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Structure of European industry


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Industry, trade and services


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of European Industry
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As publicações do Eurostat estão classificadas por tema e por série. Esta classificação está indicada no firn da
obra. Para mais informações sobre as publicações é favor contactar Eurostat.
Encomendas: serviços de venda cujos endereços estão indicados na contracapa. Monthiy(Panorama
of European Industry
Energy and industry
Short-term statistics Β Sent to press in August 1997
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is
available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1997
© European Communities, 1997
Reproduction is authorized, provided the source is acknowledged
Printed in Luxembourg Printed on white chlorine-free paper o
Objectives and content of the publication
This publication sets out to present a summary picture of manufactur­
ing industry in the European Union at a relatively detailed sectoral level
(Division level of the statistical classification of economic activities in
the European Community, NACE Rev. 1).
An opening section on methodology is followed by a presentation of
key data on European manufacturing industry. Featured thereafter are
double-page outlines of each NACE Rev. 1 Division. The data
presented relate essentially to:
• the key variables for the NACE Division under consideration
(employment, turnover, personnel costs, value added, invest­
ment); these data are available for thirteen of the fifteen Member
States and for the European Union as a whole, as well as for the
United States and Japan; they relate to the year 1994;
• trends in output and employment (where available) between
1990 and 1996, presented in graph form;
• trends in EU external trade with the rest of the world, also pre­
sented in graph form;
• for each Member State, a breakdown of employment at a more
detailed sectoral level ('Group' level in NACE Rev.1) as well as
into five employment size classes.
The final section of the publication contains maps depicting the break­
down of employment at the regional level (level II of the nomenclature
of territorial units for statistics, NUTS 95) in the European Union.
The data used in this publication were taken chiefly from Eurostat's
structural business statistics database.
eurostat t e n 3
The Monthly Panorama of huro
Industry has the objective of furnishing
readers with an instrument which will
allow them to follow the evolution of
industrial short­term trends and also
show the structure and activity of O Methodology 5
industry at the sectorial level. The
Availability of data 5 publication appears eleven times dur­
ing the course of the year. When the
Statistical population 5
occasion warrants topical articles may
well be treated in the form of £ Definition of statistical units 5
special edition (such as this), five of n of variables f, which are planned for 1997.
Classification of activities 8 This publication is a joint project of
Eurostat and Directorate General III
Definition of size classes 12
(industrial policy).
The opinions expressed in this Sources 12
publication are those of the
individual authors alone and do not
necessarily reflect the position o
European Commis
© Key data on European manufacturing industry 13
Mr. Berthold Feldmann,
EUROSTAT, Industry's economic clout 13
Statistical Office of the European
Manufacturing industry in the EU, the USA and Japan 13 Communities,
Bâtiment Jean Monnet,
Growth rates in manufacturing industry 20 C5/27,
L­2920 Luxembourg
Specialisation of g industries 23
tel: (352) 4301 34401
fax: (352) 4301 34359 Employment concentration in manufacturing industries 29
berthold. feldman@eurostat.ce
Olivier Mlcol
ι and desktop publishing:
© Sectoral Analysis 31
Marie­Paule Labruier
Data production
Guy Lemaire,
Marcello Magliulo,
Eric de Brabantei
© Regional Analysis 79
© Symbols and abbreviations 91
Enquiries regarding the purchase
of data should be directed to:
Eurostat Datashop
. 2, rue Jean Engling
tel: (352) 4335 2251
fax: (352) 4335 22221
e­mail: agnesn@eurostat.datashop.lu
eurostat M logy o o
United States: local kind-of-activity unit Availability of data
employing 1 person or more
Japan : localy unit Structural business statistics are available for
employing 4 persons or more all the Member States of the European Union
(30 for investments)
except Belgium and Portugal for which
Eurostat has not yet received data in NACE
With regard to data ordered by size class, the
Rev.1. These data generally concern the refer­
statistical unit is also the enterprise, except for
ence year 1994, except data for Greece,
Belgium (employer), Denmark (legal unit) and
Ireland and Luxembourg (1993).
Greece (establishment). If, for any given coun­
try, one or more of the pre-defined employ­EU totals have been calculated for 1994 by
ment size classes was not available, data were
estimating data not available for these five
completed in order to cover all classes.
countries. In the case of Belgium, the estima­
tions were supplied by DEBA GEIE using
Eurostat's PRODCOM database and, for
Definition of statistical units Portugal, using Eurostat's SME database.
Depending on the country in question, the (Extract from the Regulation of 15 March 1993
breakdown of employment into five size class­ on the statistical units for the observation and
es has been either calculated or estimated analysis of the production system in the
using data collected within Eurostat's SME Community)
Project. These data, given only as percentages,
generally refer to the year 1993 and cover all
• Enterprise the Member States of the Union. The size
classes range from enterprises with no paid
The enterprise is the smallest combination of
staff to enterprises with 250 or more em­
legal units that is an organisational unit pro­
ducing goods or services, which benefits from
a certain degree of autonomy in decision-mak­
ing, especially for the allocation of its current
Statistical population resources. An enterprise carries out one or
more activities at one or more locations. An
With the exception of external trade statistics
enterprise may be a sole legal unit. and data broken down by employment size
class, the data presented in this publication
concern enterprises employing 20 or more
• Local kind-of-activity unit
The kind-of-activity unit (KAU) groups all the
Several countries, however, constitute excep­ parts of an enterprise contributing to the per­
tions to this rule. formance of an activity at class level (four dig­
its) of NACE Rev. 1 and corresponds to one or
Greece: local kind-of-activity unit
more operational subdivisions of the enter­
employing 20 persons or more
prise. The enterprise's information system
Spain: enterprise with 1 employee or must be capable of indicating or calculating
more for each KAU at least the value of production,
intermediate consumption, manpower costs, Ireland:e employing 3 per­
the operating surplus and employment and sons or more
gross fixed capital formation.
Austria : establishment employing 20
persons or more The local kind-of-activity unit (local KAU) is
Finland :t employing 5 the part of a KAU that corresponds to a local
unit. persons or more
No employment data are available in the case * Local unit
of the Netherlands for the years 1993 and
1994 owing to the setting­up of a new survey. The local unit is an enterprise or part thereof
Estimates were made for the purpose of calcu­(e.g. a workshop, factory, warehouse, office,
lating the EU totals. In the table which is con­mine or depot) situated in a geographically
tained in the double­page sectoral analysis identified place. At or from this place eco­
section and relates to the breakdown of nomic activity is carried out for which ­ save
employment among the Groups making up for certain exceptions ­ one or more persons
the NACE Division under consideration, the work (even if only part­time) for one and the
percentages for the Netherlands were calculat­same enterprise.
ed on the basis of the wages and salaries vari­
able. * Establishment
In the case of the United States, the employ­This is not an official unit of European statis­
ment variable includes neither owners who tics.
regularly work in the enterprise, nor office per­
In the case of Finland and Austria, an estab­ sonnel, nor personnel operating in auxiliary
lishment comprises a grouping of local units units (depots, R&D laboratories, etc.). The US
situated in one and the same administrative employment figures are, therefore, underesti­
zone. mated compared with the values stated for the
European Union and Japan.
• Employer
As concerns data broken down by size class,
This is not an official unit used within the the number of persons employed is not avail­
community statistical system. The employer is able for France and Spain. Consequently, the
a sole proprietorship or legal entity registered employment breakdown for these countries is
based on the number of employees assuming with the social security system. This unit has
therefore employed workers who are either one person employed per enterprise with no
completely or partially liable to social security salaried staff.
• Turnover
Definition of variables
Total turnover is the sum of
invoiced amounts corresponding to • Employment
sales on the market;
Employment is measured by the number of
­ invoiced amounts corresponding to ser­
persons employed. This includes:
vices rendered to third parties.
­ all employees: manual workers,
Turnover includes all duties and taxes on apprentice manual workers, non­manu­
goods or services invoiced by the unit, with al workers, commercial and technical
the exception of VAT invoiced by the unit to apprentices, as well as part­time and
its clients. seasonal workers who feature on the
Also included in turnover are all other expens­
­ owners, associates and unpaid family es (transportation, packaging, etc.) charged to
workers who work regularly in the unit; customers, even if these charges are featured
separately on the invoice. ­ persons who do not work in the unit
but are part of it and are paid by it, such
The turnover figure does not include sales of
as: sales representatives, field­service
fixed assets.
engineers, repair and maintenance
teams, etc.; As the turnover figure was not available in the
case of Finland, the production variable was ­ home workers who are included on the
used for that Member State in the calculation payroll.
of European totals.
In the following Member States, home work­
ers are not included in the employment figure: In the case of the United States, the turnover
Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Austria figure does not include income from non­
and the United Kingdom. industrial services.
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