The G erm an Innovation System
10 Pages
English
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The G erm an Innovation System

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Learn all about the services we offer
10 Pages
English

Description

Fraunhofer. ISI. Institute. System s and. Innovation R esearch. 1. The G erm an Innovation System. Frieder M eyer-Krahm er. Fraunhofer-Institute for System s ...

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Language English

Exrait

Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
1
The Ger
m
a
n
Innovation System
Frieder
M
e
y
e
r-Krahm er
Fraunhofer-Institute for System s and Innovation Research (Karlsruhe, D) and
University Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg, F)
P
rofile, Trends and Problem s
S
trengths and W eaknesses
P
o
licy Trends and Perspectives
Conference "Refor
m
ing the French Innovation.
Insights from Foreign Experiences
",
Institut Français des Relations Internationales (IFRI),
Paris
, October 4, 2004
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
2
Completed secondary school education
Technology related higher education
graduates
Expenditure on education
R&D expenditure
Scientific regard of research
World market patents
Trade in high technology goods
Knowledge-intensive industries
Productivity of employees
IT expenditures
Early 1990s
Present
1
12
Source: Bericht zur Technologischen Leistungsfähigkeit Deutschlands 2002
1) Countries include G 7, Switzerland, Sweden, Finland, Netherlands, Republic of Korea
Early 1990s
Present
Ger
m
a
n
y
's position am ong selected countries
1
in i
m
p
o
rtant
criteria of technological com petitiveness / perfor
m
a
n
c
e
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
3
The Ger
m
a
n
research landscape 2001
HG F - Herm ann von Hel
m
h
o
ltz-G em einschaf
t
A
IF - Arbeitsgem einschaft industrieller
Forschungsvereinigungen
W
G
L
-
W
issenschaftsgem einschaft G ottfried
W
ilhell
m
Leibni
z
M
P
G
-
M
a
x
-Planck-G esellschaft
M
P
G
1.3
others
1.1
(e.g.
AiF)
Industry
HG F
2.2
FhG
1.0
W
G
L
0.95
Federal
and
state
institutes
1.0
Universities
8.0
37.2
billion €
Curiosity-oriented
Applied-oriented
pred. private
Financing
Contract research for industry
pred. public
Research type
[billion] €
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
4
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2,0
2,2
2,4
2,6
2,8
3,0
3,2
3,4
3,6
3,8
4,0
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02
SWE c)
FIN
JPN b)
USA
KOR
SUI
GER a)
FRA
NED
CAN
GBR
ITA
R&D intensity in selected OECD countries 1981 –
2002*
Total R&D expenditures in
percentage of G DP
*) Parts of data esti
m
a
ted
a) Before 1990: for
m
e
r federal territory.
b) R&D expenditures in Japan slightly
overesti
m
a
ted before 1995.
c) Structural change in survey
m
e
thod
1994/1995
Source: O ECD:
M
a
in Science and
Technology Indicators; Science statistics
and national infor
m
a
tion. – I
M
D
.
Calculations and Esti
m
a
tions by NI
W
.
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
5
Knowledge transfer indicators of G erm an research institutions, 2000
Universities
of applied
sciences
Fraunhofer
society
Technical
universities
Herm ann von
Hel
m
h
o
ltz-
G em einschaft
W
issenschafts
gem einschaft
G ottfried
W
ilhelm
Leibniz
Universities M ax Planck
society
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
FH
FhG
TU
HGF
WGL
Uni
MPG
Percentage
Applied R&D
Transfer of persons
to industry
Third party funds
from industry
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
6
C-115-O
Education funnel: Social selection in G er
m
a
n
y
, 1996
Source: DSW /HIS
15.
Sozialerhebung.
Zusam m enstellung
des HIS.
•100 children
•84 children
Threshold:
gymnasiale
Oberstufe
University access
Children of high social origin
•100 children
•33 children
•8 children
gymnasiale
Oberstufe
University access
Children of low social origin
•33%
•Transition share
•72 children
•86%
•24%
•84 %
Threshold:
Threshold:
Threshold:
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
7
Selected Strength and W eakness of the Germ an Innovation
System
G overnance
Federal System
Drop in incentives to invest in
training/education
Q ualified staff/workers
Fragm ented structure
Decentralised research system
New
m
a
rkets
Existing
m
a
rkets
Inadequate link-up to leading-edge
technology
High-level technology
W eaknesses
Strengths
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
8
Policy Trends and Perspectives
• Investm ents in education and R&D: m oderate growth
• universities: US m odel
• public research organisations: issue driven
• regions: clusters and centers of excellence
• innovation: new concepts and governance
• Europe: Ger
m
a
n
inward orientation
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
9
Fraunhofer
ISI
Institute
System s and
Innovation Research
10