The Advisory Function of the International Court of Justice 1946 - 2005

The Advisory Function of the International Court of Justice 1946 - 2005

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I am pleased to write these words by way of a foreword to Dr. Mahasen Alj- houb’s book “The Advisory Function of the International Court of Justice”. I do so with a sense of pride in the achievement of a fellow countrywoman and, me- phorically speaking, a sister in law. My pride is coupled with hope and a nascent optimism that she – and a group of young Jordanian academics, mostly recent graduates of universities in the United Kingdom – will contribute further and significantly to the teaching and d- semination of international law in Jordan and, if I do not strain hope by hoping too much, in a region in which, notwithstanding its past glory, the culture of law has for too long been superceded by the logic of power politics and unbridled raison d’état. My only hesitation in writing this foreword is that a particularly heavy Court schedule has permitted me only a chance at a perusal of the contents of the book. A perusal which, whilst more than casual, falls short of the serious study that it deserves. Yet, I can unhesitatingly concur with the verdict of the internal and - ternal examiners who praised Dr. Aljaghoub’s thesis (as it then was) for “its th- oughness, detail and authoritativeness on this important area of international law”.

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Published 21 June 2007
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EAN13 9783540357346
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Table of Contents
Foreword by Awn Al-Khasawneh .......................................................................VII Foreword by Istvan Pogany .................................................................................. IX Preface .................................................................................................................. XI List of Abbreviations ......................................................................................... XXI Glossary of Terms............................................................................................XXIII Table of Cases...................................................................................................XXV Table of Treaties and Other International Instruments ................................... XXIX
Introduction .................................................................................... 11Origin and Purpose of the Advisory Function................................................... 12General Features of the Existing Literature....................................................... 33The Contemporary Relevance of the Advisory Function .................................. 64The Structure of the Work................................................................................. 75Methodology and Methodological Issues.......................................................... 9
CHAPTERONE The Advisory Function of the International Court of Justice in an Historical Context .................................................. 111Introduction ..................................................................................................... 112Advisory Opinions in General......................................................................... 123The Advisory Function Prior to the Inception of International Courts............ 144The Advisory Function and the Permanent Court of International Justice.............................................................................................................. 155The Advisory Function at the Drafting Stage.................................................. 166The PCIJ Advisory Opinions and the Nature of the Requests for Advisory Opinions .......................................................................................... 227Sources of Requests for Advisory Opinions During the League Era .............. 238Assimilation of the Advisory Procedure to the Contentious Procedure Before the PCIJ ............................................................................................... 239Voting in the League Council and Assembly to Request Advisory Opinions .......................................................................................................... 2510The PCIJ and the ICJ: Their Institutional Status ............................................. 25
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11The Advisory Function of the ICJ: How Much Is It Changing? ..................... 2812The Drafting Stage .......................................................................................... 2812.1The Rights of the General Assembly and the Security Council to Request anAdvisory Opinion ................................................................. 3012.2Proposals That Were Not Adopted.......................................................... 3213Concluding Remarks ....................................................................................... 34
CHAPTERTWO
The Advisory Jurisdiction of the ICJ: Compliance with Requests and the Court’s Discretion in Giving Advisory Opinions ........................................................................................ 351Introduction ..................................................................................................... 352The Jurisdiction of the ICJ .............................................................................. 352.1................................. 36Distinction Between Jurisdiction and Competence 2.2The Court’scompétence de la compétence............................................. 373The Elements of Jurisdiction to Give an Advisory Opinion............................ 383.1Jurisdictionratione personae.................................................................. 403.1.1Organs with an ‘Original Right’ to Request Advisory Opinions: The General Assembly and the Security Council.......... 403.1.2Organs with a “Derivative Right” to Request Advisory Opinions: Other UN Organs and the Specialised Agencies ........... 45(i)Authorised Organs.................................................................. 46(a)The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) ................ 48(b)The Trusteeship Council ................................................... 48(c)The Secretariat .................................................................. 49(ii).............................................................. 51Specialised Agencies 3.2Jurisdictionratione materiae, or Subject Matter Jurisdiction ................. 563.2.1The Political Nature or Motivation of Questions Referred for Advisory Opinions......................................................................... 583.2.2Factual Questions........................................................................... 613.2.3Abstract Questions......................................................................... 614The Advisory Jurisdiction as Subject to the Court’s Discretion...................... 635....................................................................................... 67Concluding Remarks
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CHAPTERTHREEThe Role of the ICJ as the Principal Judicial Organ of the UN and the Implications of This Role for the Court’s Advisory Function ........................................................................ 691Introduction ..................................................................................................... 692Organisations in General: A Theoretical Perspective...................................... 703The United Nations Organisation.................................................................... 714Coordination: A Theoretical Perspective ........................................................ 735The Organisational Relationship Between the ICJ and the UN: Its Implications for the Court’s Readiness to Participate in the UN Activities.......................................................................................................... 766............................................................ 79“Judicial Review” as a New Direction 6.1................................................... 81The Complexities of ‘Judicial Review’ 6.2‘Judicial Review’ Within the Coordination Context ............................... 836.3The Advisory Function as a Route for ‘Judicial Review’: Some Case Studies .................................................................................. 866.3.1The 1960IMCOCase .................................................................... 876.3.2The 1962Certain Expenses of the UNCase .................................. 886.3.3The 1971NamibiaCase................................................................. 896.3.4The 1992LockerbieCase .............................................................. 917Concluding Remarks ....................................................................................... 93
CHAPTERFOURThe Judicial Character of the ICJ’s Advisory Function and the Problem of Consent ............................................................... 951Introduction ..................................................................................................... 952The Court as an Organ of the UN and the Nature of Its Judicial Character ......................................................................................................... 962.1The Court’s Judicial Character and States’ Consent ............................... 972.1.1Publicists’ View of Consent as a Precondition for Exercising Jurisdiction..................................................................................... 982.1.2The Court’s Case Law on Consent as a Precondition for Exercising Jurisdiction................................................................. 100(i)The Court’s Case Law on Consent in Disputes Pending Between Two or More States ............................................... 101(ii)The Court’s Dicta on Consent in Disputes Pending Between a State and an International Organisation .............. 1062.2Forum Prorogatumin Advisory Proceedings ....................................... 112
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3Judicial and Political Restraints and the Judicial Function ........................... 1134The Judicial Character of the Court and Its Effect on the Authority of Advisory Opinions ........................................................................................ 1165..................................................................................... 120Concluding Remarks
CHAPTERFIVEProcedural Aspects of the Advisory Function of the ICJ ....... 1231Introduction ................................................................................................... 1232Sources of the Procedural Rules Governing Advisory Proceedings.............. 1243The Composition of the Court when Exercising Its Advisory Function ....... 1253.1National Judges and JudgesAd hocin Advisory Cases ........................ 1263.2Impartiality and Independence of Judges .............................................. 1294The Process of Requesting an Advisory Opinion.......................................... 1324.1Initiating the Request ............................................................................ 1324.2Participation in Advisory Proceedings .................................................. 1354.3................ 137The Role of the Secretary General in Advisory Proceedings 4.4Written and Oral Proceedings ............................................................... 1385The Legal Bases Relied Upon by the Court for Decision-Making................ 1435.1Sources of the Applicable Law.............................................................. 1445.1.1International Conventions............................................................ 1455.1.2International Custom.................................................................... 1465.1.3General Principles of Law ........................................................... 1475.1.4Judicial Decisions and the Teachings of the Most Highly Qualified Publicists...................................................................... 1485.1.5Resolutions of the General Assembly as a Supplementary Source of International Law?....................................................... 1515.2Deliberation by the Court and the Giving of Advisory Opinions.......... 1536Concluding Remarks ..................................................................................... 154
CHAPTERSIXThe Contribution of Advisory Opinions to the Development of the Law of International Institutions and to Public International Law........................................................ 1551Introduction ................................................................................................... 1552Advisory Opinions and the Development of the Law of the United Nations .......................................................................................................... 156
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2.1The International Legal Personality of the United Nations ................... 1562.2The Doctrine of Implied Powers ........................................................... 1592.3Succession of International Organisations ............................................ 161The Contribution of ICJ Advisory Opinions to the Rules Governing the Interpretation of Treaties ............................................................................... 1643.1The Interpretive Function of the ICJ ..................................................... 1643.2...................................... 166The Special Legal Position of the UN Charter (i)The Principle of Natural and Ordinary Meaning of the Words in Their Context......................................................... 167(ii)Functional or Teleological Interpretation Principle.............. 168(iii)The Use of Travaux Préparatoires as Supplementary Means of Interpretation ........................................................ 169(iv)Subsequent Practice as a Guide to Interpretation ................. 172The Contribution of Advisory Opinions to the Interpretation and Application of Agreements Between the UN, Its Agencies and Member States............................................................................................... 1734.1The Court’s Interpretation of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the UN............................................................................ 1734.2The Court’s Interpretation of the Headquarters Agreement Between the UN and the US.................................................................. 177The Contribution of Advisory Opinions to the Clarification of the Functions and Powers of UN Political Organs.............................................. 1785.1Concurrent and Exclusive Functions of the General Assembly and of the Security Council.......................................................................... 1795.1.1Peace-Keeping Operations: Concurrent Roles of the General Assembly and of the Security Council......................................... 1795.1.2The Exclusive Competence of the Security Council to Take Coercive Action ........................................................................... 1825.1.3The Exclusive Competence of the General Assembly over the UN’s Budget .......................................................................... 183The Joint Competence of the Political Organs .............................................. 185The Contribution of Advisory Opinions to the Development of International Human Rights Law .................................................................. 186The Contribution of Advisory Opinions to the Development of International Humanitarian Law ................................................................... 196The Contribution of Advisory Opinions to the Development of International Environmental Law.................................................................. 19810..................................................................................... 200Concluding Remarks
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CHAPTERSEVENThe Attitude of United Nations Member States Towards the Use of the Advisory Procedure .......................................... 2011Introduction ................................................................................................... 2012.............................................................................. 202Quantitative Significance 3Historical Background, Preparatory Work and Attitudes.............................. 2034The Role of Law and International Adjudication in International Affairs .... 2055Assessment of Frequently Cited Reasons for the Reluctance to Use the Court ............................................................................................ 2075.1International Law Applied by the Court Is of Western Origins ............ 2075.2The Court’s Unpopular Judgments and Advisory Opinions.................. 2115.2.1The 1966South West Africa, Second PhaseCase........................ 2115.2.2The 1996Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed ConflictsCase .............................................................. 2145.3The Risk of Losing and the Unpredictability of the Court’s Decision................................................................................................. 2145.4The Composition of the Court and the Impartiality of the Judges......... 2155.5The Slowness of the Judicial Procedure and the Cost of Litigation ...... 2176..................................................................................... 221Concluding Remarks
CHAPTEREIGHTThe Reception of Advisory Opinions ....................................... 2231Introduction ................................................................................................... 2232The Possibility of Non-compliance and Its Effect on the Court’s Discretion to Render Advisory Opinions ...................................................... 2233Guidance as the Primary Motive for Requesting Advisory Opinions ........... 2254The Interests Which Are Served by Compliance with Rendered Advisory Opinions ........................................................................................ 2275Review of Actions Taken by Requesting Organs upon a Rendered Advisory Opinions ........................................................................................ 2286Concluding Remarks ..................................................................................... 236
CONCLUSIONThe Advisory Function of the ICJ: Concerns, Limitations and Future Role .......................................................................... 2371Introduction ................................................................................................... 2372The Complexities of the Institutional Connection Between the Court and the United Nations.................................................................................. 238
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The Usefulness of the Advisory Opinion to the United Nations Organisation .................................................................................................. 240Reasons for the Limited Recourse to Advisory Opinions ............................. 2474.1Voting Procedure and Lack of Coordination......................................... 2474.2The Autonomy of the Political Organs.................................................. 2494.3............................... 249Limited Interdependence Between the UN Organs 4.4The Effect of the “Cold War”................................................................ 250Suggestions for Improving the Advisory Function ....................................... 251Towards the Future ....................................................................................... 253Suggestions for Further Research and Concluding Remarks ........................ 256
Selected Bibliography................................................................ 257Appendix 1 .................................................................................. 279Appendix 2 .................................................................................. 283
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