Baylor Research03
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Baylor Research03


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17 Pages


Manager Charles Patterson > Administrative Assistant to the VPR Amy ... For further information visit our website at .... Kirsten has been a postdoctoral associate at the Max Planck Institute for ..... Kreider, who played football at Virginia's Liberty ..... do certification documents for the FAA,” said ...



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R E S E A R C H A T B A Y L O R >1
C A S P E R — S P A C E R E S E A R C H >7
B O D Y M E C H A N I C S >11
S T A R V I N G T U M O R S >15
M A X S H A U C K A N D H I S P L A N E S >17
W E T L A N D W A R R I O R S >19 E X T R A S B O O K C O L L O Q U I -G R A D U A T E G R A N T S R E V I E W S U M >25 D E G R E E S >28 >23 >27 President Robert B. Sloan Jr. > Provost David Jeffrey > Vice Provost for Research Truell Hyde > Assistant Provost Tiffany Olson > Research Project Manager Charles Patterson > Administrative Assistant to the VPR Amy Skaggs > Web Programmer/Analyst Jeffrey Lemaster > Office of Sponsored Programs Gary Carter, Elizabeth Reaves, Rene Coker > Design Pollei DesignWorks > Project Editors Paul Carr, Michele Witherspoon > Writers Barbara Elmore, Marla Pierson-Lester, Judy Long, Maggie Richardson > Photographers Cliff Cheney, Chris Hansen, Matthew Lester Editorial Office Baylor Research PO Box 97310 > Waco, TX 76798-7310 > (254) 710-3763 phone > (254) 710-7309 fax > Baylor Research is published annually by the Baylor University Office of the Vice Provost for Research to provide alumni, facul ty, staff, supporters and friends with a sampling of the many research and scholarly activities conducted at Baylor. This issue was published in December 2003. For additional information about projects reported in this issue, contact Truell Hyde, Vice Provost for Research. It is produce d by the Baylor University Office of Public Relations. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Baylor Research, Office of the Vice Provost for Research, Baylo r University, PO Box 97310, Waco, TX 76798-7310. For further information visit our website at MEDIA REPRESENTATIVES : Permission is granted to use part or all of any article published here. Appropriate credit and a tearsheet are requested.
M E S S A G E F R O M T H E V I C E P R O V O S T F O R R E S E A R C H W Je aamree ss uBrilrlionugntdoen,d  obuyr  tLhieb rsaoricaionl oogf icCaol npghreensso, mperenfae rosf  tao nc ianllf iotr, maant ioinn faog-gel, uot r as culture.” Billington goes on to ask “with all our access to knowledge, are we becoming any wiser?” All too often, students and faculty at universities across the world take on the cloak of Oxford’s gargoyle in grief, hands across his eyes and inscribed with the words — The more I study the more I know. The more I know the more I forget. The more I forget the less I know. So why study? > So why study? Why conduct research? Many of the answers at Baylor are The idea of a Christian university the same as those at any other research and the resulting accompanying tension university. Scholarship, research, collabo- between faith and intellect is nothing ration and innovation have long informed new to the academy. C.S. Lewis, who the academic life within the halls of her fought for the restoration of a vital schools and colleges. From interdisciplinary Christian voice in the highest levels studies looking at new methods for of academic life, went straight to the D R T R U E L L H Y D E treating cancer to scholarship into the heart of the matter when he said in history of the English language, research The Weight of Glory : degree immune from the great at Baylor pushes back the boundaries cataract of nonsense that pours from of knowledge and is making a difference “If all the world were Christian, it the press and the microphone of in today’s world. Collaboration with might not matter if all the world his own age.” colleagues around the world is were uneducated. But, as it is, a commonplace, and cutting edge research cultural life will exist outside the Church I welcome you to the inaugural contributes daily to the academic vitality whether it exists inside or not. To be issue of Baylor’s research magazine. of the classroom. Thinking through ignorant and simple now — not to be In these pages, you will learn more a problem and asking the questions able to meet the enemies on their own about the exciting contributions Baylor necessary to arrive at a reasonable ground — would be to throw down our students and faculty are making conclusion is a skill students learn weapons, and to betray our uneducated toward the fulfillment of the 2012 through their involvement in research, brethren who have, under God, no Vision. You’ll also find that the one they must have to address the intricate defense but us against the intellectual merging of faith and intellect is issues they face in an ever-changing world. attacks of the heathen. Good philosophy already well underway within However, this is not the only (or even must exist, if for no other reason, laboratories and offices across the most important) reason research is vital because bad philosophy needs to be campus. Please feel free to contact me to Baylor. The call for Baylor to become answered. The cool intellect must work to learn more or visit Baylor’s Research one of the great Christian universities not only against cool intellect on the Web site at (as recently issued in Baylor 2012, Baylor’s other side, but against the muddy I look forward to sharing with you ten-year vision) is a call to academic heathen mysticisms which deny intellect in the coming years all that is excellence. A cornerstone of this charge altogether. . . . [T]he scholar has lived happening on the research front to become a “city on a hill” is research. in many times and is therefore in some within the Baylor academe.
INCREASING RESEARCH CAPABILITIES Two significant granting organizations, the state-operated Telecommunications Infrastructure Fund (TIF) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), have provided funding to upgrade campus computer and networking capabilities. TIF awarded four grants to Baylor totaling more than $2 million, which dramatically impacted campus communications in the past year. A prestigious National Science Foundation grant received in January 2003 for $175,000 advanced leading-edge network capability on campus. The TIF grants allowed campus upgrades of library computer services, expansion of instructional offerings, improvement of networking services and enhanced access to online information resources. The addition of a wireless computer networking system now provides wireless laptop access to the Internet in every academic and residential building on campus. The NSF funds support Internet2 capability. Internet2 is a private consortium of more than 200 U.S. universities — including Baylor — that works with government and industry to develop innovative network capability on campuses. The group also provides the newest technological advances applicable to the Internet for the national research community and broader Internet use. The NSF supports Internet2 goals to ensure the Internet of the future develops into a reliable and secure medium for information sharing and to foster partnerships among academia, industry and government.
B Y J > B A B WITHIN THE FIRST YEAR AFTER THE LAUNCH, THE UNIVERSITY AGGRESSIVELY UNDERTOOK STRENGTHENING THE CAMPUS’ COMPUTER NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE, BEGAN CONSTRUCTION OF A LANDMARK SCIENCE BUILDING AND FOCUSED ON HIRING TOP RESEARCHERS AND THE BRIGHTEST SCHOLARS FROM AROUND THE WORLD. “Infrastructure is the most overlooked aspect of building an effective research-teaching program,” provost and vice president for academic affairs David L. Jeffrey says. “But to be effective — indeed, even to obtain credibility from external granting agencies — we are obliged to show that we both have it and have planned for its future development wisely.”
Vice Provost for Research Truell Hyde said the grant gives possible virtual tours of national museums, new partnerships Baylor the opportunity to pursue exciting avenues in research, with undergraduate programs worldwide, and access to such as grid computing, real-time video transfer and other resources and experiences previously separated from Baylor enhanced research and teaching capabilities. students by travel distance and time. “This is an aspect of developing the research and teaching The most visible step toward pioneering research is the infrastructure to move toward the top-tier direction. We have construction of the four-story, 500,000-square-foot Baylor identified more than 40 faculty members who presently have Sciences Building, the largest building project ever undertaken a need for this capability on campus. Some of these faculty by the University. Completion of the $103 million building members currently run their research elsewhere because they is slated for Fall 2004. can’t download their data here,” Hyde said. The structure will have three research wings housing the The University also is acquiring a 128-node computer, life and physical sciences (chemistry and biochemistry, physics, which along with Internet2, enhances collaborative geology, biology, psychology and neuroscience) and research opportunities with other universities and national interdisciplinary science centers. The middle wing will be super-computing facilities. The expansion provides Baylor devoted to interdisciplinary collaboration. with other high band-width connectivity options, including Dr. Benjamin A. Pierce, professor of biology and associate high-quality video-conferencing. dean for sciences during the planning stage of the building, The 128-node computer, which will be installed in the said the Baylor Sciences Building will focus on four major next year, is an integral component to improving campus themes: multidisciplinary science, collaboration, discovery and networking and research capabilities. The computer will flexibility. “This building will create a new culture of science be installed in office space under construction at the corner at Baylor. What’s happening in science is occurring at the of University Parks Drive and Dutton Avenue. boundaries between the disciplines,” Pierce said. A primary application of these powerful research tools will be in the undergraduate teaching arena, a University focus that is at the heart of Baylor’s mission. The same technology supporting high-end physics research will render
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aspect of building an effective research-teaching program,” provost and vice president for academic affairs David L. Jeffrey said, “But to be effective — indeed, even to obtain credibility from external granting agencies — we are obliged to show that we both have it and have planned for its future development wisely ” . D R D A V I D J E F F R E Y >
N E W R E S E A R C H E R S > O N C A M P U S T H E F O C U S O F R E S E A R C H E N H A N C E M E N T S S U C H disciplines. We are pleased and fortunate to have A S C O M P U T E R U P G R A D E S , N E T W O R K E X P A N S I O N O R such outstanding individuals join our University.” A D D I T I O N A L F U N D S F O R F A C U L T Y H I R I N G I S T O A dseamIaplni nGg raofv athnesee exceptional new hires s P R O V I D E A R I C H E N V I R O N M E N T F O R R E S E A R C H I N G iinn clmuathematics, Mgelan iine  eMncgEinweeenr iinng ,n uKrlsaiunsg ,Kirsten  S C H O L A R S . T H E U N I V E R S I T Y H A S C O M M I T T E D U N D E R DeAnna Toten Beard in theater arts, and Jo-Ann B A Y L O R 2 0 1 2 T O H I R E W E L L - K N O W N R E S E A R C H E R S Tsang in psychology and neuroscience. F R O M A L L O V E R T H E W O R L D T O J O I N B A Y L O R ’ S > Ian Gravagne , assistant professor of engineering, C U R R E N T A S S E M B L A G E O F E X C E L L E N T R E S E A R C H E R S . received his bachelor of science from Rice University, Iron sharpens iron, says the proverb, and observers shouldaUnndiv ehirss itmy,a fsitneirshs ianng di nd o2c0t0o2r.a tHei sf rroesmu Cmlee malsroeandy expect to see the sparks fly as new minds rub shoulders with Baylor’s veteran researchers. “Our recently hired faculty members are doing reveals several conference publications and articles research on the sustainability of wetlands, the development of robotsin pGerearv-raegvnieews erde sjeoaurrcnha lfs.ocuses on robotics for disabling land mines, and the First Great Awakening, to name only and mechatronics. He is trained as an electrical a few topics,” said Vice Provost for Faculty Development Michael engineer, but his research takes him into the fields Beaty. “Combining passions for both teaching and research, the new faculty members are making their mark in the classroom and in theirsocfi emnecceh aannidc aml aatnhde engineering, computer A primary research interest of Gravagne’s is “soft robots,” a significant advance beyond the stiff, heavy machines most people imagine when they think of a robot. Soft robots are flexible, “or have so many joints they seem flexible,” Gravagne says; and they can be activated by small motors, fiber composites, shape memory alloys and gel polymer muscles. This idea is inspired by elephant trunks, octopus tentacles and caterpillars, he adds. A current project of Gravagne’s involves designing a soft robot with the capability to detect land mines. Since arriving at Baylor, Gravagne and John Davis in mathematics have begun collaboration, along with doctoral student Jeff Dachuna, “to see what applicability time-scale calculus has to various engineering problems where discrete and continuous phenomena coexist,” Gravagne says. “It is a cutting-edge interdisciplinary exploration of exactly the type that I think Baylor is trying to foster.” A primary research interest of Gravagne’s is “soft robots,” a significant advance beyond the stiff, heavy machines most people imagine when they think of a robot. Soft robots are flexible, “or have so many joints they seem flexible.”
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“Generically, physicists need mathematics to formulate questions and also to answer questions.” > Klaus Kirsten , associate professor of mathematics, received his bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees from the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. His doctoral work is in theoretical physics, specializing in quantum field theory, string theory and spectral theory. “Generically, physicists need mathematics to formulate questions and also to answer questions. If the needed mathematics is not available, (some) physicists turn into mathematicians and develop whatever is necessary to progress in answering ‘their’ questions. This is what happened and continues to happen to me,” Kirsten says. “The methods I have developed raised the interest of mathematicians because their approach and my approach were complementary. I had a physicist’s education and so simply had a different viewpoint, which sometimes is very fruitful. Kirsten taught as a visiting professor at the University of Trento in Italy, then went on to serve as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the University of Barcelona in Spain, after which he conducted research at the University of Leipzig in Germany and at the University of Manchester in England. He also received visiting appointments at the University of La Plata in Argentina and the University of Naples in Italy. Since 2001, Kirsten has been a postdoctoral associate at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig, Germany. With two books to his credit, Spectral Functions in Mathematics and Physics and the forthcoming Spectral Geometry of Physics , Kirsten also has written 80 peer-reviewed articles and is involved in six current research projects.
> Melanie McEwen , associate professor of nursing, received her bachelor’s degree at the University of Texas at Austin, her master’s from Louisiana State University Medical Center at New Orleans and her doctorate from Texas Woman’s University in 1990. McEwen has written several nursing textbooks including Community-Based Nursing and an instructor’s manual for the text. She is co-editor of Theoretical Basis for Nursing, in addition to writing 10 chapters of the book and co-edited the 3rd edition of Community Health Nursing: Promoting the Health of Populations . She also has written numerous articles for reviewed journals and is seeking funding to develop a master’s of nursing education track. She also assisted nursing professor Frances Strodtbeck in writing a $1 million grant for development of a case management program for children with developmental problems. McEwen considers nursing her calling. “As a child I always wanted to take care of kids with cuts and scrapes and injured animals. For as long as I can remember, I wanted to be a nurse. It’s where my interests and my gifts are,” she says. McEwen’s research interests include pediatric immunization policy and asthma, and other health issues for school children. For her next research topic, she would like to look at the disparity of diagnoses of attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD) between economically disadvantaged and other children. The disorder is diagnosed more frequently among children from higher socio-economic groups, and McEwen suspects disadvantaged ADHD children have been overlooked in diagnosis and treatment.
> DeAnna Toten Beard , assistant professor of theater arts, received her bachelor’s degree from Mary Washington College, a master’s from the State University of New York, and her doctorate from Indiana University, Bloomington in 2001. She came to Baylor from the University of North Carolina, Wilmington, where she served as a visiting professor of theater history. Toten Beard wanted to be able to write in both artistic and research venues, so she decided to do doctoral work in theater history after receiving her master of fine arts degree. She specializes in dramaturgy — the study of how a play script works — which qualifies her to collaborate in production with directors and playwrights on genres of literature, history of certain kin ds of plays, and dramatic structure. She has published in On-Stage Studies , a theater journal, and has written a book chapter for the upcoming Blackwell’s Guide to Modern American Drama , among other publications.Toten Beard’s research focus is early 20th century drama and theatrical modernism, particularly American Expressionism. “My next research topic will be the experimental plays of Theodore Dreiser,” a writer known for his novels more than his plays, she says. Baylor theatergoers should look for next fall’s adaptati on of Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, a project Toten Beard is working on with Steven Pounders in the theater department. “My next research topic will be the experimental plays of Theodore Dreiser.”
> Jo-Ann Tsang , assistant professor of psychology and neuroscience, “Since I’m a social received her bachelor’s degree from University of California, Berkeley, and her master’s and doctorate from University of Kansas in 2000. Her articles have appeared in The Journal of Personality and Social psychologist, I was Psychology, Review of General Psychology, European Journal of Social Psychology, Sex Roles, and Handbook of Positive Psychology , in interested in study-addition to forthcoming chapters in the Journal of Social Issues and ing religion, and The Psychology of Gratitude . Tsang’s research interests include moral rationalization and moral religion naturally motivation, forgiveness, gratitude, and the psychology of religion. She was awarded the Howard Baumgartel Peace and Justice Award for Thesis/Dissertation Research at the University of Kansas. The dissertation leads to the study studied changes in moral emotions by having subjects read an essay about of morality.” people who suffer from hunger in other parts of the world, then looking to see if the essay influenced moral emotions and moral behavior. “Since I’m a social psychologist, I was interested in studying religion, and religion naturally leads to the study of morality,” Tsang says. She is working on a project that looks at gratitude, observing behavioral reactions of the subjects when someone does them a favor. She also is engaged in a collaborative project with a colleague at Southern Methodist University studying gratitude in school-age children.
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The Astrophysics and Space Science Theory Group conducts research in a variety of areas and includes graduate and undergraduate students along with Baylor professors and research scientists. One of the most exciting concepts under investigation, Hyde said, involves complex dusty plasmas, a relatively new topic discovered in 1994 at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. “That’s when things began to happen,” Hyde said. A complex dusty plasma is a completely new state of matter that can change from solid to liquid to gas. Researchers have learned that such plasmas can also contain particles — dubbed dust — that were once thought to be contaminants but can actually become embedded within the plasma itself. Researchers are excited because the resulting complex plasma, which is easy to control, allows them to study interesting phenomena such as phase changes. “Dusty plasma research is more widespread now, but Baylor has been at the forefront of it all,” Hyde said. “It’s pure physics that brings a confluence of types of research into play.” Semiconductor people are enthusiastic because a method for decreasing the contaminants created by the plasma etch process can be built into the chip, reducing or even eliminating contamination, improving chip production, and cutting costs. Industries ranging from space exploration to communication to commerce could also benefit from findings, which may lead to the next generation of semiconductor chips. Through the Early Universe Cosmology and Strings Group (EUCOS), Baylor also leads the way in string theory research, one of the most exciting and fast-paced research topics in physics today.
B Y M A Enginee from nothing into a research, education, and outreach paradigm unlike any other in the country. A partnership between Baylor University and Texas State Technical College/Waco, CASPER includes two theoretical research groups at Baylor, an experimental lab at TSTC and an intensive educational outreach program that brings students and educators onto both campuses as well as develops curricula for public school science courses. A Baylor physics professor since 1988, Hyde had been doing theoretical physics research for years but lacked an experimental facility. He knew that neighboring Texas State Technical College/Waco offered cutting-edge technical programs, whose teachers had experience in Los Alamos, Livermore, and other leading scientific labs. “I thought there had to be a way to meld what Baylor had with what TSTC had,” Hyde said. The opportunity presented itself when TSTC opened a new automotive lab, vacating a 5,000-square-foot facility. Hyde saw it as an ideal location for an experimental lab that could be supported by the TSTC’s technical programs and began working toward a partnership between the two institutions. “Once we forged a deal between Baylor and TSTC, everything just fell together,” Hyde said. “We really hit a cosmic wave of interest and research and were able to get funding that allowed us to hire some outstanding people.” About $250,000 went into renovations at the TSTC lab, where air conditioning, fiber optics, a DC power supply from the Super Colider and other features were added. The facility now houses CASPER’s Hypervelocity Impacts and Dusty Plasmas Lab and the Space Science Lab, where researchers create laboratory simulations of dusty plasmas, develop prototype designs of dust particle accelerators, and provide real-world support for the theoretical research groups. One of TSTC’s faculty members works full time at the experimental lab, with technical support provided by TSTC technical students and graduates. “Baylor is the only university in the world I know of that has this type of environment,” Hyde said. “It gives great mentorship and internship opportunities for both TSTC and Baylor students.” “Our research covers from the beginning of time to the latest space and theoretical plasma information,” Hyde said. CASPER’s two theoretical groups, located on the Baylor campus, are involved in dozens of research projects covering a range of issues. Among them are dusty plasmas and super strings—two breaking topics on the horizon.
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the TSTC campus, introduces students from the Waco area to physics in a theatre-like atmosphere that’s “purely wild science,” Hyde said. But it is the interdisciplinary approach that brings together math, technology, physics, and other disciplines into a team setting that Hyde finds most enjoyable. “One of most unique things about CASPER is that we always have students of all levels involved in every part of every activity, at every level,” Hyde said. Undergraduate, graduate, and sometimes post-doctorate students work alongside senior research scientists, teachers, technicians, and sometimes high school students in classrooms, seminars, and even research labs. Allowing that kind of access to labs is something unique among research universities. “Very few universities are bringing students into the labs,” he said, “and Baylor is doing it most successfully. We think it’s an important part of giving our students the opportunity for a well-rounded education and opportunities they wouldn’t otherwise get.” “At CASPER, we have a full pipeline path that can take students as young as kindergarten and as far along as post-doctoral fellows,” Hyde said, “and keep them involved in real research, real learning in a team environment. Our emphasis is on the students and what’s good for them.” If you would like to see a 30-second commercial about this research, please visit:
It’s amazing how quickly string research at Baylor has grown > In a short time we have become one of the leaders in string model building. Baylor is the only university listed in the National Science Foundation registry as offering a summer program in string research for undergraduates.
last two decades it has become one of the most active areas While string theory simplifies some aspects of the universe, in theoretical physics,” said Dr. Gerald Cleaver, who came to scientists also are finding that the universe is far more complicated Baylor in 2001. He was attracted to Baylor by the opportunity to than the long-accepted four-dimensional model, Cleaver said. simultaneously do front-line research, teach students at all levels, “We are learning that there is much more to our universe and design a science and theology course for Baylor’s Honors than we can see or imagine. We thought the universe had only College. At Baylor, Cleaver has continued to explore some of the four dimensions-height, width, depth, and time,” he said, “but most fundamental questions about the physical universe as part string theory indicates there are actually seven more dimensions of the worldwide attempt to find Albert Einstein’s long-sought we didn’t know about.” “Theory of Everything” through string theory. At the time of the Big Bang, the three known spatial dimensions “It’s amazing how quickly string research at Baylor has grew very large, very quickly, but the rest stayed very small and grown,” Cleaver said. “In a short time we have become one of compactified. Cleaver and his fellow EUCOS-CASPER researchers the leaders in string model building. Baylor is the only university and students are constructing string models that will predict the listed in the National Science Foundation registry as offering a arrangements of the seven compactified dimensions. summer program in string research for undergraduates.” “Our research focus has been the analysis of our three most Two graduate students have joined EUCOS and have begun successful string models,” Cleaver said. “One of the three models their research in strings, while another graduate student will be reveals an arrangement of the compactified directions that initiating his research this summer. A fourth student is entering produces exactly the known particles in nature and nothing the graduate program this fall with the intent to join EUCOS for more. This is the first string model that doesn’t contain particles his research, after having attended last summer’s undergraduate we know don’t exist. This model demonstrates that string theory program in strings. A high school student who attended Baylor’s can, indeed, offer viable solutions. recent Spring Premiere has expressed similar hopes of participating “If one or more of the compact seven dimensions were in Baylor’s string program. changed, even slightly, in length or direction, life as we know it Faculty membership in EUCOS is also growing. Dr. Tibra Ali, could not exist,” Cleaver said. “String theory, I believe, illustrates a recent Ph.D. graduate from Cambridge, has started a three God’s blueprints for the universe — the beauty and order and year postdoctoral position in EUCOS, while a professor from the the resulting complexity that allows for life.” State University of Rio De Janeiro is likely joining EUCOS this fall. Educational programs are perhaps the most exciting components “Super-string theory suggests that there is but one fundamental of CASPER, said Hyde, who discovered his passion for science in particle, a string of energy, and one fundamental force, gravity,” the third grade. A full range of educational outreach activities Cleaver said. Physicists are discovering that what once appeared bring elementary, middle and high school students, as well as to be different particles, such as leptons, quarks and photons, their teachers into the exciting world of science. High school and are really only different vibration modes of a single type of string college students participate in research teams, joined by public
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