition might cease—the bishops now being present in such numbers,"to take care of their flocks," and the episcopalinquisition being, therefore established upon sosecure a basis. He added, that if a moderation ofthe edicts were still desired, a new project might besent to Madrid, as the one brought by Berghen andMontigny was not satisfactory. In arranging thiswonderful scheme for composing the tumults of thecountry, which had grown out of a determinedrebellion to the inquisition in any form, he followednot only the advice, but adopted the exactlanguage of his councillors.Certainly, here was not much encouragement forpatriotic hearts in the Netherlands. A pardon, sorestricted that none were likely to be forgiven savethose who had done no wrong; an episcopalinquisition stimulated to renewed exertions, on theground that the papal functionaries were to bedischarged; and a promise that, although theproposed Moderation of the edicts seemed toomild for the monarch's acceptance, yet at some
future period another project would be matured forsettling the matter to universal satisfaction—suchwere the propositions of the Crown. Nevertheless,Philip thought he had gone too far, even inadministering this meagre amount of mercy, andthat he had been too frank in employing so slendera deception, as in the scheme thus sketched. Hetherefore summoned a notary, before whom, inpresence of the Duke of Alva, the LicentiateMenchaca and Dr. Velasco, he declared that,although he had just authorized Margaret ofParma, by force of circumstances, to grant pardonto all those who had been compromised in the latedisturbances of the Netherlands, yet as he had notdone this spontaneously nor freely, he did notconsider himself bound by the authorization, butthat, on the contrary, he reserved his right topunish all the guilty, and particularly those who hadbeen the authors and encouragers of the sedition.So much for the pardon promised in his officialcorrespondence.With regard to the concessions, which hesupposed himself to have made in the matter ofthe inquisition and the edicts, he saved hisconscience by another process. Revoking with hisright hand all which his left had been doing, he hadno sooner despatched his letters to the DuchessRegent than he sent off another to his envoy atRome. In this despatch he instructed Requesens toinform the Pope as to the recent royal decisionsupon the three points, and to state that there hadnot been time to consult his Holiness beforehand.
Nevertheless, continued Philip "the prudent," it wasperhaps better thus, since the abolition could haveno force, unless the Pope, by whom the institutionhad been established, consented to its suspension.This matter, however, was to be kept a profoundsecret. So much for the inquisition matter. Thepapal institution, notwithstanding the official letters,was to exist, unless the Pope chose to destroy it;and his Holiness, as we have seen, had sent theArchbishop of Sorrento, a few weeks before, toBrussels, for the purpose of concerting secretmeasures for strengthening the "Holy Office" in theprovinces.With regard to the proposed moderation of theedicts, Philip informed Pius the Fifth, throughRequesens, that the project sent by the Duchessnot having been approved, orders had beentransmitted for a new draft, in which all the articlesproviding for the severe punishment of hereticswere to be retained, while alterations, to be agreedupon by the state and privy councils, and theknights of the Fleece, were to be adopted—certainly in no sense of clemency. On the contrary,the King assured his Holiness, that if the severity ofchastisement should be mitigated the least in theworld by the new articles, they would in no casereceive the royal approbation. Philip furtherimplored the Pope "not to be scandalized" withregard to the proposed pardon, as it would be byno means extended to offenders against religion.All this was to be kept entirely secret. The Kingadded, that rather than permit the least prejudiceto the ancient religion, he would sacrifice all his