PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL MODELS OF ACCESS IN THE DIGITAL ERA (European Parliament)
218 Pages
English

PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL MODELS OF ACCESS IN THE DIGITAL ERA (European Parliament)

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DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES POLICY DEPARTMENT B: STRUCTURAL AND COHESION POLICIES CULTURE AND EDUCATION PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL MODELS OF ACCESS IN THE DIGITAL ERA This document was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education. AUTHORS Claudio Feijoo, Sven Lindmark, Juan Pablo Villar, Carlota Tarín, Javier Gelabert, Beatriz Matía. RESPONSIBLE ADMINISTRATOR Markus J. Prutsch Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies European Parliament E-mail: poldep-cohesion@europarl.europa.eu LINGUISTIC VERSIONS Original: EN Translation: DE, FR ABOUT THE EDITOR To contact the Policy Department or to subscribe to its monthly newsletter please write to: poldep-cohesion@europarl.europa.eu Manuscript completed in April 2013 © European Union, 2013 This document is available on the Internet at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/studies DISCLAIMER The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy.

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Published 24 June 2015
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DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES
POLICY DEPARTMENT B:
STRUCTURAL AND COHESION POLICIES

CULTURE AND EDUCATION









PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL MODELS OF
ACCESS IN THE DIGITAL ERA
















This document was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and
Education.


AUTHORS

Claudio Feijoo, Sven Lindmark, Juan Pablo Villar, Carlota Tarín, Javier Gelabert,
Beatriz Matía.


RESPONSIBLE ADMINISTRATOR

Markus J. Prutsch
Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies
European Parliament
E-mail: poldep-cohesion@europarl.europa.eu


LINGUISTIC VERSIONS

Original: EN
Translation: DE, FR


ABOUT THE EDITOR

To contact the Policy Department or to subscribe to its monthly newsletter please write
to: poldep-cohesion@europarl.europa.eu

Manuscript completed in April 2013
© European Union, 2013

This document is available on the Internet at:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/studies


DISCLAIMER

The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and do
not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament.

Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes is authorised, provided the
source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy.




DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL POLICIES
POLICY DEPARTMENT B:
STRUCTURAL AND COHESION POLICIES

CULTURE AND EDUCATION







PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL MODELS OF
ACCESS IN THE DIGITAL ERA










Abstract
This study provides an overview of the status and potential evolution of
how content is delivered to the wider public in Europe, including the
experience of the public sector and commercial providers. On the base of
problems and causes identified, a series of recommendations are made
to respond to the challenges of the digital era regarding access to
content in Europe.


IP/B/CULT/IC/2012_18 April 2013

PE 495.858 EN
Public and Commercial Models of Access in the Digital Era
________________________________________________________________________
CONTENTS
 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 5 
LIST OF TABLES 7 
LIST OF FIGURES 9 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11 
1. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY 21 
1.1.  Scope 21 
1.2.  Methodology 21 
1.3.  Structure of the study 24 
2. COMMERCIAL CONTENT MARKETS 25 
2.1.  Digital content demand in the European Union 27 
2.2.  Film 29 
2.3.  Videogames 51 
2.4.  Books 63 
2.5.  Newspapers 82 
2.6.  Comparison between commercial sectors 100 
RELEVANT REFERENCES IN COMMERCIAL CONTENT MARKETS 103 
3. THE CHALLENGE OF EUROPEAN PUBLIC CONTENT 107 
3.1.  Public content: delimitation of the term and types of content 109 
3.2.  Status of digitisation 113 
3.3.  Access to digital cultural heritage 115 
3.4.  Business models for digital public content 119 
3.5.  Funding 134 
3.6.  Access to public digital content in the age of content platforms 143 
3.7.  Obstacles in the transition to the digital era 146 
RELEVANT REFERENCES ON EUROPEAN PUBLIC CONTENT 151 
4. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 155 
ANNEX I: FACT SHEETS OF SELECTED NATIONAL MARKETS OF DIGITAL
CONTENT 165 
ANNEX II: ONLINE SURVEY CONDUCTED AMONG PRIVATE AND PUBLIC
ORGANISATIONS IN THE FIELD OF DIGITAL CONTENT 203 
OTHER REFERENCES 209 


3 Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies
______________________________________________________________
4 Public and Commercial Models of Access in the Digital Era
________________________________________________________________________
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AAP Association of American Publishers
Apps Application software
ARROW Accessible Registries of Rights Information and Orphan Works
towards Europeana
BBC British Broadcasting Corporation
BnF Bibliothèque Nationale de France
CC0 Creative Commons Zero Public Domain Dedication
DRM Digital Rights Management
EGDF European Games Developer Federation
EGEDA Entidad de Gestión de Derechos de los Productores Audiovisuales
ePUB Electronic Publication, an official standard of the International Digital
Publishing Forum
EU European Union
EU-27 The current 27 Member States of the European Union
EUR Euros
F2P Free to Play
FEP Federation of European Publishers
ICT Information and Communications Technologies
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IPTS Institute for Prospective Technological Studies
ISPs Internet Service Providers
JISC Joint Information Systems Committee
M€ Millions euros
5 Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies
______________________________________________________________
MARC Machine-Readable Cataloguing
MDCE Museums Digital Content Exchange
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
NL The Netherlands
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PC Personal Computer
PPPs Public-Private Partnerships
PPV Pay per View
PSI Public Sector Information
PwC PricewaterhouseCoopers
RAI Radiotelevisione Italiana
RTVE Radio Televisión Española
SCA Strategic Content Alliance
SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises
SVT Sveriges Television
TV Television
UK United Kingdom
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
USA United States of America
VAT Value Added Tax
VoD Video on Demand
Vs. Versus
WAN-IFRA World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers
6