Turkish Prisoners in Egypt - A Report by the Delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross
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Turkish Prisoners in Egypt - A Report by the Delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross

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Title: Turkish Prisoners in Egypt  A Report By The Delegates Of The International Committee Of  The Red Cross Author: Various Release Date: January 4, 2004 [EBook #10589] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK TURKISH PRISONERS IN EGYPT ***
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TURKISH PRISONERS IN EGYPT
A Report By The Delegates Of The International Committee Of The Red Cross Extracted and translated from the Official Reports of the Red Cross Society (Documents publiés à l'occasion de la Guerre Européenne, 1914-1917) Published in 1917
A Report on a visit made in December, 1916, and January, 1917, to the Camps for Turkish Prisoners of War in Egypt, by the Delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Turkish Prisoners in Egypt
INTRODUCTION
Being deputed by the Red Cross International Committee to visit Turkish prisoners of war in Egypt, we presented ourselves on December 3, 1916, to the officer for Naval Transport in the British office at Marseilles. By order of the War Office he obtained berths for us on the linerMorea, of the P. and O. Line. We embarked at Marseilles on December 19, 1916, and after an uneventful journey reached Port Said on December 27. At Cairo General Murray, Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in Egypt, was good enough to put us in touch with Brig.-General II. G. Casson, C.M.G., Director-in-Chief of the Prisoners of War Department. With the help of Colonel Simpson we drew up a programme of visits. A motor-car was placed at our disposal, and permission given us to take photographs in the camps, distribute gifts among the prisoners, and talk freely with them. We have to express our warmest thanks to General Murray and to the officers who allowed us to make our enquiries everywhere, without restriction. We should also like to offer our deepest gratitude to Sir Reginald Wingate, British High Commissioner in Egypt, for the kindly care accorded us throughout our stay.
1. Heliopolis Camp. (Visited on January 2, 1917.) This camp is laid out quite close to the new city of hotels and villas founded in 1905 under the name of The Oasis of Heliopolis. The camp site is 134 feet above the level of Cairo.
Strength.—3,906 Turkish non-commissioned officers and men. 3 Turkish soldiers of the Sanitary Corps. 2 Armenian doctors (officers in the Turkish Army). The camp is arranged to hold a total population of 15,000 men. A barbed-wire fencing separates it from adjoining property.
Accommodation.—The barracks for the prisoners arranged in groups, in parallel lines are separated by passages 65 feet wide. These barracks, built under the supervision of the Egyptian Engineering Department, are of uniform construction, and about 42 feet long by 30 feet wide. They are solid frames of wood with the spaces between filled in with reeds arranged vertically and held in place by crossbars. The roof is of reed thatch edged with tarred felt. Thanks to the design, the ventilation is perfect. The sandy soil shows hardly a sign of dampness. The passage between the rows of beds is made of hard-beaten earth which is very dry and easily kept clean. All along this corridor, as in all the camp roads, buckets full of water are arranged in readiness to meet an outbreak of fire. The water in these buckets is not meant for drinking, and therefore contains a little cresol to prevent prisoners drinking it. The danger of fire is further reduced to a minimum by the fact that the men smoke only out of doors and that the mildness of the climate does away with the use of stoves. Each barrack accommodates 50 men.
Bedding.—Each prisoner lies on a mat of plaited rush, and has four blankets. Every morning the mats are brushed and rolled up and the blankets folded, so that during the day there is a large clear space inside the building. The detention cells have the same sleeping accommodation.
Exercise.—The space left between the barracks of the separate sections is amply sufficient for exercise, which is quite unrestricted during the regulation hours.
Food. brought every morning into a special commissariat and—Provisions are purchased by the barrack, whence each section draws its daily rations. Bread comes from the Cairo bakeries. It is of good quality and agreeable to the taste. The kitchens are in the open and heated by wood fires. They are staffed by a detachment of prisoners under a head cook. At meal times each section sends men to draw the rations for each room in large metal bowls. Every man has his own spoon, bowl and drinking cup, all of metal. The hours of meals are ordinarily as follows: 5 a.m.; 11 a.m.; and 4 p.m. The last meal is the principal one of the day. We have examined the various food materials given the prisoners and found them to be of excellent quality. The menu of the Turkish prisoners of war now interned in Heliopolis Camp consists of bread, meat, vegetables, rice, butter, pepper, salt, onions, tea (7-1/2 grammes), sugar (42 grammes), cheese and jam or olives. Each prisoner receives 42-1/2 grammes of cigarettes and two boxes of matches every week; two lbs. of firewood per day; and soap. It interested us to make a note of the expenses involved by the support of each Turkish prisoner, according to figures supplied by the English authorities. The calculation is based on a period of six months (in winter).  £ s. d. Clothing and linen 3 0 0 Periodica winter clothesl renovation of 066 Renovation of linen, footwear, 1 10 0 and towels (twice) Food at actual contract prices 5 0 0 Tobacco 0 12 6 Wood (average price) 0 7 6 Lighting (as for Maadi Camp) 0 2 0 Water filtration (Maadi) 0 0 6 Total £10 19 0
Depreciation of buildings, fittings, blankets and other things provided is not included in these figures.
Canteen.—The regulation food of the prisoners being ample, the canteen plays a very minor part in the feeding arrangements. It sells tea, coffee, and light refreshments. A cup of sweetened tea costs 5 paras, or about one-third of a penny. The canteen also deals in letter paper, post-cards, thread, needles, buttons and other small odds and ends. The men receive 2 ounces of tobacco free every week. They never get alcohol.
Clothin .—Each risoner drawers and sets of underwear: shirts lied is su lete with two com
            socks. The uniform consists of trousers and coat of dark blue cloth. The brass buttons give it a military appearance. All the men wear the red fez. They are allowed to wear their decorations. That they are prisoners is shown only by their having on them a white metal plate about 1-1/2 inches in diameter, bearing a registration number and the two letters P.W. (Prisoner of War). In our opinion this kind of medallion is a more judicious form of indication than the bands, armlets or large letters used elsewhere. In summer the cloth uniforms are replaced by linen uniforms of the same cut and colour. All men wear indoors leather slippers of the Eastern kind. Shoes are used only by prisoners engaged on gardening, and by non-commissioned officers. Linen, clothes and footwear are renewed on fixed dates or according to need.
Hygiene.—Everything that has to do with hygiene and the sanitation of the camp is the province of Lieut.-Colonel E.G. Garner, Medical Office Inspector of Prisoner-of-War Camps in Egypt. Water is supplied from the Heliopolis town mains, is of good quality, and is provided in sufficient quantities. For toilet purposes the prisoners have the use twice a day of shower baths and water taps. The floor of the lavatories is sloping cement, and the water drains away through a gulley between the two rows of baths. Prisoners can get hot water from the kitchen when they need it. Soap is suppliedad libitum. For washing their clothes the prisoners have some very convenient arrangements. Once a week each prisoner's blankets and clothes are passed through the disinfecting chamber and thoroughly sterilised. Thanks to this precaution, there is not a trace of vermin to be found in the camp. Ten Turkish barbers are occupied in cutting the hair of prisoners and shaving them in a well-managed barber's shop. The latrines are clean and numerous enough. Some of them are on the English system; the rest on the Turkish. They are disinfected daily with carbolineum. All discharge into the sewers.
Medical attention.—The camp medical service is E.G. Garner and two staffed by Colonel Armenian doctors (Arsen Khoren and Léon Samuel). Four English hospital orderlies are assisted by three Turkish orderlies. An English dentist visits the camp at the doctor's request. At the infirmary, which is clean and well looked after, all prisoners not seriously ill are accommodated with beds having mattresses and steel springs. The consulting room is well supplied with medicines. Serious cases are sent to the hospitals set apart for prisoners of war. From 20 to 30 men come to the infirmary daily for medical attention. All the cases are entered in a register, which we have examined; after each name is the complaint and the treatment prescribed. At the time of our visit there were six lying-down cases in the infirmary; two with tuberculosis in the first stage (prisoners captured recently at El Arish); one with diarrhoea; one with conjunctivitis; one with malaria; and one with a wounded leg. Of the prisoners in camp 3 per cent. have been attacked by malaria—old cases from the marshy districts of Turkey, such as Angora Yosgath, for instance. Nine per cent. have been attacked by chronic bacillar dysentery; these are treated periodically with anti-dysenteric serum. Some cases of amibian dysentery are being treated with calomel, salol, and emetine. Twenty per cent. were affected by ophthalmia due to their stay in the desert before being captured. These were treated with sulphate of zinc and protargol. Four prisoners are suffering from trachoma of old standing. Recent cases are ordinary ailments, bronchitis and simple diarrhoea. As a general rule the camp prisoners look well, have a good colour and are well nourished. The prisoners were inoculated in Turkey against typhoid fever and smallpox. All who no longer showed traces of vaccination were vaccinated immediately after being captured. They were also
inoculated against cholera. There is no typhoid fever in the camp, nor exanthematic typhus, nor any other infectious disease.
Work.No prisoner is employed in workshops outside—The prisoners have no regular work to do. the camp. Even inside, except for ordinary camp fatigue duties, and some light gardening, no labour is exacted. During our inspection we saw the digging for a water supply through the camp being done by Arab workmen, not by prisoners. In any case, corporals and sergeants are not allowed to work.
Religion and Recreation. free to follow their own religious practices, quite—The prisoners are which are performed thrice a day ordinarily, and six or seven times daily during Ramadan. Music and singing are permitted; prisoners have manufactured several guitars and violins.
Correspondence.—Most of the prisoners brought money with them; some have received sums of money from their families through the Turkish Red Cross and the International Committee of the Red Cross. They receive the amount in weekly instalments of 30 piastres (about 6 shillings) per month. Each person has a separate current account with the camp accountant. Letters take from three weeks to three months to get from the sender to the prisoner to whom they are addressed. Some of them are sent through the American Consul at Cairo. Very few of the prisoners can write, but these may do so as often and for as long as they wish. There is no system of delaying correspondence after delivery or before despatch.
Prisoners' Aid. camp; so far, no general relief funds have the—There is no relief committee in been sent. Sergeant-Major Hussein Hissan, a native of Constantinople, told us that, although there were many poor prisoners in the camp, there was no need to send help, as all prisoners are well fed, well clothed and supplied with tobacco.
Prisoners' Behaviour. than—What strikes one more anything else on entering the camp is the prevailing orderliness and cleanliness. A Turkish sergeant-major commands each group of huts, and a Turkish sergeant is responsible for each dormitory. The prisoners are smart, give the military salute and come to attention at the orders of the non-commissioned officers when those in command pass through the camp. Sergeant-Major Hassar Mohammed, from Angora, and Hamid Abdallah, from Koniah (Asia Minor), told us, on behalf of their fellow prisoners, that they had no complaints to make, and assured us of the kind treatment which they receive. On their part, the English officers and non-commissioned officers declared that the prisoners are well disciplined and very willing. In short, we took away with us an excellent impression of Heliopolis Camp.
2. Hospital No. 2, at Abbassiah, near Cairo. (Visited on January 2, 1917.) This hospital, on the pavilion system, and arranged in accordance with the requirements of modern practice, is reserved exclusively for German, Austrian, Bulgarian and Turkish prisoners of war. It is staffed by head doctor Wickermann, assisted by four English doctors. Some English Red Cross nurses and 18 Turkish orderlies attend to the sick and wounded. These nurses and orderlies are engaged only with treatment. The rough ward work and cleaning are done by native employés. The pavilions are built of stone and separated by intervals of 32-1/2 feet. The roofs are of cement. Along one side runs a covered gallery wherein beds and arm-chairs are placed for the open-air cure
of patients for whom it is prescribed. The floor of the pavilions is a kind of linoleum made of sawdust and cement, and is covered with palm mats. The windows are large, and the cubic space per patient ample. The beds are arranged in two rows and have spring and stuffed mattresses. Blankets are not stinted. The rooms are scrupulously clean; and the hospital sterilising chamber serves to disinfect the clothes, which, after being washed and labelled, are stored in a wardrobe and handed back to the owners when they leave the hospital. The prisoners have no trouble over them. A large supply of things for the patients is kept in the laundry.
Clothing.—The hospital patients wear pyjamas like those of British soldiers; and, like the latter, convalescents wear a bright blue suit with white facings and a red necktie. Patients able to sit up have folding easy-chairs at their disposal.
Dressings. stocked. The wounded are supplied with—The hospital drug department is well surgical appliances, and with artificial limbs of the most perfect make. The day before our visit 80 wounded prisoners arrived at the hospital from El Arish in an exhausted and emaciated condition. We saw each case receive the most suitable treatment. The apparatus most generally used for dealing with fractures consists of a metal frame with flannel strips stretched from side to side to form a kind of trough. When the broken limb is in position the apparatus is suspended from the ceiling by means of pulleys. We have never seen this ingenious arrangement in any German or French hospital; it seems to us to be a very practical idea and likely to prove of great benefit to the wounded. At the head of each bed is a temperature chart, a diet chart, and a clinical summary of the case.
Special Quarters.is well arranged; a sterilising stove is heated by paraffin.—The operating theatre In the wards for prisoners suffering from malaria the beds are enclosed by mosquito nets to prevent t h eanopheles of theitself and then biting other patients or people mosquito infecting neighbourhood. Two wards are kept for convalescent cases, who have a dining-room to stay in during the day. Cases of venereal disease are also confined to separate premises. The orderlies live in two comfortable tents in the hospital garden, one of which, is occupied by those on day duty, the other by those on night duty.
Hygiene.—The water is of good quality, supplied from the Cairo water system. The prisoners can use the well-equipped hot and cold baths at their pleasure. Invalids wash themselves, or are washed with the aid of bowls. Convalescents wash at the taps supplied for their use. The latrines are on the Turkish plan, with automatic water-flush, and discharge into the town drainage.
Food. to do the provisioning. The food is—The hospital management employs a contractor prepared in the kitchen by 4 Egyptian employés. The dietary of the Turkish soldiers differs somewhat from that of the German and Austrian prisoners, in order to suit the palates of each. For example, the Turks prefer flat loaves, which are baked for them; while European prisoners get what is called English bread, toasted. Bulgarian curdled milk is prepared for dysentery patients, and the English doctors testify to its good effects. An ice-box in each pavilion keeps such provisions as must stay there quite fresh. The diet for invalids is divided into full diet and milk diet. 1. FULL DIET. Breakfast: Bread; milk. Lunch: Meat stew; vegetables; rice; bread. Supper: Bread; soup; rice; milk. Extra, when ordered: Chicken; pigeon; rabbit; butchers'
meat; lemons; eggs; cheese; curdled milk. 2. MILK DIET. Breakfast: Bread; milk. Lunch: Soup; bread; milk; rice. Supper: Bread; milk; sugar. The quantities of food allowed to invalids are given below:
Diet for t. Fe  t.ielkMiie DOdrniraDyieverPnts. grm.grm.agtrm. Native bread (baladi) 937 625 Beef 115 100 Vegetables 120 Rice 115 50 Milk 200 800 1,200 Fat 20 Sugar 20 25 Salt 15 5 Pepper 3 1 Onions 20 Tomatoes 10
We examined all these provisions and found them to be excellent in quality.
Sickness.—Sick prisoners are transferred from the camps to the hospital in specially fitted motor vehicles. The English doctors without exception praise the patience and brave endurance of pain shown by the Turkish prisoners. The cases treated in the hospital up to January 2, 1917, the date of our visit, are analysed below.
 Turks Bulgarians Germans Tuberculosis 27 0 0 Bacillar dysentery 37 3 2 Malaria 3 0 0 War wounds 74 2 4 Anaemia and weakness 30 12 5 Various 96 5 0 Totals 267 22 11
There is no epidemic disease in the hospital.
Deaths.—Sixty-six Turkish prisoners died in the Abbassiah hospital between August 8, 1916, and January 1, 1917. From Dysentery 45 " Tuberculosis 9 " Beri-beri 1 " Malaria 1 " War wounds 9 " Typhoid fever 1  66 In addition, one German prisoner died of pneumonia. As regards deaths from dysentery, most of the prisoners attacked by the disease came from the Hedjaz, and were in a seriously weak and exhausted condition. Turkish prisoners are prepared for burial in the manner prescribed by their religion. They are buried in a Moslem cemetery. British soldiers from the garrison pay them the last honours, and the prisoners are represented at the cemetery.
3. Maadi Camp. (Visited on January 3, 1917.) The chief camp at Maadi is 9-1/3 miles south of Cairo, on the right bank of the Nile. All prisoners are taken to it after capture, and thence distributed among the other camps in Egypt.
Strength.—Five thousand five hundred and fifty-six Turkish non-commissioned officers and men, including 1,200 men recently captured at El Arish in the Sinai peninsula. No officers are interned in this camp. Three imaums (priests) were not classed with the officers, as they had served as privates. The prisoners include—besides Turks—Arabs, Armenians, Greeks, Jews from Palestine and Mesopotamia, and some Senoussi. Only a small number have been captives ever since the beginning of the war; a large proportion come from Gallipoli. We found among the prisoners a boy 8 years old, named Abd-el-Mohsen, who lives in camp with his father. The camp is divided into 41 sections and 4 quarters. The last are divided off from one another by barbed wire fences.
Accommodation. prisoners—The quarters of the Turkish Camp in Maadi (1) Old include: buildings originally erected as a school of music and subsequently used as a factory; (2) barracks built recently for prisoners of war. The first consist chiefly of a huge hall 252 feet long and 49 feet wide, with many large openings in the walls. The roof, of match-boarding, is 33 feet above the floor. Standpipes are fixed all along the hall. There are, in addition, some out-buildings used by the management and as stores. In the other camp sections new barracks, measuring as a rule 100 by 39 feet, were erected by a building firm. Walls and roof are of wood and thatch; the floor is hard-beaten earth. All camp quarters are well open to the air, so that proper ventilation presents no difficulties.
Sleeping Accommodation. run platforms of beaten earth, 6-1/2 quarters—Lengthwise of all the feet wide, and 9 inches above the floor. On these are placed the woven rush mats which serve for beds. Each prisoner has 3 blankets. During the season when the temperature falls appreciably at night extra blankets are served out. All bedding is cleaned and disinfected at regular intervals. Shelves whereon the prisoners can keep their belongings are fixed between the rows of beds.
Food.—The food of the prisoners of war is according to the scale already given. Kitchens are provided in each section and staffed by the prisoners themselves. We tasted the soup and meat stew, and found them of good quality and very appetising. The prisoners receivebaladi or native bread, which resembles their usual food and is supplied by Cairo bakeries. We questioned many of the men, who assured us that they were satisfied with the food. The only complaint noted by us was that of a man who thought that he got rice too often. A small canteen supplies black coffee, sweetened, at a farthing per cup. It is run as a private concern under the supervision of the authorities. Tobacco is distributed every Thursday on the scale mentioned previously.
Clothing.camp the prisoners were taken to a large courtyard, in which—Soon after their arrival in they stripped off all their clothes and foot-gear. As a health precaution all this stuff was scrapped and destroyed. After being disinfected, the men received a complete new outfit consisting of two pairs of drawers and two flannel shirts, a cholera belt, socks, a pair of trousers and a dark blue cloth tunic with linen lining and uniform buttons, and a red fez. Leather slippers for privates and shoes for sergeants and corporals complete the outfit, the smartness of which leaves nothing to be desired. Although on the day of our visit the thermometer stood at about 53°F. many of the men were also wearing their thick cloth overcoats. Every prisoner has fastened in his tunic a small metal plate bearing his registration number. Non-commissioned officers are distinguished by a white linen armlet, crossed by a blue band for corporals, and by a red band for sergeants. The sergeant-major wears a red armlet.
Hygiene.pumps from a well sunk to a—The drinking-water used in camp is drawn by two steam great depth close to the Nile. The Nile water, after passing through a kind of natural filter, is thus lifted into a reservoir above the camp, and is distributed in all directions by gravity. The bacteriological analysis made every week when the supply was first opened—now once a month —showed the water to be perfectly pure. Water for washing purposes is plentiful. Hot and cold shower-baths are installed throughout the camp. The prisoners are obliged to use them once a week, but may, if they choose, have a bath four times a day. In summer especially the baths are never idle. Prisoners get plenty of soap and wash their own linen on wooden tables arranged under water taps. Two high-pressure steam disinfecting chambers serve the camp, and once a week all blankets are passed through them. The camp contains no fleas, lice, or bugs. The day latrines are 100 yards from the living quarters. They are of the Turkish kind, with movable tubs—1 tub for every 10 men. Every tub contains some cresol solution. The night-soil is removed daily by the Cairo road authorities and converted into manure. Some latrines close to the barracks are kept for night use and are locked up during the day.
Medical Attention. is in the hands of head-doctor Captain Camp—The medical service of Maadi Scrimgeour, who in time of peace practised in Nazareth. He is assisted by an English doctor-adjutant, and 4 Arab doctors, natives of Syria. All these doctors speak Turkish and Arabic. Nine English orderlies and 12 Turkish orderlies carry out the sick duties. A dentist comes to camp when required. The infirmary included three well-appointed quarters built in masonry, and able to hold 40 patients. The infirmary bedding accommodation consists of iron bedsteads with spring mattress and stuffed mattress. The blankets are warm and unlimited in number.
Illness.—Every morning 300-400 prisoners come on sick parade. This number represents about 8 per cent. of the strength. Although these men often come to be treated for trifling ailments, such as slight constipation, or even a small boil, the doctors make it a rule not to prevent anyone going sick,
as this course enables them to keep the closer watch upon the health of the camp. On the occasion of our visit there were in the infirmary 7 men laid up: 1 with itch, 1 with diarrhoea, 1 with neuralgia, 1 with an abscess in the neck, 1 with articular rheumatism, and 1 with gastritis. A prisoner who had been trepanned by the doctors on account of damage done to his skull before his capture, was gradually recovering the power of motion and his normal sensibility. Since the camp was opened there have been 35 cases of tertian ague, all from the Hedjaz, Mecca, Taïf and Jeddah; but no case of aggravated malaria. Eleven cases of tuberculosis were sent into the Egyptian Red Cross hospitals and to that at Abbassiah. Six cases of trachoma are now undergoing treatment with applications of protargol. In summer there have been a few cases of ordinary diarrhoea. The camp has not suffered from dysentery, typhoid, typhus, nor any other epidemic disease. All prisoners are inoculated against smallpox, typhoid and cholera.
The Severely Wounded and those who have lost Limbs. contains—A special quarter of the camp 55 men who have lost limbs in the war. They are provided with the most perfect prothesis apparatus, jointed artificial limbs. Among them are 2 blind men. Sixty other wounded who have escaped more lightly suffer from stiffness of the joints, ankylosis and atrophy. They are well provided with sticks and crutches.
Deaths. camp, both from apoplexy. They were interred—Two aged prisoners have died in the with military honours in the Moslem burial-ground nearest to the camp.
Exercise.which exercise may be taken in the open space—No limit is placed upon the time during round the barracks.
Work.—The prisoners have not to do work. Several attempts have been made to teach them boot-making, but their results were so unpromising that they were given up. Although there are many agriculturists among the prisoners, it would not do to use them for work on the land along with the natives, owing to the ease with which they could escape and the need for having many soldiers to guard them. However, for some weeks past the camp commandant has made trial of using some prisoners for market gardening on lands beside the Nile, just outside the camp.
Discipline.—Under the head of discipline there  arehardly any complaints to make, and punishment has rarely had to be inflicted. One case of escape was punished with three months' imprisonment without any alteration in diet. Only tobacco was cut off. An old offender was brought before a court-martial, and sentenced by it to six months' imprisonment. The prison quarters are cells built entirely of cement, with two barred windows well above the ground to light the chamber, which is of ample size.
Right to Make Complaints.—The camp commandant makes a general inspection every day. Every prisoner has the right to step forward and make his complaints. The commandant converses with the prisoners through the medium of several British officers who speak Arabic and Turkish. Moreover, the prisoners have the right of appeal to the Commander-in-Chief and to Brig.-General Casson, who often make tours of inspection through the camps.
Religion.—The prisoners have every opportunity practising their religious observances. For for the Mahometans a small mosque has been built, round which they spread their praying carpets. Some of them read the Koran regularly; others seem indifferent. Despite differences of race, origin, and even of religion, good-feeling prevails among the prisoners and quarrels are very few in number.
Games and Recreations.—As regards games and recreations, the prisoners are interested only in wrestling, cards and dominoes. They have been introduced to football without success. Some have shown great skill in the manufacture of mandolines, guitars, and tambourines. All materials as well as games are provided gratis by the British Government. The camp commandant has bought the men some gramophones. Many prisoners make articles of coloured beads—handbags, purses, necklaces, bracelets, etc.—which show considerable artistic taste. We bought one of these beautiful pieces of work as a specimen. The articles sell readily in the curiosity shops at Cairo. One section of 1,200 prisoners netted from the sales a sum of 2,500 francs in a fortnight.
Correspondence. few letters or none. They are allowed to—Most of the prisoners receive very write in their language once a fortnight, but take very little advantage of the permission. It seems that many letters addressed to their families in Turkey come back again, as the addressee has not been found. Some Turks captured near Bagdad and transported to Burmah received their money from home, but have not received any more during the one or two months that have elapsed since they were transferred to Maadi. It is probable that the money was sent home again, or forwarded officially to the new place of internment, and this takes a long time. Several prisoners have taken advantage of their captivity to learn reading and writing with their comrades' assistance. Many men had money on them when they were taken. This money is lodged, and handed to them at demand in monthly payments. Many soldiers have received money orders from their families through the International Committee of the Red Cross. Parcels, which are seldom received, are opened in the presence of the addressee. Only knives are confiscated.
Help for Prisoners.—Leaving out of the wish expressed by some men to have a consideration little money for buying extra tobacco and coffee, we are satisfied that there are no needy persons in the camp at Maadi.
Mentality.—The many questions which we have asked show that there is no dissatisfaction among the prisoners with regard to the treatment they receive. Prisoners have mentioned to us chiefly their anxiety about their families, of whom they have no news. The Armenian clergy at Cairo look after their fellow-countrymen.
4. The Egyptian Red Cross Hospital at Cairo. (Visited on January 4, 1917.) The Egyptian Red Cross, under the presidency of His Highness Prince Fuad Pasha, being anxious to help its co-religionists, founded in March, 1915, a hospital for sick and wounded prisoners of war. This hospital is under the sole management of the Turkish Red Cross, which is in touch with the British authorities through Dr. Keatinge, Professor of the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo.
Sanitary Staff. In addition to the doctor-in-chief, Dr. Egyptian. are—All the hospital doctors Abbas Bey Helmey, two doctors, three surgeons, and one druggist live in the hospital. Consulting doctors come from the town when sent for to treat nose, ear and eye troubles. A Cairo specialist also places his X-ray apparatus at the service of the hospital patients. The matron is an American, and has three English nurses under her. Thirty-two orderlies do the ward work.
Accommodation. installed in an old palace of Omar-Pasha is—The Egyptian Red Cross Hospital Lufti, situated in a large garden, which is very shady and well kept. The dimensions of the wards assure easy circulation of air and perfect ventilation. As the building was not designed to serve its