Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Hexavalent Chromium Standards
OSHA 3320-10N 2006
Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their employees. OSHA’s role is to assure the safety and health of America’s employees by setting and enforcing standards; pro-viding training, outreach and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improve-ment in workplace safety and health.
This handbook provides a general overview of a par-ticular topic related to OSHA standards. It does not alter or determine compliance responsibilities in OSHA standards or theOccupational Safety and Health Act of 197.0Because interpretations and en-forcement policy may change over time, you should consult current OSHA administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the Courts for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements.
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Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Hexavalent Chromium Standards
Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor
OSHA 3320-10N 2006
Introduction Scope Definitions Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Exposure Determination Regulated Areas Methods of Compliance Respiratory Protection Protective Work Clothing and Equipment Hygiene Areas and Practices Housekeeping Medical Surveillance Communication of Cr(VI) Hazards to Employees
3 4 5 6 7 9 9 11 11 13 14 15 16
Cover photo: An employee welds a stainless steel flange using a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process (courtesy Bath Iron Works).
Recordkeeping 17 Dates 18 OSHA Assistance 19 Appendix I: OSHA Cr(VI) Standards 22 Appendix II: Industry Operations or Processes Associated with Occupational Exposure to Cr(VI) 40 Appendix III: A. OSHA Area Offices 47 B. OSHA Regional Offices 52 C. States with Approved Occupational Safety and Health Plans 53 D. OSHA Consultation Project Directory 55
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
This guide is intended to help small businesses com- section explains which employers are covered by the ply with the Occupational Safety and Health standards and describes the exceptions to coverage of Administration’s (OSHA) Hexavalent Chromium the standards. The employer may consult a section (Cr(VI)) standards. Employees exposed to Cr(VI) are at that is of particular interest, or may proceed through increased risk of developing serious adverse health the sections in sequence to gain a better understand-effects including lung cancer, asthma and damage toing of the standards in their entirety. A section cdriebs-the nasal passages and skin. This guide describes the ing additional OSHA resources available to assist steps that employers are required to take to protect employers is also included. employees from the hazards associated with exposure The Cr(VI) standards for general industry (29 CFR to Cr(VI). 1910.1026), shipyards (29 CFR 1915.1026), and con-This document provides guidance only, and does struction (29 CFR 1926.1126) are included in Appendix not alter or determine compliance responsibilities, I. Appendix II presents information on industry opera-which are set forth in OSHA standards and the tions and processes associated with exposure to Occupational Safety and Health A.cTt to assist employers in identifying Cr(VI) expo- Cr(VI)his guide does not replace the official Hexavalent Chromium stan- sures in their workplaces. Appendix III contains list-dards, which are contained in Appendix I of this docu- ings of OSHA Area and Regional offices; the address-ment. The employer must refer to the appropriate es and phone numbers of state agencies that adminis-standard to ensure that they are in compliance. ter OSHA-approved State Plans; and the addresses Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement and phone numbers of OSHA Consultation Service policy may change over time, for additional guidance offices. on OSHA compliance requirements the reader should consult current administrative interpretations andWHERE TO GO FOR ADDITIONAL ASSISTANCE decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health For additional assistance in complying with the Cr(VI) Review Commission and the courts. standards, contact the nearest OSHA Area Office. If In 24 states and two territories, OSHA standards you are unable to contact the OSHA Area Office, you are enforced by the state agency responsible for the can contact the appropriate OSHA Regional Office OSHA-approved State Plan. These states and territo- for information or assistance. If you are located in a ries are: Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, state that operates an OSHA-approved State Plan, you  Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, may contact the responsible state agency for informa-Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New tion and assistance. See Appendix III for the address-York, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South es and phone numbers of these offices. Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virgin Islands, The OSHA Consultation Service is another impor- Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. Connecticut, tant resource for additional assistance. The service is New Jersey, New York, and the Virgin Islands operate largely funded by OSHA and is delivered by state OSHA-approved State Plans limited in scope to state governments using well-trained professional staff. and local government employees. State Plans must ri int sses, the consul-adopt and enforce standards that are either identicalPrimalyended for sofm cahllaerr busine to or at least as effective as the federal standards.tcaotimopnl eptreolgy rsaemp aisr aftree ef rom the gOe StHo Ae imnsplpoeycetiros na enfdf oirst. They must also extend the coverage of their standards The consultation services do not issue citations or to state and local government employees. propose penalties. Additional information on the OSHA Consultation Service, as well as other sources HOW TO USE THIS GUIDEof help from OSHA, can be found in the OSHA assis-The guide is divided into sections that correspond to tance section of the guide. the major provisions of the Cr(VI) standards. Each sec-tion follows the same organization as the correspond-ing paragraph of the standards, providing more detail than the standards to help employers better understand the requirements. For example, the Scope
Scope The standards apply to all occupational exposures to not regulate where another federal agency, such as Cr(VI), with only limited exceptions. OSHA has separate EPA, enforces occupational safety and health standards. standards for Cr(VI) exposures in general industry, ship- The exemption pertains only to the application of yards, and construction. Most of the requirements are pesticides and not to the manufacture of Cr(VI)-con-the same for all sectors. Where there are differences, taining pesticides, which is covered by the standards. they will be explained in this guide. The use of wood treated with pesticides containing Cr(VI) is present in many different compounds that Cr(VI) is also covered by the standards. have a variety of industrial applications. Examples of major industrial uses of Cr(VI) compounds include: chro-PORTLAND CEMENT mate pigments in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics; chro- The standards do not cover exposure to Cr(VI) in port-mates added as anticorrosive agents to paints, primers, land cement. Trace amounts of Cr(VI) are usually pres-and other surface coatings; and chromic acid electroplat-ent in portland cement. However, the concentration of ed onto metal parts to provide a decorative or protectiveCr(VI) is so low that employee exposures to Cr(VI) from coating. Examples of Cr(VI) compounds include: working with portland cement are typically well below • ammonium dichromate ((N4)H2Cr2O7); the action level. • calcium chromate (CaCr4b dluohs erawa eEms eroyplrasd oththattander sO;) • chromium trioxide or chromic acid (C3r;)O ra ealecnip sepotod eeoyexs  tcelpme ot torpdp roltna • lead chromate (PbCr4or fitim lerusopxe elbissiO) ;s a perm OSHA hacmene.t • potassium chromate (2CKrO4); portland cement (see 29 CFR 1910.1000 for general • potassium dichromate (2KCr2O7);55 fructonst .pAoi)nirtarppoonrspee tero pal-cindusrt;y2  9FC R915100.1fo0 shr yaip;sdr 92 1RFC.629 • sodium chromate (N2OCra4 c); or • strontium chromate (SrCr4011. R91 9FCee2 en-or g32 f; anO)dp orivedm su tebed when d and ustiw op hkrowgni-enem(st lart cnde evittnempiuq • zinc chromate (ZnCr4ral eRFC 92 ;yrtsudnishr fo2 155.91 1 .)Os;rdyaipRCF9  2 Employers can consult their suppliers or examine 1926.95 for construction). Adequate washing facilities material safety data sheets (MSDSs) to identify Cr(VI)-must also be provided in all sectors (see 29 CFR containing materials that are present in the workplace. 1910.141(d) for general industry and shipyards; 29 CFR Cr(VI) can also be formed when performing “hot work” 1926.51(f) for construction). In addition, OSHA’s Hazard such as welding on stainless steel, melting chromium Communication standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) requires metal, or heating refractory bricks in kilns. In these situa-training for all employees potentially exposed to haz-tions the chromium is not originally hexavalent, but the ardous chemicals, including portland cement. high temperatures involved in the process result in oxi-dation that converts the chromium to a hexavalent state.WHERE EXPOSURES CANNOT EXCEED 0.5 µg/m3  Appendix II of this document presents a more extensive An exemption from the standards is provided for  description of the industry operations and processes that e e data d are typically associated with Cr(VI) exposure.tehmatp lao ymerast ewrihaol  choanvtea ionibnjgc tcihvromium oerm ao nssptercaitfiincg The Cr(VI) standards do not apply in three situa- process, operation, or activity involving chromium tions: Exposures that occur in the application of pesti- cannot release dusts, fumes, or mists of Cr(VI) in con-cides; exposures to portland cement; and where the centrations at or above 0.5 micrograms per cubic employer has objective data demonstrating that Cr(VI) meter of air (0.5µ /mg3) as an 8-hour time-weighted concentrations cannot exceed 0.5 micrograms per average (TWA) under any expected conditions of use. cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average When using the phrase “any expected conditions of under any expected conditions of use. use,” OSHA is referring to any situation that can rea-sonably be foreseen by the employer. The meaning of APPLICATION OF PESTICIDESthe term “objective data” is discussed in the following The standards do not cover exposures to Cr(VI) that section. occur in the application of pesticides. Some Cr(VI)-con- This exception for situations where exposures are taining chemicals, such as chromated copper arsenate not likely to present significant risk to employees (CCA) and acid copper chromate (ACC), are used for allows employers to focus their resources on expo-wood treatment and are regulated by the Environmen- sures of greater occupational health concern. tal Protection Agency (EPA) as pesticides. OSHA does 4 Occupational Safety and Health Administration