Germany
332 Pages
English
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Germany

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332 Pages
English

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EAN13 928264460
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European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
Germany
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Office for Official Publications
of the European Communities Equality in Law between Men and Women
in the European Community
Germany Equality in Law between Men and Women
in the European Community
Seríes Editors
MICHEL VERWILGHEN
Professeur ordinaire à la Faculté de Droit
Université catholique de Louvain
FERDINAND VON PRONDZYNSKI
Professor of Law and Dean of the Law School
The University of Hull European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
Germany
by
BERTELSMANN URSULA RUST
Lawyer Professor
Hamburg University of Bremen
MARTINUS NUHOFF PUBLISHERS
DCSIDRECHT/BOSTON/LONDON
OFHŒFOROFHOALPUBUi^TIONS Œ THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
LUXEMBOURG A C J.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1831-5 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers)
92-826-4460-X (Office for Official Publications of the EC)
This study was commissioned by the Equal Opportunities Unit of Directorate-General V
(Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs) of the European Commission. It
does not, however, express the Commission's official views. The responsibility for the
views expressed lies with the authors.
A French version of this text has been published by the Office for Official Publications of
the European Communities and Les Editions Juridiques Bruylant, Brussels.
Published by
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-2985 Luxembourg
ISBN (this volume) 92-826-4460-X Catalogue number CE-97-92-003-EN-C
and
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers,
P.O. Box 163, 3300 AD Dordrecht, The Netherlands
ISBN (series) 0-7923-1842-0 ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1831 -5
Sold and distributed for the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
by the distributors listed on the inside back cover.
Kluwer Academic Publishers incorporates the publishing programmes of D. Reidel,
Martinus Nijhoff, Dr W. Junk and MTP Press.
Sold and distributed in the USA and Canada
by Kluwer Academic Publishers,
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061, U.S.A.
In all other countries sold and distributed
by Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands
© European Communities 1995
All Rights Reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without written permission from the copyright owner.
Printed in Belgium TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Foreword xi
Notice to the readerv
Abbreviations xvi
Table of legislation xix
Table of cases xxvi
COMMENTARY ON EQUALITY LAW
1. GENERAL 3
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Introduction to the national legal system
1.1.2 Economic and social context 5
1.2 Sources 9
1.2.1 International standards
1.2.1.1 Human rights 9 2 Treaties on special questions
1.2.2 European Community law
1.2.2.1 Direct effect of Community law 10 2 Retrospective implementation
1.2.3 Constitutional law 1
1.2.4 Legislation
1.2.4.1 Prior legislation
1.2.4.2 Present legislation1
2. BASIC CONCEPTS3
2.1 Equality and discrimination
2.2 Direct discrimination
2.2.1 Definition
2.2.1.1 Reason 1
2.2.1.2 Detriment4
2.2.1.3 Comparator
2.2.2 Extended definition
2.2.2.1 Marital status2 Familys5
2.2.2.3 Pregnancy6 4 Sexual harassment7
2.2.2.5 Physical attributes6 Dress codes8
2.3 Indirect discrimination
2.3.1 Definition 1
2.3.2 Suspect criteria9
2.3.3 Disproportionate impact 2
2.3.4 Objective justification
2.4 Victimization
3. EQUAL PAY
3.1 Principle 2
3.2 ExceptionsTABLE OF CONTENTS
3.3 Personal scope 29
3.3.1 Employees 30
3.3.2 Independent contractors
3.33 Home workers
3.3.4 Public sector
3.3.5 Domestic employees
3.3.6 Non-employed population
3.4 Activities covered
3.5 Definition of remuneration
3.6 Comparator1
3.7 Degrees of comparison 3
3.7.1 Identical work
3.7.2 Similar work2
3.7.3 Night-work
3.8 Equal value
3.8.1 Job evaluation3
3.8.2 Job classification5
3.8.3 Higher value
3.8.4 Proportionate pay6
3.9 Legitimate reason for pay differential 3
3.9.1 Material difference
3.9.2 Economic benefits/market forces7
3.9.3 Night-work8
3.9.4 Part-time work
3.9.5 Red circles 3
3.9.6 Other reasons9
3.10 Levelling up/down
4. EQUAL TREATMENT 41
4.1 Principle
4.2 Exceptions
4.2.1. Exclusions3
4.2.2. Sex as a determining factor
4.3 Territorial scope
4.4 Personal scope4
4.4.1 Employees
4.4.2 Independent contractors 4
4.4.3 Home workers
4.4.4 Public sector
4.4.5 Domestic employees
4.4.6 Non-employed population
4.4.7 Other workers5
4.5 Activities covered
4.6 Comparator 4
4.7 Hiring
4.8 Working conditions6
4.9 Exclusion, dismissal or other detriment