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L 'attractivité de la France pour les activités de R&D

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17 Jun 2005 – F. Sachwald/ June. 2005. 1. ENLARGEMENT AND GLOBALISATION: LOCATION AND COMPETITIVENESS OF FIRMS IN EUROPE. June 17 ...

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ENLARGEMENT AND GLOBALISATION: LOCATION AND COMPETITIVENESS OF FIRMS IN EUROPE June 17, 2005 , EESC Brussels
The Impact of EU Enlargement on Firms Strategies and the Location of Production in Europe
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
Frédérique Sachwald IFRI
1
The Paradox of Enlargement
¾Objective of the latest enlargement
¾fear that they may represent aWestern members often burden for their own economies and the budget of the EU.
- Negotiation phase: net transfers to the future members;
- Issue of wage and tax competition; debates on trade, FDI and the potential relocation of economic activities in the new members.
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
2
ocE0240ht eraege ln takmentlacees p eht ta mit emashe tase enrgme eonim cnietrgtaoin of the new memsrebats detr ni e th9019 Bs., ut srog nopmoctiter hew ne oceotf 
3
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
ƒImpact on the location of production and competitiveness in Europe.
ƒPolicy issues .
Outline
ƒSimultaneous integration of low cost new members and increased global competition.
Solving the paradox: The Role of the Global Context
rkets. lobal ma
Increasing trade between EU15 and NMC8 Share in EU-25 exports, in % of total
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Exports intra NMC-8Exports by NMC-8 to EU15
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
Expo rts by EU15 to NM C-8
4
70
65
60
55
50
Decreasing Intra-EUTrade
Share in % of total exports by EU-15 and EU-25
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
Intra EU25
1997 1998 1999
Intra EU15
2000
2001
5
EU15Trade with NMC10 and China, 1993-2003 Rate of growth in 1993-98 and 1999-2003, %
Imports 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 France Germany EU-15 France Germany EU-15 ChinaNMC-10 1993-98 1999-2003
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
Exports
France Germany EU-15 France Germany EU-15 ChinaNMC-10 1993-98 1999-2003
6
TradeBalance UE15with NMC8 and China, 1990-2003 In euro billion
France / NMC-10 Germany / NMC-1 EU-15 / NMC-10
250 0 -1 20-10 -2 15--230 -4 10-30 -5 560-4-France / China -7 0G /nymaer05-anihC -8EU-15 / China (right scale) -509-6-909192939495969798992000010203201030989920009495969709192939
.FS cahwald/ June. 2005 7
FDI in the New Member Countries
Stock of FDI, euro bn right scale; rate of growth left scale
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
NMC-8
NMC-8 grow th rate
160
140
120 100
80 60 40
20
0
8
Main investors in NMC-8 in2002 FDI stock in % of total in host countries
Lituania
Latvia
Estonia
Slovenia
Germ any France
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
NMC-8 50 40 30 20 10 0
Czech Rep.
Slovakia
Hungary
Poland
Sweden Aus tria
US
9
Evolution of the Specialization ofNMCs. 1
Traditional specialization of European peripheral countries in labor-intensive and low-tech activities.
1990s: NMCs have evolved towards more high-skilled and scale-intensive products.
Relation with FDI from EU15: 1993-2003 increasing vertical intra-industry and intra-firm trade with NMCs.
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
10
Evolution of the Specialization ofNMCs. 2
Indicator of specialization of NMC10 in their trade with EU15
Furniture & parts Motor vehicles Internal combustion piston engines Telecommunication equipment Television receivers Equipment for distributing electricity Wood manufacture Automatic data processing machines Wood simply worked Women's clothing
F. Sachwald/ June. 2005
1993 3,1 -1.7 0.0 -1.6 0.0 0.4 1.5 -1.2 1.3 5.0
2003 4.0 3.3 3.0 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
Change 0.9 5.0 3.0 3.1 1.4 1.1 -0.4 2.2 -0.3 -4.0
11