Belgium
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European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
Belgium
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Office for Official Publications
of the European Communities Equality in Law between Men and Women
in the European Community
Belgium Equality in Law between Men and Women
in the European Community
Series Editors
MICHEL VERWILGHEN
Professeur ordinaire à la Faculté de Droit
Université catholique de Louvain
FERDINAND VON PRONDZYNSKI
Professor of Law and Dean of the Law School
Jean Monnet Professor of European Social Law
The University of Hull European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
Belgium
by
DOMINIQUE DE VOS CAMILLE PICHAULTt
Doctor of Law Attaché at the
Ministry of Employment and Labour
Honorary Adviser to the
Ministry of Employment and Labour
FRANCIS HERBERT JEANJACQMAIN
Loeff Claeys Verbeke Adviser to the
Ministry of Employment and Labour
Barrister at the Brussels Bar
Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Law at
the Free University of Brussels
MARTINUS NDHOFF PUBLISHERS
THE HAGUE/BOSTON/LONDON
OFFICE FOR OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
LUXEMBOURG A C.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1829-3 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers)
92-826-4456-1 (Office for Official Publications of the EC)
This study was commissioned by the Equal Opportunities Unit of Directorate-General V
(Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs) of the European Commission. It does
not, however, express the Commission's official views. The responsibility for the views
expressed lies with the authors.
A French version of this text has been published by the Office for Official Publications of
the European Communities and Les Editions Juridiques Bruylant, Brussels.
Published by
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-2985 Luxembourg
ISBN (this volume) 92-826-4456-1 Catalogue number CE-97-92-001-EN-C
and
Kluwer Law International,
P.O. Box 85889, 2508 CN The Hague, The Netherlands
ISBN (series) 0-7923-1842-0 ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1829-3
Sold and distributed for the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
by the distributors listed on the inside back cover.
Kluwer Law International incorporates the publishing programmes of Graham & Trotman,
Kluwer Law & Taxation and Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Sold and distributed in the USA and Canada
by Kluwer Academic Publishers,
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061, U.S.A.
In all other countries sold and distributed
by Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands
© European Communities 1998
All Rights Reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without written permission from the copyright owner.
Printed in Belgium TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Foreword XI
Notice to the readerV
Abbreviations XVI
Table of legislation XIX
Table of cases XX
COMMENTARY ON EQUALITY LAW
1. GENERAL 3
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Introduction to the national legal system
1.1.2 Economic and social context 7
1.2 Sources 8
1.2.1 International standards
1.2.1.1 Human rights 8 2 Treaties on special questions 9
1.2.2 European Community law 10
1.2.2.1 Direct effect of European Community law 10 2 Retrospective implementation1
1.2.3 Constitutional law2
1.2.4 Legislation3
1.2.4.1 Prior legislation2 Currentn
2. BASIC CONCEPTS 17
2.1 The concepts of equality and discrimination 1
2.2 Direct discrimination
2.2.1 Definition
2.2.1.1 Reason2 Detriment8
2.2.1.3 Comparator
2.2.2 Extended definition
2.2.2.1 Marital status 20
2.2.2.2 Family status3 Pregnancy
2.2.2.4 Sexual harassment5 Physical attributes1
2.2.2.6 Dress codes
2.3 Indirect discrimination
2.3.1 Definition
2.3.2 Suspect criteria3
2.3.3 Disproportionate impact 26
2.3.4 Objective justification7
2.4 Victimization8 VI TABLE OF CONTENTS
3. EQUAL PAY 31
3.1 Principle
3.2 Exclusions
3.3 Personal scope of principle
3.3.1 Employees
3.3.2 Independent contractors 32
3.3.3 Homeworkers
3.3.4 Public sector
3.3.5 Domestic employees
3.3.6 Non-employed population
3.4 Activities covered3
3.5 Definition of remuneration
3.5.1 Article 119 of the EEC Treaty
3.5.2 Fringe benefits 34
3.5.3 Contributions by employer5
3.5.4 Contributions bye
3.5.5 Post-contribution benefits
3.5.6 Pensions6
3.5.7 Collective agreements
3.6 Comparator
3.6.1 Same establishment
3.6.2 Contemporaneous employment
3.6.3 Hypothetical male 37
3.6.4 Different establishment/same employer
3.6.5 Cross-industry comparisons
3.7 Woman does same work as man
3.7.1 Identical work
3.7.2 Similar work
3.7.3 Night work
3.8 Equal value 38
3.8.1 Job evaluation
3.8.2 Job classification
3.8.2.1 Factors9 2 Weightings
3.8.2.3 Traditional male/female 3
3.8.3 Higher value
3.8.4 Proportionate pay
3.9 Legitimate reason for pay differential 40
3.9.1 Material difference
3.9.2 Economic benefits/market forces
3.9.3 Night-work
3.9.4 Part-time work1
3.9.5 Red circles
4. EQUAL TREATMENT 43
4.1 Principle