Etude Le Pensec 190707 VA2
77 Pages
English
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Etude Le Pensec 190707 VA2

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Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
77 Pages
English

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Louis LE PENSEC Henri PINONBarrister at the Court of Paris Consultant inFormer Minister Maritime SafetySTRATEGIC STUDYAGE & LONGEVITYOF VESSELSNovember 2007STRATEGIC STUDYAGE & LONGEVITYOF VESSELSNovember 2007Louis LE PENSEC Henri PINONBarrister at the Court of Paris / Former Minister Consultant in Maritime SafetyE-mail: louis.le-pensec@wanadoo.fr E-mail: henri.pinon@free.frWeb site: www.etude-agedesnavires.comCopyright: Louis Le Pensec / Henri Pinon - November 2007 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS The problematic question of the age of ships 7 1. Situation of the world fleet with regard to age 9 2. Age and Risk 13 2.1. Historic decrease in the rate of accidents 2.2. Accident rate and vessel age 2.3. Main causes of accidents 2.4. Age and detentions during port State inspections 3. The notion of the longevity of ships 19 3.1. Physical longevity 3.2. Economical longevity of ships 4. Specific characteristics of the main segments of the fleet 25 4.1. Liquid bulk carriers 4.1.1. The fleet and the profession 4.1.2. Safety and its improvement 4.2. Dry bulk carriers 4.2.1. The fleet and the profession 4.2.2. Safety 4.2.3. Effect of ship age 4.3. Container carriers 4.3.1. The fleet and the profession 4.3.2. Safety 4.3.3. Effect of ship age 4.4. Offshore support vessels 4.4.1. The fleet 4.4.2. The profession and the market 4.4.3. Operating costs 4.4.4. Effect of ship ...

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Louis LE PENSEC Barrister at the Court of Paris Former Minister
Henri PINON Consultant in Maritime Safety
STRATEGIC STUDY
AGE&LONGEVITY OF VESSELS
November 2007
STRATEGIC STUDY
AGE & LONGEVITY OF VESSELS
November 2007
Louis LE PENSEC Barrister at the Court of Paris / Former Minister E-mail: louis.le-pensec@wanadoo.fr
Henri PINON Consultant in Maritime Safety E-mail: henri.pinon@free.fr
Web site: www.etude-agedesnavires.com Copyright: Louis Le Pensec / Henri Pinon - November
2007
          TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
   
 
 
 TABLE OF CONTENTS The problematic question of the age of ships  1. Situation of the world fleet with regard to age    2. Age and Risk        2.1. Historic decrease in the rate of accidents  2.2. Accident rate and vessel age  2.3. Main causes of accidents  2.4. Age and detentions during port State inspections  3. The notion of the longevity of ships    3.1. Physical longevity  3.2. Economical longevity of ships  4. Specific characteristics of the main segments of the fleet 4.1. Liquid bulk carriers 4.1.1. The fleet and the profession 4.1.2. Safety and its improvement 4.2. Dry bulk carriers 4.2.1. The fleet and the profession 4.2.2. Safety 4.2.3. Effect of ship age 4.3. Container carriers 4.3.1. The fleet and the profession 4.3.2. Safety 4.3.3. Effect of ship age 4.4. Offshore support vessels 4.4.1. The fleet 4.4.2. The profession and the market 4.4.3. Operating costs 4.4.4. Effect of ship age on safety 4.4.5. Progress made by recent ships 4.4.6. Conclusion 4.5 Towage 4.6. Traditional cargo ships 4.7. Fishing vessels
     
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 5. The prevention of age related risks 5.1. Evolution of standards and inspections 5.1.1. The International Maritime Organisation 5.1.2. The Flag State 5.1.3. The European Union 5.1.4. Classification societies 5.1.5. Port State control 5.1.6. Vetting carried out by shippers 5.2. The role of insurers 5.3. The shipowner
 
 
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 6. Contributions of new ships - Recent and future evolutions   7. Some conclusions         Appendix 0.1 Organisations and companies questioned                    Appendix 0.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations         Appendix 1.1 Situation of the world fleet with regard to age Appendix 2.1 Accident statistics Appendix 2.2 Port State inspections Appendix 4.1 of offshore vessels; tug operating costs Age  
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GAE NAD LNOG
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EVITY FO SHIP
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INTRODUCTION 
AGE AND LNOGEVITY OF SHIP
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AGE AND LONG
 
EVITY FO SHIP
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 The problematic question of the age of ships  In the media and in public opinion, things are simple: We do not say that a ship is old; we say that it is decrepit; such is the link between an aged and a dangerous vessel. All those who use a vessel that is 10 or 15 years old, be they the shipowner, charterer, or shipper, are deemed to be taking a risk. In the event of an accident their responsibility will be invoked, and this simple fact means that it will be considered as aggravated.  The measures taken concerning ageing vessels with a view to preventing or controlling their use due to their age are many, and come from various interested parties in the field of maritime transport:  Ö regulations exclude no vessel from navigating simply due to its age. They do,International however, recommend reinforced monitoring of tankers and bulk carriers from 15 years of age;  Ö Certain flag States refuse the registration of ships over 15 years of age;  Ö Targeting criteria for the selection of vessels to be inspected under port State control take into account the age of vessels as soon as they exceed 12 years of age;  Ö Shipowners and their associations, States, charterers, and shippers all use the age of their fleets as a major part of the image they want to project of themselves; inversely, the image of shipowners of ageing vessels automatically suffers and they are suspected of being too lax and not complying with international standards;  Ö A growing number of shipowners refuse, to varying degrees, to use vessels exceeding a certain age, most generally 15 or 20 years;  Ö The vetting of tanker and bulk carriers, carried out systematically by shippers, generally includes reinforced monitoring from 15 years of age, and a recommendation not to use vessels older than 25 years of age;  Ö maritime services, the majority of prime contractors specify in theirIn the domain of offshore specifications that they refuse to enter into long-term contracts with vessels over 15 years of age.  These behaviours, which mean that vessels of between 15 and 25 years of age tend not to be considered or else strictly monitored, flow almost entirely from two dominant opinions. Tankers are considered as potential polluters of the seas and above all the coastline, and, in more restricted environments, bulk carriers are prone to structural accidents that result in their being ruined in a matter of minutes. And so, on the strength of these two cases alone, this behaviour is grounded in reason.
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 But it should also take other points into consideration, which are less obvious in terms of their media and political impacts, and notably:  Ö that most vessels entering into this age range can still be reasonablyThe obvious fact operated for many years; building a vessel is a major investment, and so it is in the general interest that its useful life should not be shortened without very good reasons;  Ö Major progress made in terms of vessel safety during the last 25 to 30 years and which are little known outside maritime circles;  Ö notably the discarding of aged vessels,The risks to be prevented and remedies proposed, must be accurately identified without overly simplifying;   Finally, increasing risk is not the only reason that may lead to the discarding of a vessel: Ö Obsolescence plays a major role in the shipowner’s decision to get rid of a vessel; this can result from the unsuitability of the fleet for the market or from excess capacity, increased operating costs, or a loss of quality in the service provided to the client.  Unless there is accident bringing about its total loss, the lifespan of a vessel runs from its commissioning to when it is sent to the breaker's yard. This obvious definition shows the key role this decision plays in its demolition.  The determining factors of lifespan are examined in section 3 below.   
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AGE AND LONGEVITY OF SHIPS Strategic study November 2007