Three Voyages for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole, Volume 1
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Three Voyages for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole, Volume 1

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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Three Voyages for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific,and Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole, Volume 1 (of 2), by Sir William Edward ParryThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online atwww.gutenberg.netTitle: Three Voyages for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and Narrative of anAttempt to Reach the North Pole, Volume 1 (of 2)Author: Sir William Edward ParryRelease Date: September 22, 2004 [eBook #13512]Language: English***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THREE VOYAGES FOR THE DISCOVERY OF A NORTHWESTPASSAGE FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC, AND NARRATIVE OF AN ATTEMPT TO REACH THE NORTHPOLE, VOLUME 1 (OF 2)***E-text prepared by Robert Connal, Tony Browne, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team fromimages generously made available by the Canadian Institute for Historical MicroreproductionsTranscriber's Note: The character = preceeding a vowel is used to indicate that the vowel is to be pronounced long. The character ~ preceeding a vowel is used to indicate that the vowel is to be pronounced short. These characters do not occur otherwise.THREE VOYAGES FOR THE DISCOVERY OF ANORTHWEST PASSAGE FROM THE ATLANTIC TOTHE PACIFIC, ...

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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Three Voyages for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole, Volume 1 (of 2), by Sir William Edward Parry This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Three Voyages for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole, Volume 1 (of 2) Author: Sir William Edward Parry Release Date: September 22, 2004 [eBook #13512] Language: English ***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THREE VOYAGES FOR THE DISCOVERY OF A NORTHWEST PASSAGE FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC, AND NARRATIVE OF AN ATTEMPT TO REACH THE NORTH POLE, VOLUME 1 (OF 2)*** E-text prepared by Robert Connal, Tony Browne, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team from images generously made available by the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions Transcriber's Note: The character = preceeding a vowel is used to indicate that the vowel is to be pronounced long. The character ~ preceeding a vowel is used to indicate that the vowel is to be pronounced short. These characters do not occur otherwise. THREE VOYAGES FOR THE DISCOVERY OF A NORTHWEST PASSAGE FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC, AND NARRATIVE OF AN ATTEMPT TO REACH THE NORTH POLE, VOLUME I by SIR W. E. PARRY, CAPT. R.N., F.R.S. In Two Volumes. 1844 [Illustration CAPTAIN W.E. PARRY R.N.] PUBLISHERS' ADVERTISEMENT The two volumes herewith presented to the public contain an uninterrupted narrative, in Captain Parry's own words, of the five voyages made by that distinguished navigator, under the sanction of the British government, in search of a passage from the eastern to the western side of the American Continent, through the Arctic Ocean. Although abbreviated, the curtailment has been effected, not by any change in the language of the original writer, but merely by omitting all such details as were not inviting to the general reader; and, in a word, changing the character of the work from that of an official report to that of a narrative. The effort has been to preserve all interesting and amusing particulars; to record all facts and transactions of importance; to present an accurate though brief notice of all valuable accessions to geographic as well as general knowledge, effected in the progress of the voyages; and, at the same time, to keep the reader's attention ever on the alert by the rapid and uninterrupted succession of striking incidents. It is hoped that the aim here designated has been accomplished; and that, in the abridged narrative of Parry's Voyages, there will be found matter, not only to interest the reader for amusement, but also to improve. The scenes and adventures recorded by the navigator are in the highest degree novel and remarkable; and it cannot be other than profitable to know what perils were encountered, what courage, firmness, and ingenuity were displayed, what moral and physical influences were developed, and what triumphs of human skill were achieved, in the progress of voyages undertaken solely to advance the interests of science. H. & B. New-York, May, 1840. CONTENTS of THE FIRST VOLUME INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER I. Passage across the Atlantic.—Enter Davis's Strait.—Unsuccessful Attempt to penetrate the Ice to the Western Coast.—Voyage up the Strait.—Passage through the Ice to the Western Coast.—Arrival off Possession Bay, on the Southern Side of the Entrance into Sir James Lancaster's Sound. CHAPTER II. Entrance into Sir James Lancaster's Sound of Baffin.—Uninterrupted Passage to the Westward.—Discovery and Examination of Prince Regent's Inlet.—Progress to the Southward stopped by Ice.—Return to the Northward.—Pass Barrow's Strait, and enter the Polar Sea. CHAPTER III. Favourable Appearances of an open Westerly Passage.—Land to the Northward, a Series of Islands.—General Appearance of them.—Meet with some Obstruction from low Islands surrounded with Ice.—Remains of Esquimaux Huts, and natural Productions of Byam Martin Island.—Tedious Navigation from Fogs and Ice.—Difficulty of Steering a Proper Course.—Arrival and Landing on Melville Island.—Proceed to the Westward, and reach the Meridian of 110° W. Long., the first Stage in the Scale of Rewards granted by Act of Parliament. CHAPTER IV. Further Examination of Melville Island.—Continuation of our Progress to the Westward.—Long detention by the Ice.— Party sent on Shore to hunt Deer and Musk-oxen.—Return in three Days, after losing their Way.—Anxiety on their Account.—Proceed to the Westward till finally stopped by the Ice.—In returning to the Eastward, the Griper forced on the Beach by the Ice.—Search for, and Discovery of, a Winter Harbour on Melville Island.—Operations for securing the Ships in their Winter Quarters. CHAPTER V. Precautions for securing the Ships and Stores.—For promoting Good Order, Cleanliness, Health, and Good-Humour among the Ships' Companies.—Establishment of a Theatre and of the North Georgia Gazette.—Erection of an Observatory on Shore.—Commence our Winter's Amusements.—State of the Temperature, and various Meteorological Phenomena.—Miscellaneous Occurrences to the Close of the Year 1819. CHAPTER VI. First Appearance of Scurvy.—The Aurora Borealis and other Meteorological Phenomena.—Visits of the Wolves.—Reappearance of the Sun.—Extreme low Temperature.—Destruction of the House on Shore by Fire.—Severe Frostbites occasioned by this Accident. CHAPTER VII. More temperate Weather.—House rebuilt.—Quantity of Ice collected on the Hecla's lower Deck.—Meteorological Phenomena.—Conclusion of Theatrical Entertainments.—Increased Sickness on board the Griper.—Clothes first dried in the open Air.—Remarkable Halos and Parhelia.—Snow Blindness.—Cutting the Ice round the Ships, and other Occurrences to the Close of May. CHAPTER VIII. Journey across Melville Island to the Northern Shore, and Return to the Ships by a different Route. CHAPTER IX. Occurrences at Winter Harbour in the early Part of June.—Gradual Dissolution of the Ice upon the Sea and of the Snow upon the Land.—Decease and Burial of William Scott.—Equipment of the Ships completed.—Temperate Weather during the Month of July.—Breaking up of the Ice near the Ships.—Move to the lower Part of the Harbour.—Separation of the Ice at the Entrance.—Prepare to Sail.—Abstract of Observations made in Winter Harbour. CHAPTER X. Leave Winter Harbour.—Flattering Appearance of the Sea to the Westward.—Stopped by the Ice near Cape Hay.— Farther Progress to the Longitude of 113° 48' 22.5", being the Westernmost Meridian hitherto reached in the Polar Sea, to the North of America.—Banks's Land discovered.—Increased Extent and Dimensions of the Ice.—Return to the Eastward, to endeavour to penetrate the Ice to the Southward.—Re-enter Barrow's Strait, and Survey its South Coast.— Pass through Sir James Lancaster's Sound on our Return to England. CHAPTER XI. Progress down the Western Coast of Baffin's Bay.—Meet with the Whalers.—Account of some Esquimaux in the Inlet called the River Clyde.—Continue the Survey of the Coast till stopped by Ice in the Latitude of 68¼°.—Obliged to run to the Eastward.—Fruitless Attempts to regain the Land, and final Departure from the Ice.—Remarks upon the probable Existence and Practicability of a Northwest Passage, and upon the Whale Fishery.—Boisterous Weather in Crossing the Atlantic.—Loss of the Hecla's Bowsprit and Foremast.—Arrival in England. SECOND VOYAGE. PRELIMINARY CHAPTER. CHAPTER I. Passage across the Atlantic.—Removal of Stores from the Nautilus Transport, at the Margin of the Ice.—Departure of the Nautilus for England.—Enter the Ice in Hudson's Strait.—Perilous Situation of the Hecla, and Loss of her Anchor.—Meet with the Hudson's Bay Ships.—Passage up the Strait, and Communication with the Natives inhabiting the Northern Shores.—Pass the Trinity Islands of Fox.—Arrival off Southampton Island, where the Researches of the Expedition commence. CHAPTER II. Review of the Geographical Information obtained by the Researches of former Navigators on the Coast of the American Continent, in the Neighbourhood of Wager River.—Discover and enter the Duke of York's Bay, supposing it to be a Passage into the Sea called the Welcome.—Leave the Duke of York's Bay, and proceed to the Northwestward.—Passage of the Frozen Strait and Arrival in Repulse Bay.—Continuity of Land there.—Observations on Shore.—Remarks concerning the Geography, Tides, and Natural History of this Part of the Continental Coast. CHAPTER III. Return to the Eastward through the Frozen Strait.—Discovery of Hurd Channel.—Examined in a Boat.—Loss of the Fury's Anchor.—Providential Escape of the Fury from Shipwreck.—Anchor in Duckett Cove.—Farther Examination of the Coast by Boats and Walking-parties.—Ships proceed through Hurd Channel.—Are drifted by the Ice back to Southampton Island.—Unobstructed Run to the Entrance of a large Inlet leading to the Northwestward.—Ships made fast by Hawsers to the Rocks.—Farther Examination of the Inlet commenced in the Boats. CHAPTER IV. Hoppner's Inlet entered and surveyed by the Boats.—Continuity of Land there determined.—Proceed to examine another Opening leading to the Westward.—Favourable Appearance of a continued Passage in that direction.—Meet with some Esquimaux.—Arrival in Ross Bay, being the Termination of Lyon Inlet.—Discovery and Examination of various Creeks.— Return to the Ships, after finding the Land entirely continuous.—Some Account of the Natural History of this Part of the Coast. CHAPTER V. Farther Examination in the Boats for the Purpose of Connecting the Shores of Lyon Inlet with that of Gore Bay.—Continuity of the Land determined.—Fresh Detention by the Ice.—Boats carried over Land.—Return to the Ships.—Progress out of the Inlet prevented by the Ice.—The Fury grounds upon a Rock.—Anchor in Safety Cove.—Heavy Easterly Gales.—Proceed out of the Inlet.—Arrival in a Bay on the south Side of Winter Island.—Ships secured in Winter-quarters. CHAPTER VI. Precautions for the Security of the Ships and their Stores—And for the Health and Comfort of the Crews.—Establishment of Theatrical Entertainments and Schools.—Erection of an Observatory and House on Shore.—State of Health at this Period.—Partial Disruption of the Ice in the Bay.—Anchors and Cables taken to the Shore.—Gradual Increase of Cold, Appearance of the Aurora Borealis on several Occasions, and various other Meteorological Phenomena to the Close of the Year 1821. CHAPTER VII. Many Foxes caught.—Continued Open Water in the Offing.—Partial Disruption of the Ice in the Bay.—Meteorological Phenomena, and Temperature of Animals.—Arrival of a Tribe of Esquimaux.—First Meeting and subsequent Intercourse with them.—Esquimaux in Want of Provisions.—Supplied with Bread-dust.—Some Account of a Sealing Excursion with them.—Fresh Disruption of the Ice in the Bay.—Closing of the Winter Theatre.—Meteorological Phenomena till the End of February, 1822. CHAPTER VIII. A Journey performed across Winter Island.—Sufferings of the Party by Frost.—Departure of Some of the Esquimaux, and a separate Village established on the Ice.—Various Meteorological Phenomena.—Okotook and his Wife brought on board.—Anecdotes relating to them.—Ships released from the Ice by sawing. CHAPTER IX. Increased Extent of open Water in the Offing.—A Travelling Party despatched to the Northward.—Unsuccessful Attempt to raise Vegetables on Shore.—Decease of James Pringle.—A Party of Esquimaux build Huts near the Ships.—Return of the Travellers, and Account of their Journey.—First Appearance of the Plants.—Birds become numerous.— Commence cutting a Canal through the Ice for liberating the Ships.—Illness and Decease of John Reid and William Souter.—Breaking up of the Ice in the Bay.—Account of Winter Island.—Abstract of Observations made there. TECHNICAL TERMS PECULIAR TO THE NAVIGATION AMONG ICE BAY-ICE.—Ice newly formed upon the surface of the sea. The expression is, however, applied also to ice a foot or two in thickness. BESET.—The situation of a ship when closely surrounded by ice. BIGHT.—An indentation in a floe of ice, like a bay, by which name it is sometimes called. BLINK.—A peculiar brightness in the atmosphere, often assuming an arch-like form, which is generally perceptible over ice or land covered with snow. The blink of land, as well as that over large quantities of ice, is usually of a yellowish cast. BORE.—The operation of "boring" through loose ice consists in entering it under a press of sail, and forcing the ship through by separating the masses. CALF.—A mass of ice lying under a floe near its margin, and, when disengaged from that position, rising with violence to the surface of the water. See TONGUE. CLEAR WATER.—Any part of the sea unencumbered with ice. CROW'S NEST.—A small circular house like a cask, fixed at the masthead, in which the look-out man sits, either to guide the ship through the ice or to give notice of whales. DOCK.—In a floe may be natural or artificial; the former being simply a small "bight," in which a ship is placed to secure her from the danger of external pressure; and the latter, a square space cut out with saws for a similar purpose. FIELD.—A sheet of ice generally of great thickness, and of too great extent to be seen over from a ship's masthead. FLINCHING.—The operation of stripping a sea-animal of its skin and blubber. FLOE.—The same as a field, except that its extent can be distinguished from a ship's masthead. A "bay-floe" is a floe of ice newly formed. FLOE-PIECE.—An expression generally applied to small pieces of floes, not more than a furlong square. A HOLE or POOL of Water.—A small space of "clear water," when the rest of the sea is covered with ice. HUMMOCK.—A mass of ice rising to a considerable height above the general level of a floe, and forming a part of it. Hummocks are originally raised by the pressure of floes against each other. LAND-ICE.—Ice attached to the land, either in floes or in heavy grounded masses lying near the shore. LANE of Water.—A narrow channel among the masses of ice, through which a boat or ship may pass. LEAD.—A channel through the ice. A ship is said to "take the right lead" when she follows a channel conducting her into a more navigable sea, and vice versâ. MAKING-OFF Blubber.—The operation of putting it into casks. NIPPED.—The situation of a ship when forcibly pressed by ice. PACK.—A large body of ice, consisting of separate masses, lying close together, and whose extent cannot be seen. PANCAKE-ICE.—Newly formed ice, assuming the peculiar conformation of numberless patches of "sludge," and giving the surface of the sea the appearance of a handsome pavement. PATCH of Ice.—The same as a pack, but of small dimensions. SAILING-ICE.—Ice of which the masses are so much separated as to allow a ship to sail among them. SALLYING a Ship.—The operation of causing her to roll, by the men running in a body from side to side, so as to relieve her from the adhesion and friction of the young ice around her. SLUDGE.—Ice of the consistence of thick honey, offering little impediment to a ship while in this state, but greatly favouring the formation of a "bay-floe." STREAM.—A long and narrow, but generally continuous, collection of loose ice. TONGUE.—A mass of ice projecting under water from an iceberg or floe, and generally distinguishable at a considerable depth of smooth water. It differs from a "calf" in being fixed to, or a part of the larger body. WATER-SKY.—A dark appearance in the sky, indicating "clear water" in that direction, and forming a striking contrast with the "blink" over land or ice. YOUNG-ICE.—Nearly the same as "bay-ice," but generally applied to ice more recently formed than the latter. VOYAGE FOR THE DISCOVERY OF A NORTHWEST PASSAGE
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