Sovereignty and Interpretation of International Norms

Sovereignty and Interpretation of International Norms

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English

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In an International Community characterized by the weight of state sovereignty the interpretation of international norms (by states, International Organizations and judicial and arbitral bodies) is one of the key points of this legal order. State sovereignty conditions the creation and application of International Law as well as the settlement of disputes. That’s why the intervention of judicial and arbitral bodies acquire a great importance.


This work contents a comprehensive and critic approach to international judicial and arbitral case law concerning interpretation of international norms and international institutions as well as to the way the International Court of Justice conceives access to its jurisdiction ant its exercise. So, conventional instruments and instruments of a statutory nature, customary norms, institutional norms of the United Nations, unilateral declarations, as well as procedural instruments, facts alleged and the exercise of the jurisdiction attributed to the International Court of Justice – in the way they have been interpreted by the Court – constitute the object of a work surely useful for persons involved in international practice, studies or teaching.

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Published 06 June 2007
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EAN13 9783540682073
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Table of Contents
Part One:Interpretation of International Norms: Sovereignty, Power of Discretion, Delimitation of the Discrepancy
CHAPTERI:Sovereignty and Interpretation: A Relationship of Dependence.......... 31The sovereignty of the State conditions the interpretation of international norms: Discrepancy, discretion. Persistence of the problem........ 32The efforts to modulate the power of discretion of the State: Good faith or a principle with blurred edges ..................................................................... 143Types and methods of interpretation: A classification based on international practice ....................................................................................... 23
CHAPTERII:The Text, the Authentic Expression of the Will of the Parties, Constitutes the Subject of the Discrepancy: The Conventional Rules ......................................................................... 371Language, the instrument of sovereignty ........................................................ 372The judicial limiting of a process which is heavily dependent on the autonomy of the will of the State: The interpretative norms of the Vienna Conventions of 1969 and 1986 ........................................................... 44
CHAPTERIII:The Institutionalisation of the International Community Gives a New Dimension to Law Making: The Institutional Norms ................... 631The need for an open mind or the teaching of practice: The resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly ........................................................ 632The examination of the attitude of the State is the determining factor: Criteria ............................................................................................................ 75
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CHAPTERIV:Conduct, the Expression of the Will of the State, Constitutes the Subject of the Discrepancy: The Customary Norms..................... 851The conduct of the State and its appreciation are tributaries of sovereignty ...................................................................................................... 852The interpreter limits the discretion of the State. The conception of the interpreter prevails as regards the discrepancy: The dependence of the State................................................................................................................. 94
CHAPTERV:Does the Declaration Express the Will of the State or Is It the Interpreter Who Builds It? The Unilateral Declarations..................... 1071Another sign of the dependence of the State with regard to the interpreter: The determination of the effects of the declaration .................... 1072The criteria retained by the interpreter in order to affirm the binding character of the declaration ........................................................................... 1083The declarations of acceptance of the obligatory jurisdiction of the ICJ ...... 121
Part Two:Analysis of International Practice: The Interpretative Canons Employed by International Case Law
CHAPTERVI:The International Court of Justice (I.C.J.) ........................................... 1291Introduction ................................................................................................... 1292General canons employed ............................................................................. 1342.1The natural and ordinary meaning of the terms.................................... 1342.2The context........................................................................................... 1382.3The object and purpose of the treaty .................................................... 1412.4The subsequent practice ....................................................................... 1432.5The preparatory work ........................................................................... 1452.6Treaties authenticated in two or more languages ................................. 1472.7The intention of the Parties .................................................................. 1482.8The rule of practical effect ................................................................... 1512.9.......................................................................... 151The spirit of the treaty 2.10Equity ................................................................................................... 1522.11................................................................................ 153Inter-temporal law 3Does the I.C.J. use the interpretative canons as they were conceived by the I.L.C.? ...................................................................................................... 155
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CHAPTERVII:Arbitral Tribunals................................................................................... 1591Introduction ................................................................................................... 1592General Criteria Employed............................................................................ 1602.1The natural and the ordinary meaning of the terms.............................. 1602.2The context........................................................................................... 1632.3The object and purpose of the treaty .................................................... 1662.4The subsequent practice ....................................................................... 1672.5Preparatory works ................................................................................ 1692.6Treaties authenticated in two or more languages ................................. 1722.7The intention of the Parties .................................................................. 1742.8The rule of practical effect ................................................................... 1763Does the arbitral jurisprudence use the interpretative canons as they were conceived by the I.L.C.?....................................................................... 176
Part Three:Rules and Criteria Employed in Relation to the Interpretation of Certain Categories of Norms and International Instruments
CHAPTERVIII:Conventional Instruments or Instruments of a Statutory Nature ..... 1811Interpretation of treatiesstricto sensu........................................................... 1812The Charter of the United Nations ................................................................ 1813The system of Mandates and the validity of the obligations inherent to it despite the disappearance of the League of Nations...................................... 1914.................................................... 194The right of self-determination of peoples 5A joint communiqué can be an international agreement or the question of the form of international agreements ........................................................ 1986The exercise of consular functions relating to nationals of the sending State............................................................................................................... 1996.1............................... 202Article 36, paragraph (b) creates individual rights 6.2The presence of two elements: The right to be informed (A) “without delay” (B) .............................................................................. 2037The “centre of the main channel” as a criterion in order to determine the boundary of an international river ................................................................. 2068The application of international humanitarian law and international conventions of human rights to occupied territories ..................................... 2129The competence of the General Assembly to make recommendations ......... 216
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CHAPTERIX:Customary Norms ................................................................................. 2191The general theory of custom........................................................................ 2192Reservations to treaties.................................................................................. 2193The concept of “terra nullius” ....................................................................... 2214The principle of equidistance in the delimitation of continental shelves between two or more States .......................................................................... 2225The principle of “uti possidetis juris”............................................................ 2246The legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons ..................................... 2267Immunity from criminal jurisdiction in other States and also inviolability of an incumbent Minister for Foreign Affairs........................... 2297.1Immunities in customary international law .......................................... 2308The concept of occupied territory and international obligations resulting for the occupying Power ............................................................................... 2359Legal consequences of the commission of an internationally wrongful act .................................................................................................. 238
CHAPTERX:Institutional Norms of the United Nations .......................................... 2431Resolutions of the General Assembly ........................................................... 2432.............................................................. 245Resolutions of the Security Council
CHAPTERXI:Unilateral Declarations ......................................................................... 2471Unilateral declarationsstricto sensu.............................................................. 2472........................... 247Declarations of acceptance of the jurisdiction of the I.C.J.
CHAPTERXII:Procedural Instruments, Facts Alleged and Exercise of the Jurisdiction Attributed to the I.C.J. .......................................... 2511Access to the Court in the light of Article 35, paragraph 2, of the Statute of the I.C.J. .................................................................................................... 2512The liberty of the I.C.J. to interpret the request and the conclusions of the Parties ...................................................................................................... 2583Appraisal of the facts alleged and their proof ............................................... 2624Has the I.C.J. discretional powers to decide the exercise of the jurisdiction attributed to it? ........................................................................... 263
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Value and legal effects of an order stating provisional measures.................. 265The jurisdiction of the Court to give advisory opinions ................................ 2716.1The “legal question” as object of the advisory opinion requested........ 2796.2The lack of clarity of the terms of the request and its effects on the “legal nature” of the question referred to the Court ............................. 2796.3The “abstract nature” of the question posed to the Court..................... 2816.4The lack of jurisdiction because of the “political” character of the question posed to the Court .................................................................. 2816.5The question of the lack of consent to the Court’s jurisdiction by interested States and its consequences on the Court’s jurisdiction to give an advisory opinion .................................................................. 2826.6The question of the purpose of advisory opinions................................ 2846.7The use the General Assembly would make of an advisory opinion.......................................................................... 284
CHAPTERXIII:Conclusions ........................................................................................... 287
Bibliography and International Case LawBibliography........................................................................................... 305International Case Law ......................................................................... 3171Arbitral .......................................................................................................... 3172P.C.I.J............................................................................................................ 3203I.C.J. .............................................................................................................. 321
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