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Partition complète, pour Southern Harmony, et Musical Companion


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Consultez les partitions de pour Southern Harmony, et Musical Companion partition complète, psaumes, fruit du travail de Walker, William. La partition de musique classique dédiée aux instruments comme: voix
Cette partition comprend plusieurs mouvements et est classifiée dans les genres hymnes, pour chœur mixte, pour voix non accompagnées, sacré hymnes, langue anglaise, Odes, hymnes, pour 4 voix, religieux travaux, pour non accompagné chœur, psaumes, Compilations, pour 3 voix, partitions pour voix, partitions chœur mixte
Visualisez dans le même temps tout une collection de musique pour voix sur YouScribe, dans la catégorie Partitions de musique classique.
Rédacteur: Revised 1854 edition
Edition: Philadelphia: E. W. Miller, 1854.



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Language English
Document size 15 MB


uio Sod, klngiloiiu erth* ewth : O pr'^ito tinle tb* Lot^.—Ditid.SIdi fa ilnt
in jrour taearU to Ihi Lord.—ri«i_8p«akiDg to fMuitlTM la pialu,u4 hrmut, anc apirliital vmf, •InfinK und making milody
*^^'[HUBYltBiAN rilSpiCALJOCIirji;
^7760Ufb~7^^Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
Calvin College
contjlinu<o a choice collectiox or
Uaved.ofthe canh : O sirig praises unto ilie Lord.—t^ing un:o God, ye kingdoms
I'your hearls In the Lord— it-singing and making melody In »Bpc-aking yourselves in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs,10
TuE Autnor, feeling grateful a generousto public for tne very liberal patronage Tvhich they have given the former editions of
the SocTUERN Harmony, has endeavoured to remedy the only deficiency -which he has heard mentioned, by adding a large number
of good tunes for church use, together with several excellent new pieces never before published, which has enlarged the work about
forty pages, and makes it one of the largest Music Books ever offered at the same price. Therefore he hopes to secure that continued
and increased patronage which it may frommerit those who love the Songs of Zion.
Spautancueo, January, lSi7.S. C,
Since the Soutiiern IlARsroNY was first published, many of the tunes having gone out of use, the AutJior determined to revise
the work, and leave out those pieces, and supply their places with good new tunes, which have been selected for their intrinsic worth,
and great popularity, and highly devotional character. He has also enlarged the work with thirty-two pages of excellent music,
many of the tunes being suitable for revival occasions. All of which he hopes will be found entirely satisfactory to the many friends
and patrons Southern ITarmonj/.of the
The Author now tenders his grateful thanks to a generous and enlightened public for the very flattering manner in which the
former editions of this work have been received, and hopes that this revised edition may be duly appreciated, and the demand for it
increase as its merits may deserve.
SPAETANBUBa, July,S. C, 1854.
EntireJ, according to tha Act of Congress, In the year 1847, Wilich,byWiLiiui In the Clerk's Office ofthe District Court ofthe E«stern I>istrii» ol PrnnajlTanu.PREFACE TO FORMER EDITION.
The compiler of this work, having been solicited for several years by his brother teachers, pupils, and other friends, lo publish a
work of this kind, has consented to yield to their solicitations.
upon the rudiments of Music, 1 the pupil on step by from B, C,In treating have endeavoured to lead step, A, in the gamut, to the
more abstruse parts of this delightful science, having inserted the gamut as it should be learned, in a pleasing conversation between
the pupil and his teacher.
selecting the Tunes, Hymns, and Anthems, endeavoured to gratify the taste of all, and supply the churchesIn I have with a
number of good, plain tunes, suited to the various metres contained in their different Hymn Books.
While those that are fond of fuged tunes have not been neglected, I have endeavoured to make this book a complete Musical
Companion for the aged as well as the youth. Those that are partial to ancient music, will here find some good old acquaintances
which will cause them to remember with pleasure the scenes of life that are past and gone; while my youthful companions, v\-ho
are more fond of modern music, I hope will find a sufficient number of new tunes to satisfy them, as I have spared no pains in trying
to select such tunes as would meet the wishes of the public.
I have also selected a number of excellent new Songs, and printed l^em under the tunes, which I hope will be found satisfactory.
endeavouredSome object to new publications of music, because the compilers alter the tunes. I have to select the tunes from
original authors. Where this could not be done, and the tune having six or seven basses and trebles, I have selected those I thought
most consistent with the rules of composition.
publication, nor in manuscript,)I have composed the parts to a great many good airs, (which I could not find in any and assigned
name as the author. I have also composed wholly, and inserted them in this work, which also bear my name.my several tunes
The compiler now commends this work to the public, praying God that it may be a means of advancing this important and
flflightful andscience, of cheering the weary pilgrim on hi? way to the telestial city above.
SDttTianhuig. S. C, September 1835! i
PART FIRST. sol Space above.G O
F favv-t^- -Fifth line.
E law Fourth sjiaco.nOF MUSIC.
D sol-O- -Fourth line.
C faw I\ Third space.
PcriL. What is Music ? O—B -Thirdme— line.
TsACHEB. Music is a succession of pleasing sounds. A law Second space.n
G sol -Second line.P. On wli.it is music written ?
-Ofaw [\ First space.FT. On five psrallel lines including the spaces between them, which is called a
-First line.law-C—stave ; and tnese lines and spaces are represented by the first seven letters in the
sol below.O Spacealphabet, A, 13, C, D, E, F, and G. These letters also represent the seven sounds
that belong to each key-note in music: when eight letters are used, the first is
P. How many parts are there used in vocal music law aboveSpace
. Commonly only four ; viz. Bass, Tenor, Counter, and Treble ; and the letters -sol-O- —Fifth line.
arc placed on the staves for the several parts in the following order, commencing at faw £i Fourth space.
space below the first each stave. -law-C— —Fourth line.the line in
sol O Third space.
-faw-Ci,- -Third line.
-law-i_- -Second Ime.
me Space above.O
sol O First space.
-law-Q- -Fifth line.
-faw-!\— -First line.
BOI Fourth .space.O E law D Space below.
-faw-ti- -Fourth line.F Clef^
law Third space.D
named or called by the names ofYou may observe that the letters arc the four-Third
line.-sol-Othe above staves that F is named faw, C sol,notes used in music. You see in Afaw Second space.t^
snl, faw again every eighth letter being the firsilaw, B me, C faw, D E law, and F ;-me-0- -Second line.
is an octave.repeated, which is an oclavc ; for every eighthlaw First space.|—
P. How many notes are there used in music, what are their names, and how are
taw they made )^« — : _ ^ —
wnicn represent sounds are called by fojr names, and eachT All holes ot music
known by its shape, viz. ; the me is a diamond, faw is triangle, sol is round,30te ia
See example.*ncl 'aw is square. the &£l
me faw boI law iiE^^E±i
This is the rule for singing rjund notes. You must therefore observe that the
natural place for the me in parts of music is on that line or space represented by B.
But if B be flat, t> me is on £Square.
B I) and E b it is on .\
P, But in some music books the tunes are written in round notes entirely How B b E 1> and .\ h it is on D
*i!o we know by what names to call the notes in these books 1 B b E b A b and D b it is on G
T. By first finding the me for me is the governing and leading note ; and when IfF be sharp, # me is on F
that is found, the notes on the liaes and spaces regular succession arc called, faw, F if and C ^ it is on Cin
sol, law, faw, sol, law, (twice,) and those below the me, law, so), faw, law, sol, faw, F # C # andG if it ison O
Ctwice after which me will come again. Either way, see the foilowin? F # C # G if andD # itison 1);)
* For singing Doe, Rae, See, seven syllables and numerals, xsxi.see p.
.\s in the following example, viz.
Me in its He, transposed by flats. Me, transposed by sharps.
NArcR.ti. place.a B Bal, mc Band E flat B, E, an.l A Hat, B, E, A, an,] D flal, F sharp, I7i« is F and C sharp, in« F, C, G, sharp, vie F, C, G, P, sharp, 1
is in mc is iu D. inF. is inc. isinti. K«r IS in D.Tenor or treble MB. isinE. b" A.
# ^—#— —^
-^ -fa zb™—— S o— *t^ —b -b--^ -bbfaA h t: 1+a o^ o
MH. UB. KB. MB.Counter me. US. UB. MB.
o if —^
-. )4v-^ #J mS r,br-zr- Ar-^ '-^- #—— H+*?-^O -fa 5 -ry^ K
^ o^ if
• MB. us. UB.BaS9 MB. MB. UB. MB. sra.
— —-©—^ ~^^^o -H*—fa 'e. o 'b o .ffi-O-a- X . -# .b )l
</ _ill> p 1— -=--L_ . .— -#—
P. How luany marks ofsound or kinds of notes are there used in musicl
T. The semibreve is now the longest no«e used, it is white, without a stsm,
T. Theifl are six kinds of notesused in music, which differ in time. They arc the
and is the measure -<^ note, and guideth all the others
eemibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver, semiquaver, and demisemiquaver.
SCALE OF N0T£9. The minim -p>- is but half the length of a semibreve, and jas a stem to it.
The following scale will show, at one view, the proportion ono note bears to another.
The crotchet is but half the length of the minim, and has a black head ana
-g-straight stem,One Semibreve is equal in time M
The quaver is but half the length of the crotchet, has a black head, and
one turn to the stem, sometimes one way, and sometimes anotlier.
The semiquaver is but half the length of the quaver, has also aI^ black hoaa
and two turns to -^- the stem, which are likewise various.
4~_ length a semiquaver, blackThe demisemiquaver is half the of has a head, and
(hre» turns to its stem, -S- also variously turned.
P. What are rests !
Eight Quavers,
T. All rests are marks of silence, which signify that you must keep silent so long
a time as takes to sound the notes they represent, except the semibreve rest, which
is called the bar rest, always filling the bar, let the mood of time be what it may.
DemiseraiQuaver . Semiquaver.Semibreve. Minim. Crotchet. quaver.
fo ^W1 •1 M
1 1 -1
^^ T Four 'two , Two Bars. Bars. Kieht Bars.^f^f'y ^
1 H"
1B i
Explain the ab'^ve si'aie.OF MUSICTHE GAMUT, UR RUDIMENTS
/'. Ex|ilain the rests. -"-by C with a barThe second mood is known a r i pa
unJerncath the ihirJ line,or bar rc» , is a black square measure, sung in the time —SL[IZ'Z_ [^T. The scmibreve, through it, has the same /p
-'^third lino. i-same mark above the bar, two down aiid — "riie minim rest is the of three seconds—four i>eats in a ~
figure seven. 'somethini; like an invertedTlie crotchet rest is two up.
resembles a right figure of seven.The <|uaver rest
with an additional mark to the left.rest resembles the figure sevenThe semiquaver
inverted, some'with a third murk to the left. third mood is known by a Crest is like the last described, TheThe demisemiquaver
same measureacross the third sfiace. times with a b:ir through it, has thestrong bar reaching only -^—^The two bar rest is a
two seconds -jy—second and third space and third line. the first two, sung in the time of — bar crossing the as ?]The four bar rest is a
mood is sometimesdescribed. beats in a bar. Thisislwo strong bars like the last twoThe eight bar rest
slower, accord-sounded sometimes quicker, and sometimesfVoTE. These notes are
thus,marked with the figure i above 4,the same -j^The notes of themselves always bearto the several moods of time.ing
the mood of time may be.proportion to each other, whatever
known by a figure 2 over aThe fourth mood is
measure no'e, sung inOF TIME. figure 4, has a minim for aTHE SEVERAL MOODSOF
two beats in a bar, onedownthe time of one second—
there are in music.t«ll me how many moods of timeP. Please and the other up.
three triple, and twoof lime used ; four of common, ofT. There are nine moods
TniriE TIMS.of compound. MOOUS OF
common time moods Tthe first four mooils calledP. Why arc
"by a figure ~first mood of triple time is knownThe rrrimeasured by even numbers, as 2, 4, 8, &c.T. Because they are
or three3 over a figure 2, has a pointed scmibreve, yjJ^^^rZ I
m:)-jds ?/'. Why are the next three called triple three L_ -Iminims in a measure, sung in the time of -^
either three minims, threeare measured by odd numbers, havingT. Because they beats, two down and one up.seconds—three
quavers, each bar. a dducrotchets, or three in d d u d d
compound time moods 1Why are the last two calledP.
triple ofcommon, as the bar isare compounded ofcommon anJ ;T. Because they
over s J,time and. of triple, as each mood isknown by a figure 3being equal to the rise in keeping ; The seconddivided equal, the fall ^
measure,crotchets, three quavers, or notes to pointed minim or three crotchets in a xlI I .fold; having either three has ahalf of the bar is three
bar, two2 seconds—three beats in abeat. and sung inthat amount, to each
down and one up. d dof time in their order.explain the several moodsP. Please
12;J4 12
known by the figure 3 above X?_ _. -p—W-known by a plain C, and has a The third mood is ^ [-|»-^The first mood is
-[—in a measure, and sunga measure, sung in the —L; figure 8, has three quavers -^ 1 1semibreve or iLs quantity in Z~Z^^ ^^— - - ' '" '""'" ^^— —three beats in a bar, two 1^ 1 Jl -Jbeats in a bar, two down in the time of one secondume of foursecords-ftjc- - ^
down and one upand two up. A A „ M n .kin— — '
For the first and third moods of common time, the first of triple\
and first ofcompound, [all requiring second beats,] 3Q 2-10 /»h-'>«iHOODS OF CO5IP0C5D TIME
For the second mood of common, second of triple, and fcrst of
1 compound, 22 1 10
The firat moo'l of comfour.J tiir.c is known by For the fourth ofcommon 12 4 10
-.figure 6 above figure has six crotchets in ailie 4, For the third of triple time,' .) 1-21
sung in the lime of two seconils—two Htmeasure, for every swing or vibration of ball, one 'vat, accompanying th*Then the count
down anil one up.beats in a bar, one motion hand, till something of a habit is formed, for the several moods ofwith the
cord,time, according to the difTerent lengths of the as expressed abovft.
Note.—If teachers would fall upon this orsome other method, for ascertaming and
keeping the true time, tliere would not be so much difficulty among singers, taughtThe second mode of compound time is
at difl'erent schools, about timing music together ; for it mutters not how well indi-Known by the figure 6 above an 8, has six
vidual singers may perform, if, when several of them perform together, they do not
quavers in a measure, sung in the time of -ft
' woll, they disgust, instead of pleasing their hearers.keep timeone second and a half—two beats in a bar,
one down and one d u d ti dup. u
P. What do the figures over the bar, and the letters d and h unde it, in the above OF ACCENT
examples of time, mean ^
P. What is meant by accentth<ire are barT. Tlie figures show how many beats in each and the letter a
7'. particular empnasis or swell of voice on a certain part of the mea-shows when the hand must go down, and the u when up. Accent is a
to the subdivision of it, and is essential to a skilful perform-sure which is accordingP. What general rule is tliere for beating time !
intention accent is mark words moreance of music, as the chief of to emphatical
T, That the hand fall at the beginning, and rise at the end of each bar, in all
passionssensibly, and express the m^Te feelingly. If the poetry be good, and the
snoods of time.
music skilfully adapted, the important words will fall upon the accented parts of the
Do you suppose those moods, when expressed by figures, have particularP. any bar. Should emphatical words hapi>-»-. on the unaccented part, the music should
than being mere arbitrarysignification, more characters 1 always bend to the words.
T I think they have this signijicnnl meaning, that the lower figure shows how measure is accented in the several moods oftimei*. What part of the 1
many parts or kinds of notes the semibreve is divided into, and the upper figure
signi7'. The first three moods ofcommon time are accented on the first and third notes
fies how many of such notes or parts will fill a bar—for example, the first mood of
in the measure when the bar is ilividcd into four equal [larts ; and the fourth mood is
compound time, above shows the semibreve is divided into four parts i.e. into(6 4,)
accented on the first part of the measure when only two notes are in a bar; ii four,
crotchets, (for four crotchets arc equal to one semibreve;) and the upper figure 6
accent as in the first three. In triple lime, when the measure is divided into thrt>c
shows that six of these parts, viz. crotchets, So offill a bax. any other time expressed
parts, accent is on the first and third ; if only two notes arc in a bar, ttecjual the
is always on the longest note. In compound lime the accent is on the firstaccent
P. How shall we with sufficient exactness ascertain the proper time of each beat measure, when the bar is divided into six equal paits.and fourth notes in the
ji the different moods 1 arc accented together, as two quaversCouplet accent is when two notes in the fir>€
7'. Dy racking use of or two crotchets the first raooi! of tripl.' *•a pendulum, the cord of which, fi-om the centre of the ball three moods in common time, in tupc.
strongest down l^rau10 the pin from which it is suspended, to he, for the several moods, of the following In keeping time the accent is always with the

Is placed on the fourth
- fine of the stave,P. How miist I beat timel and
belongs to the bass a»!n the first two moods of common time, for the first beat, lightly strike cnj ^ IT. the
- lower part in music ; iiyour finger on whatever you boat upon; second, bring downof the heel of your
- is sometimes used inhand third, raise your hand a little and shut it partly up; fourth beat, raise
; it up
counter.even with your shoulder, and throw it open the sameat time, which completes the
bar. The third and fourth moods, for the first beat let hand fallthe ; second, raise it
two beats triple time areup. The first in the same as in the first of common time Stands on G» second
third beat, raise the hand up. Compound time is heat in the same manner as in the line of the tenor or
trethatthird of common. 13o careful the motion of the hand should be always gentle, ble stave, and crosses
graceful, and regular, and never raise il much above a level with your shoulder. that line four times.
, It
is always used in tenor
"CHARACTERS USED IN MUSIC. and treble, and
sometimes in counter.
Is five parallel lines
- Stands on C, middle
-Ledger line with their spaces, on
- line is used
; only in
which notes and olhcr
'_ counter.
A Stave Lcdget - musical characters are
"line written, oci lodger;hs
Is a plain lino or markline is-Ledger line addtJ -.Then notes
across the stave, and
di^ascend or dcKcnd be- E:5=:iK - vides time into equaltheyond the stave. A single Xar
" parts according to the
mood of time and meaIs drawn across the first
sure note.end o*" '^^^c staves, and
. snown how partsmany
- are sung together. If
Is a note that fills a
include four
i it parts, the
measure ; i. e. from oneizizis:
order of them arc as fol- A measure note JJIZ bar to another, withoutmlows. The lowest and
any other note or rest.
. first part is the bass, the
- second is tenor, the third
counter, and the fourth Any quantity nl music
. and upper part is treble written between two o''
if only three parts, the these marks or bars, i»
third is treble. called bar musica ofRUDIMENTS OF MUSICTHE GAMUT. OR
of I> OverSet right hanit or under threeat the
aoas tu n iiaJ notes, is a mark of dimi-any note,
or nauses it to nution, and shoi-'s thatits length,
Figuro 3,as long they must be sung in llip.[- be sou 11JeJ half
Joi. o |joint
woulJ be lime of two of the sunieagain as it
ol edditiun.
thus, kind wilhout a figure.without the dot ;
isa poistcd scinibreve
sung as long as three
minims, &c.
— Shows that the not« ovri
Set immediately pre-
^jqaz^^pwhich it is placed ihould311^ceding or before a note,
be warbled with softasinks it half a tone; i. e.
causes it to be sung halfA Flat,'
a lone lower than it
would be without the
flat Shows the place of the^:
succeeding note on the
Set before a note, raises
tone; i.e. causesit half n
3=^ to be sung half a toneitA Sharp,
it would behigher than
sharp. Notes thus marked arewithout the
fourth long-sounded one
Restores a note from flat er than their usual
time-t:^ . or sharp to its natural
vocalunder any num- Is seldom used inOver or
overshows tl.at music. The notesber of notes,
'fi snouldwhich il is placedthey must be sung to
soft- be sounded distinct andone syllable, gliding
emphatical.ly from one sound to the
other. The tails of the
notes are often joined
cjtra notes,Arc small
together, which answers
added and set before o;
the same purpose as a
tnor aftej- regular notes,Appogiatura,
guide the voice .nor«grace notes,
gracefully into the souui)
" lu oriiil acciueiiial Hats and sharps, unless they umler-We ret iigers
of the surceeduig L
•tibod tbeiD
- Shows the end ol arfhowsihe placewhich-^
or anthcin.is accented each mea-of acsent I r-^ ^ inMark ^^^
1 ?^S -half accent '
t Shows the halfaccent
Denotes repetition oia
Shows the end of a
strain ; it also shows OF CHOOSING NOTES.
when to repeat.m
how themP. What are choosing notes, and must I sing 1
T. They are notes set immediately over each other on the same stave ; either of
which may be sung, but not by the same voice (in bass the lower notes are termed
- Shows that the tune is ground bass.) If two persons are singing the same part, one may sing the upper
to be sung twice from it notes, and the other the lower notes. See the example on the bass stave.
Itcpeat ! to the next double bar or
At the end of a strain, or
at the end of a tune,
shows that the note or iP^-P- :sr:
notes under 1 su^c to be
sung before you repeat,E OF SYNCOPATION.
Figure 1, 2, c and those under 2 after
syncopation, ordouble ending. P. What is meant by syncopated notes tomitting those under
Syncopation is any number of notes set on the same line or space included bybut if the notes are tied T.
togellicr with slur, slur; sometimes driven across or through the bar, and sometimes in the middle;a a
notes only are to be named, but sound the time of notes, whetherboth are sung the se- one of siich all theSiE
not, swelling voicecond time, ax in the se- driven across the bar or the a little at the usual place of the
cond ciample. accent.
^lS?SE^St! !
though were in the usualOF SYNCOPE OR SYNCOPEED NOTES. 11 upon it, as it place of the accent, as in common time
having half the time of the measure in the middle; as a minim betweiin tw;
P. What is meant by syncope, or syncopeed notes
|| crotchets, or a crotchet preceding a pointed minim, or a crotchet between two
T. It is when a note is set out of its usual order, requiring the accent to be quavers, &c.
4- +
i\^^T^P-P::3zsisz:s:P-P isr ^^=F^s:^§?SteW _•)- ^.SEF^S^
What is meant by the keys music, how What is meant by tones and semi or half tones \V. in many are there, and how are they P
T. There are said to be but seven sounds belonging to every key note in music,
The key note everyT. of correct piece of music is tlie leading note of the tune, every eighth being the same, and is called an octave. Therefore these sounds are
by which all the other sounds throughout the tflne arc compared, and is always the represented by only seven letters. These sounds in music are called tones ; five of
note the bass,last in ai.d generally in the tenor. If the last note in the bass be faw them are called whole tones, and two of them semitones or halftones. The natural
immediately above me, the tune is on a sharji or major key ; but if law immediately places for the semitones are between B and C, and between E and F, and they are
below me, it is a flat or minor key. always between me and faw, and law and faw, find them where you may.
There are but two natural places for tho keys, A and C. S. is the natural place
letters every ?P, Arc the semitones always between the same in tuneof the flat key, and C the natural place of the sharp key. Without the aid of the
flats and sharps at the beginning of the stave, no tunc can rightly be set to any other
the natural situation of semitones arc between B C and E FT. No ; although
than these two natural keys ; but by the help of these, me. the centre, leading and
well as the two keys, are verj- often altered by flats and sharpsyet their situations, as
govenjng note, and of course the keys, are removed at pleasure, and form what are
the tune. You therefore remember that the natural place forset at the beginning of
called anilicial keys, producing the same clfect as the two natural keys ; i. e. bv fixing
be flat, me is on E, &c. ; and ifF be shaqi, me Ls onthe me is on B, but ifB F, &c.
the two semi or half tones equally distant from the kcv notes. The diJlerence
is removed, the semitones are as the semitonoi are always,Of course, if the me
between the major and minor Keys is as follows; tho major key 6th,note has its 3d,
law and faw.between me and faw, and
^wi. 7th intervals, ascending half a tone higher than thesame intervals aijcending from
*he minor key nolo; and llus is the reason some tunes are sharpon a key, and others veryP. Well, my good teacher, I am much obliged to you for this explanation
on flat key This also is the reason why musica set to the major or sharp key is for I have studied a great deal about them, but it is now [ilain to me.
generally sprightly and cheerful whereas music set
; to the minor or flat key is
pen«ive and melancholy. Sharp suit as yoii understand these rules prettv well, •»key luney to sing hymns and psain.s of praise and T Well, my studious pupil, voa
'hunksgiving, antl flat key tunes tDose of prayer toand &up[>lic^tion now i)roc«^J sia^cpTHE GAMUT, OR RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC
tne fifth line, which is an octave ; thch descend, fallmg sofllj from Jne sound to luoOF soujS'ding the eight notes.
other till you end at the close. Then commence on law, the minor or flat key note .
ascend and descend in the same manner till you come to the close. this youUv/*. how to sound the eight notes, and where I must commence ?Please fell mo
learn the difTercnco helwecn the major and minor moods or keys.
7". the tenor and treble After having sounded the eight notes several times, you may go on to s'lg thaCommence first on faw, the major or sharp key note on
the eighth note other lessons for tuning the voice, and then some plain tunes.stave; thsn ascend softly from one sound to another till you sing on
Noted. MINOR KEY.Eight notes. MAJOR KEY. Common Time. Eight
Triple Time, M^or Key.
^'^^ EEFf£ EF1:^_^± EeSffT^^ ijsi;
m.. --©-=^^3 ^^^^Ss
*-t^4-+ ++ +l_+t +' +f + +» +++ + + ++ +T +?. +1 \ +} +T +f
ee9 Siggieiiil^i »gg|ff^
I + f + f
^^feE£|g^i?^gg|^^L^i^^Pii^ ^Pr.
*-4-+ + + + f--f- -r I t + f
P-^-F-r-^e^ -P—£EEE HZI'^^ 1 r S
+ I + I + » + I + + + »
i&tP- r-ir- i^a^ -Oii j:,.
I r 1^^ iEE^^t^
+ + + + ++ + + ++
-p-p- :f=P~£=:^
+ + + + +
f!?? ^1 ' ^
+ ++ + + + +. + .» + t + f + ? + t + I + »++ + + + +..
^gg^g^^^^gJi^^^ S^i^BiiaF^ii gl?
NOJ'B. suiriila iivmt ido uuua) iil(u-<ii- of flic acceul, aQ(i I o^or Uw half acccnc /-
transposed, will either be on the 2d and Ith degrees as above stated, vet with the
same propriety we may suppose them on the 9th, lllh. &c. degrees; for when wo
refer to a pitchjiipe for the sound of either of the foregoing keys, if it be roprrly
jPART SECOND. constructed, it will exactly correspond to the 9th. llth, &c, sounds of the general
scale. Then by descending the octave, we get ttie sound of the natural key ; then
by ascending a 3d, 'Uh, or .5th, as the tune may require, we readily discover whetherTO GENERAL SCALE, AND RULES FORINTRODUCTION THE
the piece be properly keyed. If we find, after descending the octave, we can ascend
to the highest note in the tenor or treble, and can pronounce them with ease and
freedom, the piece may be said tci tie properly keyed ; but if, on the contrary, after
13 a representation of the general scale, showing the connexion ofTuE following descending, we find it difficult to ascend as above, the piece is improperly keyed,
also what sound of the general scale each letter, line, or space in eitherthe parts, and and should be set lower.
represents : for instance, A the minor key, occupies the 2d, 9lh, andof the octaves
C, the natural major key, llth, and16th sounds of the general scale: the 4th, 18th. NoTK.—This method of proving the keys is infallible to individuals, and will hold
every octave being unison, are considered one and the sameThus, it will appear that good in choirs, when we suppose the teacher or leader capable of judging for the
bassEounil. Although the last in the is the key note, and in case the me ia not commonality of voices.
space above
fifth line F.
fourth space E*
-fourth line D
space above
fifth line
Afourth space G
fourth line
F-mthird space E first line of Tenor Stave
-third line
second space Natural key the Major mode
B*-second hne—
A first space Nulurnl key the Minor made lawof
fi first hne 01 ttie Dajis .Slave- m^THE GAMUT, OR RUDIMENTS OF MUSIL".
place a note on D, nnddlc line uf the oass, another on IJ, the middle line or the tsncforegoing scale compnses tnrec octaves, of twenty-two sounds.'ITie
or treble, the interval will ap[iear as just stated ; and to find any otlier mterfal, count
f.s caseeither ascending or descending, the may be.shows that tliat line is the 7th
<• "^''^ °° ^^^ fourth line in the dass,
p I Cgl'
• -
.., jj^jj jj j^ ^[Jg general scale.
shows that that line,used on the second line in the tenor and treble,
the trc-in the tenor, is the eighth sound in the general scale, and inlQ[
sound; for ifThcficlcf, ble, (when performed by a female voice,) the fifteenthJ^
men, thethe treble, as well as the tenor, were performed entirely byXyf.
" treblegeneral scale would comprise only fifteen sounds : hence, the
voicesraised an octave above that of tenor, in (»nsequeiirc that femalefltavc is only
octave above men's, and to females the treble is usually assigne<^.»ro naturally an
places of the semitonen.The stars (') show the natural
now become very common to write
]- is used, (though it has
or the middle line in thecounter on cither the G F clefs,)
When the C chf
third space in tenor, (C,) and is in uniscu with the
a seventh above the middle line in the bass, &;c.
voice perform, the bass is 2d.Three octaves being more than any common can Unison. Odaxe. Double Oct
assigned to the gravest of men's voices, the tenor to the higbost of men's, and the
intervals, remember to include both notes or letters—thus, in countingfemale voices : the counter (when used) to boys, and the gravest of the In countingtreble to the
above example, D is one, E is two, F is three, G is four, A five, anda siith in thefemale voices.
sounds equally high, or equally low, however unequal in their force, arc said B sii.Two ,
treble and air arc placed in Unison withwith the other. Coiisequently, E on the lower line in the treble In the above example, the notes in theto be in unison, one
treble to female voices, and the air to men's voices,fourth sjiace in the tenor ; and E on the third space each other. But assigning thestave, is in unison with E on the
to the notes in the treble, (as previouslyon the first line of the tenor, and an octave below E, the (as is customary,) an octave must be addedin bass, is in unison with E
octave more acute than a man's,) the intervalGeneral Scale. From any one letter in the observed of a woman's voice being anlower line in the treble. See theCC?
would be a fifteenth or double octavename, the interval is an octave—as from B to then being the "Dass and treble—in the first bar, ,general scale, to another of the same
abovein the third bar, the note on B in the treble, a thirteenth D in the bass, &c0, D to D, &c.
octave andObserve that an octave and a second make a ninth ; an a third make 8Agrocably to the F and G clefs used in the general scale, a note on any line or
or space octave and a fourth make an eleventh ; an and a fifth make h•ipace in the bass, is a sixth below a note on a corresponding line in the tenth ; an
seventh, and a sixth, a thirteenth ; an octave and a a fourttxailh.Vtnor, and a thirteenth below a note in the treble occupying the same line or space, twelfth; an
fiftecntli, &c. always including both the first and !aat note."jcble is performed by females.) Q^" Sec the Gc::;ia1 Scale. Suppose vie two octaves, awien the^
Xoles O i« alt.
5. An interval composed of three tones and a scmi- ^
tone, as from faw to sol, i, e. from U to G, or from
O to D, is called a fifth. ^^^1
Wh£ii a loJgcr line \a ailJeJ to a trcWo slave, a note I
uccupying it U said to be in aJl ; and when the notcaH jiaaa.
descend below the bass stave, they ore termed doubles.
6. An interval composed of three to;ics and two
semitones, as from law to faw, i. e. from E
UmibteT^ F. DaubU ^E.\ called a sixth minor. "''i=s^s
ARE DENOMINATED. 7. An interval composed of four tones and a serai- V
tone, as from faw to law, i. e. from lo A, is called S^^—
a siith major. yw)
| 1^
1. An interval composed of a tone and a semitone,"
u from B to D, id called a minor third.
j £
8. An interval composed of four tones and twor^_
semitones, as from sol to faw, i. c. from D to C, is V^' :rt
called a 7ih minor. [See next example.]
3. An interval composed of two full tones, &a from
Ikw to law, is called a third major.
9. An interva. composed of five tones and a semi- A/ZTt.
^tone, as from faw to me, i. c. from U to U, is called a ftV—
seventh major. \Sv
3. An mterval com[ioscd of two full tones and a VI _
•erailone, as from me to law from 1! to E, is
; i. e. //r" 10. An interval composed of five tonc3 and two
called a fourth. ^*^\^^ iniitones, is called an octave, (as has already been
observed.) See examples lite three last men-(Jj" of
tioned intervals.
The '#preceding intervals are counted ascemling, or upwards, and the sharps4 An interval composci! of turee full tones, as
indicate the places and number of the semitones in eaca.from faw lo me, e. IVom tailed Iriton,
i. F to D, if a #^,
or founl redundant 1^ rioTs.—The Bciritoacs always ana law ft''iie Dctween me inn taw atid
Notwithstandmg the 4th, 7to, are2d, &c, properly discords, yet a skilful compose;OF HARMONY AND COMPOSITION
advantage, providedmay use them to some a full chord of all the parts immediately
Haling given an explanation ofthe JiiTercni coniaineJ octave, and : answer similar purpose whichinccrvais in the follow they will then a to acid, being tasted
immedi•»! which of givesLte njannci the parts music are connected, I proceed to show how they ately previous to sweet the latter a more pleasing flavour. Although ihe 4th is
'iscd composition to piMduce verymay be in liarmony. really a discord, yet it is often used in composition. The rough sound of the
consistsHarmony in tlie proportion of the distance of two, three, or four sounds, 4th may be so mollified by the sweetness of the 5th and 8th as toharmonize almost as
perfonned at the same time, and mingling in a most pleasing manner to the ear. well as any three sounds in nature ; and it would be reasonable to suppose that where
The notes which produce harmony, when sounded togethei, are called concords, we have two perfect chords, a discord may he introduced with very little violation to
ind their intervals, consonant intervals. The notes which, when sounded together, the laws ofharmony ; hut as it is the most dilhcult part of composition to use a discord
produce a disagreeable sound to the car, are called diacords, and their intervals, dis- in such a manner and place as to show more fully the power and beauty of music,
sonant intcrrnh. There aire but four concords in music—viz. : unison, third, and we think composers should only use them sparingly, (as it is much better to have allfifth,
sicth (theii eighths or octaves are also meant.) The unison is called a jicrfcct chord, sweet than to have too much sour or bitter,) and always let them be followeii by a;
and commonly the fifth is so called ; if the composer please, however, he may make jierfcct chord.
the fifth imperfect, when composing more than two parts. The third and sixth are
called im|>erfect, their chords being not so full, nor so agreeable to the ear, as the
perON THE TRANSPOSITION OF KEYS.fect : but in four parts the sixth is often used instead of the therefifth so in effect
are bit three concords, employed together, in composition.
N B. The meaning of imperfect, signifies that it wants perfec- natural keys are transposed by flats and sharps at the he-a semitone of its The reason why the two
tions, to what it does when it is perfect : for as the lesser or imperfect third includes bring them within the stave, and to bring the music withinginning of the stave, is to
hut three half tones, the greater or major third notes or places of the keys are always found irincludes four, &c. The discords are the compass of the voice. The key
a second, a seventh, octaves; faw immediately above meafourth, and their though the greater fourth sometimes the last note of the bass of a correct tune, and is either
"omcs very near to the sound of an imperfect helow flat key. The reason why one tur.cchord, it being the same in ratio as the the sliarp key—or law immediately me the
minor fifth. Indeed some composers that every third,(the writer of these extracts is one of them) is on a sharp, lively key, and another en a flat, melancholy key, is,
socm very partial to the gre.iter fourth, higher than the sameand frequently admit it in composition. The sixth and seventh, ascending from the sharp key, are ualf a tone
following is example ascending from thean of tlie several concords and discords, and their octaves under intervals ascending from the flat key note. For instance, a third
ascendingtl'cm : sharp key note faw, (licing a major thinl,) is very different from a third
Any personcoxcouns. law flat key note, (a minor third,) and so of other intervals.from the
afterwardsmay lie convinced of this by hearing a tune sung first in a Hat and in aSingle C'hord-^
I 3 5 6 2 4 7
bewhen if the parts are correctly carried on, the choids will entirelysharp key ;
8 10 12 13 9 11 14 toas first sung, will scarcely be recognised or thought be itiochanged, and the tune
TJuir Octaves. < give one example. Let Windham tune be sung on its proper flat key,15 17 19 20 16 19 21 same; we will
withand the intervals will be entirely changed, and so anyand then on a sharp key,
24 2622 27 a3 25 28
j example.)other tunc. (See tlie,
WINDHAM—on the flat key law, its proper key.
'jgj^^^l^E^fe^^FE^bEEEF^fr t ^^fe^l
::sznrfel^^S^feS^^^g ^
HwsizEt£fcEi ^£^^^fel^D^g^Eg^-^^fF^gg|^m p^
WINBHAM—on the sharp key
-pgrcr.-ji: 22 jOTT » *3 jEis: P-5^-=; ^^^^^^^SFF^Hf
EffipEi ]SZ £^^PSeTEE^^^^
'Ps-r r—p—^-^^iF^ -f=-fc:-.^z—ti^3^ S^^^
:q:^—t^ FFp^^^S^^^_^^=P=^— '
same as.<:iunc<I,The on A, the or natural key \.EXAMPLES OF THE KEYS.
faw, its third, the Major Key. Minor Key.In iho Major key, from law to
interval is two tones, [a Major third]—from faw to
lavf, its sixth, the interval is four tones and a semi- ;i£feEg;p^^^pEFE^
i"ne, [a Major sixth]—and from faw to me, its
seventh, the interval is five tones and a semitone,
[a Major seventh.]
the Minor key, from law to faw, its third, theIn
inter\-al is one tone and a semitone, [Minor third]
from law to faw, its sixth, the interval is three tones
and two semitones, [a Minor sixth] and from law
its seventh, the interval is four tones and Bl 1to sol,
M'Mor seventh.]two semitones, [a
To prove the utility of removing the key, I will produce two examples. First, Let
"the tune Suffield" be written on key note A, (natural fiat key,) instead of E, its
proper key—and, besides the inconvenience of multiplying ledger lines, few voices
would be able to perform it—the treble in particular.
SUFFIELD—on E, its proper key, from the repeat.
Second, Let " be written on key note C, (natural sharp key,) insteadComphiner"
few perform tonor
'' of G, its proper key, and there are but that could it,—the in—^--h»T particubr.
^B^feg^ li^gpE^:^
lasts ESE^^^zg^g^^I
COMPLAINEU— G, its proper fromon key, the repeat
-P- :P—
z^pzgEg=|izp-{3-^-:|=p-££g S
^-9-.7-^ g
>-p|g^P3^=#;N£^g^p£^ 'I
©:-#1 ^EEE -P-ffiJX
-P.zing; E
Tho Biune assumed, or natural key C.on the
_©_© o
-^©_O "P"«_» "P iE
?cia^^^ gj;-^^
o'^ '^^_2_ o- H-a—P—±^=E: :^J!iii r-p^t^
is removea cither by sharping its fifth or This accounts for the customary rules ol transposition. TitThe me, anil consequently the keys,
latting its fourth thus natural place for me isThe , H
B is me is onIf 1>, E
is me is on]. h-om B me, Its natural place, will bring us to F IfB and E b, AA fiftli
is me is onwill bring us to C If B, E, and A I), D2. A fifth from F me,
is on (IC me, will us to G If B, E, A, and D is 1), mc3. A fifth from
G bring us to D If B, E, A, D, and G is I), me is on C4. A fifth from me, will
onus to A If B, E, A, D, G, and C is b, me is F
T>. A fifth from D me, will
us to E IfF be S, mo is on i>< 6. A fifth from A me, will bring
B IfF and be S, me is on7. A fifth from E me, will bring us back to
If F, C, and G be #, me is on G
If F, C, G, and D be #, mo is on U
'1. fourth from B me, will bring usA
IfF, C, G, D, and A is #, me is on A
from E me, will us2. A
If F, C, G, D, A, and E is #, me is on E
fourth from A me, will bring us3. A
" the me is driven round.from me, will us By flats4. A D
to stand its groundfrom (J me, will bring us Till forced on B ;5. A fourth
will bring us By sharps the me's led through the keys,6. A from C nie,
native place."us home to 11 Till brought to U itsA fourth from F ir.e, will bringJl.
Key note. Natural
it^BB F C
Key note.;
Natural (ilacc of the Semitones.
G A. CD.
Natural place of the Seinitonea.
Observe that, by six flats or six shaqie, (incIuJing the natural place,) both of
the kc)'5 are pincej on every letter in the stave, anJ by the same number of either SCALE OF KEYS
character, (Incluiiinj; the natural place,) the whole octave is dividej into semitones
and it is impossible to use another flat or sharp in transposition, for seven flats or The figures at the left hand of the column of notes shows theC 8th or 1st [^ 3d
sharps would only put thorn in their natural You may also observe, that one degrees of the shnrp key. those at the ri'^ht hand show the de-places.
rth 2JO
.lat, or six sharjis, places same situation and grees of tlat shows that the is betweenthe keys and semitones precisely in the ; the Key. This s^alc O
that one snarp, or six flats, same two flats or five sharps, and two two keys, and first 'ce of the sharp key is thehas the eflcct, and the that the i!i»f
sharps five flats, semitones is above Jearee of the fiat key isor &c. ; and with six flats, or one sharp, one of the m first note the O, and that the f.rst
[ilaccUs natural ; i. e. between B and C. Also with six sharps, or one flat, one of the the first note below the O
semitones key to'rd below an<lis in its natural place, i. e. between E and F, as the natural places of the Every sharp key has its relative flat a ;
seinitorjea aboveare between U and C, and E and F ; and we suppose the reason why every flat key has its relative sharj) key a third
lioth one to theof these characters are used in tra^isposing music, is to save the trouble and These admit of an easy and natural transition from
time uf making so many of cither character; for a person can make one flat much
quicker than six sharps, or one sharp ipin ker than six flats, &c. O 2d Every sh-rp at the beginning of a tune Lakes the place of /nc,
Thus I think I have showed satisfactonly how tlie keys are removed, and how the the fourth <le^ree from the sharp key. and raises that note half oA G 1st
octave is divided into aeniitone? ov flats arm snnrps, and why both characters are tone, and rc.mo'f^ •'ii" rnc and the key to the filth above .^ lo
mkI ui ti-ansuofitinfj the fourth lielow' —
Imperfect I Imrerfeclof a tune lakes the place of the me, sinks that noteEver; fiat at ihc twinning
the fourth above, or to the fifthasXi a tone, and removes the me and key to the
below. fi:
situation and eflcct in theThe seven soundo have also distinct names from their S3 ^
second, the super-«lo. The key no*.e is called the tonic; the next above, or its B
dominant^nic—its third, the mediant—its fourth, the subdominant—its fiflh, the
Its sixth, the eubmedi'Uit—its seventh, the leading note.
major Ocuve S.HaloilL Perfect 5th. BlinorGih. Major Gth. *lh. "ih.
semitones, octave although by counting-^ As the scale admits of only twelve so ano
the same^ c> the first and last note, which are octaves to each other, and really one and
r^' •—i;^. . u twelve intervals, because thesound in effect ; it contains thirteen sounds, yet it has but
flat fifth,unison cannot properly be called an interval; and the sharp fourth and
although necessarily distinguished in harmony, are performed on keyed instrumentp
Tonic- Superton McdiaDi. SubdominanL Dominant. Submedianl. L. note. same keys, and make but one inter^-al.with the
so called from its being the principal or pitch of the tune.The totjc b
supertonic is so called from its being the note above the tonic.The ON THE MODULATION OF KEY.
middle way between the tonicThe rnaliant is so from its being in the
and dominant changing of the key note from one letter or given tone toThe modulation or
belowThe subdominant is so called from its being the fiflh the tonic, as the every regular composition, particularly Anthems, thatanother, being so frequent in
above.dominant is the fifth very often embarrassed, unless tliey endeavour to acquire athe performers will be
The dominant is so called from its being a principal note, and requires the tonic changes.knowledge or habit of discerning those
generally to be heard after it, especially at a close, and is therefore said to govern iU is sometimes efTected by gradual preparation,The transition from one K-ltcr or key
The submediant is so called from its being in the middle way between the tonic When the change is gradual, the newas by accidental fiats, sharps, or naturals.
and its fifth below. When change is sudden, thekey is announced by flats, sharps, or naturals. the
The leading note is so called from its leading to the tonic, and is the sharp seventh the stave are either altered or removedusual signs or signature at the beginning of
of the scale, and therefore in the minor mode is necessarily sharpened in ascending.
as the tune called the Christian's Song, or the Judgment Anthem.in
There are also fourteen intervals in the scale bearing distinct name=. viz. ; Unison,
Minor second. Major second. Minor third. Major third, I'erfect fifth, Minor sixth.
Major sixth, Minor seventh, .Major seventh. Octave..
Key C, into G, by a sharp on F. Key G, into D,of of by an additional sharp on
-# ^-r
~n rr;^^3Esa
Or faw me faw Or faw mc faw
T21P^- -#-p--p—fe?E EEi
"4Or faw
Key C, into F, by ajlai on B.of Key F, into C, by a natural on B.of
-F=bi^-1 :^^,^^4:5=3 P^?=.^J^^P^^^^f#g^SEj^^^^ii
Or 60I faw law law Or law faw fawme
ip: J2.^ -£r_
__\ .^_ i^^^ i
Or faw sol faw Or me faw sol faw
Key A, into E, by one sharp. Key £,',of of into B, by an additional sharp mi C,
j^ -^^FEEg^
Or faw me Or faw me
p-^ f-=3=-+-?: ^EE3=E
Or \v9/ i»vt Or i»w iBw—
D, into A, by a natural on liKcji of
-F- '-^^^
Or faw me
\~~---~_ i:=£=EFT-F ^^k
Or law law
Major Key C, into the miuor A Minor major C,of of Key of A, into the of
'M -F
:iizs: S=&:
t : ="P ^ i
Key D mejor, into ti minorof Key B minor, intoD
r#-!^ rr?—IJIZt ^ztox --^^^T^1^
^h3ii^=; S£3 :Ei 3XSft3EE
Siiddcn changefrom C major, to C minor.
To aid thone who wish further information with respect method of mo-to the best GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.
the fawing system,dulation by retaining sol the following observations arc added.
order to do this, the syllables niust follow into the same* 1. Cakk should lie taken that all the parts (when singing together) begin uponIn the new key and take
original their proper pitch. If they are too high, difficulty and perhaps discords will be theplace there which they held in the key ; i. e. faw must be the new key pote,
sol and me its to consequence if too low, duhiess and languor. If the parts are not united by theirits dominant or fifth, leading note, if changing from the minor the ;
whole piece may be run into confusion and jargon before itmajor mode or key. Ifchanging from major to minor, law must be the new key, and corresponding degrees, the
occasioned by error in the pitch of one or more of thelaw mediant to the major key its dominant, and rfle also its leading note. ends ; and perhaps the whole an
There are four different pitches which the composer may consistently change to parts of only one semitone.
constitute good singers they should sing veryform any given pitch ; viz. the fifth of the givpn pitch may be changed to the key 2. It is by no means necessary to that
so soft as not to drown the teacher's voice, and each partnote by adding such llats, sharps, or naturals, as will place the semitones in tlieir re- loud. Each one should sing
be teacher's voice cannotgular degrees in the diatonic scale, (the scale in common use,) to the fourth, observing so soft as will admit the otlier parts to distinctly heard. If the
the voicethe same order of semitones, or to the sixth, its relative minor key, or change itself be heard it cannot be imitated, (as that is the best way to modulate and
that they cannot hearinto a minor key if previously major, (see the example,) from C major to C minor. make it harmonious,) and if the singers of any one are so loud
In order to modulate into the fourth of the key, the major 7th is made flat. For ex- the other parts because of theirown noise, the parts are surely not rightly proportioned,
ample, in the key of C major, by flatting B, F becomes the key note. To apply the and o.ight to be altered.
syllables in this case, let C immediately preceding the tbit be called sol, preserving 3 When singing in concert the bass should be sounded full, bold, and majestic
the tone of faw, its former name, then by falling a whole tone to B, calling it faw, bu. not harsh the tenor regular, firm, and distinct ; the counter clear and plain, and
come into the key of F. In modulating into the fifth of the fourth t.te treble soft and mild, but not faint. The tenor and treble may consider the Germanvou key, the is
made sharp, and becomes the leading note or sharp seventh of the new key. Kiam- fiute the sound of which taey may endeavour to imitate, if they wish to improve the
ple :—In key of C major by sharping you order voice.the F make G tlie key note. In To
syllables ease, tunes should be sung softer than sharp keyed ones, and may be pro-apply the in this let G immediately preceding the sharp be called faw, 4. Flat keyed
preserving the tone which as portioneil with lighter bass ; but for sharp keyed tunes let the bass be full and strong,it held sol, then by falling half a tone, and calling F me, a
you arrive at the key of G. but never harsh.
notes, notes, and slurred notes, of each part, should be sung softerTliis is the method most common to be used in psalmody in modulating from one 5. The high quick
single notes, of the same parts. All the notesbey to another. than the low notes, long notes, and
breath if possible.Having gone thus far with our subject, we feel willing to close by making a few included by one slur should be sung at one
jiarts music somewhat softer than their leaders do, as itibservations on the ornamental part of singing, or what are generally termed graces. G. Learners should sing all of
opportunity of following in a piece withI'his if the name generally given to those occasional embellishments which a perfor- tends to cultivate the voice and give them an
mer or ctjm[ioser introduces to heighten the elfect of a com]»>sition. It consists not only which they are not well acquainted ; but a good voice may be soon much injured by
n giving due jilace to the apogialura turn, shalte, or trill, and other decorative ail- singing too loud.
.litions, but in that easy, smooth, and natural expression ol the passages which heM. 7. When notes of the tenor fall below those of the bass, the tenor should be sounded
conveys the native Iieauties and elegancies of the ccmposition, and forms one of the strong, and the bass soft,
fiist attributes of a cultivated and lefined performer 8. While first learning a tune it may be sung somewhat slower than the true time
A person or persons may be well acquainted with all the various characters psal- or mood of time requires, until the notes can be named and truly sounded withoutin
mody, (or music;) they may also be able to sing their part looking the book.in true time, ami yet their on
pejformanct be tar fron; pleasing; if it is d'-void of necessary cmbellishmenLs, their 9. Learners are apt to give the first note where a fuge begins nearly double the
tnanner and bad expression may conspire to render it ought to have, sounding a crotchet almost as long as a minim in any other partdisagreeable. A few plain hints, time it
and also a tew general and we ''fine puts the parts in confusion by losing time; whereas the fugcs oughfriendiv observe.tions will tei.d to correct these of the tune, which
v^"fs ura'':is;.'nr of vr.eai music. be movHil olf lively, the time decreasing (or the notes sung quicker') ami tlie som>^'n toXXVI!) GAMUT, OR RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.THE
a sharp keyed one, what part of the anthem, Slcof the cngagtk' part or parts increasing in sound as the others fall in. All solos or teacher know a flat keyed tune fn.ra
tune which they have Ijeen learningfugea shjuld be sung somewhat faster than when all the parts are moving together. requires emphasis, or how to give the pitch of any
requires10. There are but ffw long notes in any tune but what might be swelled with pro- unless some one inform them. It is easy to name the notes of o tune, but it
pnely. The swell is one ol the greatest ornaments to vocal music if rightly performed. attention and practice to sing them correctly.
voices best,All long notes of the bass should be swelled if the other p^^ts are singing short or quick 17. Learners should not be confined too long to the parts that suit their
improve voicenotes at the same lime. The swell should be struck upon the first part of the but should try occasionally the dificrent parts, as it tends greatly to theplain
note, increase to the middle, and then decrease softly echo, or die away like and give them a knowledge of the connexion of the parts and of harmony as well aslike an
sound meioily.* The gentlemen can change from bass to tenor, or from tenor to bass, andthe ofa bell.
ladies from treble to tenor, iScc.11. All notes (except some in syncopation) should be called plain by their proper the
18. Learners should imJerstand the tunes well by note before they attempt to singnames, and fairly articulated; and in applying the words great care should be taken
verses of poetry.that tliey be properly pronounced and not torn to pieces between the teeth, nor forced them to
verses applied to a piece ofmusic while learning, it will give thethrough the nose. Let llie mouth be freely opened, but not too wide, the teeth a 19. If different are
knowledge of the tune than they can have by confining itlittle asunder, and let the sound come from the lungs and be entirely formed where learners a more complete
different tunes to the same words willthey should be only distinguished, viz. on the end of the tongue. The superiority of always to the same words. Likewise applying
embarrassment created by considering every shortvocal to instrumental music, is that while one only pleases the ear, the other informs have a great tendency to remove the
the understanding. tunc as a set piece to certain words or hymns.
stave,12. When notes occur one directly above another, (called choosing notes,) and 20. When the key is transposed, there are flats or sharps placed on the and
uponthere are several singers on the part where while when the mood of lime is clianged, the requisite characters are placed tlietliey are, let two sing the lower note
one does the upper note, and in the same stave.proportion to any other number.
singers 21. There should not be any noise indulged while singing, (except the music,) as it13. Your should not join in concert until each class can sing their own part
correctly. destroys entirely the beauty of harmony, and renders the performance very difficult
new beginners;) and if it i» designedly promoted is nothing less than a14. Learners should beat time by a pendulum, or with their teacher, until they can (especially to
singers to the exercise, M themselves who occasion it, and tobeat regular time, before they attempt to beat and sing both at once, because it per- proof of disrespect in the
plcses them to beat, name time, and sound the notes at the same time, until they have the Author of our existence.
tunes which may be used with propriety byacquired a knowledge of each by itself. 22. The apogiatura is p-aced in some
neither should be attempted by any15. Too long singing at a time injures the lungs.* a good voice ; also the trill over some notes ; but
notes, (as they add nothing to the16. Some teachers are in the habit of singing too long at a time with their pupils. one until he can perform the tunc well by plain
by using what are gene-It is better to sing but only eight or ten tunes at a lesson, or at one time, and inform time.) Indeed no one can add much to the beauty of a piece
theii voice.the learners tlie nature of the pieces and tb.e per^ rally termed graces, unless they are in a manner natural tomanner in which they should be
cultivate the voice so asformed, and continue at them until they are understood, than to shun forty or 23. W'hen learning to sing, we should endeavour to toover
fifty in one evening, and at the end of make it soft, smooth, and round, so that when numbers ore performing in concert,a quarter of schooling perhaps few beside the
but one voire.may on eaci. part (as near as possible) appear to be uniformthere
instead of confused jargon, it will be more like the smootli vibraL'ons of the vio-Then,* cough, all kind of spirituous liquors, violentA cold or exercise, too much biie on the
lie-breathings of the German ilutc. Yet how hard it is to make somelin, or the softstoniach, long fasting, the venis overcharged with impure blood, &c. &c. are destructive
to the voice of one who is much in the habit of singing. An excessive use of ardent
spirits will speedily ruin the best voice. A frequent use of some acid drink, such as
puri• Irom performance ol a part offied cider, vinegar, and water mi.\cd and sweetened a little with honey, or sugar with a Melody is the agreeable effect which arises the smf'.e
tri»little black or cayenne pti)per, wine, and loaf sugar, 8:c. if used sparingly, are very music only. Harmony is the pleasing union of several soimds, or the pcrformaoce ol
lungs toeelber.rtrenKthcnmg tu the several parts of music