The Century dictionary : an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language: prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney

The Century dictionary : an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language: prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney

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DIITHECENTURY!IDICTIONARY!!OFTHEENGLISHLANGUAGE.VTVTTTTTT VTTTTTTTVTTT fc^9NPPET.PART ICO.NEWYORKTHECENTURYm.- .TTTTTTTTTTTTTTT'YX>:nnnerriririmriririririfiriririririririririr^ririririr'ir'frirTrtr'irCENTURYTHE DICTIONARYPREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OFWILLIAM DWIGHT PH. LL. D.WHITNEY, D.,PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND SANSKRIT IN YALE UNIVERSITY" " in- miliar areof The words in or or our ical arts and and of theCentury Dictionary examples ending trades, philologicalplan: the construction of a in er or re an broad method has beenTHE cludes three things (as labor, labour), (as center, centre), sciences, equallyof the in ize or ise those a In the definition of andgeneral dictionary English language (as civilize, civilise) ; having adopted. theologicalwhich shall be serviceable for ordouble consonant afteran unaccented ecclesiastical the aim of theevery literary single terms, Dictionarya more collection vowel or all the doctrines ofand use with e or has been to; complete (as traveler, traveller), spelled present specialpracticalterms of the various with CE or ce the different divisions of the Church in such aof the technical andsciences, (as hemorrhage, hatmorrhage) ;and than has been so on. In such cases both forms are manner as to to the reader the actualprofessions yet conveyarts, trades, given,to the definitions with an who them. Inand the addition for the briefer intent of thoseexpressed preference accept definingattempted ...

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D IITHECENTURY! IDICTIONARY!! OFTHE ENGLISH LANGUAGE . VTVTTTTTT VTTTTTTTVTTT fc^ 9N PPET. PART I CO.NEWYORKTHECENTURY m. - .TTTTTTTTTTTTTTT 'YX>: nnner riririmriririririfiriririririririririr^ririririr'ir'frirTrtr'ir CENTURYTHE DICTIONARY PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF WILLIAM DWIGHT PH. LL. D.WHITNEY, D., PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND SANSKRIT IN YALE UNIVERSITY " " in- miliar areof The words in or or our ical arts and and of theCentury Dictionary examples ending trades, philologicalplan : the construction of a in er or re an broad method has beenTHE cludes three things (as labor, labour), (as center, centre), sciences, equally of the in ize or ise those a In the definition of andgeneral dictionary English language (as civilize, civilise) ; having adopted. theological which shall be serviceable for ordouble consonant afteran unaccented ecclesiastical the aim of theevery literary single terms, Dictionary a more collection vowel or all the doctrines ofand use with e or has been to ; complete (as traveler, traveller), spelled present specialpractical terms of the various with CE or ce the different divisions of the Church in such aof the technical andsciences, (as hemorrhage, hatmorrhage) ; and than has been so on. In such cases both forms are manner as to to the reader the actualprofessions yet conveyarts, trades, given, to the definitions with an who them. Inand the addition for the briefer intent of thoseexpressed preference accept definingattempted ; related one or the one more accordant the has been to offer all theof such with native termsproper encyclopedic matter, legal design with as shall constitute information that is needed theillustrations, analogies. by generalpictorial of the readera convenient book reference. THE PRONUNCIATION. and also to aidgeneral reader, professional words will be defined. The in a concise form all theAbout important200,000 by givingNo has been made to record all theattempt will be a record technical words and atten-complete SpecialDictionary practically meanings.varieties of or even educated utter-popular have been definitions ofof all the words which tion has also been to thenoteworthy paidor to the determinations madeance, report by literaturehas en-in use since the terms ofEnglish existed,espe- principal painting, etching,different authorities. It has beenrecognized wealth of new words and of and various other ofof all that art-processes ;cially graving,rather to make a selection of wordsnecessary decorativeof old words which has sprung architecture, archeology,applications to which alternative should sculpture,bepronunciations and life etc. of musical nauticalfrom the of thedevelopment thought art, ceramics, ; terms,and to thesegive amongaccorded, preference It will record not and etc.of the nineteenth military terms,century. ofeachtothe circumstancesaccording particu- the written but the spokenmerely language, in view of the andlar case, general analogies ENCYCLOPEDIC FEATURES.as well all(that is, importantlanguage provin- tendencies of utterance. The schemeEnglish and it will includecial and colloquial words), The of so extensive and varied awhichthe is indicated is inclusionby pronunciation quite the one order of the Diction-(in alphabetical in the dis- the introductionofover-refinement phrases,simple, avoiding vocabulary, special wordsandabbreviations and such foreign often foundary) crimination of and to and the full ofsounds, description thingsbeing designed a familiar ofas have becomephrases part essential to an definition of theirbe understood and used. to(See Key intelligiblereadily Diction-English speech. back wouldalone have to thisPronunciation on givencover.) names, character. Itaary distinctly encyclopedic has, ETYMOLOGIES.THE DEFINITIONS OF COMMON WORDS. been deemed desirable to some-gohowever, these con-what further in this direction thanbeen written anew onThe have In of the of com-etymologies the definitionspreparation ditions rendera uniform and in accordance with the es- strictly necessary.mon there has been at besidesplan, words, hand, not have technicaltablished of Accordingly, only manyphilology. the material accessible to studentsprinciples comparative generally matters been treated with unusualmeans fullness,It has been in many cases, by of the a collection ofpossible language, special quota- ofakindwhichbut much informationat the of theof the fresh material tions selectedfor this workfrom books practicaldisposal English have hitherto excluded has beendictionariesto clear doubts or difficulties of all kinds and of all of theetymologists, up periods language, added. The result is that "Theof Centuryhitherto theupon history particular which is much than whichresting probably larger any " the fieldcovers to a extentin favor of one of greatto decide hithertobeenmade fortheuse ofan Dictionarywords, definitely has English with thisof the princi-to discard nu- ordinary encyclopedia,several that accumulated for thesuggested etymologies, dictionary, excerpt difference that the information isfirst givenmerous current and to for the palerrors, give of London. Thousands ofPhilological Society the indi-for the most distributed underwords of which thetime the of of parthistory many non-technical themwords, many occurring which it is con-vidual wordsand withwere unknown or erro- phrasesin the classics of the and thousandsetymologies previously language, of collected under a fewinsteadstated. with the current nected, beingof of them whichneously Beginning meanings, many familiar, botheach word biograph-form of general topics. Proper names,accepted spelling, important have not hitherto been noticed the diction-by ex-icaland are ofcourseomitted,traced back earlier forms to geographical,has been in this been obtained. Thethrough havearies, way in derivative asasits remotestknown The various theyappear adjectives,origin. prefixes of the definitions in ceptarrangement historically, India.Darwinian from or Indian fromin formation ofand suffixes useful the Darwin,English the order in which the senses defined have en- theThe distribution ofaretreated in articles. encyclo-words has been wher- alphabeticalveryfully separate tered the language, adopted under a number of wordsmatter largepedicever possible. is be found to beitHOMONYMS. will, believed, particularlyTHE QUOTATIONS. whichin the search for those detailshelpfulvarious and butWords of origin meaning These form a collectionvery large (about for in works of reference.are lookedgenerallythe same have beenof distinguished all andspelling, 200,000), representing periods 2 3 Insmall superior figures (1, , , etc.). branches of literature. The classicsby English ILLUSTRATIONS. these the rule has beennumbering homonyms of the have been drawn andlanguage upon, have been so se-The illustrationsto the oldest or the mostto valuable citations have made from less pictorialgive precedence been as to be subordinate to theone which is most lected and executedor to that nearly famous authors in all of litera-familiar, departments ofwhile a considerableThe numbers degreein ap- text, possessingorigin. superior ture. American writers areEnglish repre-especially and artistic value.toso much to the individual word asnot sented in fullness than in independent suggestivenessply similargreater any the illustrationswhich it hence To secure technicalthe or root to accuracy,belongs, work. A list of authors and works edi-group (and as a been selected theuses of the same by specialiststhe different have, rule,grammatical cited will be with the con-tions) published and havein of the variousare numbered alike when are departments,of the chargehomonym they cluding part Dictionary. them inthe Thus a in all cases been examined proofs.entered in byDictionary.separately cuts number about six thousand.noun of the same and the Theverb and a DEFINITIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS.origin receive thesamesame superiorpresentspelling Much has been devoted to the specialspacetwowords of the same form MODE OF ETC.number. Butwhen PRICE,ISSUE,various fine me-terms of the sciences, arts, same radical now differ con- "and of the origin willbechanical and and The comprisedarts, CenturyDictionary"professions, trades,dif-in so as to be used as It issiderably meaning, their treat- in aboutmuch carehas beenbestowed quarto pages. publishedupon 6,500 numbered.ferent are orwords, they separately and inhavebeen collected an extended twenty-four partsment. subscriptionThey by by vol-to be bound into sixsearch all branches of with quartoliterature, sections, finallythrough THE ORTHOGRAPHY. These sec-a and if desired the subscriber.the of umes, bydesign providing very complete month. Thewill be issued about once atechnical thou- tionsOf the of words theconstituting many-sided dictionary.great body Many and nowhich of the sections is each,sands of words have thus been $2.50familiar the is determined gathered pricespellinglanguage for the entirebeen recorded in a are takenhowever ac- have never before exceptwell-established general subscriptionsby usage, and, it or even in To work.cidental and in cases, dictionary, special glossaries.unacceptable, many is more de-of The of thelike the sciences a fullyit is not the office of a degree promi- planmay be, dictionary biological Dictionary inwhich the above isto the re- scribed in thethisto or to those nence has been preface (ofgiven correspondingpropose improvements, adopt thea whichmarkable recent increase in their condensation), accompanieswhich have been and have not vocabulary. partyetproposed reference is made.of first and to whichBut The newmaterialin thewon some of and use. departments biology section,degree acceptance used in theincludes not less than five thou- A list of the abbreviations ety-there are also considerable classes as to which and zoology in and and tosand words and senses not recorded even definitions, keys pronun-is more than one form mologiesbeingusage wavering, usedin theIn treatment of ciations and toin dictionaries. the signs etymologies,sanctioned excellent either phy-by authorities, special found on the backofthemechan- will be cover-lining.this or Great or in both. Fa- sicalandmathematicalBritain, sciences,country NEW YORK.THE EASTCENTURY ST.,CO., 1733 THE CENTURY DICTIONARY THE CENTURY DICTIONARY AN ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE THE SUPERINTENDENCE OFPREPARED UNDER WILLIAM DWIGHT LL. D.WHITNEY, PH.D., PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND SANSKRIT IN YALE UNIVERSITY SIXIN VOLUMES VOLUME I PUBLISHED BY Co,CI)e Centurg NEW YORK PE jjr THE Co.CENTURYCopyright, 1889, by All Reserved.Rights andof Messrs. Blackie & of The Dr.Son, publishers OgilvieBy permission Imperial Dictionary by material from that work has been used in the ofDr. Annandale, English copyright freely preparation use ofTHE CENTURY and certain owners of American claimed that undueDICTIONARY, copyrights having notice ismatter so has been made in the of Theprotected compilation Imperial Dictionary, hereby that has also been made with the of such matter for its usegiven arrangement proprietors copyright in the of THE CENTURY DICTIONARY.preparation THE DEVINNE PRESS. LIST OF COLLABORATORS EDITOR-IN-CHIKF, WILLIAM IX PH. LL. D.WHITNEY, D., MANAGING EDITOR, E. A. M.BENJAMIN SMITH, EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS, FRANKLIN H. A. B. W. M. D.HOOPER, JOHN PALMER, ROBERT M. R. A. S. CHARLES P. G. PH. D.LILLEY, SCOTT, THOMAS W. A. M. FRANCIS A. A. M.LUDLOW, TEALL, KATHARINE B. WOOD. EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTORS, AUSTIN LL. D. EDWARD H. PH. D. RUSSELL A. M.ABBOTT, JENKINS, STURGIS, Vice-Director of the Connecticut Late Professor of Architecture and the ArtsAgriculturalandPoliticalInstitutions.Law; Legal ofStation. in the of the ofExperiment Design College City New York. Chemistry.LYMAN D. D.ABBOTT, Decorative Medie-Art; Ceramics; FRANK H. M.Ecclesiastical S. val Cos-KNOWLTON,Theology; Liturgies; Archaology; Heraldry; Professor of in the Uni- tumes.ColumbianHistory. Botany and Assistant Curator of versity Botany, U. S. National Museum. CHARLES BARNARD, H-Z. K. M. D.Cryptogamic Botany, JAMES THACHER, Tools and Machines. Professor of and Clinical Medi-Physiology cine in YaleGEORGE F. University.KUNZ, Work. Physiology; Medicine;Gems; Surgery;LapidaryALBERT S. PH. D.BOLLES, Human Anatomy; Histology. Professor of Mercantile Law and Practice THOMAS R. A. M. in the Wharton School of Finance and LOUNSBURY, Professor of in the Sheffield ScientificofEconomy, University Pennsylvania. English YaleSchool, University. ROBERT H. THURSTON,Finance.Commerce; Middle A. Doc. ENG.English (Chaucer). M., Director of Cornell Uni-Sibley College, ELLIOTT M. PH. D. THOMAS A. M. versity.W.COUES, D., LUDLOW, Late Professor of in the National GeneralAnatomy Greek and Technology.Architecture; Sculpture;Medical College. Roman Archaology. General Zoology; Biology; Compar- LESTER F. A. LL. B.ative WARD, M.,Anatomy. DAVID A. CAPT. U. S. A.LYLE, Honor-U. S.Geologist, Geological Survey; Terms. Curator of and Fossil Plants,Military ary Botany U. S. National Museum.EDWARD S. PH. D.DANA, THOMAS C. H-Z.MENDENHALL,Assistant Professor of Natural Botany,Philosophy PH. D.in Yale D..LL.University. President of Rose Institute.Polytechnic Physics; Mineralogy. PH. D.SERENOElectricity. WATSON, of the Harvard Uni-Curator Herbarium, S. A. M.W. E. PH. D. CHARLES S. B.,ISAAC PEIRCE,DRUMMOND, M., versity. Late Lecturer on at theLogic Johns Hop- A-G.etc. Botany,Pigments; Dyes; Dyeing, kins and of the U. S. CoastUniversity, and Geodetic Survey. Mathematics;Logic; Metaphysics;THEODORE N. M. PH. D. M. A. M.GILL, D., HENRY WHITNEY, Mechanics; Astronomy; WeightsProfessor of in the Columbian Uni- Professor of Literature in BeloitZoology English and Measures. versity. College. Ichthyology; Conchology. Synonyms.C. A. B.CHARLES (Deceased.)PERKINS, Painting; Engraving; Etching. FRANCIS M. COM'R U. S. N. D. LL. D.GREEN, WHITNEY,JOSIAH S. A. M.WALDO PRATT, Professor of HarvardGeology, University.NavalandNautical Terms. of andProfessor Worship, Hymnology, MetalsGeology; Lithology; Mining;Sacred Music in the Hartford Theo- and logical Seminary. Metallurgy; Physical Geogra- A. LlTT. LL. D.JAMES HARRISON, D., Fossilphy; Botany.Music. Professor of and ModernEnglish Languages in and LeeWashington University. P. G. PH. D.CHARLES SCOTT, Contributions to the (inEtymologies WILLIAM D. PH. LL. D.WHITNEY, D.,Etymologies.the last theQuarter of Alphabet). and San-Professor of Comparative Philology skrit in Yale University.B. S. M.ARTHUR SEYMOUR, PH. Gram-FRANKLIN D. Assistant in the Herbarium, Pronunciation;JAMESON, Cryptogamic]. Spelling; of in Brown HarvardProfessor University.History University. mar; Comparative Philology; the United States. A-G. Ethnology; Anthropology.of Cryptogamic Botany,History DEPARTMENT OF ILLUSTRATIONS, WILLIAM LEWIS FRASER.