Panorama of energy. Energy statistics to support EU policies and solutions. Edition 2009 papier + cédérom.


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Panorama of energy Energy statistics to support EU policies and solutions
2009 edition
ISSN 1831-3256
S t a t ist ic al b o o k s
Panorama of energy
Energy statistics to support EU
policies and solutions
This second edition of the Panorama on energy
endeavours to deliver global characteristics of the Panorama of energy
energy situation in Europe, using the most recent offi cial
data available in Eurostat. It covers the main energy Energy statistics to support EU policies and solutions
themes for EU-27 as well as for each individual Member
State and quantifi es them. Community energy policies
receive deserved attention and in order to demonstrate
the dynamic nature of the subject and how new policies
call for new solutions, a few statistical projects will
illustrate recent development work in cooperation with
the Member States. A CD is included which apart from a
substantial amount of documentary information, invites
the reader to review statistical data by means of an easy-
to-use numerical presentation tool.
2009 edition
ISBN 978-92-79-11151-8
Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: EUR 30
9 7 8 9 2 7 9 1 1 1 5 1 8Statistical books
Panorama of energy
Energy statistics to support EU policies and solutions
2009 editionEurope Direct is a service to help you fnd answers
to your questions about the European Union
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Luxembourg: Ofce for Ofcial Publications of the European Communities, 2009
ISBN 978-92-79-11151-8
ISSN 1831-3256
doi 10.2785/26846
Cat. No. KS-GH-09-001-EN-C

Theme: Environment and energy
Collection: Statistical books
© European Communities, 2009
© Cover photo: Jose Ignacio Soto©fotolia
Copyrights for pictures: page 1 - © Roeland Mertens; page 9 - © Phovoir; page 19 - © European
Communities; page 101 - © European Communities; page 123 - © European CommunitiesEUROSTAT
L-2920 Luxembourg — Tel. (352) 43 01-1 — website
Eurostat is the Statistical Office of the European Communities. Its mission is to pro-
vide the European Union with high-quality statistical information. For that purpose,
it gathers and analyses figures from the national statistical offices across Europe and
provides comparable and harmonised data for the European Union to use in the defi-
nition, implementation and analysis of Community policies. Its statistical products
and services are also of great value to Europe’s business community, professional
organisations, academics, librarians, NGOs, the media and citizens.
Eurostat's publications programme consists of several collections:
News releases provide recent information on the Euro-Indicators and on social,
economic, regional, agricultural or environmental topics.
Statistical books are larger A4 publications with statistical data and analysis.
Pocketbooks are free of charge publications aiming to give users a set of basic fig-
ures on a specific topic.
Statistics in focus provides updated summaries of the main results of surveys, stud-
ies and statistical analysis.
Data in focus present the most recent statistics with methodological notes.
Methodologies and working papers are technical publications for statistical
experts working in a particular field.
Eurostat publications can be ordered via the EU Bookshop at http://bookshop.
All publications are also downloadable free of charge in PDF format from the Eurostat
website Furthermore, Eurostat’s databases are freely
available there, as are tables with the most frequently used and demanded short-
and long-term indicators.
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network of user support centres which exist in nearly all Member States as well as in
some EFTA countries. Their mission is to provide help and guidance to Internet users
of European statistical data. Contact details for this support network can be found
on Eurostat Internet site.
ttttttProject Management: Roeland Mertens
Publication Management: Jelle Bosch
Authors: Jelle Bosch
Francis X. Johnson
Emmanuel Clément
Roeland Mertens
Nikos Roubanis
Internal reviewers: Peter Tavoularidis
Roeland Mertens
Nikos Roubanis
John Görten
Ruxandra Roman Enescu
Desktop publishing: Raphaëlle Méot
For further information:
Other comments and questions: Peter Tavoularidis, Head-of-Unit Energy Statistics
Tel. (+352) 4301 33023
Peter.Tavoularidis@ec.europa.euTable of Contents
Chapter 1 - European Union energy policy 1
1.1 Overview and historical background 4
1.2 The internal market 4
1.3 Energy security and import dependence 5
1.4 Towards an energy-efficient European economy 5
1.5 Renewable energy 6
1.6 International cooperation 7
Chapter 2 - Analysis of energy trends in the European Union 9
Chapter 3 - Energy profiles of the EU Member States 19
3.1 European Union (EU-27) 21
3.2 Belgium 26
3.3 Bulgaria 29
3.4 Czech Republic 31
3.5 Denmark 34
3.6 Germany 37
3.7 Estonia 40
3.8 Ireland 42
3.9 Greece 45
3.10 Spain 48
3.11 France 51
3.12 Italy 54
3.13 Cyprus 57
3.14 Latvia 59
3.15 Lithuania 62
3.16 Luxembourg 65
3.17 Hungary 68
3.18 Malta 70
3.19 Netherlands 72
3.20 Austria 75
3.21 Poland 78
3.22 Portugal 81
3.23 Romania 84
3.24 Slovenia 87
3.25 Slovakia 90
3.26 Finland 92
3.27 Sweden 95
3.28 United Kingdom 98Chapter 4 - Prices and Taxes 101
4.1 Introduction 103
4.2 Prices and taxes for household consumers 105
4.2.1 Electricity prices and taxes for household consumers 105
4.2.2 Gas prices and taxes f 108
4.2.3 Heating gas oil prices for delivery to household consumers 111
4.2.4 Automotive fuel prices 113
4.3 Prices and taxes for industrial end-users 117
4.3.1 Electricity prices and taxes for industrial end-users 117
4.3.2 Gas prices and taxes for industrial end-users 119
4.3.3 Residual fuel oil prices for delivery to industrial end-users 121
Chapter 5 - New developments in Eurostat’s energy statistics 123
5.1 Renewable energy sources 125
5.2 New methodology on gas and electricity prices 134European Union energy policyEuropean Union energy policy 1
A new era is at hand for energy and environment in the and complexity of energy and climate targets established. Te
European Community. Te current legislative and regulatory National Energy Efciency Action Plans aim for 9% savings
agenda for energy is arguably broader and more complex than by 2016 while the proposed Renewables Directive aims for
(1)it has ever been, with proposals now being debated on 20% of all energy to come from Renewables by 2020 . Te
renewables, fuel quality, the internal market, emissions ETS along with other climate policy instruments are aimed at
(2)trading, and a host of related issues. Te shear number of new a 20% GHG reduction by 2020 .
proposals, initiatives, dialogues, regulations, and international
Te climate challenge has emerged as the main pillar of EU
fora is overwhelming, even as the Community must also deal
policies aimed at accelerating the transition to sustainable
with the challenge of absorbing 12 new Member States during
energy. As the world’s leader on energy and climate policy,
the past four years. the EU faces the twin challenge of living up to its ambitions,
It is instructive to note various phases across the key while at the same time aiming to stimulate global markets
dimensions of EU energy policy. Selected developments are towards a sustainable energy future. More traditional
depicted in Figure 1.1. Te market opening is now entering its concerns such as energy security and competitiveness also
third phase, the EU emissions trading system (ETS) has remain high on the agenda. Tis chapter reviews some of the
entered its second phase, the second Energy Efciency Action essential elements of European Union Energy Policy, with
Plan is underway and renewable energy legislation is entering special emphasis on recently enacted or proposed legislation
its second phase. Integrated approaches are becoming the and the implications for reaching the fundamental objectives
norm; the Renewables Directive was part of the major energy of a secure, competitive and sustainable energy future for
and climate package unveiled by the Commission in early Europe.
2008. Te coming years will be challenging, given the variety
Figure 1.1: Development of EU energy policies over time
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 …….2020
Market Opening-1
Market Opening-2
Market Opening-3Competitiveness
Renewable Energy Directive-1
Renewable Energy Directive-2Sustainability
Biofuels Directive
Energy-Efficiency-Action Plan 1
Energy-Efficiency-Action Plan 2Efciency
National Energy Efficiency Action Plans
EU Emissions Trading System
ETS-Phase-1 ETS-Phase-2 ETS-Phase-3
Kyoto Negotiations
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 …….2020
eurostat■ 3