Africa Development Indicators 2008/09
216 Pages
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Africa Development Indicators 2008/09

YouScribe would like you to have this content free of charge
216 Pages


Africa Development Indicators 2008/09 (ADI) provides the most detailed collection of data on Africa available in one volume. It puts together data from different sources, making it an essential tool for policy makers, researchers, and other people interested in Africa. This year's ADI addresses the issue of youth employment. The report shows that success in addressing youth employment in will not be achieved and sustained through fragmented and isolated interventions. Instead it finds that an arching guideline for addressing the youth employment challenge is the need for an integrated strategy for rural development, growth and job creation - which covers the demand and the supply sides of the labor market and takes into account the youth mobility from rural to urban areas - combined with targeted interventions to help young people overcome disadvantages in entering and remaining in the labor market. This edition includes the Africa Development Indicators 2008/09 Single User CD-ROM and opening articles from leading economists reporting and analyzing key African economic and development issues.



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Youth and Employment in Africa:
T e Potential, the Problem, the PromiseYOUTH AND
The Potential, the Problem,
the Promise
THE WORLD BANKCopyright © 2009 the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development/T e World Bank
1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.
All rights reserved
Manufactured in the United States of America
First printing December 2008
T is volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / T e World Bank. T e fi nd-
ings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily refl ect the views of the Executive Directors of
T e World Bank or the governments they represent.
T e World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. T e boundaries, colors, denominations, and
other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of T e World Bank concerning the legal
status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
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You can email us at
Cover design by Word Express, Inc.
Dohatec New Media prepared the navigation structure and interface design of the Africa Development Indicators 2008/09 CD-
Photo credits: front cover Jonathan Ernst and back cover Arne Hoel/World Bank.
T e map of Africa is provided by T e Map Design Unit/World Bank.
ISBN: 978-0-8213-7787-1
e-ISBN: 978-0-8213-7795-6
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7787-1
SKU: 17787Contents
Foreword vi
Acknowledgements vii
Youth and Employment in Africa – T e Potential, the Problem, the Promise 1
Introduction 1
Stylized facts about youth and labor markets in Africa 5
Policy response requires an integrated, multi-sector approach 11
and close monitoring
Conclusions 23
Essay references 25
Indicator tables 27
Part I. Basic indicators and national accounts
1. Basic indicators
1.1 Basic indicators 28
2. National accounts
2.1 Gross domestic product, nominal 29
2.2 Groduct, real 30
2.3 Groduct growth 31
2.4 Gross domestic product per capita, real 32
2.5 Groduct per capita growth 33
2.6 Gross national income, nominal 34
2.7 Grome, Atlas method 35
2.8 Gross national income per capita 36
2.9 Gross domestic product defl ator (local currency series) 37
2.10 Gr ator (U.S. dollar series) 38
2.11 Consumer price index 39
2.12 Price indices 40
2.13 Gross domestic savings 41
2.14 Gross national savings 42
2.15 General government fi nal consumption expenditure 43
2.16 Household fi nal consumption expenditure 44
2.17 Final consumption expenditure plus discrepancy 45
2.18 Final coe plus discrepancy per capita 46
2.19 Agriculture value added 47
2.20 Industry value added 48
2.21 Services plus discrepancy value added 49
2.22 Gross fi xed capital formation 50
2.23 Gross general government fi xed capital formation 51
2.24 Private sector fi xed capital formation 52
2.25 Resource balance (exports minus imports) 53
Contents iii2.26 Exports of goods and services, nominal 54
2.27 Imports of goods and servic55
2.28 Exportvices 56
2.29 Imporvices 57
2.30 Balance of payment and current account 58
2.31 Structure of demand 59
2.32 Exchange rates and Purchasing Power Parity 60
Part II. Millennium Developing Goals
3. Millennium Developing Goals
3.1 Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 62
3.2 Millennium Development Goal 2: achieve universal primary education 64
3.3 Millennium Development Goal 3: promote gender equity and empower women 65
3.4 Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality 66
3.5 Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health 67
3.6 Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 68
3.7 Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability 70
3.8 Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development 72
Part III. Development outcomes
4. Paris Declaration indicators
4.1 Status of Paris Declaration Indicators 74
5. Private sector development
5.1 Business environment 76
5.2 Investment climate 78
6. Trade
6.1 International trade and tariff barriers 80
6.2 Top three exports and share in total exports, 2006 84
6.3 Regional integration, trade blocs 87
7. Infrastructure
7.1 Water and sanitation 88
7.2 Transportation 90
7.3 Information and communication technology 92
7.4 Energy 94
7.5 Financial sector infrastructure 96
8. Human development
8.1 Education 98
8.2 Health 100
9. Agriculture, rural development, and environment
9.1 Rural development 104
9.2 Agriculture 106
9.3 Environment 108
9.4 Climate change 112
10. Labor, migration, and population
10.1 Labor force participation 114
10.2 Labor force composition 116
10.3 Unemployment 118
10.4 Migration and population 120
iv Africa Development Indicators 2008/0911. HIV/AIDS
11.1 HIV/AIDS 122
12. Malaria
12.1 Malaria 124
13. Capable states and partnership
13.1 Aid and debt relief 126
13.2 Capable states 128
13.3 Governance and anticorruption indicators 130
13.4 Country policy and institutional assessment ratings 132
13.5 Polity indicators 134
Part IV. Household welfare
14. Household welfare
14.1 Burkina Faso household survey, 2003 135
14.2 Cameroon household survey, 2001 136
14.3 Ethiopia household survey, 1999/00 137
14.4 Liberivey, 2007 138
14.5 Malawi household survey, 2003/04 139
14.6 Niger household survey, 2005 140
14.7 Nigeria household survey, 2003/04 141
14.8 São Tomé and Principe household survey, 2000/01 142
14.9 Sierra Leone household survey, 2002/03 143
14.10 Tanzania household survey, 2000/01 144
14.11 Ugandvey, 2005/06 145
Users Guide 147
Technical notes 151
Technical notes references 203
User’s Guide: Africa Development Indicators 2008/09 CD-ROM 205
Contents vForeword
For centuries, data have been used as an in- To eff ectively serve as a tool for transpar-
strument for decision-making. To choose be- ency, any data set must meet certain criteria.
tween two public policy options—whether or First, it must be accurate. All data in the ADI
not to build a bridge, for example—analysts are rigorously checked and cross-checked;
use data to evaluate the costs and benefi ts of only those data that pass various statistical
each option and inform the decision-maker tests make it in the document. Second, the
accordingly. More recently, data have taken data must be accessible to the public. T is
on a new role: as an instrument for holding is why ADI is disseminated worldwide; the
policymakers accountable. When data are new, improved on-line version permits easy
made publicly available, the public can use access and manipulation of the data to suit
data to question policymakers’ decisions, individual needs and tastes. T ird, the data
and hold them accountable, if not imme- must be salient—it must be about issues
diately then periodically through the ballot that people care about. T is year’s version
box. T e publication of citizen report cards includes new datasets on climate change,
in Bangalore, India; the public expenditure confl ict, and governance, among others.
tracking surveys in Uganda; and Transpar- Following a two-year-old tradition, the
ency International’s worldwide corruption ADI also has an essay: “Youth and Employ-
indices are but three examples where data ment in Africa—T e Potential, the Problem,
have empowered citizens to hold public of- the Promise.” T e choice of this topic is obvi-
fi cers to account. ous. Finding productive employment for the
T e Africa Development Indicators 200 million Africans between the ages of 15
(ADI) seeks to fulfi ll both roles. Originally and 24 is surely one of the continent’s great-
intended as a tool for aiding decision-mak- est challenges. What the essay shows, how-
ing by presenting cross-country compari- ever, is that the median young person in Af-
sons of various data (to discern patterns in rica is a poor, out-of-school female living in
African development, as well as exceptions a rural area. T is fi nding—based on a careful
to those patterns), ADI has evolved into a examination of the data—has important
tool for transparency as well. Journalists, implications for policy design, as well as for
researchers, students, Civil Society Organi- the politics of youth-sensitive policies. Once
zations and other citizens use the compara- again, data can play the dual role of inform-
tive data in ADI to ask questions such as: ing policy choices and empowering citizens
why their country is not performing as well to hold politicians accountable.
in some dimensions as other, comparable
countries; or alternatively, why their coun-
try is in fact doing so well but getting very Obiageli K. Ezekwesili
little credit for it. Vice President, Africa Region
vi Africa Development Indicators 2008/09Acknowledgments
Africa Development Indicators (ADI) is a T e boxes in the book and in the techni-
product of the Africa Region of the World cal notes benefi ted from contributions from
Bank. Aziz Bouzaher (climate change), Sebastien
Jorge Saba Arbache was the manager of Dessus (PPP), John May (demographic tran-
this book and its companions—Africa De- sition), Gary Milante (confl icts), Deepak
velopment Indicators Online 2008/09, Afri- Mishra and Mesfi n Girma Bezawagaw (in-
ca Development Indicators 2008/09—Mul- fl ation), Pierella Paci and Catalina Gutierrez
tiple User CD-ROM, and Little Data Book (unemployment), David Wilson and Eliza-
on Africa 2008/09. Rose Mungai led the beth Lule (HIV prevalence and incidence),
work on data gathering, consistency checks Quentin Wodon (food prices, role of faith-
and compilation. T e core team included inspired organizations, and poverty and mi-
Mpho Chinyolo, Francoise Genouille, Jane gration), and Ali Zafar (franc zone).
K. Njuguna, and Christophe Rockmore. Aziz Bouzaher provided guidance for the
T e overall work was carried out under the table on climate change, and Gary Milante
guidance and supervision of Shantayanan for the tables on confl icts and polity.
Devarajan, Chief Economist of the Africa Ann Karasanyi and Ken Omondi pro-
Region. vided administrative and logistical support.
Pablo Suarez Robles provided research Delfi n Go and Yutaka Yoshino provided gen-
assistance, and Harold Alderman, Mayra Bu- eral comments and suggestions.
vinic, Louise Fox, Caterina R. Laderchi, and Several institutions provided data to ADI.
Paul Moreno-Lopez provided useful com- T eir contribution is very much appreciated.
ments on an earlier draft of the essay. T e Word Express, Inc. provided design
Azita Amjadi, Abdolreza Farivari, Richard direction, editing, and layout. Dohatec New
Fix, Shelley Lai Fu, Shahin Outadi, William Media prepared the navigation structure and
Prince, Atsushi Shimo and Malarvizhi Veer- interface design of the Africa Development
appan collaborated in the data production. Indicators 2008/09 CD-ROM.
Maja Bresslauer, Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary, Staff from External Aff airs, including
Victor Gabor and Soong Sup Lee collaborat- Herbert Boh, Richard Crabbe, Lillian Foo,
ed in the update of the Live Data Base. Me- Gozde Isik, Valentina Kalk, and Malika Khek
hdi Akhlaghi collaborated in the production oversaw publication and dissemination of
of the Little Data Book on Africa 2008/09. the book and its companions.
Acknowledgments viiYouth and Employment in Africa –
T e Potential, the Problem, the Promise
Today’s world population counts an estimat- Table 1 Incidence of poverty among young people (in %)
in Sub-Saharan Africaed 1.2 billion people at the ages of 15 to 24
years, an increase of 17% compared to 1995,
Country Less than US$ 2 per dayor 18% of the world population. About 87%
Burundi, 1998 85.7of these young people live in countries with
Côte d’Ivoire, 1998 46.5developing economies. In Africa, 200 million
Cameroon, 2001 49.1people are in this age range, comprising more
Ethiopia, 2000 70.7than 20% of the population (United Nations
Ghana, 1998 66.52007). In 2005, 62% of Africa’s overall popu-
Kenya, 1997 54.4lation fell below the age of 25. T e still very
Madagascar, 2001 81.7high fertility rate along with a demographic
Mozambique, 1996 75.4transition that is slowly taking place in the
region are likely to increase the pressure Af- Malawi, 1997 66.3
Nigeria, 1996 92.9rican countries face for job creation over the
1coming decades. Sierra Leone, 2003 68.0
Worldwide, and in Africa as well, the ra- Uganda, 1999 93.8
tio of the youth-to-adult unemployment rate Zambia, 1998 86.3
equals three (ILO 2006), which clearly points SSA-13 (mean) 72.1
out the substantial diffi culties of youth par- SSA-13 (median) 70.7
ticipation in the labor market. Yet, the youth
Source: World Bank Survey-Based Harmonized Indicators Program (SHIP).employment elasticity to GDP growth is low
Note: A person is considered poor if per capita total annual household expenditure divided by 365 falls below the poverty line. The “$2-a-day”
and only a fi fth of that observed for all work- poverty line—$2.17 per day in purchasing power parity (PPP) at 1993 prices—is defi ned as 2.17 times the product of the 1993 consumption PPP
exchange rate and the ratio of the average consumer price index for the year of the survey to the average consumer price index for 1993. CPIs and ers (Kapsos 2005). As a consequence, youth
PPP exchange rates were respectively taken from World Development Indicators 2007 and PovCalNet (World Bank).
made up 43.7% of the total unemployed
people in the world despite accounting for
only 25% of the working population. More
than one third of the youth in the world is a rural area, and literate but not attending
2either seeking but unable to fi nd work, has school (Table 2).
given up on the job search entirely, or is As a way to escape poverty, many youth
working but still living below the $2 a day look for better opportunities by migrating.
poverty line. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 3 in 5 of Indeed, migration to urban areas is unavoid-
the total unemployed are youth (ILO 2006) able and even desirable as a way to improve
and on average 72% of the youth population allocation of human resources, especially in
live with less than $2 a day (Table 1). land-scarce countries. While youth are more
Young people in Africa are not a homo- likely than older people to move from rural
geneous group and their employment pros- to urban areas or to move across urban areas,
pects vary according to region, gender, age,
educational level, ethnicity, and health sta-
1 T e defi nition of youth is age 15 to 24 years, and
tus, thus requiring diff erent sets of policy
adults 25–64.
interventions. However, the typical African 2 Higher death rate of males due to homicides,
youth, as given by medians, is easily identifi - war-related confl icts, diseases and other causes
able: she is an 18.5-year-old female, living in help explain this pattern.
Introduction 1Table 2 Typical African youth – median
Country Location Sex Age Literate Attending school
SHIP data
Burundi, 1998 Rural 93.9% Female 54.9% 18 Yes 71.4% No 25.6%
Côte d’Ivoire, 1998 Urban 46.8% Female 51.9% 19 Yes 60.7% No 27.6%
Cameroon, 2001 Rural 56.4% Female 52.5% 19 Yes 82.4% No 46.2%
Ghana, 1998 Rural 57.8% Male 49.7% 18 Yes 65.9% No 41.3%
Guinea, 1994 Rural 57.2% Female 50.6% 19 No 30.6% No 18.4%
Kenya, 1997 81.0% 51.9% Yes 93.5% No 42.0%
Mozambique, 1996 Rural 76.9% 52.3% 19 Yes 51.1% No 19.2%
Mauritania, 2000 Rural 55.5% Female 52.9% 18 Yes 70.2% No 27.6%
Malawi, 1997 Rural 87.4% Female 52.7% 19 Yes 62.9% No 40.1%
Nigeria, 1996 Rural 56.4% Female 53.8% 18 Yes 74.3% No 46.7%
Sierra Leone, 2003 Rural 51.9% Female 52.4% 18 No 43.2% No 42.8%
São Tomé and Principe, 2000 Urban 40.9% Male 49.9% 19 Yes 94.1% No 25.0%
Uganda, 1999 Rural 82.8% Female 51.3% 18 Yes 79.0% No 43.7%
Zambia, 1998 Rural 59.8% Female 52.8% 19 — — No 30.2%
SSA-14 (mean) — 64.6% — 52.1% — 67.6% — 34.0%
SSA-14 (median)57.5% 52.4% — 70.2% — 35.1%
LFS data
Ethiopia, 2005 Rural 79.6% Female 53.2% 19 No 49.9% — —
Madagascar, 2005 Rural 76.0% Female 51.7% 19 Yes 75.2% No 23.0%
Tanzania, 2005 Rural 70.5% Female 53.1% 19 Yes 83.0% No 28.7%
Source: World Bank Survey-Based Harmonized Indicators Program (SHIP), Ethiopia LFS 2005, Tanzania ILFS 2005/06 and Madagascar EPM 2005.
Note: — Not available.
this increased youth migration has a wide and labor market opportunities. How easily
impact. It increases the strain for jobs with- and how eff ectively young people fi nd jobs is
out necessarily improving the job conditions also dependent on how well the labor market
of those who are left in rural areas; impacts is prepared to receive them, and on how well
provision of public goods, education, utili- they are prepared for the labor market.
ties, housing, and infrastructure; and aff ects A large group of young people enter the
demographic and skills composition in both labor market very early, which aff ects their
urban and rural areas. Given that about 70% progress in the labor market. In the short
of the African youth population is still in term, poor families gain from child labor;
rural areas, and that urban areas have been thus, there are short-term welfare losses
very slow to create job opportunities for for rural families from sanctions on child
3most new job seekers, there is a need for an labor. For long-term development, how-
integrated, coherent approach in which poli- ever, child labor elicits a cost in terms of
cies appropriate for the youth in urban areas foregone education and persistence of long-
are closely connected with policies appropri- term poverty.
ate for the youth in rural areas. T is type of Post-confl ict settings pose specifi c chal-
approach is essential if governments want to lenges for the youth (e.g., recently disarmed
smooth the deleterious impacts of rapid mi- idle men and displaced young men) as these
gration while preparing the rural youth for a settings have prominently young popula-
more rewarding mobility. tions, many of whom have been deprived of
While in some countries demographic education, have grown up in violent societ-
change is the main factor behind high youth
unemployment and underemployment rates, 3 Participation rate of children 5–14 years old is
much of the youth employment challenges about 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank
can also be related to labor market dynamics 2008).
2 Youth and Employment in Africa – The Potential, the Problem, the Promise