Trade Competitiveness of the Middle East and North Africa
368 Pages

Trade Competitiveness of the Middle East and North Africa


YouScribe would like you to have this content free of charge


Over the past decade, four major developments in global economic integration have shaped trade policy and the economic performance of countries within the Middle East and North Africa region: the emergence of global supply chains, the growth of trade in services, the rise of China and India as major international trading powers, and regional integration. These developments, along with the labor and natural resource endowments of particular countries (some are resource-poor but labor-abundant, some resource-rich and labor-abundant, and some resource-rich and labor-importing), have influenced export diversification outcomes across the region. Yet these countries may not be taking full advantage of all of the opportunities the four new trends offer to them.
'Trade Competitiveness of the Middle East and North Africa: Policies for Export Diversification' examines the region's trade policy agendas and their results by focusing on the countries' response to these four key developments in international trade. As the region recovers from the global financial and economic crises, the book identifies reforms that could allow countries to further strengthen global production networks, benefit more from trade in services, better compete in external markets to face the rise of China and India, and reach the full potential of regional integration. If thoroughly implemented, especially by oil exporters, all of these reforms could help boost growth and job creation in the region.


Published by
Published 01 July 2010
Reads 36
EAN13 9780821380758
Language English
Document size 5 MB

Trade Competitiveness of the
Middle East and North Africa
Policies for Export Diversification
José R. López-Cálix, Peter Walkenhorst, and Ndiamé Diop
EditorsTrade Competitiveness of the Middle East
and North AfricaTrade Competitiveness of the
Middle East and North Africa
Policies for Export Diversification
José R. López-Cálix, Peter Walkenhorst, and Ndiamé Diop
Editors© 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
Telephone 202-473-1000
All rights reserved.
1 2 3 4 :: 13 12 11 10
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the
governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The bound-
aries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply
any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the
endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of
this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and
will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly.
For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with com-
plete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers,
MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet:
All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the
Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax:
202-522-2422; e-mail:
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8074-1
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8075-8
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8074-1
Cover photos: Bunyad Dinc/World Bank (Istanbul market street), Julio Etchart/World Bank
(Agadir port)
Cataloging-in-Publication data is available from the Library of Congress.Contents
Acknowledgments xix
Contributors xxi
Chapter 1 Trade Reforms for Export Competitiveness:
What Are the Issues for the Middle East and
North Africa? 1
Ndiamé Diop, José R. López-Cálix, and
Peter Walkenhorst
Export Diversification 3
Services Trade 5
Relations with China and India 6
Regional Integration 8
Note 9
References 9
PART I Export Diversification
Chapter 2 FDI Flows and Export Diversification:
Looking at Extensive and Intensive Margins 13
Julien Gourdon
vvi Contents
Export Diversification in the Middle East and
North Africa 14
The Potential Impact of FDI on Export
Diversification 22
The Model 26
Conclusions 35
Annex 36
Notes 44
References 44
Chapter 3 Promoting New Exports: Experience from
Industry Case Studies 47
Claudia Nassif
Export Diversification in “Resource-Poor”
Countries in the Region 48
Case Studies 51
Designing Proactive Policies to Encourage
Experimentation and Imitation 57
Conclusion 60
Notes 61
References 61
Chapter 4 Export Diversification in Algeria 63
Ricardo Hausmann, Bailey Klinger, and
José R. López-Cálix
The Structure of the Algerian Economy 64
Why Is Algeria So Dependent on
Hydrocarbons? 68
Applying a New Methodological Approach to
Export Diversification 74
Using the Product Space to Scan the Possibility
Space for Algerian Exports 81
Policy Implications of the New Methodology
for Industrial Strategy 88
Annex 96
Notes 100
References 101Contents vii
PART II Services Trade
Chapter 5 Emerging Export Services: Where Does
Tunisia Stand? 105
Olivier Cattaneo, Ndiamé Diop, and
Peter Walkenhorst
Can Emerging Export Services Contribute to
Growth and Poverty Reduction? 105
How Has Tunisia Performed in Emerging
Export Services? 110
Are Tunisia’s Emerging Export Services
Internationally Competitive? 117
What Needs to be Done to Strengthen
Competitiveness? 124
References 132
Chapter 6 Anchoring Services Reform: The European
Neighborhood Policy and Morocco 135
Ndiamé Diop
Liberalization Reforms and the Openness of
Morocco’s Services Sectors 137
The Need to Strengthen the Regulatory
Framework 137
Options for Regulatory Convergence with
the European Union in Selected Sectors 140
Implementing Competition Policies 155
Notes 157
References 160
Chapter 7 Services Trade as an Engine of Development:
Situation and Prospects in Algeria 163
Olivier Cattaneo, Said Ighilahriz,
José R. López-Cálix, and Peter Walkenhorst
Quantifying the Importance of Services
for Algeria 163
Trade in Services: An Important but Often
Poorly Understood Concept 169viii Contents
Strengthening the Economy by Bolstering Trade
in Services 175
Issues for Policy Makers 185
Notes 187
References 188
PART III Relations with China and India
Chapter 8 Economic Growth in China and India:
Challenges and Opportunities for the
Middle East and North Africa 193
Elena Ianchovichina, Maros Ivanic, and
Will Martin
Messages from the Literature 194
Methodology, Data, and Simulation Design 203
Results 206
Concluding Comments 214
Annex 217
Notes 221
References 222
Chapter 9 Globalization and Competition from
China and India: Policy Responses in the
Middle East and North Africa 227
Paul Brenton, Lulu Shui, and Peter Walkenhorst
Globalization and the Export Performance
of Countries in the Middle East and
North Africa 228
Imports from China and India 239
Gaining Access to Overseas Markets 241
Exploitation of Existing Opportunities for
Export Growth 247
Conclusions and Policy Messages 250
Annex: Export Growth and Constant Market
Share Analysis 251
Notes 264
References 264