External Trade
7 Pages
English
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External Trade

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7 Pages
English

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External Trade. Duty and quota-free access to LDCs: the multilateralisation of. Everything But Arms. Michaela Dodini. European Commission. DG Trade ...

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Duty and quotafree access to LDCs: the multilateralisation of Everything But Arms
Michaela Dodini European Commission DG Trade
Duty and quotafree access to LDCs
A concrete, overdue sign of goodwill: mid 1990s, LDC III (2001), Doha, MDG etc. Persistently small LDC trade share A test case for SDT? A tool to mitigate preference erosion An important development deliverable for Hong Kong
100
90
80
70
60
50
Duty free access (excl. arms)
1996
2001
LDCs LDCs excl oil
2002
2003
DQF: how generous?
Coverage:  All products, incl. sensitive ones  All LDCs: no cherry picking, no conditionality Stability, predictability: No reviews, no time limits Binding? Effectiveness :  Rules of origin SPS, technical requirements Actual supply capacity (cf aid for trade)
Duty and quota free vs MFN liberalisation
Similar shortfalls of other preferential trading arrangements Trade diversion Vested interests against MFN liberalisation Less incentive for trade reforms Who incorporates the benefits? MFN first best, but political reality of negotiations
SchemeEU EBA (2001) US AGOA
US enhanced GSP Canada LDC T (improv e d 2003)
Japan GSP+ (improv e d 2003)
CoverageAl lLDCs, a l lproducts, trans ition per iods 25 African LDCs (7 e xcluded), e xcludes so me te xti els and a gri products Excl. 8 LDCs and severa l sens itive products Al lLDCs, e xcl. da iry, pou ltry, e ggs
Al lLDCs (so me hav e notappleid)Negat ive and pos itive l sits
Stabili ty Unlimited,no rev ie ws Unti l2015, rev ie ws regu lar ly
Unti l2006
Unti l2014
Unti l2011
Rules of orig in  mixed (rev ie w)  reg iona l cu mulat ion  35% va lue a dded  app a re l LDCs spec ia l rule  (e xcl. 10 LDCs)  35% va lue add e d  reg iona l c umulat ion
40% va lue a dded  loca l yarn  cu mulat i on 25%  tar iff head ing  cu mulat ion J apan
Political economy
A political commitment in Hong Kong  implementation details before end DDA LDC: 0.5% of world trade, limited supply capacity in most sensitive products Gap between likely economic impact and political sensitivity EU (+Australia/New Zealand): lead by example? DCs and LDCs (GSTP and unilateral)