Tutorial of draft standard D3.0 of IEEE P802.11
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Tutorial of draft standard D3.0 of IEEE P802.11

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22 Pages
English

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March 1996doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C802.11 Tutorial March 96802.11 Tutorial802.11 MAC Entity:MAC Basic Access MechanismPrivacy and Access ControlCopyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 1802.11 Tutorial March 96802.11 Protocol EntitiesLLCMAC LayerManagementMACMACSublayer StationManagementPHY LayerPLCP SublayerManagementPHYPMD SublayerCopyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 21 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent TechnologiesSubmissionPhil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications1March 1996doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C802.11 Tutorial March 96Main Requirements• Single MAC to support multiple PHYs.– Support single and multiple channel PHYs.– and PHYs with different Medium Sense characteristics• Should allow overlap of multiple networks in thesame area and channel space.– Need to be able to share the medium.– Allow re-use of the same medium.• Need to be Robust for Interference.– Microwave interferers– Other un-licensed spectrum users– Co-channel interference• Need mechanisms to deal with Hidden Nodes.• Need provisions for Time Bounded Services.• Need provisions for Privacy and Access Control.Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 3802.11 Tutorial March 96Basic Access Protocol Features• Use Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) for efficient ...

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March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
802.11 Tutorial
802.11 MAC Entity:
MAC Basic Access Mechanism
Privacy and Access Control
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 1
802.11 Tutorial March 96
802.11 Protocol Entities
LLC
MAC Layer
ManagementMAC
MAC
Sublayer Station
Management
PHY LayerPLCP Sublayer
ManagementPHY
PMD Sublayer
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 2
1 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
1March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Main Requirements
• Single MAC to support multiple PHYs.
– Support single and multiple channel PHYs.
– and PHYs with different Medium Sense characteristics
• Should allow overlap of multiple networks in the
same area and channel space.
– Need to be able to share the medium.
– Allow re-use of the same medium.
• Need to be Robust for Interference.
– Microwave interferers
– Other un-licensed spectrum users
– Co-channel interference
• Need mechanisms to deal with Hidden Nodes.
• Need provisions for Time Bounded Services.
• Need provisions for Privacy and Access Control.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 3
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Basic Access Protocol Features
• Use Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) for efficient medium
sharing without overlap restrictions.
– Use CSMA with Collision Avoidance derivative.
– Based on Carrier Sense function in PHY called Clear Channel
Assessment (CCA).
• Robust for interference.
– CSMA/CA + ACK for unicast frames, with MAC level recovery.
– CSMA/CA for Broadcast frames.
• Parameterized use of RTS / CTS to provide a Virtual Carrier Sense
function to protect against Hidden Nodes.
– Duration information is distributed by both transmitter and receiver
through separate RTS and CTS Control Frames.
• Includes fragmentation to cope with different PHY characteristics.
• Frame formats to support the access scheme
– For Infrastructure and Ad-Hoc Network support
– and Wireless Distribution System.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 4
2 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
2March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
CSMA/CA Explained
Free access when medium
DIFSis free longer than DIFS
Contention Window
PIFS
DIFS
SIFS
Busy Medium Backoff-Window Next Frame
Slot time
Select Slot and Decrement Backoff as long as medium is idle.Defer Access
• Reduce collision probability where mostly needed.
– Stations are waiting for medium to become free.
– Select Random Backoff after a Defer, resolving contention to
avoid collisions.
• Efficient Backoff algorithm stable at high loads.
– Exponential Backoff window increases for retransmissions.
– Backoff timer elapses only when medium is idle.
• Implement different fixed priority levels.
– To allow immediate responses and PCF coexistence.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 5
802.11 Tutorial March 96
CSMA/CA + ACK protocol
DIFS
DataSrc
SIFS
AckDest
DIFS Contention Window
Next MPDUOther
Defer Access Backoff after Defer
• Defer access based on Carrier Sense.
– CCA from PHY and Virtual Carrier Sense state.
• Direct access when medium is sensed free longer then
DIFS, otherwise defer and backoff.
• Receiver of directed frames to return an ACK immediately
when CRC correct.
– When no ACK received then retransmit frame after a random backoff
(up to maximum limit).
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 6
3 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
3March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Throughput Efficiency
Throughput as function of Load
23 usec Slot time 576 Byte frames
200
180
60% Short, 40% Long frames
160
140
120
64 Byte Frames
100
80
60
40
20
0
Load as function of channel speed
• Efficient and stable throughput.
– Stable throughput at overload conditions.
– To support “Bursty Traffic” characteristics.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 7
802.11 Tutorial March 96
“Hidden Node” Problem
• Transmitters contending for the medium may not “Hear“Hear
each other” as shown below.
STA AP
RTS
CTS
RTS-Range
CTS-Range
Data
Ack
AP
STA
Stations do not hear each other
STA
But they hear the AP.
• Separate Control frame exchange (RTS / CTS) between
transmitter and receiver will Reserve the Medium for
subsequent data access.
– Duration is distributed around both Tx and Rx station.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 8
4 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
4
0.05
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3.05March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
“Hidden Node” Provisions
DIFS
RTS DataSrc
CTS AckDest
CW
NAV(RTS) Next MPDUOther
NAV(CTS)
Defer Access Backoff after Defer
• Duration field in RTS and CTS frames distribute Medium
Reservation information which is stored in a Net Allocation
Vector (NAV).
• Defer on either NAV or "CCA" indicating Medium Busy.
• Use of RTS / CTS is optional but must be implemented.
• Use is controlled by a RTS_Threshold parameter per station.
– To limit overhead for short frames.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 9
802.11 Tutorial March 96
RTS/CTS Overhead Impact
RTS/CTS Throughput
60% Short, 40% Long Frames
200
200
180 Plain CSMA/CA180
160
160
Mixed140
140
RTS/CTS
120
120
100
100
80
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
0
0
Load As factor of channel speed
Good mixed Throughput (long inbound frames) efficiency.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 10
5 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
5
0.05
0.25
0.45
0.65
0.85
1.05
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1.45
1.65
1.85
2.05
2.25
2.45
2.65
2.85
3.05March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Optional Point Coordination Function (PCF)
Time Bounded / Async
Async
Contention Free
Service
Contention
MAC
Service
PCF
Optional
DCF
(CSMA/CA )
PHY
• Contention Free Service uses Point Coordination
Function (PCF) on a DCF Foundation.
– PCF can provide lower transfer delay variations to
support Time Bounded Services.
– Async Data, Voice or mixed implementations possible.
– Point Coordinator resides in AP.
• Coexistence between Contention and optional Contention
Free does not burden the implementation.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 11
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Contention Free operation
PCF Defers for Busy Medium
CFP repetition interval CFP repetition interval
Contention Free Period Contention Period
DCFPCF
Busy medium CF-Burst
(Optional)
Variable Length
PCF
"Reset NAV" Async traffic Defer
Defer
NAV
• Alternating Contention Free and Contention operation
under PCF control.
• NAV prevents Contention traffic until reset by the last
PCF transfer.
– So variable length Contention Free period per interval.
• Both PCF and DCF defer to each other causing PCF
Burst start variations.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 12
6 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
6March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
PCF Burst
CFP repetition interval
Contention Free Burst
PIFS
Contention Period
D1 D2 D3 D4
Busy Medium
CF_EndU1 U4U2 No Up Dx = AP-Frame
Ux = Station-Frame
SIFS
Reset NAV
NAV
Min Contention Period
• CF-Burst by Polling bit in CF-Down frame.
• Immediate response by Station on a CF_Poll.
• Stations to maintain NAV to protect CF-traffic.
• Responses can be variable length.
• “Reset NAV” by last (CF_End) frame from AP.
• "ACK Previous Frame" bit in Header.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 13
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Fragmentation
DIFS
PIFS
SIFS
NAV (RTS) NAV (Fragment 0) Backoff-WindowOther
NAV (ACK 0)NAV (CTS)
SIFS
RTS Fragment 0 Fragment 1Src
CTS ACK 0 ACK 1Dest
• Burst of Fragments which are individually
acknowledged.
– For Unicast frames only.
• Random backoff and retransmission of failing
fragment when no ACK is returned.
• Duration information in data fragments and Ack
frames causes NAV to be set, for medium
reservation mechanism.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 14
7 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
7March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Frame Formats
Bytes:
2 2 6 6 6 2 6 0-2312 4
Frame Duration Sequence Frame
Addr 1 Addr 2 Addr 3 Addr 4 CRC
Control ID Control Body
802.11 MAC Header
Bits: 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Protocol To From More Pwr More
Type SubType Retry WEP Rsvd
Version DS DS Frag Mgt Data
Frame Control Field
• MAC Header format differs per Type:
– Control Frames (several fields are omitted)
– Management Frames
– Data Frames
• Includes Sequence Control Field for filtering of
duplicate caused by ACK mechanism.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 15
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Address Field Description
To DS From DS Address 1 Address 2 Address 3 Address 4
0 0 DA SA BSSID N/A
0 1 DA BSSID SA N/A
1 0 BSSID SA DA N/A
1 1 RA TA DA SA
• Addr 1 = All stations filter on this address.
• Addr 2 = Transmitter Address (TA)
– Identifies transmitter to address the ACK frame to.
• Addr 3 = Dependent on To and From DS bits.
• Addr 4 = Only needed to identify the original
source of WDS (Wireless Distribution System)
frames.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 16
8 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
8March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Privacy and Access Control
• Goal of 802.11 is to provide “Wired Equivalent Privacy” (WEP)
– Usable worldwide
• 802.11 provides for an Authentication mechanism
– To aid in access control.
– Has provisions for “OPEN”, “Shared Key” or proprietary
authentication extensions.
• Optional (WEP) Privacy mechanism defined by 802.11.
– Limited for Station-to-Station traffic, so not “end to end”.
» Embedded in the MAC entity.
– Only implements “Confidentiality” function.
– Uses RC4 PRNG algorithm based on:
» a 40 bit secret key (No Key distribution standardized)
» and a 24 bit IV that is send with the data.
» includes an ICV to allow integrity check.
– Only payload of Data frames are encrypted.
» Encryption on per MPDU basis.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 17
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Privacy Mechanism
Secret Key
WEP
IV IV
IV PRNG Plaintext
WEP
TX
+Secret Key PRNG
Ciphertext
Ciphertext
+
Plaintext
Integrity Alg ICV'=ICV?
ICV ICV
Integrity Alg
Preamble PLCP Header MAC Header Payload CRC
Encrypted
IV (4) K-ID Cyphertext ICV (4)
• WEP bit in Frame Control Field indicates WEP used.
– Each frame can have a new IV, or IV can be reused for a limited
time.
– If integrity check fails then frame is ACKed but discarded.
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 18
9 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
9March 1996
doc.: IEEE P802.11-96/49C
802.11 Tutorial March 96
Support for Mobility
LLC
MAC LayerMAC
ManagementSublayerMAC
Station
Management
PHY LayerPLCP Sublayer
ManagementPHY
PMD Sublayer
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 19
802.11 Tutorial March 96
MAC Management Layer
• Synchronization
– finding and staying with a WLAN
– Synchronization functions
» TSF Timer, Beacon Generation
• Power Management
– sleeping without missing any messages
– Power Management functions
» periodic sleep, frame buffering, Traffic Indication Map
• Association and Reassociation
– Joining a network
– Roaming, moving from one AP to another
– Scanning
• Management Information Base
Copyright ©1996 IEEE, All rights reserved. This contains parts from an unapproved draft, subject to change 20
10 Wim Diepstraten, Lucent Technologies
Submission
Phil Belanger Aironet Wireless Communications
10