Etude des industries culturelles et créatives européennes 2014
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Etude des industries culturelles et créatives européennes 2014

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Creating growth Measuring cultural and creative markets in the EU December 2014 Study supporters With the initiative to set up a project aimed at analyzing the cultural and creative markets in the EU, GESAC, the European Grouping of Societies of Authors and Composers, commissioned EY to conduct this study. This project is the first of its kind. GESAC collaborated with the following partners and supporters in an effort to rally a large segment of the representative organizations in the cultural and creative sectors for this unprecedented study.



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Published 02 December 2014
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Creating growth
Measuring cultural
and creative markets in the EU
December 2014Study supporters
With the initiative to set up a project aimed at analyzing the cultural and creative markets in the EU, GESAC,
the European Grouping of Societies of Authors and Composers, commissioned EY to conduct this study.
This project is the frst of its kind. GESAC collaborated with the following partners and supporters in an
effort to rally a large segment of the representative organizations in the cultural and creative sectors for this
unprecedented study.
GESAC’s partners for the study Supportive organizations
European Federation of Joint Management Societies of Architects’ Council of Europe
Producers for Private Audiovisual Copying AEC
European Association of Conservatoires EVA
AEREuropean Visual Artists
Association of European Radios
International Federation of Film Producers Associations
European Association of Communications Agencies
International Federation of the Phonographic Industry European Composer and Songwriter Alliance
Independent Music Companies Association European Games Developer Federation
European Publishers Council
International Video Federation
Federation of European Publishers
Society of Audiovisual Authors
Federation of European Film Directors
Federation of Screenwriters in Europe
Independent Music Publishers ForumForeword 5
Key facts and fgures 10
01 Creative force: markets and jobs 14
in the cultural and creative industries in Europe
02 Creating Growth: future drivers of the creative economy in Europe 22
03 Creative diversity: understanding the 11 market segments 28
that make up the cultural and creative economy
Books 30

Newspapers and magazines 36
Performing arts 48
TV 54

Radio 68
Video games 74

Visual arts 80
Architecture 86
Advertising 90
EY | December 2014 3
Table of contents4 Creating growth | Measuring cultural and creative markets in the EUForewords
Europe has a shared history and a Then there is the digital revolution.
richly diverse cultural heritage. This While it gives much cause for hope,
heritage is cherished by the people as it also disrupts the cultural scene.
a common value that gives our Union Works are no longer distributed in
its identity and binds us together. That the same way as before. Copyright
is why Europe must do everything in and equitable compensation for
its power to preserve that heritage creative works no longer seem to be
in a political and economic climate accepted as a matter of course by the
that is subject to major upheavals. public. Yet new digital uses are to go
together with cultural development;
To begin with, the economic crisis had
therefore, in consideration and a huge impact on the world of culture,
good comprehension of all.
particularly in the form of budget cuts. Martin Schulz
Result: theaters, museums, cinemas, In order to support the industry, President of the European Parliament
orchestras and bookshops have been European cultural undertakings
forced to close down. Behind the need help to ensure access to
scenes, these closures mean that funding. It is in this spirit that the
European people — many of them in Union has established a guarantee
the younger age group — have lost scheme to enable all the cultural
their jobs. This is heartbreaking for all and creative sectors to develop.
of us in Europe, and for myself, both as The industry also needs support for
a father and as a former bookseller.
its access to technology; it needs
Yet, culture is one of Europe’s protection against big groups that
greatest assets. To say nothing of sell off culture at a discount, against
their immense nonmaterial value, networks which deprive creative
the creative and cultural industries artists of funding. The European
account for 4.2% of the GDP of Union’s powers are limited, but it
the Union, nearly 7 million jobs, must accept the challenge and tackle
primarily in small businesses. These it alongside the Member States.
fgures are very encouraging. It is only on this condition that
Culture is therefore one of Europe’s we shall be able to preserve our
great hopes. The jobs that it generates cultural assets. What we need to do
cannot, as a rule, be relocated — they is preserve and promote our culture
require a range of rare talents, and so that it impacts beyond European
it is often our young people who borders, and not blindly defend
display them; they are at home in it from all foreign infuences.
the digital world, which holds out
the promise of fresh potential for
growth. The fgures presented in this
study demonstrate this perfectly.
EY | December 2014 5Interestingly, the highest revenue At the time, the roles of these sectors
is generated by a purely cultural were insuffciently highlighted, and
sector: visual arts — much more their potential largely under-exploited.
than the flm industry, for example,
I am happy to see that in the past
according to the study. Economists few years, an increasing number of
and politicians have long overlooked
EU countries have been developing
the importance and potential of the strategies to fully tap the potential of
cultural and creative sectors. Their
these sectors. So have a large number
apparent heterogeneity — ranging of European regions and cities, from
from large flm production companies
Wallonia to Catalonia and from Berlin
to tiny SMEs, and from architecture to Tallinn and Turin. I am sure that
to video games, as well as performing
the compelling evidence in this new Xavier Prats Monné
arts and publishing, has slowed their study will be a further inspiration
Director General for Education, Culture, recognition as an economic sector.
Youth and Citizenship to decision–makers at all levels.
Yet, they are bounded and fueled by
The study also arrives at a useful time
Few people would doubt that one common factor: creativity, a free for the EU: in 2015, the Europe 2020
culture and creativity are essential and renewable source of energy —
strategy for growth and jobs will be
elements of the European identity. a resource which is abundantly reviewed. Newly updated fgures on the
This study shows — brilliantly present in countries of the European
contribution of the cultural and creative
so — that they are just as essential Union. Creativity feeds on culture sectors at the EU level are important
for the European economy. in its widest possible sense: the
and timely. So is the demonstration
extraordinary depth and breadth of This is the relevance of this study — that the creative economy has shown
European culture is a tremendous
because not enough citizens and resilience during the economic crisis
asset, a common good which must decision-makers know that culture and that it is a dynamic and
fastbe protected and promoted.
and creative industries employ 7 growing sector which contributes
million people, that they generate Since the adoption of the European signifcantly to youth employment.
4.2% of EU GDP, and that they are Agenda for Culture in 2007, a key None of this would be possible without
such powerful sources of jobs and objective of the European Commission
creators and creation. The competitive
growth that they provide jobs for has been to promote a European advantage of our cultural and creative
nearly 2.5 times more Europeans cultural space — to foster smart,
sectors depends on maintaining a
than the automotive industry. inclusive and sustainable growth, virtuous cycle of creative talent,
while safeguarding and promoting
The cultural and creative sectors artistic expression, entrepreneurship
our European cultural diversity.also contribute signifcantly to and investment, as well as proper
youth employment, employing, on In a 2012 policy communication, reward and remuneration for
average, more young people than the Commission invited EU creators. Enhancing this cycle by
any other sector. When it comes countries, regions and major fostering the right environment for
to sectors, visual arts, performing cities to promote their cultural cultural diversity and creativity in a
arts and music account for about and creative sectors for creating digital world will surely be a key task
half of all employment in the opportunities and enhancing growth. for the European Commission.
cultural and creative sectors.
6 Creating growth | Measuring cultural and creative markets in the EUCultural and creative industries in Europe unlock their full potential
and realities, developing their own The same goes for the flm industry and
particular business models. Each CCI the other cultural and creative sectors.
is unique and its future depends on a Creators are at the source of the
complete understanding of its needs
creative economy value chain. They
and how it works. However, all CCIs are also the most vulnerable part of it,
spring from an artistic and creative
as they are, in fact, the frst investors.
expression protected by intellectual They create works that often bring
property. In this regard, raising
fnancial returns only if, and when,
European citizens’ understanding and they fnd their audience and are
awareness of the value of copyright
commercially exploited. Authors’ rights
and related rights as enablers, and are, in effect, delayed payments of an
encouraging all stakeholders to play
extremely uncertain nature, due to the Christophe Depreter
their role in developing a thriving uncertainty of creative success itself.
CEO of SABAM and President of GESAC legal market for European content
Thanks to its long history and a
should be high on the agendas of
A growing body of evidence shows that complex mix of policy support and national and European authorities.
the cultural and creative Industries private investment, Europe has a
CCIs have impacts that go far
(CCIs) are sources of growth and jobs, tradition of creativity that fosters
beyond leisure, entertainment, benefting local communities, regions market growth. Michelangelo,
jobs or economic growth. They also
and states. This study aims to point Rousseau, Damien Hirst or Adele —
provide invaluable social cement; out where these industries ft into each, in their own manner, embodies
they contribute to the feeling of
the economy and society in Europe. the creativity hotspot that Europe
belonging to a society; in short, Policymakers really need a reliable tool has always been. Moreover,
they help forge a European identity.
to assess the true value of a sector Europe is globally renowned for its
The rich tapestry of European that is still woefully under-promoted. exceptional diversity of creation,
culture based on shared values is
Greater awareness should result in springing from its diversity of
a bulwark against extremism and a the development of a more supportive languages and local, regional,
means of overcoming the European
environment and appropriate tools interregional and national cultures.
Union’s current fagging growth. for fully tapping the potentials of
With this in mind, GESAC (the European
the CCIs in the decades ahead. The most striking fact about the Grouping of Societies of Authors),
creative economy is that creators
Europe is weathering a serious which links together 34 European
are the nucleus of the economy. economic, social and identity crisis authors’ societies and consequently
Their ideas, creativity, talent and
with stubbornly high unemployment. speaks for some 800,000 individual
entrepreneurship are what make it But the CCIs are a dynamic sector authors, is especially proud of having
possible for producers, publishers,
with a bright future and a key role to been able to contribute to this study.
distributors and retailers to generate play: they are part of the solution.
value. Obvious though it may seem, the
CCIs embrace a wide range of sectors
music industry would not exist without
and activities — content creation, songwriters, composers and musicians.
publishing, production, distribution
and conservation of goods and
services governed by specifc laws
EY | December 2014 7Measuring cultural and creative markets for the frst time
Marc Lhermitte Bruno Perrin
Partner, EY Partner, EY
This frst economic overview of Yet, despite the prominence of For the way we buy, distribute and
cultural and creative industries their output in our daily lives, the “consume” cultural “products”
within the EU stems from our creative industries have long played is changing fast. So, rather than
intuitive sense that culture and the role of the last-minute winner in producing another white paper, EY
creativity can become a powerhouse an economy where manufacturing, and GESAC set out to provide an
of economic growth in Europe. business services and the public overview of the cultural and creative
sector capture the limelight. economy and the trends that should be
With an annual revenue of €535.9
taken into account when considering billion and more than 7 million workers, Until now, reliable information on the
policy options affecting the sector.
the creative and cultural industries are scale and signifcance of the creative
today central to Europe’s economy and and cultural sectors as a whole has To tell the stories of these industries
competitiveness. Their importance been scarce. It was only in 2009 and their actors, their performance
and potential to create jobs and fuel that a working group coordinated by and diffculties, we looked at 11
economic growth are recognized Luxembourg’s Ministry of Culture — consumer markets for the creative
1by the European Commission . the European Statistical System and cultural goods and services
Network on Culture — was set up to that people and companies As this report shows, their
promote statistical cooperation and consume in 28 EU countries.
development is reinforcing Europe’s
harmonization with a view to producing position as a global hub of creativity We cross-checked these eleven
reliable cultural statistics.
and talents. It also fags new ways “vertical pillars” against the wide
This report reaffrms the in which Europe can enhance spectrum of creative activities which
methodological challenge that still
its attractiveness in a globalized generate economic value and jobs in
lies ahead in measuring the economic economy where countries compete felds such as idea conception, design,
importance of the creative and cultural
not only on costs but also on ideas, production, distribution, performance,
sectors, and focuses on an urgent need innovation, entrepreneurship and broadcasting and management, and
for further statistical consolidation
creativity. The creative sector will with activities relating to education
and harmonization at an EU level. play a key role in Europe’s economic and tourism, where applicable.
recovery, especially within the 1. European Commission (2010), Europe 2020, a Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth and European
Commission Green Paper (2010), Unlocking the Potential of Cultural and Creative Industries.framework of the Lisbon strategy.
8 Creating growth | Measuring cultural and creative markets in the EUMeasuring cultural and creative markets for the frst time
Subsectors of CCIs
Authors, specialized book stores, public
and academic libraries, book publishing,
Newspapers and magazines
Newspaper industry, journals and
periodical publishing industry, news
agencies, etc.
The study summarizes and builds This work, carried out under the Music
Sound recording and music publishing upon available information on the guidance of EY teams, has been a
activities, music composers and lyricists,
economic scale of the cultural and collective project, embracing the
music radio stations, TV music channels,
creative sectors at both national and thoughts and contributions of GESAC etc.
European levels. Though there have and its partners for this study with the
Performing arts
been many studies on the creative common aim of understanding and Perfts, supporting activities
economy, a common defnition has developing our cultural and creative and venues, etc.
only very recently been agreed. industries. We would like to thank TV
GESAC and its partners (IMPALA, Television programming, production, Our report includes:
post-production and distribution IFPI, SAA, Eurocopya, IVF, FIAPF and
creators working in the TV industry, etc. Comparative, qualitative and EVA) and its prime supporters (FEP,
quantitative analyses aimed at FilmAER, ACE, AEC, EACA, ECSA, EGDF,
understanding the economic role of the Motion picture production, post-EPC, FERA, FSE and IMPF) for their
production and distribution; creators creative and cultural sectors in Europe
technical and methodological insights. working in the movie industry, etc.
Key factors that will affect the
We hope that this report serves as a Radioglobal evolution of creative and
starting point for a better and wider Radio broadcasting activities, etc.
cultural sectors and players
understanding of the central role Ways by which creative and cultural Video games
played by creators and creation. Developers, publishers, retailers and activities can help encourage growth,
distributors, etc.
youth employment and innovation and
Visual artsstrengthen Europe’s position globally.
Creators of visual arts, such as
photography, design, art and crafts and
museums, etc.
Architectural frms, etc.
Advertising agencies, etc.
EY | December 2014 9
•••Key facts and fgures
With revenues of €535.9b, the creative and cultural industries (CCIs) contribute to 4.2% of Europe’s GDP.
The sector is its third-largest employer, after construction and food and beverage service activities, such as bars and
Turnover (€b) - 2012
93 90
36.3 36.2 31.9
17.3 16 10.4
Visual Advertising TV Newspapers Books Architecture Performing Music Film Gaming Radio
arts & magazines arts
More than 7m Europeans are directly or indirectly employed in creative and cultural activities — 3.3% of the EU’s active
population. Performing arts (1,234,500), visual arts (1,231,500) and music (1,168,000) employ more than 1m people
each, followed by advertising (818,000), books (646,000) and flm (641,000).
Employment (in thousands) - 2012
1,234,5 1,231,5
646 641 603,5
108 97
Performing Visual Music Advertising Books Film TV Architecture Newspapers Gaming Radio
arts arts & magazines
Total for jobs and markets have been estimated after removal of double-counting. For markets, the sum of sectors fgures,
€554.7b, exceeds the consolidated total, €535.9b (rounded fgure). For instance, live music is counted in both Performing
arts and Music sectors (see Methodology).
10 Creating growth | Measuring cultural and creative markets in the EU
Source: EY analysis Source: EY analysis