Towards cooperation among researchers of vocational education and training in Europe
122 Pages
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Towards cooperation among researchers of vocational education and training in Europe


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122 Pages


Papers presented at the platform meeting of European Vocational Training Research Institutes, 27 September 1991
Vocational training
Research policy and organisation



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§ Towards cooperation
E among researchers of
o vocational education and
§ training in Europe
Papers presented at the
Q- platform meeting of
? European Vocational Training
uj Research Institutes
Q (27 September 1991)
V ^ European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training HH* Towards cooperation among researchers of vocational
C education and training in Europe
Papers presented at the platform meeting of European
Vocational Training Research Institutes (27 September 1991), E
■■ organized by CEDEFOP
O Peter Grootings (CEDEFOP), Michael Stefanov (Sofia), Jan
Q Herber (Bratislava), Andras Benedek and Gyula Jakus
(Budapest), Ewa Czarnocka (Warsaw), Virgiliu Radulian
Û (Bucharest), Olga Oleinikova (Moscow), Asa Peterson and
Christer Marking (Stockholm), Matti Haavio and Kirsi Λ
Q a Kangaspunta (Helsinki), Ray D. Ryan (Ohio, USA)
^ ^ First edition, Berlin 1992
Published by:
^ ^ CEDEFOP — European Centre for the Development of
Vocational Training LU Jean Monnet House, Bundesallee 22, D-W-1000 Berlin 15
Tel. (030) 88 41 20; Fax (030) 88 41 22 22; O
Telex184 163eucend
The Centre was established by Regulation (EEC) No 337/75 of
the Council of the European Communities Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1992
ISBN 92-826-4621-1
Articles and texts appearing in this document may be reproduced freely in whole or in part providing their
source is mentioned.
Printed in Belgium TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface 1
1. Peter Grootings, CEDEFOP, Berlin
The Modernization of Vocational Education and
Training Systems in Central and Eastern Europe: The
Role of Research Cooperation 3
2. Michael Stefanov, Bulgarian National Association
for Vocational and Technical Training, Sofia
Developments in Vocational Training Research in
Bulgaria 10
3. Jan Herber, Pedagogic Research Institute,
Some Problems of Research on Education in the
Slovak Republic9
4. Andras Benedek and Gyula Jakus, National Institute
for Vocational Education, Budapest
The Development of Vocational Training Research and
Research Needs in Hungary 24
5. Ewa Czarnocka, University of Warsaw
An Overview of Vocational Training Research and
Research Needs in Poland 38
6. Virgiliu Radulian, Institute of Educational
Sciences, Bucharest
Short and Long-Term Problems in Vocational
Education and Training in Rumania 44
7. Olga Oleinikova, Academy of Pedagogic Sciences,
The Impact of the Latest Events in the Soviet Union
7on Education and Training Policies
Asa Petterson and Christer Marking, Commission for
the Development of Competence and Skill in Working
Life, Stockholm
Development of Competence and Skill in Working Life
82 in Sweden
III 9. Matti Haavio and Kirsi Kangaspunta, Ministry of
Education and National Board of Education, Helsinki
Qualifications, Skill Shortages and Vocational
Education: Experiences and Prospects in Finland 88
10. Ray D. Ryan, Centre on Education and Training for
Employment, The Ohio State University, Columbus,
Recent Developments in Education and Training for
Employment in the United States of America 102 Preface
The papers in this publication were presented and discussed at
a meeting of representatives of vocational training research
institutes which was organized by CEDEFOP and held on 27th
September 1991.
The meeting, intended to provide a platform for the institutes
represented, took place after CEDEFOP's FORUM of Research
Institutes, an annual conference for vocational training
research institutes from the twelve EC Member States. The
"platform meeting" was to provide an opportunity for FORUM
participants to meet with research colleagues from countries
of central and eastern Europe and discuss recent developments
in research in these countries; its ultimate goal was to
stimulate cooperation between and among the research
institutes represented.
The platform meeting thus brought together representatives of
research institutes in the EC Member States, researchers from
Austria, Finland and Sweden, from the Czech and Slovak
Republic, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and the Soviet Union, and
one guest from the United States of America.
Clearly, the situation in central and eastern Europe is
changing so rapidly that, even disregarding differences in
terms of the depth and scope of the information presented
here, much of the content of the contributions will be of only
transitory value. We have nevertheless decided to publish
these papers because each documents the tremendous problems
currently facing the research communities there. Without
cooperation with colleagues from the West it would be very
difficult for the countries of central and eastern Europe to
build up professional research and development capacities of
their own. Without such capacities, however, these countries
would have no sound basis for developing their own policies
for modernizing their education and training systems. The papers on recent developments in Sweden, Finland and the
United States open up extra dimensions by discussing new
issues emerging in the West for which appropriate responses
are still being sought there. These are issues which are yet
to be included as considerations in the discussions on
modernizing vocational education and training systems in
Peter Grootings
How vocational education and training provision in the
countries of central and eastern Europe can best be modernized
is a question which has to be addressed within the broader
context of the political, economic, and social changes now
taking place in these countries. This implies making a
distinction between
a) short-term policies to cope with the acute problems arising
during the transition period, and
b) long-term policies to sustain progress once the situation
has been more or less stabilized. Additionally, modernization
policies have to be assessed within an even broader,
international context, a context which for Poland, Hungary,
and the Czech and Slovak Republic involves in the first
instance stronger political and economic cooperation with
countries in Western Europe (EC and EFTA) with a view to
eventual integration into a redesigned European Community and,
ultimately, the implication of competition with modern,
developed world economies. Only such a two-pronged analysis
can provide a basis for effectively defining what
collaboration and/or assistance would be most appropriate in
the field of vocational education and training. Developments in vocational education and training (VET)
In most if not all countries of central and eastern Europe,
the VET situation is dramatic: on the one hand the almost
total collapse of the system as a whole but particularly of
its traditional pillars (initial and continuing training for
young people and adults), and on the other only initial steps
towards setting up a system for retraining the unemployed.
The drama can be explained by the fact that VET systems in
these countries, although different, have traditionally been
directly dependent on and organized to cater for fully planned
employment systems. In each case the collapse of the t system precipitated thee of the VET system.
But in many of these countries, VET had been a subject of
criticism since the mid-1970s and, in the absence of any
profound reforms, most systems were already badly in need of
modernization long before the national economy collapsed.
Now, the situation has worsened insofar as the collapse has
affected virtually all elements of the VET system: decision­
making structures, financing, content development, provision,
monitoring, evaluation, and research and. The
collapse of the research and development structures, for all
their previous pedagogic restrictiveness, is of course now
seriously hindering the development of a modern VET system.
On the other side of Europe, VET systems have had a fairly
turbulent time as they have struggled to cope with the new
challenges raised by changes on the labour market. The first
period of turbulence had hardly been negotiated before the
next appeared on the horizon. Simplifying matters somewhat,
there have been two periods of change.