Partition complète, Early Scottish Melodies; Including Examples from MSS. et Early Printed travaux, along avec a Number of Comparative Tunes, Notes on Former Annotators, anglais et Other Claims, et Biographical Notices, Etc.

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Redécouvrez la partition de la musique Early Scottish Melodies; Including Examples from MSS. et Early Printed travaux, along avec a Number of Comparative Tunes, Notes on Former Annotators, anglais et Other Claims, et Biographical Notices, Etc. partition complète, chansons folkloriques, de Folk Songs, Scottish. Cette partition early 20th century écrite pour les instruments comme: indéterminé, voix
La partition enchaine plusieurs mouvements et l'on retrouve ce genre de musique classifiée dans les genres pour 1 voix, chansons, pour voix non accompagnées, langue anglaise, écrits, chansons folkloriques, partitions avec ouvert instrumentation, partitions pour voix, pour 1 musicien, Music histoire, pour aigu instrument
Obtenez en même temps une sélection de musique pour indéterminé, voix sur YouScribe, dans la rubrique Partitions du début des années 20.
Rédacteur: John Glen
Edition: Edinburgh: J. & R. Glen, 1900.
Dédicace: Sir Alexander C. Mackenzie

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Early Scottish Melodies.MCQIBBON,WILLIAM
Obiit 1756.Early Scottish Melodies;
INCLUDING EXAMPLES FROM xMSS. AND EARLY
PRINTED WORKS, ALONG WITH A NUMBER
TUNES, NOTES ONOF COMPARATIVE
ENGLISHFORMER ANNOTATORS,
OTHER CLAIMS, ANDAND
BIOGRAPHICAL
NOTICES,
Etc.
WRITTEN AND ARRANGED
BY
GLENJOHN
"Facts are chiels that winna ding,
—And downa be disputed." Burns.
EDINBURGH:
R. GLEN,& NORTHJ. BANK STREET.
1900.No
^SC.x^^-t^^t^^ <r'«-i-^-f^ c5C*v^«X^-<-»i)
EDINBURGH :
PRINTED BY DAVID MACDONALD, HANOVER STREET.42
[all rights reserved.]TO
ALEXANDER C. MACKENZIE,SIR
MUS. DOC,
music,principal of the royal academy of
this volume is dedicated
(with permission)
BY
AUTHOR.THE
.''"^<r-v <r>
.- •'--^-•: >^PREFACE.
haveIn placing this volume before the public, we little doubt that many
may think it uncalled for. Our Scottish Songs have already been published
in that any further issue may well seemso many and so varied forms,
superfluous. Our intention, however, is not to add to the number of these
editions, but to reclaim Melodies vjhich primarily and properly belong to
Scotland, erroneously supposed to be Scottish produc-and to renounce others
will apparentwhen it is understoodtions. The necessity for such a work be
that a considerable number of our National Melodies have been claimed
for England, while on the other hand many Anglo-Scottish tunes
manuEnglish market,factured in London and elsewhere for the have found
admittance into our National Collections, and so given rise to perplexities
One great transgressor in the domain ofand misunderstandings. Scottish
"whose work,Song is the late William Stenhouse, Illustrations of the Lyric
Poetry and Music of Scotland," contains many errors of this and other
descriptions. We may well believe that this Author sinned chiefly in
but as he is frequentlyignorance, or at worst, in carelessness, accepted
as an authority, it becomes a matter of importance to indicate, and as far
as possible correct, his numerous inaccuracies, all the more because many
later annotators his pages without takinghave quoted largely from trouble
to verify his statements or to collate them with original sources of
information. Another offender is the late William Chappell, who, in his
otherwise admirable work, " Popular Music of the Olden Time," appropriates
as English Melodies undoubtedly Tunes simplya number of Scottish
because they happened, for reasons hereafter explained, to be first publishedVlll PREFACE.
in London. These London Collections the spur-included also a quantity of
ious Anglo-Scottish species, which being performed at Vauxhall and other
places of entertainment, and circulated in their printed form in Scotland
as well as England, naturally gave rise to the errors and misunderstandings
already alluded has been made toto. In the following pages an effort
bothdispose of many absurd allegations which have gained credence on
the Border. Our purpose not to assert, but to convince, bysides of is
which we shall bringfurnishing appropriate evidence for the statements
have theforward. Whether we succeed or fail, we shall at least
consciousness of having made an honest effort, and shall leave the result
to the judgment of our readers.
information toWe have to acknowledge our indebtedness for aid and
; Mr T. W. Taphouse, Oxford ; Mr Alfred Moffat;Mr Frank Kidson, Leeds
kind andMr A. W. Inglis, Edinburgh and other Gentlemen, for whose
;
assistance we tender our warmest thanks.cordial
2,0th November 1900.CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
PAGE.......Scottish Melodies i
CHAPTER II.
-----Annotators on Scottish Melodies 3
CHAPTER III.
. . .Manuscripts and Early Printed Works . 9
CHAPTER IV.
-.-....William Chappell 14
CHAPTER V.
----...English Claims 24
CHAPTER VI.
-The - . -Scots Musical Museum 60
CHAPTER VII.
- - -Early Scottish Musicians and Engravers 244
-APPENDIX - 261
INDEX ----.-.. 266
INDEX OF COMPARATIVE AND REFERENCE TUNES - 371BIBLIOGRAPHY
OF
MANUSCRIPTS AND PRINTED WORKS
IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.
Dates of those works within Brackets ascertained, andThe have been definitely
those with an Asterisk prefixed are in our possession.
Rowallan Manuscript, circa 1625. 1627-29.Straloch
Skene Manuscripts.
Guthrie Manuscript.
BlaikieLeyden
Hume (Agnes) Manuscript.
*Sinkler (Margaret)
Waterston Manuscript.
M'Parian Manuscript.
"Vox Borealis, or the Northern Discoverie." London, 1641.
Master, 1651.The English Dancing —The Dancing Master, or Directions for
Dancing Country Dances, with the Tunes to each Dance, etc., 1652, 1665,
1670, 1686. By John Playford, London : and later editions by his son and
successors.
New Lessons for the GitternA Booke of : Containing many New and Pleasant
Tunes, both Easie and Delightfull for all Young Practitioners. John
Playford, London, 1652.
Hand-maide presentingMusick's New and Pleasant Lessons for the Virginals.
John Plajrford, London, 1663 and 1678.
Musick's Delight on the Cithren, Restored and Refined to a more Easie and
Pleasant Manner of Playing than formerly : etc. John Playford, London,
1666.
Musick's Recreation on the Viol, Lyra-Way. Being a new Collection of Lessons
Lyi'a-"VVay, etc. John Playford, London, 1669; another edition, John
Playford, London, 1682.
Choice Ayres & Songs to sing to the Theorbo Lute or Bass Viol, Book I. first
edition 1673. Book L 1676. B. 11 1679. B. Ill 1681. B. IV. 1683.
B. V. 1684. John Playford, London.xii BIBLIOaRAPHY.
Cantus, Songs, and Fancies, to several Musicall Parts. Both Apt for Voices and
" Viols, etc. John Forbes, Aberdeen, 1^682.y
Variety New Tunes^ Ayres,*Apollo's Banquet : containing Instructions, and of
Jiggs, and several New Scotch Tunes for the Treble-Violin. To which is
and inadded, The Tunes of the new French Dances, now used at Court
Dancing-Schools. The 5th Edition, with new Additions. John Playford,
London, 1687.
""Collection of Original Scotch-Tunes, (Full of the Highland Humours) for the
Being the First of this Kind yet Printed : Most of them being inViolin :
the Compass of the Flute. Henry Playford, London, 1700.
of the bestWit and Mirth : or Pills to Purge Melancholy ; Being a Collection
Merry Ballads and Songs, Old and New. T. D'Urfey. 6 vols. 1719-1720
(reprint). J. Tonson, London.
Ramsay. Author, Edinburgh, 1720.*Scots Songs. By Allan The
Caledonius, or a Collection of the best Scotch Songs set to Musick by*Orpheus
W. Thomson. The Author, London, n.d. (1725).
Tea-Table Miscellany. Allan Ramsay,Musick for the Scots Songs in the
n.d.Edinburgh,
A Collection of Original Scotch Tunes for the Violin. The whole Pleasant and
London, n.d.Comicall being full of the Highland Humour. John Young,
Beggar's Opera. Written by Mr Gay. John Watts, London, 1728.*The Quaker's J. Roberts, London, 1728
of Choice Songs set to the Violin*The Musical Miscellany ; Being a Collection
Vthe Eminent Masters. John Watts, London, 1729.-Jand Flute. By most
*The Village Opera. Written by Mr Johnson. J. Watts, London, 1729.
*The Cobler's T. Wood, London, 1729.
Being the Second Part of the Beggar's Opera. Written by*Polly, an Opera.
Mr Gay. Thomson, London, 1729.T.
Momus Turn'd Fabulist; or, Vulcan's Wedding. J. Watts, London, 1729.
new 2nd edition.*The Beggar's Wedding. A Opera, By Mr Char. CoflFey.
& John Knapton, London, 1729.Jas.
Collection of the Choicest Scots Tunes adapted for the Harpsicord or Spinnet*A
Violin Adamand within the Compass of the Voice or German Flute. By
Edinburgh, n.d.Craig,
The Chamber Maid a Ballad Opera. J, Watts, London, 1730.
The Lover's Opera. By W. R. Chetwood. J. Watts, London, 1730.
Collection of Scotch, Irish & Welsh Airs for theAria di Camera, being a Choice
Violin and German Flute. By the following Masters. Mr Alexander
Urquahart of Edinburgh Mr Derm'- O'Connar of Limrick. Mr Hugh
Carmarthen. Dan. Wright & Dan. Wright Junr., London,Edwards of
circa 1730.
*The Jovial Crew, a Comic-Opera. J. Watts, London, 1731.
Fair Foundling, a Scotch Ballad Opera.*Patie and Peggy ; or the J. Watts,
London, 1731.
*The Highland Fair : or. Union of the Clans, an Opera written by Mr Mitchell.
1731.J. Watts, London,
Country burial, an Opera. J, Watts, London, 1731.*Silvia; or, the
Flora, an Opera. Lond. 1732.
*Orpheus Caledonius : or, A Collection of Scots Songs. Set to Musick. By
W. Thomson. 2 vols (second edition). Author, London, 1733.
"*The British Musical Miscellany ; or, the Delightful Grove : Being a Collection
of Celebrated English and Scotch Songs, By the Best Masters, Set for the
^v^ Flute, the Common Flute, and Harpsicord. 6 vols,Violin, German J.
Walsh, London, n.d. (1734).
*Caledonian Country Dances. Being a Collection of all the Celebrated Scotch<J^o i^^* o^aC (X.i*^aCtv!,tS*<* « c^'*<r5 Af c<-e.^ S^^. 4»ie'^i tsu^utC 3'J'e-o^T. 1/ -^o ^
^t<'*t-€^ ^y^/cxi^oc*-^*^'ie<<t^. . Z oe>€\./i^c-y ^o -uZH-ui f^ JJ-BIBLIOGRAPHY. xiii
and English Country Dances now in Vogue, with Proper Dix-ections to each
Dance. Perform'd at Court, and Publick Entertainments. For the
Harpsichord, VioHn, Hoboy, or German Flute. J. Walsh, London, n.d.
*The Tea-Table Miscellany : or a Collection of Scots Sangs, etc. The Tenth
Being the Whole that contain'dEdition. are in the Three A^olumes just
Published. By Allan Ramsay. George Risk, Dublin, 1734. Title of
"Third Volume, A Collection of Celebrated Songs."
With*Airs for the Flute a Thorough Bass for the Harpsichord. Alexr. Baillie,
Edinburgh, 1735.
*Calliope or English HarmonyA Collection of the most Celebrated English and
Scots Songs. 2 vols. John Simpson, London, n.d.
Collection Scots Tunes*A Curious of for a Violin Bass Viol or German Flute,
with a Thorough Bass for the Harpsichord, etc. By James Oswald,
Musician in Edinr., n.d, (1740).
*A Collection of Curious Scots Tunes for a Violin German Flute or Harpsichord.
Mr James Oswald. 2 vols.By J. Simpson, London, n.d. (1742).
*A of Scots Tunes some with Variations for a Violin Hautboy or
withGerman Flute a Bass for a Violoncello or Harpsichord. By William
M'Gibbon. Richard Cooper, Edinburgh, 1742, 1746, 1755.
*The Caledonian Pocket Companion. By James Oswald. 12 J.Books.
Simpson, and J. Oswald, London.
and Twelve with•'Twelve Scotch Irish Airs Variations Set for the German
Flute Violin or Harpsichord, by Mr Burk Thumoth. J. London,Simpson,
n.d.
*Twelve English and Twelve Irish Airs with Variations, Set for the German
Flute, Violin or Harpsichord By Mr Burk Thumoth. Book the Second.
J. Simpson, London, n.d.
*A Collection of Old Scots Tunes. With a Bass for Violoncello or Harpsichord.
andSet most humbly Dedicated to the Right Honourable The Lady
Erskine by Francis Barsanti. A. Baillie, & Messrs Hamilton & Kincaid,
Edinr., n.d. (1742).
*Twenty Four Country Dances for the year 1750. Dav, Rutherford, London.
*Country Dances Selected As performed at Court and all Publick Assemblies
and Entertainments. For the Harpsichord, Violin, German Flute, or
Hoboy. J. Walsh, London, n.d.
Songs aThirty Scots for Voice & Harpsichord. The Music taken from the
most genuine Sets extant The Words from Allanj Ramsay. R. Bremner,
Edinburgh, n.d. (1757).
*A Second Set of Scots Songs for a Voice & Harpsichord. R. Bremner, n.d. (1757).
Collection Scots Reels or Country Dances.*A of With a Bass for a Violincello
or Harpsichord. Robert Bremner, Edinburgh, n.d.
*A of 43 Scots Tunes with Variations. Particularly Adapted for the
Violin and Harpsicord. By James Oswald. J. Bland, London, n.d.
Collection of the*A Best old Scotch and English Songs set for the Voice with
Accompaniments and Thorough-Bass for the Harpsichord, etc., Jamesby
Oswald Chamber Composer to His Majesty. J. Oswald, London, n.d.
Compleat Collections of 200 Country Dances 4 volumes published by the
Thompsons London n.d. circa 1758 to 1780.
Country Dances Selected As Perform'd at Court and all Publick Assemblies
and Entertainments, etc. J. Walsh, London, n.d., cir. 1760.
Part I., Vol. 2. Caledonian Country Dances. 4 Books or Volume I., circa
1748. Vol. II. consisted probably of other Books, circa 1760. As it is4
said to have extended to 10 Books, we presume one or both of the latter
were published by J. Walsh's successor, William Randall.BIBLIOGEAPHY.xiv
Airs. For a Violin, German Flute and Violoncello.*rifty Favourite Scotch
Francis Peacock.With a Thorough Bass for the Harpsichord, etc. By
The Publisher, Aberdeen, n.d. (1762).
of Scots Tunes for a Violin or German Flute with a*M'Gibbon's Collection
Bass. Eobt. Bremner, Edinburgh, n.d. (1768).
Adapted for a Voice and Harpsichord. Neil*A Collection of Scots Songs
Edinburgh, n.d.Stewart, (1772).
Words byScots Songs Adapted for a Voice and Harpsichord. The*Thirty
Edinburgh, n.d.Allan Ramsey. N. Stewart & Co.,
Adapted for a Voice and The Words by*Thirty Scots Songs
Allan Ramsey. N. Stewart, Edinburgh, n.d.
Companion. Editions 1772, 1775. Robt.Vocal Music or the Songsters
London, and Selection from the First and Second Volumes.Hoi'slield,
J. Bew, n.d. (1778).
Musician. J. Clark, EdinburghFlores Musicse or the Scots (1773).
twoand Modern Scottish Songs, Heroic Ballads, etc. In volumes.*Ancient
/y^^
Charles Elliot, Edinburgh, 1776.*7 (David Herd). James Dickson and
Music for the Violin Harpsichord or German*A Collection of Ancient Scots
before Printed Consisting of Ports Salutations Marches orFlute. Never
Edinburgh,Pibrachs &c. By Daniel Dow. The Publisher, n.d.
most Favourite Scots Songs Including a*A New & Complete Collection of the
& Irish with proper Graces and Ornaments peculiar to theirfew English
ThoroughCharacter, likewise the new method of Accompanyment of Bass.
Edinbvirgh, n.d.By Sigr Corri. 2 Books. Corri & Suthei-land, (1783).
Reels. With a Bass for the Violoncello or*A Collection of Strathspey
Harpsichord by Alexander M'Glashan. Neil Stewart, Edinburgh, n.d.
(1780).
Reels or Country Dances & Strathspeys. With a*A Choice Collection of Scots
Violincello or Harpsichord. Robert Ross, Edinburgh, n.d.Bass for the
(1780).
With a Bass for the Violoncello or*A Collection of Strathspey Reels.
Composed by Wm. Marshall. Neil Stewart, Edinburgh,Harpsichord.
n.d. (1781).
Allemands Cotillons. And the*A Collection of Scots Measures Hornpipes Jigs
Dances with a Bass for the Violoncello or Harpsichord.fashionable Country
Alexander M'Glashan. N. Stewart, Edinbui-gh, n.d.By (1781).
with Improvements*A Collection of the Newest & best Reels and Minuets;
or German-flute, with a Bass for the Violoncello orAdapted for the Violin
Joshua Campbell. J. Aird, Glasgow, n.d.Harpsichord. By (1779).
*A Collection of Scots Reels Minuets &c. For the Violin, Harpsichord, or
John Riddell in Ayr. Second Edition.German Flute. Composed by
Aird, Glasgow, n.d.James (1782).
Collection of the most Favourite Scots Tunes. With Variations for the*A
Aird, Glasgow,Harpsichord by A. Reinagle. James n.d. (1782).
or Old Highland Reels by Angus Cumming, at*A of Strathspeys
Grantown in Strathspey. James Aird, Glasgow, n.d.
*A Selection of Scotch, English, Irish, and Foreign Airs Adapted to the Fife,
6 vols. James Aird, Glasgow,Violin, or German-Flute. n.d. (1782-1803).
Strathspey Reels for the Violin or Harpsicord. Composed by*Thirty New
Isaac Cooper. James Imlach, Banff, & Rt. Bremner, Edinburgh (1783).
*A Collection of Highland Vocal Airs. Never hitherto published. To which
the most lively Country Dances or Reels, of the Northare added a few of
& Western Isles ; And some specimens of Bagpipe Music. ByHighlands,
Patrick M'Donald. Corri & Sutherland, Edinburgh, n.d. (1784.)
*A Collection of Strathspey Reels with a Bass for the Violoncello or Harpsichord,
^
I/
7».i>LM, Jlrv-^ fl>t^s ^o<.-c^a^Loe^- /YaSF-*"-« 4^u.^A^T*-a. ^'f^dC*c^<H^ ofCeBIBLIOGRAPHY. xv
Dunkeld, n.d. Second Collection, n.d.By Niel Gow at (1784). (1788).etc.
Fourth, n.d. (1800). Fifth, n.d. And SixthThird, n.d. (1792). (1809).
Corri & Sutherland Edinr., The Author at Dunkeld,Collection, (1822).
Gow Son.Gow & Shepherd, & Nathl. &
Magazine, 1785.Edinburgh
Musical Miscellany : a Select Collection of the most approved Scots,*The
set to Music. J. Brown, Perth, 1786,English, & Irish Songs
for the Pianoforte or Harpsichord ; Composed b}' a Gentleman*New Music
(Capt. Robert Riddell), consisting of Reels, Minuets, Hornpipes, Marches
Scotch Taste, with variations five favoriteand two Songs in the Old to
Edinburgh, n.d.Tunes. James Johnson, (1787).
Favourite Collection of Scots Tunes & Highland Airs For the Violin orA
W.German Flute. With a Bass for the Violoncello or Harpsichord. By
Oswald, & others. James Aird, Glasgow, n.d, circa 1787.M'Gibbon, J.
Musical IMuseum. Humbly dedicated to the Catch Club. Instituted*The Scots
at Edinr. June 1771. By James Johnson. 6 vols. Johnson, Edinburgh,
!*",^Sfjo,^i.,9i> '^aj-}n.d. iiihp? ^ /M
or, the Musical Miscellany. A Select Collection of the most^Calliope :
approved English, Scots, and Irish Songs, Set to Music. C. Elliot & T.
'i.t .'*,/. '1788. >. >Kay, London,
Hibernian Muse, a Collection of Irish Airs. Thompsons, London, n.d.The
Selection of the most Favourite Scots Songs chiefly Pastoral. Adapted for*A
for a Violin. Eminentthe Harpsichord, with an Accompaniment By
3 vols. William Napier, London, n.d.Masters, etc.
Selection of Scots Songs Harmonized Improved with Simple and Adapted*A
Graces, etc., by Peter Ui'bani. Author, Edinburgh, n.d
Original Scottish Airs for the Voice, with Introductory*A Select Collection of
Concluding Symphonies and Accompaniments for the Pianoforte, Violin&
& Violoncello. By Pleyel Kozeluch & Haydn. 6 vols. George Thomson,
Edinburgh.
Two Volumes. (Ritson.) J. Johnson, London, 1794.^Scottish Song in
*Dale's Collection of Sixty Favourite Scotch Songs, Adapted for the Voice ix;
Pianoforte or Harpsichord. 3 vols of 60 each. London, n.d.
Music, containing a variety of*A General Collection of the Ancient Irish
Airs never before published, and also the Compositions of ConolanAdmired
and Carolan, etc. Preston & Son, London, n.d. (1796).
Dale's Collection of English Songs. n.d.
of Original Scots Slow Strathspeys and Dances, <tc., by*A Complete Repository'
Niel Gow & Son's, n.d. Part I. Part II. n.d. (1802). Part IIL(1799).
n.d. Part IV. n.d. (1817). Gow k Shepherd, Edinburgh.(1806).
Tunes, Marches, Strathspeys,*A Selection of Irish and Scots consisting of Airs,
&c. Adapted for the Piano forte. Violin, and GermanCountry Dances,
Flute. By John Macpherson Mulhollan. John Hamilton, Edinburgh,
n.d. (1804).
Piano-Forte «fc*A Collection of Strathspeys, Reels, and Irish Jigs, for the
which are added Scots, Irish, & Welch Airs Composed andViolin to
By I. Cooper At Banff. London, Edinburgh, &c., n.d.Selected
The Siller Gun. A Poem in four Cantos by John Mayne, 1808.
Melodies and Vocal Poetry*Albyn's Anthology orA Select Collection of the
Scotland and the Isles. Hitherto unpublished. Collected andpeculiar to
Edinburgh,Arranged By Alexander Campbell, etc. 2 vols. Oliver& Boyd,
1816-18.
peculiar the Highlands of Scotland and the Isles,*The Airs and Melodies to
&c., &c. Edited Captn. S. Eraser. The Editor, Edinburgh, n.d. (1816).by
The Seraph, A Collection of Sacred Music. Button & Whitaker, London, 1818.xvi BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Siller Poem in five Cantos byThe Gun. A John Mayne. Thomas Cadell,
London, 1836.
*Ancient Scotish Melodies, from a Manuscript of the Reign of King'James VL,
etc. By William Dauney, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. Edinburgh, 1838
*The Songs of Scotland Adapted to their Appropriate Melodies. Arranged
with Pianoforte Accompaniments, etc. By G. F. Graham. 3 vols. Wood
Edinburgh, 1848-9.& Co.,
*Illustrations of the Lyric Poetry and Music of Scotland. By the late William
Stenhouse. Originally compiled to accompany the Scots Musical Museum,
Wm. Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh, 1853.etc.
*The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland. AiTanged for the
Piano-Forte. Edited by George Petrie, LL.D., R.H.A., V.P.R.I.A., etc.
H. Gill, Dublin, 1855.M.
*Popular Music of the Olden Time a Collection of Ancient Songs, Ballads, and;
Illustrative of the National MusicDance Tunes, of England, etc. By
William Chappell, F.S.A. 2 vols. Cramer, Beale & Chappell, London,
n.d.
*Ancient Irish Music, comprising One Hundred Airs, hitherto unpublished
of the Old Popular Songs and Several New Songsmany Collected and
Edited. By P. W. Joyce, LL.D., M.R.I.A. M'Glashan and Gill, DubHn,
1873.
Ballad Arranged and Harmonised•Traditional Airs. for the Pianoforte and
Harmonium, from copies procured in the Counties of Aberdeen, Banff, and
Moray, by W. Christie, M.A., and the late Wm. Christie, Monquhitter.
& Douglas, Edinburgh,2 vols. Edmonston 1876, 1881.
*Ancient Music of IrelaxiJ from the Petrie Collection. Arranged for the
Pianoforte by F. Hoffmann. Pigott & Co., Dublin, 1877.
*Biographical Dictionary of Musicians : with a Bibliography of English
Writings on Music. By James D. Brown. Gardner, Paisley & London,
1886.
Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 4 vols. George Grove. London, 1879-89.
Stories of Famous Song, by S, J. Adair Fitzgerald. Ninuno, London, 1897.
"Note.—We have not included in our Bibliography the Crockat MS." so often
quoted by Stenhouse. We have failed to find any trace of it, and
verifyconsequently cannot its contents.
The "Straloch," the "Blaikie," and the "Leyden" have proved
equally unattainable, but in each case we have seen trustworthy
transcripts of at least a portion of the contents.
It would be very desirable to ascertain where these MSS. (if still in
existence) can be found.
In quoting from Authorities, the original spelling has in all cases
been retained.
^^^^%^^^&jgJkH^^— ;
EARLY SCOTTISH MELODIES.
CHAPTER I.
SCOTTISH MELODIES.
Much has been written in the attempt to prove by analysis what are the
characteristic features of Scottish as opposed to English and Irish melody
but, notwithstanding this fact, no^hard and fast rules can be drawn. Some
writers on the subject lay great stress upon scales, and imagine the ancient
the suppositionscale of Scotland to have been pentatonip, relying on that
some instrument five notes, or sounds, formerly in use,possessed only of was
though they have failed to discover any such instrument. Without seeking
to enumerate in detail the musical instruments used in Scotland in early
times, we may state that among the more primitive were the harp, horn,
and pipe or bagpipe. The first of these, i.e. the harp, for some centuries
was strung with twenty-eight or thirty strings, and although it may or
may not have been tuned in accordance with modern methods, it was
at all events capable of producing all the sounds of our diatonic
scale. The horn, again, is tounderstood have been a small instrument
frequently referred to by early historians. It was a wind
instrument, from which— except it were constructed of long dimensions
only two to five or six sounds could be produced. The tones it
emitted, being harmonic, were C G C E G C, which actually meant only
three distinct notes, the C's and G's being repeated in octaves. It was
consequently minus D F A B, the second, fourth, sixth, and seventh
intervals of the present gamut, and therefore could not furnish a pentatonic
scale. The pipe or bagpipe is a reed instrument, and whether it is blown
direct from the mouth, or inflated by means of a bellows, it has a scale of
nine notes, produced like those of other reed instruments by opening the
eight finger holes or ventages with which the pipe or chanter is furnished.
The gamut consists of the following notes, GAB CDEFGA, which
admit of no modification or change kind theof any ; and usual pitch of the
instrument is A major. We do course affirm that itnot of possesses a
ASCOTTISH MELODIES.2 EARLY
orkey, and we may explain that neither of its two G'sperfect scale in any
good ofbe called natural, sharp or flat. The same holdssevenths can
reason why bagpipe mnsic fails to bethird. Whether this be theC, its
not venture to say.universally appreciated we do
admits that he never knew of any instrumentChappell, while he
ofwantinff the fourth or seventh, far less both of these intervalseither
music havemodern scale, hints that the collectors of Scottishthe
their melodies such ancientendeavoured to trace the origin of to some
"The Scotch Highland bagpipe has notinstrument. He further says,
the two sevenths, major and minor, can be pro-only a fourth, but also
upon it." The bagpipe cannot therefore come under the designationduced
tlie imperfect instrument theory,of a pentatonic instrument. In dismissing
f
' Scottish melodies want either the fourth or thewe do not deny that manj
others lack both of these intervals. Theseventh of the scale, and that
still demand an answer:—Were our ancestorsfollowing queries, nevertheless,
any of the intervals of the scale, because on certainincapable of singing
not make use of them ? Can it be asserted that theoccasions they did
inabilityor minor seventh in many compositions sheweduse of the flat
sharp or major interval ?to produce the
characteristics of Scottish music, suchInstead of discussing other
modulations, sequences, andas the employment of uie minor seventh,
point out the reason why the fourthcadences, or closes, we shall rather
the scale were so sparingly used. In ourand seventh intervals of
foundation of the Scottish scale consists of the first,opinion, the basis or
withsixth intervals of the modern gamut, the fiatsecond, third, fifth and
found the trueadded, and we think that here isseventh afterwards
of these intervals. In examiningexplanation of the predominating use
occur, it will be observedScottish airs in which the other two intervals in
passing notes, which could easilymany instances that they are merely
injury to the melody. Another argumentbe dispensed with, without
our old tunes were not intended for fullthat suggests itself is this:
easily accompaniedand the five notes were by aor intricate harmonies,
scale, which we have alreadyThe construction of the bagpipesimple bass.
for the notes itgiven, also accounts for this in some measure ; produces
are better suited to a drone accompaniment.
terminate in intervals other than theirMany of our Scottish tunes
uncouth such tunes may sound in the ears of thosekeynotes, but however
modern or classical music, should they try to alter oraccustomed to
those melodies conform to the general rule, they wouldattempt to make
themselves ridiculous.simply spoil the character of the airs, and make
distinctive features,With even these deviations from ordinary rules and it is
constitutes a genuine Scottishstill a matter of difficulty to prove what
in the nature of Scottish music whichmelody, for there is yet something
which cannot be communicated, expressed, orappeals alone to a Scot, and
defined.i