The beverages of the Chinese; Kung-fu; or, Tauist medical gymnastics; the population of China; a modern Chinese anatomist; and a chapter in Chinese surgery

The beverages of the Chinese; Kung-fu; or, Tauist medical gymnastics; the population of China; a modern Chinese anatomist; and a chapter in Chinese surgery

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THEBEVERAGES OF THE CHINESEKUNG-FUORTAUIST MEDICAL GYMNASTICSTHE POPULATION OF CHINA*A MODERN CHINESE ANATOMISTANDA CHAPTER IN CHINESE SURGERYBYJOHN DUDGEON, M.D., C.M.,PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY,fIMPERIAL COLLEGE PEKING.(T UNG-WEN-KUAN),&C.&C., &C.,TIENTSIN.THE TIENTSIN PRESS.BEVERAGESTHEOFTHE CHINESE,BYC.M.JOHN M.D.,DUDGEON,TEA.in fromThe first use of tea as a China datesbeveragethe commencement of the Sui dynasty (589 A.D.).(pff)Previous to this it used as ato have beenappearsand is said to be mentioned in Shenmedicine, Xung'sbefore theAccount someofAliments, 3,000 years( Jfl$ ;H )our is ascribed toof era. some itsbeginning By originnotice in the After Han dynastyImperial (^| ^|)It is recorded of one of the Heroes of(221-265 A.D.).madethe Three that heKingdoms (about 221-263 A.D.)liis drink not less than seven of wine,guests pintsmorebut that a certain officer who could not drinkhavethan three .of as a favour was allowed topints wine,tea him in the of wine. Menciussecretly given placer in"In summer cold w ater was used(368-321 B.C.) saysin water" from which it bedrinking; winter, boiling mayinferred teathat was not then used. The use of tea,in the Sui in thebegun dynasty, gained reputation duringand was abundant in thatT'ang 620-907 A.D.,(Hf),of the esteemed andSung 9/0-1280 A.D., being(^),used It is stated that a on tea in theeverywhere. dutyto such an extent had itsT'ang dynasty, consumptionwas levied in the A ...

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THE BEVERAGES OF THE CHINESE KUNG-FU OR TAUIST MEDICAL GYMNASTICS THE POPULATION OF CHINA * A MODERN CHINESE ANATOMIST AND A CHAPTER IN CHINESE SURGERY BY JOHN DUDGEON, M.D., C.M., PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, f IMPERIAL COLLEGE PEKING.(T UNG-WEN-KUAN), &C.&C., &C., TIENTSIN. THE TIENTSIN PRESS. BEVERAGESTHE OF THE CHINESE, BY C.M.JOHN M.D.,DUDGEON, TEA. in fromThe first use of tea as a China datesbeverage the commencement of the Sui dynasty (589 A.D.).(pff) Previous to this it used as ato have beenappears and is said to be mentioned in Shenmedicine, Xung's before theAccount someofAliments, 3,000 years( Jfl$ ;H ) our is ascribed toof era. some itsbeginning By origin notice in the After Han dynastyImperial (^| ^|) It is recorded of one of the Heroes of(221-265 A.D.). madethe Three that heKingdoms (about 221-263 A.D.) liis drink not less than seven of wine,guests pints morebut that a certain officer who could not drink havethan three .of as a favour was allowed topints wine, tea him in the of wine. Menciussecretly given place r in"In summer cold w ater was used(368-321 B.C.) says in water" from which it bedrinking; winter, boiling may inferred teathat was not then used. The use of tea, in the Sui in thebegun dynasty, gained reputation during and was abundant in thatT'ang 620-907 A.D.,(Hf), of the esteemed andSung 9/0-1280 A.D., being(^), used It is stated that a on tea in theeverywhere. duty to such an extent had itsT'ang dynasty, consumption was levied in the A.D. Thisreached, year 783 duty was increased in the the whensucceeding dynasty, Sung, r tea was first sent as annual tribute to theup Emperor. We safe in the of thisare, therefore, assuming origin in the 6th of our andbeverage era, that,century although known earlier as a it was tillnot the thatmedicine, 9th becameits use over thegeneral Empire. The above is the substance of two notes in Notes and Xos. and own(Vol.Queries Ill, 5 7). My investigations have led me to the account of the andfollowing origin of tea. In a work on entitledDietetics,antiquity Yin Shih Pien by Chang),(ffc^f Hsing-yiin^-fa^) in the i8th of Chiayear Ch'ing (1814),published and Ts'ao Chien in the of3rdreprinted by 5H), year(l|f Tao it is said in the sectionin 8 volumes,Kwang (1824), on tea thethat the Pen Tsao (Great Herbal), quoting on the Erh Ya a of thecommentary Dictionary(HJ *$), I2th Kwo states that chia-k'u-l'ucentury B.C., by (ffl), is tea - * ne ofthe Shuofpeople kingdom (<),(51^ 3$$) modern called it bitterSze-chuau, tea,k'u-ch'a^^-jfe), also chw'en the old of tealeaves the plant.G8f), Lu Yii in the middle of the 8th authorcentury,(|gj| ^J), ( of the Ch a a treatise on the teaChing plant,$g),(%fe the earliest book on the there are five subject, says names to viz. ch'a chia sh?given tea, 9 (%$), ),(^g), (^ and c/iw'cn In thebook"ling [spring sprouts],(3g) (^). called Tan Ch'ien tea is said to be theLu.(ft $$ ^), ancient t'u sonchus a bitterobraceus, sow-thistle,(^), edible The Shih sa ^'s : no everplant. Ching )'(|: $5) t'u is bitter? It is as sweet as thesays shepherd's purse. bursa Ctii Yen Shih-ku(Capsclla pastoris) (^). 3 celebrated scholar and one of the chiefa(fi $ifi l?f)> in the first two of theSecretaries reigns T'angImperial : There is a called/th century, says placedynasty, and in the Han thethat, dynasty,Ch'a-Iing ||g),(%fe first to the t'n. In the andname ch'a was plantgiven Spring AutumnAnnals oftheC//'/ there occurs thekingdom,(^) fit. Both of the Han histories of thecharacter speak The of the samegeography dynastyT'u-ling (^ |||j). % of in the ofCh'a-ling country Chang-skaspeaks (JJ J^). occursThe character Vu twice in the Erh Ya. The ch'a is made of andgrass, man,up It is said the ch'a character is not foundwood. in the Six Classics. and Yen it is found there.Yang say the radical it t'u-k'u-ts'aiUnder quotesgrass, as in the ShihAlready explained by Kwo,IS)>(sj$ ~^ the section on Kwo ofchia-k*u-VuUnder wood,Ching. says can be made of its leaves. Whenthat soup picked early, called later There are as ourit is tea, ming. clearly here, two distinct K'u-t'u canauthor maintains, totally things. Chai C/iia The t'ube read as of k'u-ts'ai(^g Jp -^J). has retained its old sound. notYang has, therefore, our author this Thereasserts,examined, point carefully. l is of t'u as ch a. It is notgreat danger pronouncing in the ancient Herbals includedfound among Drugs. inThe character first theHerbalof Suappeared Kung-t/ang an official who revised and thecompletedr),(^S ?J!T Malcria and Ch'enMcdica, Ts'ang-ch'iT'ang Dynasty fiist half of lhe 8th Hecentury. published($H $$(, ffi^ a work which be translated : Omissions in previousmay Works Matcria It is said to be found inMcdica.of but was addedShen Account thisXung's of Aliments, later writers. It does not occur in the ancient falsely by do we know itrecords. was introduced aHerwards?\Yliy thebefore time of Kwo's onBecause, commentary Erh there was nothe such character asYa, ch'a. How comes it then to be included in Shen X list? ung's In the Shi Chi and in the books of the anteriorgg),(^ and after Han there was no tea character.Dynasties, In the time of the Three in the WuKingdoms, history there is an official named Wei Yao who did (jp; f|^), not drink wine as it looked ill to be seated; and, among and not to drink Sun Haoguests wine, (^ j^jj), the him chw'en m ace ofemperor, gave pl wine,(JJjp) that is tea. In it is said thatDictionary,Kang-hi's everybody says l that tea is tthe ancient but do not know howu\ they many theresorts are of tea. The Vu of chia-k'u-t'ii is the l tea. Sun the t u is not a cleanpresent says plant, and is not the so-called h'u-ls'ai (bitter vegetable). The chia-k'u-t'u is said to resemble the chih-lzc (%JQ ~f*), nia The Pen Ts'ao of shan-ch'agarde Jlorida. speaks mountain or wild Camelliatea, Japonica,([If ^), thebecause its resemblesprouts ming (^jj). on tea was first levied in theDuty yeari_fth of It then to be drunk as(794 A.D.). began^4$8i a Before this the drinks in use werebeverage. period, of andmade the offlesh,soups vegetables, grains, juice fruits. has its distinctive name for the shrubEvery place or and these names are The teabeverage, simply legion. theirand sellers selected own with a viewplanters names, to enhance the value of their article. Its consumption increased after the In thegreatly T'ang. succeeding of the and muie and more teadynasties Sung Yuen, was drunk. In the tea was forMing dynasty, exchanged horses with the Hsi Fan ThereThibetans.( jfJEj '^), were officials to control this on whichduty tea,appointed had become of and added togreat importance, largelyvery the finances of the State. account of the of tea is thatThe Indian origin Darma, son of an Indian who lived inking, profound solitude, himself to and alldevoting study, meditating night in the found himself one almostgarden, night to he tore off his ;succumbing sleep whereupon which he threw on the and whichground,eye-lids, the tea Inforthwith produced plant. Kacmpfers a different and extended version ofJapan, slightly the is itsame there stated thatlegend given, being Darma came to about as a ;China, 519 A.D., missionary and the he discovered their extraordi-leaves,that, eating renewed to enablevirtues, strengthnary thereby acquiring him to continue his godly contemplations. The which ascribes its introduc-Japanese tradition, tion into China to this Indian Buddhist who visitedpriest, this in the 6th favours thecentury,country supposition of its Indian Fortune describes its introductionorigin. into a Buddhish in the of theJapan by priest, beginning Qth century. The Dutch were the first to make Europeans with the and use of and haveacquainted properties tea, thus rendered to China to the extent ofEurope tributary ofsome millions taels Thethirty annually. average is about two millions ofexport piculs. Assam would seem to have been the habitatoriginal of the and its cultivation in India is aplant, merely return to its old home. 6 As infused and Chinese tea isdrunk,immediately from rich infree tannic acid and andtheine,wonderfully a restorative without either milk orproves good sugar. It is in a marked and enables one torefreshing degree, bear without exhaustion. In the Artie regions,fatigue it has been found that those who took tea stood the cold warmer than those who tookbetter and kept spirits, there is a abroad regard-although widely prevalent fallacy the of Milk anding sugarheating powers spirits. spoil Chinese the milk which the mouthtea, clogsparticularly and the from the aroma of thepalate enjoyingprevents water overThe tea is madeplant. by pouring boiling and it for a few minutes in a covered The it, infusing cup. drinkChinese use water. will notboiling Theyalways is said totea made with water not Such teaboiling. If the water is notcause and diarrhoea. indigestion on surface.the tea leaves float for some time theboiling, TheWith sink almostwater, immediately.boiling they like of do not know the secretChinese, ourselves,many for tea. Theof boiled water makingusing only freshly water-kettle in their houses and restaurants is constantly toso that hot water and tea areboiling, everywherekept with water which hasbe had on the instant. Tea made in the Russianbeen is not Evenlong boiling good.kept which is to have the advantagesamovar, supposed over of waterthe hot water urnEnglish having boiling be at fault in thissometimes respect.always ready, may notWater should be to the butbrought boil, pastup toIn the we allow the waterit. West, usually " it to stand"boil for some and then allowtime, isthe watertoo when thelong, and, refilling teapot, inThere thenot is much truth, therefore,boiling. homely saying