Vegetable Teratology - An Account of the Principal Deviations from the Usual Construction of Plants
228 Pages
English
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Vegetable Teratology - An Account of the Principal Deviations from the Usual Construction of Plants

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228 Pages
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The Project Gutenberg eBook, VegetableTeratology, by Maxwell T. Masters, Illustrated by E.M. WilliamsThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Vegetable TeratologyAn Account of the Principal Deviations from the Usual Construction of PlantsAuthor: Maxwell T. MastersRelease Date: November 6, 2007 [eBook #23354]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK VEGETABLE TERATOLOGY*** E-text prepared by Charlene Taylor, Leonard Johnson,and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team(http://www.pgdp.net) THERAY SOCIETY.INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV.This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for the Year 1868.LONDON:MDCCCLXIX.VEGETABLE TERATOLOGY,AN ACCOUNTOF THEPRINCIPAL DEVIATIONS FROM THE USUALCONSTRUCTION OF PLANTSBYMAXWELL T. MASTERS, M.D., F.L.S.WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS BYE. M. WILLIAMS.LONDON:PUBLISHED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY BYROBERT HARDWICKE, 192. PICCADILLY.MDCCCLXIX.TOJOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D.,D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., ETC. ETC.DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL GARDENS, KEW,This VolumeISGRATEFULLY INSCRIBED.TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGEINTRODUCTION xxiBOOK I.DEVIATIONS FROM ORDINARY ARRANGEMENT 1PART I.—Union of Organs 8CHAPTER I.Cohesion 9Cohesion ...

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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Vegetable Teratology, by Maxwell T. Masters, Illustrated by E. M. Williams This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Vegetable Teratology An Account of the Principal Deviations from the Usual Construction of Plants Author: Maxwell T. Masters Release Date: November 6, 2007 [eBook #23354] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 ***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK VEGETABLE TERATOLOGY*** E-text prepared by Charlene Taylor, Leonard Johnson, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net) THE RAY SOCIETY. INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV. This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for the Year 1868. LONDON: MDCCCLXIX. VEGETABLE TERATOLOGY, AN ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL DEVIATIONS FROM THE USUAL CONSTRUCTION OF PLANTS BY MAXWELL T. MASTERS, M.D., F.L.S. WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS BY E. M. WILLIAMS. LONDON: PUBLISHED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY BY ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192. PICCADILLY. MDCCCLXIX. TO JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., ETC. ETC. DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL GARDENS, KEW, This Volume IS GRATEFULLY INSCRIBED. TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGE INTRODUCTION xxi BOOK I. DEVIATIONS FROM ORDINARY ARRANGEMENT 1 PART I.—Union of Organs 8 CHAPTER I. Cohesion 9 Cohesion between axes of same plant, 9—Fasciation, 11—Cohesion of foliar organs, 21—Of margins of single organs, 21—Tubular petals, 23—Cohesion of several organs by their margins, 25—Of the sepals, 27—Of the petals, 28—Of the stamens, 29—Of the pistils, 29—Ascidia or pitchers, 30. CHAPTER II. Adhesion 32 Adhesion of foliar organs, 32—Of leaves by their surfaces, 33—Of foliar to axile organs, 34—Of sepals to petals, 34—Of stamens to petals, 34—Of stamens to pistils, 35—Miscellaneous adhesions, 35—Of fruit to branch, 36— Synanthy, 36—Syncarpy, 45—Synspermy, 50—Between axes of different plants of same species, 50—And of different species, 55—Synophty. PART II.—Independence of Organs 58 CHAPTER I. Fission 59 Fission of axile organs, 60—Of foliar organs, 61—Of petals, 66—Of stamens, 68—Of carpels, 68. CHAPTER II. Dialysis 69 Dialysis of margins of individual parts, 70—Of margins of parts of same whorl-calyx, 70—Of corolla, 71—Of stamens, 73—Of carpels, 73. CHAPTER III. Solution 76 Solution of calyx from ovary, 77—Of stamens from petals, 82. PART III.—Alterations of Position 83 CHAPTER I. Displacement 84 Displacement of bulbs, 84—Of inflorescence, 85—Of leaves, 87—Of parts of flowers, 91—Of carpels, 96—Of placentas and ovules, 96. CHAPTER II. Prolification 100 Prolification of the inflorescence, 102—Median foliar, 103—Median floral, 105—Lateral foliar, 106—Lateral floral, 107—Prolification of the flower, 115—Median foliar, 116—Median floral, 119—Axillary prolification, 138—Foliar, 141—Floral, 142—Complicated prolification, 151—Of embryo, 155. CHAPTER III. Heterotaxy 156 Formation of adventitious roots, 156—Of shoots below the cotyledons, 161—Adventitious leaves, 162—On scapes, 163—Production of leaves or scales in place of flower-buds, 164—Viviparous plants, 168—Formation of buds on leaves, 170—In pith, 171—On bulbs, 172—Production of gemmæ in place of spores, 173—Of flowers on leaves, 174—Of flower-buds in place of leaf-buds, 176—Of flowers on spines, 177—Of flower-buds on petals, 177—On fruits, 178—In ovaries, 180—Of stamens in ovaries, 182—Of pollen in ovules, 185—Homomorphic flowers of Compositæ, 188—Heterotaxy affecting the inflorescence, 188—Supra-soriferous ferns, 190. CHAPTER IV. Heterogamy 190 Change in the position of male and female flowers, 191—From monœcious to diœcious condition, 193—From diœcious to monœcious, 193—From hermaphroditism to unisexuality, 195—From unisexuality to hermaphroditism, 197—Pollen replaced by ovules, 201. CHAPTER V. Alterations in the direction of organs 201 Fastigiation, 202—Eversion, 204—Altered direction of leaves, 205—Altered direction of flower, 206—Reflexion, 209—Gymnaxony, 211. BOOK II. DEVIATIONS FROM ORDINARY FORM 213 PART I.—Stasimorphy 216 CHAPTER I. Persistence of juvenile forms 217 Stasimorphy in leaves of Conifers, 217—Regular peloria, 219. PART II.—Pleiomorphy 228 CHAPTER I. Irregular peloria 228 PART III.—Metamorphy 240 CHAPTER I. Phyllody 241 Phyllody of bracts, 242—In inflorescence of Conifers, 245—Of calyx, 245—Of corolla, 251—Of stamens, 253—Of pistils, 256—Of ovules, 262—Changes in nucleus of ovule, 269—Phyllody of accessory organs, 272—Chloranthy, 273—General remarks on, 278. CHAPTER II. Metamorphy of floral organs 281 Sepalody of petals, 282—Petalody of calyx, calycanthemy, 283—Petalody of stamens, 285—Of anther, 291—Of connective, 293—Compound stamens, 294—Petalody of pistils, 296—Of ovules, 297—Of accessory organs, 297—Staminody of the bracts, 298—Of sepals and petals, 298—Of pistils, 299—Of accessory organs, 301— Pistillody of perianth, 302—Of sepals, 302—Of stamens, 303—Of ovules, 310. PART IV.—Heteromorphy 311 CHAPTER I. Deformities 311 Formation of tubes, 312—In flower, 314—Spurs, 315—Contortion, 316—Spiral torsion, 319—Of leaf, 326— Adventitious tendrils, 326—Interrupted growth, 327—Cornute leaves, 328—Flattening, 328. CHAPTER II. Polymorphy 329 Heterophylly, 330—Dimorphism, 333—Sports or bud-variations, 336. CHAPTER III. Alterations of colour 337 Albinism, 337—Virescence, 338—Chromatism, 339. BOOK III. DEVIATIONS FROM ORDINARY NUMBER 340 PART I.—Increased Number of Organs 343 CHAPTER I. Multiplication of axile organs—inflorescence 346 Multiplication of branches, 346—Plica, 346—Polyclady, 347—Multiplication of branches of inflorescence, 348—Of bulbs, 350—Of florets, 351. CHAPTER II. Multiplication of foliar organs 352 Pleiophylly, 353—Multiplication of stipules, bracts, &c., 357—Polyphylly, 358—Increased number of leaves in a whorl, 358—Polyphylly of bracts, 358—Of calyx, 358—Of corolla, 359—Of andrœcium, 361—Of gynœcium, 363— Of flower in general, 365—Increased number of ovules and seeds, 367—Of embryos, 369—Of cotyledons, 370— Pleiotaxy, or multiplication of whorls, 371—Pleiotaxy of bracts, 371—Of calyx, 374—Of perianth, 375—Of corolla (hose in hose), 376—Andrœcium, 379—Andrœcium of Orchids, 380—Pleiotaxy of gynœcium, 388—Increased number of flowers in an inflorescence, 391. PART II.—Diminished Number of Organs 392 CHAPTER I. Suppression of Axile Organs 393 Acaulosia, 393—Non-development of peduncle, 393—Nature of calyx-tube (Casimir de Candolle), 394— Suppression of columella, 395. CHAPTER II. Suppression of Foliar Organs 395 Aphylly, 395—Meiophylly, 396—Of calyx or perianth, 396—Of corolla, 397—Of andrœcium, 398—Of gynœcium, 399—Of flower, 400—Meiotaxy, 403—Of calyx, 403—Of corolla, 403—Of andrœcium, 405—Of gynœcium, 406—Of ovules or seeds, 407—Of flower, 408—General remarks on suppression, 409. BOOK IV. DEVIATIONS FROM ORDINARY SIZE AND CONSISTENCE 413 PART I—Hypertrophy 416 CHAPTER I. Enlargement 417 Of axile organs, 418—Knaurs, 419—Enlargement of buds, 420—Of flower-stalk, 421—In pears, 423—Of placenta, 424—Of leaves, 426—Development of parts usually abortive, 427—Enlargement of perianth, 428—Of andrœcium, 430—Of gynœcium, 430—Of fruit, 431—Alterations of consistence, 432. CHAPTER II. Elongation 488 Elongation of root, 434—Of inflorescence, 434—Of flower-stalks, 435—Of leaves, 437—Of parts of flower, 438— Of thalamus and placenta, 440—Apostasis, 440. CHAPTER III. Enation 443 Excrescences from axile organs, warts, 444—Enation from leaves, 445—From sepals, 448—From petals, 448— Catacorolla, 451—Enation from stamens, 453—From carpels, 453. PART II.—Atrophy 454 CHAPTER I. Abortion 455 Abortion of axile organs, 455—Of receptacle, 457—Of leaves, 458—Of perianth, calyx, and corolla, 460—Of stamens, 463—Of pollen, 463—Of pistil, fruit, &c., 464—Of ovules, 466—Depauperated ferns, 466—General remarks, 467. CHAPTER II. Degeneration 470 Formation of scales, 470—Of hairs, 472—Of glands, 473—Of tendrils, 473. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. General morphology of the leaf and axis, 476.—Homology, 476—Special morphology, 479—Calyx-tube, 480— Andrœcium, 482—Inferior ovary, 482—Placentation, 483—Structure of the ovule, 484—Leaves of Conifers, 484— Relative position of organs, 484—Law of alternation, 485—Co-relation, 486—Compensation, 488—Teratology and classification, 488. APPENDIX. Double flowers, varieties of, 491—Causes of production, 491—Relation to variegated foliage, 497—List of plants producing, 499. NOTE 508 INDEX TO SUBJECTS 511 INDEX OF NAMES OF PLANTS 517 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. FIG. PAGE 1. Diagram of regular pentamerous flower 4 2. Cohesion of branch Dipsacus sylvestris 10 3. Fasciated lettuce ('Gard. Chron.') 11 4. Fasciation in Asparagus 12 5. Fasciation in Pinus Pinaster 13 6. Fasciation and spiral torsion in Asparagus ('Gard. Chron.') 14 7. Fasciation in scape of dandelion 16 8. Pitcher on leaf of Pelargonium 22 9. Transition from flat to tubular segments of the perianth in Eranthis 24 10. Pitcher of Crassula arborescens (C. Morren) 26 11. Gamopetalous corolla, Papaver bracteatum 28 12. Adhesion of petaloid stamen to segment of perianth, Crocus 35 13. Adhesion of petal, stamen and carpel, Cheiranthus Cheiri 36 14. Synanthy. Campanula Medium ('Gard. Chron.') 37 15, 16. Synanthic flowers of Calanthe vestita 39 17. Synanthy in Digitalis purpurea ('Gard. Chron.') 40 18. Synanthy in Calceolaria 41 19, 20. Syncarpic apples 47 21. Adhesion of two stems of oak ('Gard. Chron.') 51 22. Adhesion of branches of elm ('Gard. Chron.') 52 23. Adhesion of two roots of carrot, one white, the other red ('Gard. Chron.') 53 24. Section through inverted and adherent mushrooms 54 25. Bifurcated male catkin, Cedrus Libani 61 26. Bifurcated leaf, Lamium album 62 27. Bifurcated leaf, Pelargonium 63 28. Bifurcated frond, Scolopendrium 64 29. Three-lobed lip of Oncidium 68 30. Dialysis of corolla in Correa 71 31. Dialysis of corolla in Campanula (De Candolle) 72 32. Anomalous form of orange 74 33, 34. Disjoined carpels of orange (Maout) 75 35. Proliferous rose (Bell Salter) 78 36, 37. Apple flower, with detached calyx, &c. 79 38. Flower of Œnanthe crocata, with detached calyx, &c. 80 39. Anomalous bulbs of tulip 85 40. Displaced leaf of Gesnera (C. Morren) 88 41. Leaves of Pinus pinea 89 42. Deranged leaves of yew 90 43. Cohesion of sepals and displacement of parts of Oncidium cucullatum 92 44. Malformed flower of Cypripedium 93 45. Diagram of the same 93 46. Diagram of natural structure in Cypripedium 93 47. Diagram of malformed flower of Lycaste Skinneri 93 48. Diagram of malformed flower of Dendrobium nobile 94 49. Natural arrangement in same flower 94 50. Diagram of malformed violet 94 51. Monstrous flower of Cerastium ('Gard. Chron.') 97 52. Inflorescence of Polyanthus, with tufts of leaves at the summit 105 53. Lateral prolification in inflorescence of Pelargonium 108 54. Paniculate inflorescence of Plantago major 109 55. Branched spike and leafy bracts of the same 110 56. Inflorescence of Plantago lanceolata, with leaves and secondary flower-stalks at its summit 111 57. Branched inflorescence of Reseda Luteola 112 58. Thalamus of strawberry prolonged into a leafy branch ('American Agriculturist') 116 59. Flower of Verbascum, with dialysis of calyx and corolla and prolonged thalamus 116 60. Median floral prolification of Dianthus 120 61. Leafy carpels and prolification of Daucus Carota 123 62. Median floral prolification of Delphinium 126 63. Median prolification, &c., of Orchis pyramidalis 128 64. Proliferous rose (Bell Salter) 130 65. Axillary floral prolification of Nymphæa Lotus ('Gard. Chron.') 144 66. Axillary floral prolification of Dianthus 146 67. Proliferous rose 151 68. Proliferous rose ('Gard. Chron.') 152 69. Diagram of prolified orchid 153 70. Diagram of prolified orchis 154 70. Diagram of prolified orchis 154 71. Adventitious roots from petiole of celery 158 72. Germinating plant of mango 159 73, 74. Adventitious roots from leaves 160 75. Hip of rose bearing leaf 162 76. Leaves proceeding from the ovary of Nymphæa sp. 162 77. Flower-stalk of dandelion, with leaves 163 78. Tuft of leaves in place of flowers in Valeriana sp. 165 79. Scale-bearing spikelets of Willdenovia 167 80. "Rose Willow" 167 81. Viviparous flowers of Aira vivipara 169 82. Formation of shoot on leaf of Episcia bicolor 171 83. Adventitious buds on root of sea-kale 172 84, 85. Production of adventitious bulbs in hyacinth ('Gard. Chron.') 172 86. Adventitious buds on hyacinth ('Gard. Chron ') 173 87–92. Nepaul barley 174, 175 93. Formation of buds on fruit of Opuntia 179 94. Flower-bud in the pod of Sinapis 181 94*, 95. Adventitious pod in silique of Cheiranthus 182 96, 97. Grapes, with adventitious fruits in interior 183 98. Stamens in ovary of Bæckea diosmifolia 184 99. Pollen in ovule of passion flower (S. J. Salter) 185 100. Female flowers at the summit of the inflorescence of Carex acuta 192 101. Monœcious hop ('Gard. Chron.') 193 102. Superior ovary, &c., of fuchsia 198 103. Hermaphrodite flower of Carica 199 104. Ovuliferous anthers of Cucurbita sp. 200 105, 106. Prolonged inflorescence of fig 205 107. Hollow turnip, with inverted leaves 206 108. Normal flower of Gloxinia 207 109. Regular peloria of Gloxinia 207 110, 111. Structural details of erect Gloxinia 208 112. Reflected corolla of azalea 209 113, 114. Enlarged and erect placenta of Cuphea miniata (C. Morren) 210 115. Dimorphic leaves of Juniperus sinensis 217 116. Regular peloria of Delphinium 219 117. Structural details of the preceding 219 118. Regular peloria of violet 220 119. Double-flowered regular violet 220 120. Regular peloria of Eccremocarpus scaber 222 121. Regular peloria of Cattleya 223 122. Peloria of Calceolaria 230 123. Peloric flower of Aristolochia 232 124, 125. Peloric flowers of Corydalis 236 126. Rose plantain 242 127. Leafy bracts in Plantago major 243 128. Leafy scales of Dahlia 244 129. Leafy sepals of rose 246 130. Leafy sepals of Fuchsia ('Gard. Chron.') 247 131. Leafy calyx of primrose 248 132. Leafy calyx of melon 248 133. Leafy sepals and petals of Geranium 251 134. Leafy stamens of Petunia 254 135, 136. Leafy anthers of Jatropha (Müller) 255 137. Proliferous rose, with leafy carpels, &c. (Bell Salter) 257 138. Cucumber, with adventitious leaf attached (S. J. Salter) 258 139. Leafy carpels in flower of Triumfetta 260 140. Leafy ovules of Sinapis 264 141, 142. Leafy ovules of Trifolium repens (Caspary) 265 143. Portion of leafy carpel of Delphinium, with ovules (Cramer) 266 144, 145. Enlarged view of section of leafy carpel, &c., of Delphinium (Cramer) 267 146. Placentæ of Dianthus, bearing ovules and carpels ('Gard. Chron.') 268 147. Ovules passing into carpels, Dianthus ('Gard. Chron.') 268 148. Leafy shoot in place of ovule of Gaillardia 270 149, 150. Leafy sepals, petals, &c., of Epilobium 273 151. Leafy carpel of rose, with deformed ovules 274 152. Flower of St. Valery apple 282 153. Petaloid calyx of Mimulus 284 154. Double stellate columbine 287 155. Four-winged filaments of Rhododendron 290 156. Diagram of malformed flower of Catasetum 291 157. Petaloid stamen of Viola 292 158. Double columbine 293 159. Petaloid stamens of Hibiscus 293