Partition Volume 2 (F - L), Dictionary of Music et Musicians, Grove, George
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Partition Volume 2 (F - L), Dictionary of Music et Musicians, Grove, George

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856 Pages
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Visionnez les partitions de Dictionary of Music et Musicians Volume 2 (F - L), Dictionaries, de Grove, George. Partition de style de musique romantique.
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Redécouvrez dans le même temps tout un choix de musique sur YouScribe, dans la rubrique Partitions de musique romantique.
Rédacteur: John Alexander Fuller-Maitland (1856–1936)
Edition: London: Macmillan, 1910.

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"^'^^^^^^GROVE'S
DICTIONARY OF MUSIC
AND MUSICIANS
EDITED
FULLER MAITLAND, M.A, F.S.A.J. A.
FIVE VOLUMESIN
VOL. II
MACMILLAN COMPANYTHE
LONDON: & CO., Ltd.
1906
reservedAll rightsCopyright, 190f),
By the :\iacmillan company.
Set up and electrotyped. Published Febniari', ign6.
—J. S. Cashing .^ Co. I'.erwiL'k & Smith Co.
Norwooil, Mass., U.S.A.LIST OF CONTEIBUTOES
The names deceased writers are printed in italicsof
Aldrich, 'E, Esq., New York Times
E. Hebom-Alles, Esq.
G. E. P. Arkwright, Esq.
J. R. Sterndale-Bennett, Esq.
D. J. Blaiklet, Esq. .
J. C. Bridge, Esq., Mus.D.
Mrs. Walter Carr
Edward Chadfield, Esq.
William Ghafpell, Esq., F.S.A.
Alexis Chittt, Esq. .
M. GusTAVE Chouquet, Keeper theof
Musique, Paris
W. W. Cobbett, Esq. .
Arthur Duke Coleridge, Esq.
Frederick Corder, Esq.
Major 0. A. Crawford
W. R. Creighton, Esq.
William H. Cummings, Esq., Mus.D.,
E. Dannreutiier, Esq.
Herr Pa0L David
H. Walford Davies, Mus.D.Esq.,
E. J. Dent, Esq.
L. M'C. L. Dix, Esq. .
Clarence Eddy, Esq.
F. G. Edwards, Esq. .
H. Sutherland Edwards, Esq.
Thomas Elliston", Esq.
Edwin Evans, Esq.
GusTAVE Ferrari, Esq.
W. H. GRATTAN Flood, Esq. .
Rev. W. H. Frere .
Rev. F. W. Galpin .
Nicholas Esq., Mus.B.Gatty,
Dr. Franz Oehring, Vienna .LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Alfred Gibson, Esq. . A. G.
C. L. Graves, Esq. c. l. g.
J. 0. Grippith, Esq. . C. G.J.
Sir George Guove, C.B., D.C.L. G.
H. H"W. Hadow, Esq. . W. H.
H. V. Hamilton, Esq. H, V. H.
Mrs. Robert Harrison B. H.
Rev. Thomas Heluoue, Master the Children the Gha^iels Royal T. H.of of
JV. Henderson, Esq. . W. H.
Arthur F. Hill, Esq. A. r. H.
A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq., F.S.A. J. H.A.
H.Edward John Hopkins, Esq., Mus.D. Organist to the Tem])h E. J.
Rev. Canon T. R Hudson (now Pemberton) . T. r. H.
Francis Hueffer, Esq. F. H.
A. Hughes-Hughes, Esq. A. H.-H.
John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. J. H.
Duncan Hume, Esq. . D. H.
W. Hume, Esq. w.
h"William H. Husk, Esq. H. H.W.
M. HuGUES IMBERT H. I.
F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, U.S.A. P. H. J.
M. Adolphe Jullien . A. J.
Frank Kid<on, Esq. . F. K.
Hermann Klein, Esq. H. K.
E. Krall, Esq. E. K.
H. E. Krehbiel, Esq., New York H. E. K.
M. Maurice Kufferath M. K.
Robin H. Lbgge, Esq. R. H. L.
Rev. Charles Mackeson, F.R.S. C. M.
Maclean, Mus.D.Charles Esq., (art, International Music Society C. M.
')
H. S. Macran, Esq. . H. M.S.
Herr A Maczewski, Kaiserslautern A. M.
Julian Marshall, Esq. J. M.
Mrs. Julian Marshall F. A. M.
Ru^^ell Mabtineau, Esq. R M.
Miss Louisa M. Middleton
. L. M. 31.
Rev. R. MilneJ. J. R. M.
Mrs. Newmarch R. N.
Miss Edith Oldham . E. O.
Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Mus.D., Professor o.
Music in the University of Oxford,
Sir C. Hubert H. Parry, Bart., C.V.O., Mus.D., Professor of Music in
Universitytlie of Oxford, Director of the Royal College H.of Music C. H. P.
Sidney H. Pardon, Esq. ..... H.S. P.
E. J. Payne, Esq. ...... E. J. P.
Pearson, Canon H.Rev. Hugh of IVindsor P.
E.Edward H. Pember, Esq., K.C. .... H. P.LIST OF CONTRIBUTOKS
(formerly Hudson)Rev. Canon T. P. Pemberton T.
Miss Phillimore ....
')Librarian to the Gesellsrhaft il/ltSi' WilliHerr C. Ferdixand Pohl, kfre
Vienna
E. POLONASKI, Esq.
Victor be Poxtigny, E/:q.
Ebenezer Prout, Esq., Slus.D, Professor of Music in the University i
Dublin .
JV. PvLliKGBev.
Esq.IF. S. ROCKSTRO, .
Mus.D.F. G. Shinn, Esq.,
"\V. Barclay Squire, Esq.
Miss C. Stainer
J. F R. Stainer, Esq.
Sir Egbert P. Steivart, Mns. P., Professor Music i the I nirersifiiof
Duhlin .of
rViLLiAii H. Stoxe, Esq., M.JU.
A. Streatfeild, Esq.E.
Franklin Taylor, Esq.
TV. Thayer, Esq, United Stcates Consul, TriesteA.
Bertha Thomas .Miss
Troyte, Esq.C. A. W.
P. G. L. Webb, Esq. .
H. A. Whitehead, Esq.
Mus.D.E. A^AUGHAN Williams, Esq.,
Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse
The EditorLIST OF ILLUSTRxVTlONS
George Frederick Handel . Front spiecc
FACIN(. PAGK
Cesar Fraxck .... 9t;
RoBKRT Franz 104
Etelka Cerster 100
Gewaxdiiau.^, LeirziTt 164
Michael Ivaxovicii Glixka . 180
Willirald, Kutek V(Ciiristoph N Gluck 184
Carl Goldmark 196
Charles Francois Gounod 208
Andre Ernest Moi>este (iREiuY 2.38
GriegEdvard Hagerup 242
GiuLiA Grisi .... 244
George Grove 246
Francois FRoinoNXAL El AS IL\.Li 274Jacques
Franz Joseph ILvydn 348
Louis Joseph Fekdinand IIekold 386
Joseph Jo.a.ciiim .534
Louise KELumiC 562Clara
588The Kneisel Quartet
Orlandus L,\ssus 638
LiLLi Lehmann . 606
734Jenny Find
740Fr.anz Liszt
Pauline Lucca 776DICTIONARY
OF
MUSIC AND MUSICIANS
F
The fourth note of the natural scale, with syllables oftheword 'piangendo,' as shown in the
i"
"^
for its key-signature.B'r> In French and example in the article Madkkjal. w. .s. u.
in solfaing, Fa. D is its relative minor. FABRI, AXNIE.A.LE Pio, Detto Baling, one
The F clef is the bass clef, the sign of which of the most excellent tenors of the 18th century,
is a corruption of that letter. (See Bass Clef was born at Bologna in 1697. Educated
musiand Clef.) cally by the famous Plstocchi, he became the
F minor has a signature of four Hats, and favourite of the Emperor Charles VI., and otherA[>
is its relative major. Princes sought to engage him in their service.
F is the final of the Lydian church mode, He was also a composer, and memljer of the
with for its dominant. Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna receivedC ;
FJI is in German Fis, in French Fa dit^sc. into that society in 1719, he was named its
PrinBeethoven has verymuch favoured tliese keys, cipe, or president, in 1725, 1729, 1745, 1747,
having two (Pastoral ami Englandleft Symphonies No. 8), and 1750. In 1729 he came to and
three String Quartets (tlie first and last, and sang, with Bernacchi, his fellow- pupil under
Kasoumowsky, No. two PF. Sonatas, op. 10, Pistocchi, in Handel's 'Tolemeo,' taking the1),
and op. etc., in F major ; Overture to part of Araspe, formerly sung by Boschi. AsNo. 2, 54,
' Egmont,' Sonata appassionata. Quartet, op. 95, the latter was a bass, the part Avas probably
in F minor. One of Beethoven's notes to Steiner transposed for Fabri for want of a bass to sing
it. In the same year he performed the tenor
' ' 'Lotario, Partenojieis signed part in ' as also in (1730),
and in 'I'oro' and a reprise of 'Rinaldo' (1731),
but we may mention all by the same master. Having been appointedFS is more rarely usetl ;
Haydn's Farewell Symphony ; a PF. Sonata to the Royal Clrapel at Lisbon a few years later,
Beethoven, for wdiich he had a he died there August 12, 1760. .J. M.(op. 78) by
cliarniing Romance FABRICIUS, \Vei!NER anpeculiar affection ; and a (1633-1679),
organist and composer of note, was born Aprilof Schumann's (op. 2S, No. ; also Chopin's2)
and Barcarole, op. 60. 10, 1633, at Itzehoe, Holstein. As a boy heImpromptu, op. 36,
abbreviation forforte. studied music under Iiis father, Albert Faljricius,/'is the usual
organist in Flensburg, and Paul Motli, theThe holes iu the belly of the violin are called
their shape. o. Cantor there. He went to the Gymnasium inthe holes fromf
system of Guido Hamburg, where Thomas Selle and HeinricliFA FICTUM. In the
He.rachor- Scheidemann were his teachers in nmsic.the third sound in the Ind'Arezzo, B;,
was called B mi and Br?, the 1650 he went to the Leipzig University, study-cluin natiirale, ;
Hexaclwrdxim inollc, B fa. ing philosophy, theology, and law in the latterfourth sound in the ;
fully 'Notar. wasfa could not be expressed with- he became a (lualified ' HeAnd, because B
sign (B rotimdvm) it was appointed Musik-Director ofthe Pauiinerkirche,out the accidental
For this Leipzig, in 1656, and in 1658 was also appointedFa fictum. [See Hexachord.]called
to tlie Nicolaikirche. Although hePolyphonic Composers applied the organistreason, the
note wlienevcr it tried for the post of Cantor to the Thoniaikircheterm Fa fictum to the Bb,
JIarch he was not elected. He wasintroduced, by means of the accidental sign, in 1658,was
one son survived him,at its natural pitch and, by married July 3, 1665, andinto a mode sung ;
represented the same Joliann Albert Faliricius. He died Jan.to the E'-> which 9,analogy,
at Leipzig, forty-five years old, accordingtransposed modes. Tlie Fa 1679,interval in the
with characteristic effect, to the contemporar}^ account of him in Miisicais introduced,fictum
' Davidica, oder Darids Musik, hei der Leichhe-Gloria Patri ' of Tallis's five-part Re-in the
cles . . . Herrn JFcrneri FaJ)ricii . . .second syllable of the word stattuiKisponses, at the
Niralaiimexample of its employ- diircJi Jail. TJrlane, ad S. Ealesiaste.'withoi/i' and a fine
;
will he (See Manalshrffe fur iLusihjeschichte, 1875,of the transposed E':>ment in the form
' Eitner {(.Juellcn-Lcxikon) corrects tlieArcliadelt's JIadrigal, U p. 180.)found in Giaches
second and third 1 date of death, however, to April 9, 1679.bianco e dolee oigno,' at the
IS BVOL. II— — ; '
FABRITIUS FACCIO
1^>
: i,List of works Five motets from this work, Xos. 1,
1. Deliciae BodensehatzHarinonicae oder musilvalisclie GemUths-Ergtitzung;, the24, and 25, -ivere included in
von allerhard Paduanen, Aleinanden, (Jouranten. Balletten,
Sara' Lijisiae,cant. 'banden, von 5 Stiinineii nebeiist ihrein Eaaso Continuo, Collection Florilegium select,auff Violea
und andernlnstrumenten fQglicheiizugebrauchen. Leipzig. Joh. fourvoices,1618. A motet for1803, andagain inBauem. 16.36. 4to. &4 compositions. Four part-booka (the Basaua
missing) thein Upsala Library. ' ' is inFabricius,'Estote fortes in bello,' by
2. Trauer- Trost- Nahniens Ode, dem , . . Herm Joh. Bauern . . .
LassusQber dera allzufrilzeitigen Abachiede Ihrea ' Orlandide
. . . Sohnleina David Theatrimusicae, selectissimae
welches . . . den28 Feb. 1650, entachlafen . . . infolgeiide
Melodey
IVolfen' (Vogel. Cat.gesetzt vonWeraero Fabricio. Text : I>u Blutvon unserem Blute," etc. Lib. 2, 1580, No. 7
for five voices, in suore. Leipzig, folio sheet,
hiittcl Herzogl. Bibliothek).Gedoppelte Frlllinga Lust , . . bey erfrealichen Hochzeits-Feste
des . . . Eerrn Sigis. Rnperti Siiltzbergers six
. . . den 15 Ap. 1656. mentions{Qudlen-Lcurikon)MSS.—Eitner
In einer Arie entivurffen von Werriero Fabricio Holsato. Druckts.
'
' one,Quirin Bauch. Text ; Schoner FrUhling lassdich kiisaen,' in score, Bibl. MS. 775, andmotets in the Proske
folio sheet. Both in the Zwickau Katsschulbibl.
' Sac),F.'s Cant.sacrum convivium (Xo. 2 in A.3. E. C. Homburga geistUcher Lieder erater Theil, mit
zweystimmigenMelod^^yengeziehretvonW.F., Jetziger ZeitMusik-Directoren 89mus. <\_.KSnigl. Bibl. JIS.in the Dresdenin der Paulirierkirchen zu Leipzig. Jena. Sengenwulden.Georg
1659. 8vo, pp. 526. Contains 100 melodies with figured bass
a-f. Xo. 37.
Zahn gives 23 of them which became part of the church song. In
• Bohns(seethe Augsburg Sta<itbibl. etc. Breslau StadtbibliothekIn the
Weroeri Fabricii4. Holsati NiotariusI P(ublicufl) C(ae3areu3| cover 1580),18 (dated onAcademiae & ad D. Nicotai Lipsieiisium musici, Cat.) the MSS. 15,Geistliche Arieii,
Dialogen und Concerten, ao zu Heiliguug hoher Fest-Tagen mit 4, ' quam fecitest diesand 30 contain Haeo
5, 6, und8 Vocal-Stimmen aanipt ihrera gedoppelteo Basso continuo,
of_theauffunterschiedliche Arten, nebat allerhaiid Instrumenten fiiglich fourteenfor six voices; andDominus'
kiintien gebraucht und rausicirt werden. Leipzig, Joh. Bauern.
8,1662- 4to. Contains complimentary Latin Cant. Sac., Xos. 1, 3, 4, 7,verseaaddreeaed tohim motets in A. F.'s
by the aged Heinrich Schlitz. Six compositions. Nine part-books and16, 23, 24,13 (two copies), 14, 15,in the British Museum, etc. 11, 12,
'5. Vier-stimmige Motette; 'Vater indeine Hiinde . . . auf Herrn
' (Xo. Cant. Sac.)25. Non vos relinquam' 4,
Wentzel Buhlens Namens-Tage. Leipzig, 167L 4to.
6. Werneri Fabricii Manudactio zuiri bestehend aua MS. 53,General Bass Zwickau Eatssehulbibl.is also in the
lauter Exemi>eln. Leipzig. 1675. This work is mentioned in
libraryCat.) In theMattheson'a Grmfe General Bass SchuZe, 1".'J1, p. 13. Xo. 78 (see Vollhardt's
7. Werneri Fabricii, ehemaligen Organisten zu St. Xicolai in twenty-six motets forFreiberg, Saxony, areatLeipzig. Unterricht, ^ie man ein nea Oi-gelwerk, obs gut und
beatandig sey, nach alien Stiicken, in- mid auswendig ewiminireu those pub-1-25 the same assix voices, K'os.Bnd 80 viel moglich, probiren soil. Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1756.
placed1vol. 8vo. pp.87. Nopreface ordedication. In British Museum, etc. Sac. 1595, andlished in A. F.'s Cant.
It is curious that this work should have been published nearly 80
' Quam pulchra esafter Fabricius'a death, for earlier is known. has same order : N"o. 26,years no edition It in the
been suggested that the date is a misprint for 1656. but the title
'eantiei), is also headed Albini Fabricii(Cant,states 'formerly organist of S, Nicolas, Leipzig,' and he held that
post until his death. Aeltere ihisikalicn). c. s.a 6 vocib.' (see Kade's
1840,His music is also to be found in : atFACCIO, Fkanco, born March 8, i
1. Passionale Melicura . . . Martino Jane, GiirHtz, 1663. Three whoparents in liumble circumstances,"\'erona, of
melodies.
. . Praxis pietatismelica. Frankfurt.2. JohannCrilgers . 1676 of the necessaries ofdeprived themselves almost
1693 editions. Six melodies with figured biiag.and
musical educa-3. NUrnbergisches Gesangbuch. 1676, 1677, and 1690 editions. life ill order to give their son a
rive melodies Tvith figured bass, from the GeUtliche Lieder of
Xov. 1855 he entered the Conserva-tion. InHomburg, 1659.
Geiatlicher Harffen-Kl.ing aui zehen aeyten , . . Job. Quirs-4. remarkabletorio of Milan, where he made
lelden Leipzig. 1679. Five melodies.
5. Muaikalischer Vorschmack . . . von PeterSuhren. Hamburg. progress in composition under Eonchetti. An
1683. One melody with figured bass.
Gesangbuch. 1686 and 16&4 editions : one was played at one of the6. Liineburgiscbes overture by him
melody. 1695 and 1702 editions : two melodies.
followingstudents' concerts in 1860. In the7. Das grosse Cantional oder: Kirchen-GesangbuL'h, Darmstadt,
1687. Three melodies. year he left the institution, and on Xov. 10,
8. Choral Gesangbuch . . , von Daniel Speeren, Stuttgart. 1692.
melodies.Three 1863, he had the good fortune to have a
three9. Meiningeni.?ches Gesangbuch. Editio 3 and 4, 1693 and 1G97.
Two melodies with figured baas. act opera, I Profughi Fiamminghi,' performed
melody.10. Darmetadtiaches 1699. One
work,Cantiques Ppirituels. 5^me edition. Frankfort. 1702. One at La Scala. Before this a remarkable11.
with figured bass.melody written in collaboration with his friend Boito,
12. Konig's Liederschatz. 1738. Eight melodies.
Wiuterfeld {Dcr evang. Kirchejigexanj. 11. Musikbeilage, Nos. and entitled 'Le Sorelle d' Italia,' had been
pertwo best-known chorales from the 16.59173-4) repiinted of Fabricius's
' 'Geiitliche Lied^^ : Lasst uns jauchzen ' and Jesus du, du bleibst,' formed at the Conservatorio. [See vol. i.
part with figured bass. In the Upsala Library, in Gust;tfvoice
354 a.] The same friend, for whom he hadDliben's Collection of 'Motetti e Concerti, Libro 5,' 1665, are two p.
compositions by W. Fabricius. Eitner (Qv-ellen-Lexiko?!) gives the
' formed a warm attachment during the time ofin the BerlinKonigl. Bibl. MS. Z. 40. No. 2 LieblichfollowingMSS:
'und schone aein.'and No. 4 Herr. weun ich nur dich habe,'both for their studentship, wrote him the libretto of
voices.eight f q
' whichAmleto, ' was given with success at the
FABRITIUS (Fabricius), Albixus (fl.
1580Teatro Carlo Fenice, at Genoa, on May 186530,
is said to have lived in Gi'irlitz, Prussia.1595), (not at Florence, as Pougin states), but which
The one work known of hig was published at
was unfavourably received at the Scala in Feb.
Gratz, Styria(Steiermark),inAustria : *Cantiones
1871. In 1866 he fought, together with Boito,
sacrae sex vocum iani priTnura lucem aspicientes.
in the Garibaldian army, and in 1867-68
underAuthore Albino Fabritio. Graecii, quae est
took a tour in Scandinavia. A sympihony in F
metropolis Styriae, excudebat Georgius
AVid1S68dates from about this time. In July he
manstadius.' 1595. Obi. 4to. Twenty-five
succeeded Croff of harmonyas professor in the
motets. Six part-books in WolfenbiittelHerzogl.
Conser^'atorio. and after acquiring great
exBibliothek.
perience as a conductor at the Teatro Carcano,
Contents:!. Gaudentin cnelia
; 2. Osacinm convivinm ; ;i. Qnare
at La Scala. Atristis ea anima 4. Non vog relinqmim was made Cantata
; ; 5. Hodie rex coek.rnm ;
6. AveRegina; 7. Salvpfesta flie^ ; 8. ChristusresurgenB
; 9. Anre.-i in 1d' inaugurazione was performed 884, and two
Jux roseo: 10. Tu solis qui fati? ; 11. Scio quod redemptor ; 12.
Cantate Domino ; 13. Hodie ChriBtii.'' natus : 14. Sie praeeen-t PeuR been
; sets of songs by him have published bv
levavi Ifi.15. Ad te ; Convertisti planctum ; 17. Vulnerasti cor
meunj 18. Exultet omnium 1 .and Eiemann. Pougin eives the date as 1841.
: : 19. A^cendit Deus ; 20. Alinaiedem- PaloBchi Various
di ilUct-no supportptoris 21. Sancta Maria ; 22. Levavi oeuloH rneoB 2.1. articlea in the Gaziena niusicale either
; : EenedictUH date
PeUB; 24. Ileua cantieuni novum 2."i. Exaudiat te Dominiis. indifferently
;——
FACKELTANZ FALCON
Ricordi. Faccio held an important position before this the University ofTubingen bestowed
among the advanced musicians of Italy, and as a upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in
composer his workscommand attention 'by their recognition of the value of his Beitrage zum
originality. It was, however, as a conductor Geschichte der Claviersonate, ' an important
that he made his greatest success, and he was contribution to the musical jieriodical Cdcilia
rightly considered as the greatest Italian con- and the title ofProfessorwas given him a(1846),
ductor of his time. He directed the first Euro- few years afterwards. In 1865 he was appointed
pean performance of Verdi's 'Aida' in 1872, and organist of the Stiftskirche, and received a prize
'
'the production of his Otello in '18S7, both at for his choral work Gesang im Griinen' at the
Milan. He visited England and conducted the choral festival in Dresden. His setting of
Schil'
' ' 'performances of Otello at the Lyceum Tlieatre ler's Macht des Gesanges was eiiually
successin July 1SS9 and died at
; the Biffl Sanatorium, ful in the following year with the Schlesische
Monza, July 23, 1891. M. Sangerbund, and a cantata 'Des Scingers
WiederFACKELTANZ, or Marche aiix flambeaux, kehr ' has been frequently performed. His
a torchlight procession—a .survival from the compositions are almost entirely confined to
medieval tournaments—which takes place at church music and choral compositions. Sevei'al
some of the German Courts on occasion of the quartets for male voices, and organ pieces were
marriage of members of the royal family. The published collectively, and the Lebert and Stark
'procession 'has to march round the court or Pianoforteschule contains a double fugue by
hall, with various intricate ceremonies (Times, him. AVith the latter he published in 1880 an
'Feb. The music19,1878). —for military band Elementar- und Chorgesangschule, ' which has
ais Polonaise, usually with a loud first and last considerable value. He undertook the editing
part, and a soft trio. Meyerbeer wrote four of tire great edition of Beethoven's pianoforte
one for the marriage of the Princess Royal (the sonatas witli Lebert, for the firm of Cotta, for
Empress Frederick), (Jan. 25, 1858). Spontini, which edition A'on Blilow edited the sonatas
Flotow, and others, have also written them. from op. 53 onwards. Faisst died at Stuttgart,
See also Tattoo. g. June 5, 1894. M.
FAGOTTO. The Italianname for theBassoon, FA-LA. A ]iiece of vocal music for three
obviously arising from its resemblance to a faggot or more voices, originally set wholly or in part
or bundle of sticks. The Germans have adopted to these two syllables. Fa-lassol-fa. belong
it as Fagott. [See B.issooN.] w. h. s. essentially to the madrigalian era, most of the
FAIGNIENT, 'Sot, a Belgian composer of composers of which have left specimens of tliem.
the 16th century, concerning whose life nothing They are said to be the invention of Gastoldi di
known.is His first book of Chansons, Mudri- Caravaggio—iftheutteranceofmusicalsoundson
<ۥgales Moteiz a Qtiatre, Cineq it Six Parties, unmeaning syllables can be called an invention.
'Noiiuclleynent coDiposeespar Noe Faignient, was Many of his balletti, ' like many of the Ballets
fivepublished at Antwerp in 2iart-books in 1568 of Jlorley—such as 'Now is the month
ofMay;
Yonge's Musiea Transalpina (1588) contains ing'—end with a lengthened Fa-la. A 4-])art
'twomadrigals, and thirty-two othercomjtositions song known as The AVaitts,' by an English
are noted in Eitner's Bihl, d. Masik$ammelwer]<:e, Jeremiah Savile, whollycomposer set on tliose
(Quellen-Lexikon syllables, is probably the most popular Fa-la in
.)
FAISST, Immanuel Gottlob Friedeich, existence. .i. h.
Esslingen in AVlirtemberg,born Oct. 13, 1823, at FALCON", Makie Cokxi^lte, born Jan. 28,
was sent to the seminary at Schiintlial in 1836, 1812, eitlier at Paris or at Moiestier near L&
and in 1840 to Tubingen, in order to study Puy, received vocal instruction at the
Conservatheology ; but his musical talents, which had toire from Henri, Pellegrini, and Bordogni, and
J^reviously shown themselves in the direction of learnt dramatic action fronr Nourrit she gained
;
gi'eat piroficiency on the organ, were too strong, in 1830-31 first prizes for vocalisation and
and, although he received no direct musical in- singing. On July 20, 1832, she made her debut
'struction worth mentioning, he had made such at the Optera as Alice in Robert,' Avith brilliant
'progress in composition by 1844 that when he success. Her acting, intelligence, and
self-posand showed productionswent to Berlin his to session give us promise of an excellent actress.
Mendelssohn, tliat master advised liim to work In stature tall enough to suit all the operatic
rather than attach himself heroines, face, great play of feature.by himself to any a pretty . . .
teacher. In 1846 Ire appeared in })ublic as an Her Axdce is a well-defined sojtrano, more than
organ player in many German towns, and finally two octaves in compass, and resounding equally
'took abode in Stuttgart. Here in 184 7 he with the same power (Castil-Blaze). She re-up his
founded an organ school and a society for the mained there until 1838, when ill-health and
church music. He undertook the direc- loss of voice compelled her to leave for Italy.study of
societies, and in included DonnaAnna on produc-tion of several choral 1857 took Her parts the
'a prominent part in the foundation of the Con- tion of Don Juan,' March 10, 1834 Julie in
;
'
'servatorium, to the management of which he La Yestale at Nourrit's benefit May 18343,
;
' ' 'was appointed two years later. Some time the heroines in Moise and Siege de Corinthe.''
FAMITSINFALSE RELATION
alsoShe created the parts of Mrs. Ankarstroem
'('Gustave IIL'), JMorgiana in Chcrubini's Ali
13aba, Rachel (' '),
' La Juive Valentine ('
Huguenots '), the last two her best parts, the
heroine
inter' notes which arein Louise Bertin's Esmeralda,' and treatment ofLeonor in And the
' ' diatonic chordsISTiedermeyer's chromatic andStradella. ' Richly endowed by changeable in
between aequally free, asnature, beautiful, possessing a splendid the same key isvoice, in
chord of the augmentedgreat intelligence, and profound note of thedramatic feel- chromatic
discord.diatonicing, she made every year remarkable by her sixth and a succeeding
progress ami Ijy the development of her talent.
(Fetis. After an) absence of two years, and d=S^M^ -S=under the impression that her voice was restored,
1
,'
i
on JIarcli 14, 1840, she reappeared at a benefit
given furthermodifiedbysomanyexceptionson her behalf in the first two acts of isThe rule
' if the cases in whichLa Juive, ' and in the fourth act of the almost doubtfulthat it is
fe\\er than'Huguenots.' But her objectionable are notvoice had completely the effect is
r.c. H. H.gone, and it was with difficulty she could get those in which it is not.
of both men andthrough the first part—indeed she fainted in FALSETTO. The voices
in thethe arms of Duprez. —or, as defined(Clement, Histoire de women contain two
Conserraioire de Musiqiic,jVusique, p. 749.) After this she retired alto- Methode du Chant du
(voce di 2>elto)getlier from the Opera, where her name still registers, viz. chest voice ;three—
which, assurvi\'es to designate dramatic soprano parts. di testa ; and a thirdhead voice (r. )
is called by ItaliansMme. Falcon afterwards married M. Malan90n. being forced or non-natural,
'false' voice.She made a single appearance as late as /((/sc«o OTfausset, or1891, and French
fixed. Inand died Feb. these are by no means26, 1897. A. c. The limits of
can be produced inFALSE RELATION" is the occurrence of every voice identical notes
register canchromatic contradiction in different parts or more ways than one, and thus each
normalvoices, either in many degrees beyond itssimultaneously, as at (a), or be extended
impossilde for a singerchords which are so near together that the effect limits. But it is all but
in workingof one has not passed from the mind before the to keep both first and third registers
otliercomes The male counter-tenor,to contradict it withanewaccidental, order at the same time.
entirely falsetto, and isas at (i). or alto voice, is almost
^^^ ^jj
pronun-generally accompanied by an imperfect
usually partaking more orciation, the vowelstp:±!—
Italian (/ or English oo,less of the quality of theIp*^^
v-hich the falsetto seems to be most easilyon
piroducible.
The disagreeable effect is produced by con-the
The earliest mention of the falsetto in musical
accidentals belongingtradictory to difi'erentkeys,
reference to the Sistine Chapel,Europe is in
or unequivocally to major or minor of the same
gifted with thiswhere Spaniards exceptionally
key and it follows that when contradiction
; the
voice preceded that artificial class towhom from
between notes whichis can coexist in the same
the 16th century until the 19tli alto and even
keytheefl'ect isnotdisagreeable. Thuschromatic
soprano parts have been assigned. [The falsetto
piassing notes and appoggiaturas do not affect
voice has more recently been restored to its old
the key, and arc used without consideration of
the Sistine Roman choirs.] .j. H.place in andother
their apparent contradictions. Schumann uses
FALSTAFF. 1. A comic Italian opera in
the sharp and natural of the same note in the
' two acts words by IMaggioni, music by Balfe.
;
'same chord in his Andante und Variationeu
Produced atHerMajesty'sTheatre, July 19, 1838.
for two pianofortes, op. 46 (f«), and Haydn the
2. Verdi's last opera is in three acts, is set to
in his Quartet in D, (b).same op. 71
a libretto by Boito, and was produced at the
(") ('') Scala, Milan, on Feb. 9, 1893 ; at Covent
Garden, :\lay 19, 1894. See Merry Wives.
FAMITSIN (F.\MiN-Tsi.N-), Alexander Ser-^P^S
GEivicH, of aristocratic descent, was born at
was educatedKalouga, Oct. 24 (O.S.), 1841. He
in St. Petersburg, and on leaving the Unii'ersity
spent two years in Leipzig, where he studied
Kichter, andAgain, notes wliich are variable in the minor key theory under Hauptniann,
Moshedo not produce any objectionable efi'ect by their cheles. On his return to Russia wasappointed
juxtaposition, history and estheticsas the minor 7th descending and jirofessor of musical at
Conservatoire. Heresignedinthe major 7th ascending or stationary thus the newdy-openeii
;
'
' himself toMendelssohn in the Overture in order to devote composition.to Ruy Bias has 1872,
made notorious byBb and Bj in alternate chords. As a critic he his— —
FANCIES FANFAKE
attacks iijion tlic new national school of music.
Famitsin composed two weak but pretentious v!^-^
operas '
: Sardaiiapalus, gii-en
' in St. Petersburg
in 1S75, but with so little success that he made -0-0. .0^. .0.0. ad nil. h
no effort to 'produce his second opera, Uriel
Acosta.' His instrumental works include three
quartets, a pianoforte 'cjuintet, and a Russian
Rhapsody violin
' for and orchestra. Two
'books of Songs for Russian Children' have
outlived his more ambitious attempts. As a
musical antiquary lie did his best work in the
ren>i»rt:e=following publications : liussian iluimncrs and
5":55^-?tfEfE
Glee-nun (1SS9) TJie
; AneientIndo-Chinese Scale
in Europe and Asia, and its appearance in the
.J J^
Paissian Folk-Songs (1890); The Gusslce : a
Eussian National Instrument and(1890) ; The ^^*«.'i-Berase. E5/IiombraandKindredInstrumenls{lS9l).
Famitsin died at St. Petersburg, Julv 6, 1S96. R. x.
F^P:^?:FANCIES, i.—or FANTASIES", the old English
name for Fantasia, which see. In the various
collections catalogued under the head of
ViKGINAL Music all three w-ords occur. The name The rliythm of the castanets was
seems to have been confined to original
compositions as opposed to those which were written
rupon a given subject or upon a ground. Sir
I I
Hubert Parry made the Fancy the subject of one—of his lectures 'Neglected By-ways Mozart's versionin JIusic' is known and accessible
;
—at the Royal Institution in 1900 rejiorted in Gluck's will he found in the Appendix to Jahn's
;
the Musical Times for 247. Mo-art.1900, p. M.
FANDANGO. An Andalusian There is adance, a curious piece of history said to lie
variety of the Seguidilla, accompanied by the connected with this dance. S(JOn after its first
guitar and castanets. In its original form introduction, in the 17th centurv, it ^^•a9 con-the
fandango was in 6—8 time, ofslow demned by the ecclesiastical S]iaintempo, mostly authorities in
in the minor, with a trio in the major some- as a 'godless dance.' Just as the Consistory
;
times, however, the whole was in a major key. were about to ja'ohibit it, one of the judges
Laterit took the3-4 tempo, and remarked that it \\'as not fairthecharacteristic to condemn any
one unheard. Two celelirated dancers were
Spanish rhythm In this accordingly introduced to perl'orm the fandangoj j^
before the Consistory. This they did with suchshape it closely resembles the seguidilla and
effect, that, according to the old chronicler,bolero. One Fandango tuneisgiven b}^ Ha^\kins
' every one joined in, and the hall of the con-(Appendix, No. 33). Another has been rendered
sistorium was turned into a dancing saloon.'famous through its partial adoption by both
No more was heard of condemnationthe of theGluck and ilozart—tlie former in his Ballet of
' ' ' fandango.Don Juan,' the latter in Figaro (end of Act
Similar dances to the fandango are thegiven3). It is in its Spanish form by Dohrn
TiK.-VNA, the the Jota Aragonesa.Polo, andin the Xcue Zeitsclrrift Musik (xi. 163, as7)f.
E. r.follows :
AiuUndi. FANFARE. A French term of unknown
tr. . origin perliapsperhaps Moorish, onomatopicic—
—denotes in strictness a short jiassage for
trumpets, such as is performed at coronations and
other state ceremonies. 1. In England tliey are
liyknoAvn as 'Flourishes,' and are pla^'cd the
Trumpeters of His Slajesty's Housejiold Ca^'alry
playingto the number of eight, all in unison on
E'[> trumpets without vah'es. The following,
beliei-ed to date from the reign of Charles II.,
is the Flourish regulaily used at the opening
of Parliament, and was also performed at the
announcement of the close of the Crimean \\nv,
the visit of Queen Victoria and the Prince of
"Wales to St. Paul's after the Prince's recovery,
— —i ^ 1—^1—^ ^»* '- 3—— I other occasions :and on'' ,
FANING FANTASIA
'The Head ofand another,Theatre in 1881,
EntertainmentReedthe Poll,' at the German
occu--^^m^^^^ Mr. Faning1882. At the same datein
ofConductorProfessor andpied the posts of
School,Trainingthe ChoralClass at theNational
Guildhallthethe Pianoforte atand Professor of
resignedlatter post heSchool of Music ; the
Directorappointedin July 1885, when he was
[He tilled thisHarrow School.of the Music at
musicaland importantpost with much credit,
He ex-when he retired.results, until 1901,
of the R.A.M.Associated Boardamined for the
in 1901.]in South Africa2. So picturesque and effective a feature as the and the R.C.M.
MusicRoyal College ofFanfare has not From the opening of thebeen neglected by Opera
comPianoforte andJuly 1885 he taught theposers. No one who has heard it can forget the until
conducteduntil Easter 1887 alsoeffect of the two flourishes announcing the arrival Harmony, and
' that institution. For aof the Choral Class atGovernor in Fidelio, ' both in the opera the
'conducted a Selectmany seasons heand in the two earlier overtures. True to the good
Boosey's Ballad Concerts.fact, Beethoven has written it in unison (in the Choir' at Messrs.
time conductor of theopera and the later overture earlier Mr. Faning was for somein Bb, in the
the MadrigalMale Voice Club, and ofoverture in Eb, with triplets). Other com- London
the degree of Mus.B. atposers, not so conscientious as he, have given Society. [He took
of Mus.D. in 1900.in addition Cambridge in 1894, andthem harmony, sometimes with the
' last his exercise was a mass in Bofhorns and trombones. See Spontini's Olym- For this
'
' compositions include twooperettas,pic Meyerbeer's Struensee,' Act 2; Am- minor. His
; ]
' two quartets, an over-more. A a symphony in C minor,broise Thomas's Hamlet, ' and many
' Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis for fullgood example is that in Tannhauser, ' which ture, a
(performed at St. Paul's at the Festivalforms the basis of the march. It is for three orchestra
of the Sons of the Clergy), besides anthems,Trumpets in B. — songs, duets, and part-songs, among which theWeber has left a short one ' hUiner Tusch
' Vikings,' for four-part chorus with—for twenty Trumpets in C (.Jahns's Thematic Song of the
a). [Tusch.] pianoforte duet accompaniment, has attainedCat. No. 47
wide popularity. [An interesting article on3. The word is also employed in a general
sense for any short prominent passage of the Faning appeared in the Musical Times for 1901,
that of the Trumpets and Trom- 513.] w. B. s.brass, such as p.
FANISKA. Cherubini's twenty-first operabones (with the wood wind also) near the end
;
of the fourth movement in Schumann's E'[> Sym- in three acts ; words by Sonnleithner from the
the whole wind band in the open- French. ProducedattheKarnthnerthorTheatrephony ; or of
ing AndaMte of tlie Reformation Symphony. G. Vienna, Feb. 25, 1806.
FANING, Eaton, the son of a professor FANTASIA is a term of very respectable
in Cornwall, antiquity as applied to music, for it seemsof music, was born at Helston to be
May 20, 1850. He received his first instruction sufficiently established by both Burney and
the piano-forte and violin from his parents, Hawkins in their Histories that it was the im-on
and performed at local concerts before he was mediate predecessor of the term Sonata, and
five years old. In April 1870, he entered the shares with the term RiCERCAR the honour of
Academy of llusic, where he studied under having been the first title givenRoyal to compositions
Steggall,Sir W. Sterndale Bennett, Dr. Signor expressly for instruments alone. It seems itself
Oiabatta, andMessrs. Sullivan, Jewson, Aylward, to have been a descendant of the madrigal for
;
successivelyand Pettit, and carried off the when madrigals, accompanied as they conmionly
bronze medal (1871), silver medal for the Piano- were by instruments playing the same parts with
Mendelssohn Scholarship the voices,forte (1872), (1873), had to a certain extent run their
bronze medal for Harmony (1874), and the course as the most popular form of chamber
Lucas silver medal for Composition In compositions, the possibility(1876). of the instruments
Mr. Faning was appointed1874 Sub-Professor of playing the same kind of nuisic without the
Harmony, in 1877 Assistant-Professor of the voices was not far to seek. Hawkins remarks
'abounded inPianoforte, and Associate, and in 1878 Professor that the early Fantasias fugues
of the Pianoforte. He also played the violon- and little responsive passages and all those other
and drums observable in the structure andcello in the orchestra. On July 18, elegances
conmadrigal.' They were1877, Mr. Faning's operetta, 'The Two Majors, trivance of the written
instruments,was performed at the Royal Academy, which for combinations of various such as
'
' 'Chest of Viols,' and even for five Cornetsevent led to the establishment of the Operatic a
There are examples of this kindClass at the institution. A comic operetta, (Zinken). by
composers, andvery ancient English some'Mock Turtles,' was produced at the Savoy also' '' — '
FAEANDOLEFANTASIESTUCK
for the Virginals by Byrd and Gibbons in fahrende. A still more unlikely derivation has
Parthenia, Numerous examples by these and been suggested from cjidXay^the Greek and
other composers of notably Giles 5oC\os, because thethe time, dancers in the Farandole are
linkedFarnaby and Peter Phillips, occur in the Fitz- together in a long chain. The dance is
wiUiam Vinjinal Book. Dr. Burney qnotes very probably of Greek origin, and seems to be a
Simpson's Compendium intent that in direct descendant ofto the the Cranes' Dance, the
in' ventionthe year 1667 this style of music was much of which was ascribed to Theseus, who
neglected because of the scarcit}' of auditors instituted it to celebrate his escape from the
that understand it, Labyrinth. Thistheir ears being more de- dance is alluded to at the end
oflighted with light and airy music. the hynm to Delos of Callimachus is still
: it
In the works of Bach there are a great number danced in Greece and the islands of the iEgean,
Fantasias both and may wellof as separate works and as the have been introducedintotheSouth
of Francefirst movement to a Suite, or conjoined with a from Marseilles. The Farandole
conFugue. In the latter capacity are two of the sists of a long string of young men and women,
finest Fantasias in in sometimes as manyexistence, namely that as a hundred in number,
' holdingA minor called Grosse Fantasie und Fuga one anotherby the hands, or ribbonsby or
(B.-G. xxxvi. and that in D minor, handkerchiefs. The leaderp. 81), is always a bachelor,
'commonly known and he is precededas the Fantasia cromatica by one or more musicians
playingi^B.-G. xxxvi. Among his organ works the galoubet, i.e. a small wooden fliite-p. 71).
also there are some splendid specimens, such as a-bec, and the tanibourin. [See Tameoukin.]
Fuga 'With his left handFantasia et inG minor (B.-G. xv. p. 177), the leader holds the hand
of hisand a Fantasia of considerable length in G partner, in his right he waves a flag,
major, constituting a complete work in itself handkerchief, or ribbon, which serves as a signal
xxxviii. for his followers. As{B.-G. p. 75). Among the works of the Farandole proceeds
through the streetshis sons and other contemporaneous German of the town the string of
masters are also many specimens of Fantasias. dancers is constantly recruitedby freshadditions.
'move- The leader (to quoteSome of them are very curious, as the last the poet Mistral) makes
it comeand go,turnment of a Sonata in F minor by Philip Emanuel backwards and forwards . . .
'Bach, published in Eoitzsch's Alte Klavier sometimes he forms it into a ring, sometimes
which the division winds it in a spiral, then he breaksMusik,' in the greater part of off from his
followers and danceshy bars is entirely dispensed with ; and thesame in front, then he joins on
again,peculiarity distinguishes a Fantasia by Johann and makes it pass rapidly under the
'in the same upliftedarmsofthelast couple. ' FarandoleErnst Bach which is published The
is usually dancedcollection. Mo:iart produced some fine examples at all the great feasts in the
towns of Provence,of Fantasias, Beethoven apparently only two such as the feast of Corpus
'opus and the Domini, or the Courses de laTarasquo,' whichdistinctly so called, namely 77
were founded byChoral Fantasia and two of the Sonatas (op. King Rene on April 14, 1474,
;
' and take placeare entitled Cjuasi una Fantasia,' which at Tarascon annually on July 29.27)
In more In the latter the Farandole is precededimplies some irregularity of form. by the
fine hugeertigyofa legendarymodern times, apart from Schumann's ex- monster—theTarasque
—borne bydedicated to Liszt (op. the name has several men and attended by theamj)le 17),
'vulgar effusions which gaily dressed chevaliers de la Tarasque. ' Thebeen applied to various
nmsic of the Farandole in 6-8have little in common with I'eal music ; hut the is time, with a
stronglyrestored to its former dignity by accentuated rhythm. The followingname has been
the 'collective name for is traditional Farandoulo del TarascaireBrahms, who uses it as the
:of Tarasconhis short piano pieces, op. 116. The has
commonly applied to those nondescriptalso been Uoderalo.:S
piieces of orchestral music which are not long
enough to be called symphonic poems, and not
called overtures, c. H. H. p.formal enough to be
FANTASIESTUCK. A name adojited by
Schumann from Hoffmann to characterise various
with otherfancy pieces for pnanoforte, alone and
instruments (PF. solo, op. 12, 111 ; with clarinet,
violin and violoncello, op. 8S).op. 73 ; with
_fe_
They are on a small scale, but several of them
***: ^^Sof considerable beauty.
national Proven(,'aldance.FAEANDOLE. A
No satisfactory derivation has been given of the
[Etymologisches IVorterbvcli dername. Diez
withRomoMisckcn Spratheii) connects it the
The Farandole has occasionally been used for
Farandula, a company of strollingSpanish
1 AtisihuneMitthioil, Farnndoidn, published with a translationLa
derives from the Germanplayers, which he Mi.stnil. Avigaon.aud uotes by F. 13(52.FARCE FARINELLI8
Padre G. Sacchi.less innocent purposes than that of amere dance in 1770, though
; him at Bologna
Andria.his birthplace atin lb15 General Ramel was murdered at Tou- his biographer, fixes
thehis sobriquet fromlouse by the infuriated populace, who made use of Some say that he derived
was either a millertheir nationaldance to surroundandbutcher father, whohim. occupation of his
contend thatothersThe Farandole has been introduced on the or a seller of flour (farina) ;
Farina,
' brothersstage in Gounod's Mireille,' and in Daudet's he was named after threeso
' Naples, and hisL'Arlesienne (with Bizet's music), amateurs at
' but the very distinguished
that hemore probabledance is not suited for the purposes of a ballet. patrons. It is, however,
Farinelli, theFurther information concerning it will be found name of his unclesimply took the
Fari-in Larousse's Dictionary, declares that he saw insub voce in Vidal's composer. Sacchi
nobility which heLmc TambotiHn, Desanat's Coiirsos cle la Taras- nelli's iiossession the letters of
by thequo, Mistral's MireiUc, FHes cle la Tarasc/ae, produce when admitted,was required to
orders ofLcc Spain, into theand introduction to Jlathied's Fctrancloido, favour of the King of
seems scarcelyand in the works of Hyacinthe ilorel. A good Calatrava and St. lago. It
destineddescription the dance occurs in Daudet'sXuma credible noble parents should haveof that
or consented toJtomnestctn. w. B. s. their son for the musical stage,
make liimFARCE (Ital. Farsia, probably from the the peculiar preparation necessary to
bystutf— Plautus has centoncs usual, is explainedLatin farcio, to a soprano ; but this, as
happened to thefarcire, to insert falsehoods or tricks). A farsia the story of an accident having
necessary thewas a canticle in the vulgar tongue intermixed boy while riding, which rendered
his treble. Thewith Latin, originating in the French church operation by which he retained
became the mostat the time when Latin began to be a tongue voice, thus manufactured,
' understanded of the people.' The farsia beautiful ever heard. He soon left the care ofnot
rudiments, towas sung in many churches at the princij^al his father, who taught hira the
Avhom was thefestivals, almost universally at Christmas. It enter the school of Porpora, of he
vehicle for satire and fun, and thus first distinguished pupih In spite ofbecame a and most
Farce, a piece in Dr. Burney, it is notled to the modern Farsa or his explicit statement to
d^butone act, ofwhich the subject is extravagant and possible that Farinelli could have made his
.J. ii. the age of fifteen, in iletas-the action ludicrous. at Naples in 1720, at
'two for the latter didFARINELLI. A serio-comic opera in tasio's Angelica e lledoro ' ;
' eJIc'loro'acts words by C. Z. Barnett, music by .lohn notleaveRome till 1721, and Angelica
;
produced at Drury Lane, Feb. 1839, not written before 1722. (Fetis. ) In thatBarnett; 8, was
southern ItalyBalfe acting Farinelli, and being forced by year Farinelli, alreafly famous in
hoarseness to leave off at the end of the first act. under the name of il rac/azzo (the boy),
accomFARINELLI, Ceistiano, a violin jilayer Porpora to Rome, and made his firstpanied
and composer, was an uncle of the celebrated appearance there in 'Eumene,' composed by liis
singer Farinelli (Carlo Broschi). Date and master for the Teatro Aliberti. There was a
birth and death are unknown. player at that time in theplace of his German trumpet
After living for some time in France we find capital, who excited the admiration of the
him from 1680 to 1685 at Hanover, side by Romans bj' his marvellous powers. For this
leader of the band. [Ac-side with Handel, as artist Porpora wrote an obbligato part to a song,
cording to Chrysander (Hcinclcl, i. 418) he was in which his pu|)il vied with the instrument
the Elector's service in 1714, and, on the in holding and swelling note of extraordinaryin a
accession to the English throne, com-latter's length, purity, and volume. Although the
vir'posed a cantata on the words, Lord, remember tuoso jterformed this in a wonderful manner,
when thou comest in Thy kingdom.' (Seeme Farinelli excelled him in the duration, brilliance,
appears to have enjoyedQuellen-Lcxikon..y] He and gradual crescendo and diminuendo of the
a great reputation as a performer, and consider- note, while carriedhe the enthusiasm of the
pjopularity as a composer of instrumentalable audience to the highest pitch by the novelty and
music in a light and pleasing style. He excelled spontaneity of the .shakes and difiicult varia tions
especially in the performance of Lulli's airs and whicli he introduced into the air. It is probable
'own so-called Follia,' which was knownhis in that these were previously arranged by Porpoi'a,
^
'England during the 18th century as Farinell's and not due to the impromptu inspiration of the
ground.' [See Follia and the Musical Times singer. Having remained under the instruction
ennoliledfor 1888, p. 717.] Farinelli was by of his master until 1 724. Farinelli made his first
theKing ofDenmark, and, according toHawkins, journey to Vienna in that year. A year hiter
appointed by George I. hiswas resident at he sang fii'st A^enice in Albinoui'sfor the time at
'Venice. r. n. by Jletasta-Didone abbandonata,' the libretto
FARINELLI, Cakt.o Bkoschi, detto, was Naples,sio and subsequently returned to where
;
born Jan. 24, 1705, at Naples, according to his in a Dramatic Serenarlehe achieved a tiiumph
own statement made to Dr. Burney, who saw sang with the celebratedby Hasse, in whicli he
ajipeared1 wrote hianfing 'Joy to pre,it honour rif rice. Tcsi. In 1726 he in Fr.D'Urfey CrKM.ir'in Ch.irlpa canted
' divisions on tliis bass it must, therefori^, li;ive bet iiII. to ; .oni- '
Cii'O at ililan ; and then madeCiampi's hisbefore IfiSS.poaed'
FARINELLI FAKINELLl
second Avhereviait to Rome, lie was anxiously such brilliance and rapidity of execution that
expected. In 1727 lie went to Bologna, where it was difficult for the violins of those days to
he 'was to meet the famous Bernacclii, tlie King accompany him. He sang also in 'Onorio,
of Singers,' for the first time. Meeting this ' Polifemo,' and other operas by Porpora and
;
rival in a grand duo, Farinelli poured forth all excited an enthusiastic admiration among tlie
the beauties of his voice and style without dilettanti,which finallyculminated in the famous
reserve, and executed a number of most dithcult ejaculation of a lady in one of the boxes
(perpassages, which were rewarded with tumultuous —petuated by Hogartli in the Hake's Progress)
' !applause. Nothing daunted, ]5ernacchi replied One t-iod and one Farinelli ' In his (irst
perin the same air, repeating every trill, roulade, or formance at Court he was accompanied by the
cadenza which had been sung by Farinelli. The Princess Royal, wdio insisted on his singing two
latter, owning his defeat, entreated his conqueror of Handel's songs at sight, printed in a different
to give him some instruction, which Bernacchi, clef, and composed in a difl'erent style, from any
with equal generosity, willingly consented to whichto he had ever been accustomed. He also
bestow ; and thus was perfected the talent of confirmed the truth of the story, that Senesino
the most remarkable siiiger, perhaps, who has and himself meeting for the first time on the
'ever lived. same stage, Senesino had the part of a furious
After a second visit to Vienna in 1728, Fari- tyrant to represent, and Farinelli that of an
nelliwent several times to Venice, Rimie, Naples, unfortunate hero in chains but,
; in the course
Piaeenza, and Parma, meeting and vanquishing of the first song, he so softened the obdurate
such formidable rivals as Nicolini, Faustina, heart of the enraged tyrant that Senesino,
forand Cuzzoni, and being everywhere loaded with getting his stage character, ran to Farinelli and
riches and honours. In 1731 he visited Vienna embraced liim in his arms. The Prince of "Wales
'forthe third time. It was at this point that he gave Farinelli a fine wrought-gold snnrt'-ljox,
modified his style, from one of mere brilliance richly set with diamonds and rubies, in which
Porpora, w^asand Irarura, which, like a true pupil of enclosed a pair of diamond knee-buckles,
he had hitherto practised, to one of pathos and as also a purse of one hundred guineas.' This
simplicity. This change is said to have been example was followed by most of the courtiers,
'suggested liy the Emperor Charles VI. You and the jiresents were duly advertised in the
'have,' he said, hitherto excited only astonish- Court Journal. His salary was only £1500, yet
mentandadmiration ,butyou have nevertouched during the three years 1734, and1735, 1736,
the ; it would be easy to you to create which he spent in London, his income was netheart
emotion, if you would but be more simple and less than £5000 per annum. On his return to
!more expressive ' Farinelli adopted this ail- Italy, he built, out of a small part of the sums
'and became the most pathetic, ac(piired here, a very superb mansion, whichmirable counsel, in
as he was still the most brilliant, of singers. he dwelt, choosing to dignify it with tlie
sigReturning once more to Italy, he revisited, nificant appellation of the English Folly.'
ever-increasing renown, Venice, Rome, Fer- Towards the end of Farinelli set ontwith 1736,
made his for Sjiain, staying few liyrara, Lucca, and Turin. In 1734 he a months in France
first journey to England. Here he arrived at the way ; where, in Sfiite of the ignorance and
momentwhen the opposition to Handel, sup- prejudice against foreign singers which thenthe
a distinguishedported by tiie nobles, had established rival the French, he achieved a great
Opera, with Porpora for composer, and Senesino, success. Louis XV. heard him in the Queen's
quarrelled with the great German, for apartments, and applauded him to an extentwho had
however, did whichprincipal singer. The enterprise, astonished the Court (Riecolioni). The
not succeed, but made debts to the amount of King gave him his jiortrait set in diamonds, and
juncture Porpora naturally 500 louis d'or. Though the singer, who had£19,000. At this
thought of his illustrious pupil, who obeyed made engagements in London, intended oiih' a
the summons, and saved the house. He made flying visit to Spain, his fortune kept him there
the Theatre, Lincoln's nearly twenty-five years. He arriveil in JMadi id,his first appearance at
' was as he had done in London, at a critical moment.Inn, in Artaserse,' the music of which
Riccardo Broschi, his own brother, and Philip v., a pirey to melancholy depression, ne-chiefly by
'favourite airs were Pallido glected the affairs of the State, and refused evenFlassc. The most
at Council. hearingsole,' set by Hasse and sung by Senesino to preside the The Queen,il ;
' dolce amjilesso,' by the same, and of the arrival of Farinelli, determined to try thePer qucsto
' Broschi, both the latter effect of his voice upon tlie King. Slie arrangedSon tpial nave,' by
sung by Farinelli. In the last, composed a concert in the next room to that which thebeing
the first note (as in the song King occupied, and invited the singer to performspeiially for him,
' with such delicacy, there a few tender and pathetic airs. Tliein Euniene was taken')
minute degrees to such an amazing success of the plan was instantaneous and ci m-swelled by
afterwards diminished in the same l>lete ; Philip \\"as first struck, then nio\etl, ar.dvolume, and
was applauded finally overcome with pleasure. He sent for (heto a mere point, that itmanner
minutes. After this, he set off with artist, thanked him with effusion, and bade himfor full five
b10 FARINELLI FAKINELLI
name his reward. Farinelli, duly jirei)ared, resolution, Farinelli good-huniouredlychange his
answered that his best reward would be sang to the delighted tailor, notto see complied, and
Having concluded, hethe monarch return to the society of his Court one, but several songs.
' and that is theand to the cares of the State. Philijp consented, : am rather proud ;said I too
allowed himself to be shaved for the first ofmy having some advantagetime reason, perhaps,
yielded to you it isfor many weeks, and owed his cure to the powers over other singers. I have ;
turn to me.'singer. The Queen, alive to you should yield inof the great this, but just that
nearlythe latter paying the mansucceeded in persuading to remain at He then insisted on
a salary of 60,000 francs, and Farinelli thus value of the clothes.double the
ofseparated himself from the world of art for Madrid he heard of the deathever. While still at
friend, Bernacchi.He related to Bnrney that during ten years, until his former rival, teacher, and
presentthedeathof Philip V. , he sang four songs to the possession of thethe In a letter (in
withchange 1756, he speaksKing every night without of any kind. writer), dated April 13,
' '
' ' whom he hadTwo of these were the Pallido il sole and Per deep regret of the loss of one for
' condolesquesto dolce amplesso ofHasse and the third, always felt esteem and affection,' and
;
Padre Martini.a minuet on which he improvised variations. with his correspondent,
to theHe thus repeated about 3600 times the same Shortly after the ascent of Charles III.
leavethings, and never anything else : he acquired, throne Farinelli received orders to(1759),
Charles's in-indeed, enormous power, but the price paid for the kingdom, owing probably to
Franceit was too high. It is not true that Farinelli tention to sign the family pact with
appointed prime minister by Philip Naples, which the singer had ever beenwas ; this and to
salary, but on con-post he never had ; but under Ferdinand VI., opposed. He preserved his
the successor of Philip, he enjoyed the position dition that he should live at Bologna and not at
superior to that ofany minister. after twenty-fiveof first favourite, Naples. Once more in Italy,
friendsThis King was subject to the same inhrmity as years of exile, Farinelli found none of his
his father, and was similarly cured by Farinelli, remaining. Some were dead others had quitted
;
Saul was by David. His reward this time thecountry. Newfriends arenot easilymadeafteras
was the cross of Calatrava (1750), one of the middle age ; and Farinelli was now fifty-seven
highest orders in Spain. From this moment his years old. He had wealth, but his grandeur was
power exceeded that ever gone. Yet he was more addicted ofwas unbounded, and to talking
obtained by any singer. Seeing the effect pro- his political career than of his triumphs as a
duced on the King by music, he easily persuaded singer. He passed the twenty remaining years
him to establish an Italian opera at Buen-retiro, of his life in a splendid 2M2a:zo, a mile from
to which he invited some of the first artists of Bologna, contemplating for hours the portraits
Italy. He himself was appointed the chief of Philip v., Elisabeth, and inFerdinand,
manager. He was also employed frequently in silence, interrupted only by tears of regret. He
political affairs, was consulted constantly by the received the visits of strangers courteousl}', and
minister La Enseiiada, and w^as especially con- showed pleasure in con\'ersing with them about
sidered as the agent of the ministers of those the Spanish Court. He made only one journey
European Courts which were opposed to the during this period, to Rome, \\'here he expatiated
treaty proposed by France. (Bocous.)fanuly to the Pope on the riches and honours he had
In all his prosperity Farinelli ever showed the enjoyed at Madrid. Tlie Holy Father answered,
'greatest prudence, modesty, and moderation : he Avete fatta tanta fortuna costa, perche vi avete
made no enemies, strange as it may seem, but trovato le gioie, clie avete perdute in qua.'
conciliated those who would naturally have When Burney saw him at Bologna in 1771,
envied him his favour with the King. Hearing though he no longer sang, he played on the
officer in the ante-chamberone day an complain viol d'amour and harpsichord, and composed for
of the Ring's neglect of his thirty years' service, those instruments. He had also a collection of
'while riches were heaped on a miserable actor,' keyed instrumentsinwhich betook great delight,
Farinelli begged a commission for the grumbler, especially a piano made at Florence in 1730,
and gave it to him, to his great surprise, observ- which he called liafad d'Urbino. Next to that,
mildly that he was wronging to tax the King he preferred a harpsichord which had been given
with ingratitude. According to another anec- to him by the Queen of Spain ; this he called
dote, he once requested an embassy for a courtier, Corrcy'iio, while he named others Titian, Guido,
when the King asked liim if he was not aware etc. He had a fine gallery of pictures by Murillo
that this grandee was a particular enemy of his. and Ximenes, among which were portraits of his
'True,' replied Farinelli; 'but this is how I royal patrons, and several of himself, one by his
desire to take my revenge upon him.' He was friend Amiconi, representing him with Faustina
generous also asas he was prudent. A story and Metastasio. The latter was engra^-eii by
is told of a tailor who lirought him a handsome I. "Wagner at London (fob), and is uncommon
;
- costume, and refused any payment, Farinelli was copied from itgala but the liead of again
reversed, inhumbly begged to hear one song from the by the same engraver, but an oval
incomparable artist. After trying in "\'aiu to (4to), and the first state of this is rare : it—
FARINELLI FAEMER 11
supplied Hawkins withSir J. the portrait for w-as in Venice, and 1810-17 at Turin. In 1819
hia History of Miivij:. C. Lucy also painted he was appointed chapel-master at Trieste, where
Farinelli the picture was engraved (t'ol. ) in he died Dec. 1836. He
; 12, composed an
immezzotint, by Alex. Van Haeclcen,1735, and mense number of operas (Fetis enumerates forty,
this print is also scarce. and Riemann gives the number as fifty-eight) in
Fetis falls into an error in contradicting the avowed imitation of Cimarosa, which, however,
story of Farinelli's suggesting to Padre Martini were more successful than the majority of
imitato write his History 'of Music, on the ground tions. A duet he introduced into the
Matrithat he only returned to Italy in 1761, four monio Segreto' has been mistaken for Cimarosa's
years after the appearance of the first volume, own composition. He also wrote a mass, a
five'and had no previous relations with the learned part Christe eleison,' a 'Stabat' in two parts,
author. The letter quoted above shows tluit he and other church music. M. o. c.
was in correspondence with him certainly FARMER,as John (fl. 1591-1601), an
importearly as April 1756, when he writes in answer ant madrigalian composer of the Elizabethan
to a letter of Martini, and, after adverting to the period, and also known to us by his skilful
death of Bernacchi, orders twenty-four settings for fourcopies voices of the old church
work, psalmof his bound in red morocco, for presents tunes. He was the author of a little
to the Queen and other notabilities of the Court. treatise entitled
It is therefore possible 'quite that their corre- Divers and sundry waies of two parte in one, numberto the of
fortie, upon one playn Song ; sometimes pl.acing ground abovethespondence originated even long before this. They twoaud parts benethe, and otherwhile the ground benetbe and two
parts above, or againe, otherwise the sometimes in theremained in the closest intimacy until death
middest betweene both, and likewise other Conceites, which are
separated thera by the decease of Farinelli, July plainlie set dowue for the Prolite of those whioh would attaiiie unto
Knowledge. Performed and published by John Farmer in favoure
15, 17S2, in the sevent^^-eighth year of his age. of such as love Musicke, with waythe ready to Perfect Knowledge.
Im}irinted at London by Thomas Este Ihi; Asfdjnc Williamof Byrd,Martinelli speaks in glowing terms of this
and are to be soald in Broad Streete neere the Rorial Ezchaunge at
the 1591.'Author's house.great artist, saying that he had seven or eight
notes more than ordinary singers, and these The only known copy now extant of this
*perfectly sonorous, equal, and clear that he had tract, which is dedicated to Edward de Vere,
;
also much knowledge ofmusic, and was aworthy Earle of Oxenford,' is in the Bodleian Library.
pupil of Porpora. Mancini, a great master of It consists of a series of examples of three-part
singing, and a fellow-pupil of Bernacchi \vith counterpoint in different orders, aud seems to
Farinelli, speaks of him with yet more en- have attained considei'able success. Hawkins
says, 'was thought {Hist. iii. says, 'Beforethusiasm. 'His voice,' he 373) Bevin's time the
a marvel, because it was so perfect, so powerful, precepts for the comjiosition of Canon were
so sonorous, and so rich in its extent, both in the known to few. Tallis, Bird, Waterhouse, and
that Farmer were eminentlyhigh and the low parts of the tegister', its skilled in this more
equal has never been heard in our times. He abstruse part of musical practice.'
"was, moreover, endowed with a creative genius In 1599 was published 'The first set of
embellishments new English Madrigals to Fourewhich inspired him with so Voyces, Newly
and so astonishing that no one was able to composed by John Farmer, Practicioner in the
them. The art of taking and keeping Arte of Musicque. 4to. Printed at London inimitate
coidd Little Saint JrUliamthe breath so softly and easily that no one Helen's by Barley the
perceive it began and died with him. The Assigne of Thomas Morley, and are to be sold
he excelled were the evenness at his shoj}2'>e in GraMous streete, Anno Doin.qualities in which
swelling its sound, the 1599.' This work also is dedicated to theof his voice, the art of
portamento, the unionofthe registers, a surprising 'Earle of Oxenford,' whom Farmer calls his
jtathetic style, and a shake 'very good Lord and Master.' In the addressagility, a graceful and
'There was no to the reader he claims to have fitly linktas admirable as it "was rare.
of the art wdiich he did not carry to the ilusicke to Number, as each gi^'e to other theirbranch
of perfection .... The successes true effect, which is to make delight, a virtuehighest pitch
singular in the Italians, as under that en-which he obtained in his youth did not prevent so
from continuing to study and this great sign only they hazard their honour. ' 'Thehim ;
with so much perseverance collection consists of seventeen madrigals, six-artist applied himself
which are for four, and the seventeenththat he contrived to change in some measure his teen of
and to acquire another and superiormethod, for eight voices.style
already famous his No further madrigals of Farmer's ajipear towhen his name was and
jirinted except the fine one forfortune brilliant. ' Suchwas Farinelli, as superior have been six
'of his own period as they voices, Fair Nymphs I lieard one telling,'to the great singers
which he contributed to the 'Triumphs ofto those of more recent times. .i, M.were
This and his delightful 'ToFAFJNELLl, Giuseppe, composer, born at Oriana' (1601).
in entered the Con- take the air a bonny lass was walking ' are theEste, May 7, 1769 ; 1785
he only two of his madrigals familiar to the presentservatorio de' Turchini at Naples, where
the simple but muchaccompaniment under Fago, and com- generation, for to be re-studied
he gretted reason that no others are now published.position under Sala and Tritto. In 1808—
12 FAKMER FARMEE
Hawkins gives maiirigal of been known of his life,a fonr-part Far- recently nothing has
'mer's, living in London at theYou iiretty flowers ' (tlie lirst of tlie except that be was
1599.seventeen mentioned above), in the Appendix publication of his madrigals indate of the
to liis Hlstoi-ij The Library however, of the Chajiterof Music. of From an inspection,
Cathedral, Dublin (kindlyChrist Cluircli, Oxford, and the Mnsio School Acts Christ Churchof
appearscontain some i\IS. music of his, and there are Avriter by the Dean), itafforded to the
a few of ilS. at the ThomasBateson as organisthis liyinn tunes in British thatFarmer preceded
are the onlyMuseum. of Cathedral. The follo"\\"ingtliat
:Farmer was one of the most important con- refer to himChapter Acts which
'tributors to Tliomas Este's Wliole Booke of said daie by the Deane1595. Feb. 16.—Yt is ordered ye
Fermer shall have as Mr. ofand Chapter tliat Mr. JohnPsalmes,' 1592. (See Este.) He not only set
yeare fifteene poundstlie children & organist for this
all tlie canticles, hymns, etc. (twelve in number) Candelmas daie lastCurrant nioney of England from
Mr. Deane 20s. and of"which are tlicre prefixed to tfie Psahns proper, (vizt.) of tlie Vicars lOs. and of
the Proctor of theevery Dignitie 10s. ster. and the restbut also five of tlie psalm tunes themselves.
Church is to make upp.
Burney, speaking of tlrese settings {Hist. iii. Jordan resigned1696. Aug. 10.—The said daie Robert
house, and the samehis "Viccars Rowme in the Chapter54), says, 'Tliecounterpoint isconstantly simple,
Corrall in hisplare.daieJohn Farmer was sworn "Viccar
of note against note, but in such correct and
it Mr. John Fermer1597. July 18.—It is ordered that
excellent harmony as manifests the art to have of August 1597 that tlien alldoe not return by the first
; place voyd in thisExcuses sett a-itart —His to beebeen very successfully cultivated in England at
Church fur depting the land without lycence.
that time.' The following interesting example
show that Farmer Although there are no subsequent referenceswill was not unworthy of
in the Chajiter Acts to any otlier organist untilBurney's encomium. It may be mentioned
'that in all these settings the melody or playn- the appointment of Bateson in 1608-9, it seems
song' isinvariablygiven to the voiceimmediately most probable that Farmer went straight f'lom
Dublin to London in as we find him resid-above the bass generally the tenor, but in 1597,
;
this example the counter-tenor, as this tune ing in Broad Street in 1599. L. M'c. L. p.
is set for two FARMER, JuHX, born August 16, 1836, attrebles, counter-tenor, and
atbass. The rule by "which the old ^vriters intro- Nottingham, received his musical education
duced the major third into the final chord of the Leipzig Conservatorium, and subsequently
compositions mode under Andrae Spaeth at Saxe-Coburg. He wasall in the minor (see Tierce
DE PiCARinE) is rigidly observed by Farmer a teacher of music at Ziiricli, and
and the other contributors to Este's collection, music master at Harrow School from 1862 to
not only at the end of each psalm tune, but 1885, where he obtained great popularity. He
also at the end of every line in each tune. became organist in Balliol College in 1885,
where he instituted in the College Hall a series
ChcsslLtrc Tv.ne—Psalm 140.
of Sunday and Jlomlay evening concerts for the
performance of glees, part-songs, etc., as well
'as the Balliol College Musical Societj-. ' His~^t^-s~
II I
I i ]'l=^ I M compositions include 'Christ and his Soldiers,'
My soul pr.Tii^e thoa the Lord al-ways, My Ood 1 oratorio, 1878; a 'Requiem in menior}' of
I I I I 1 1 I I
I departed Harrow friends'
; 'Cinderella,' a fairy
^=^=2 opera, 1882 'Nursery Rhymes Quadrilles,' for
;
'chorus anil orchestra, four sets Hunting Songs
;
Quadrilles,' for same ; songs, etc. He edited
' Hymns and Tunes for High Schools ' the
;
' 'Harrow Glee Book,' HaiTow School Marches,'
'Harrow Scliool Songs,' etc., as well as tw"o
r volumes of Bach for tlie use of High Schools.
will cciTi-fesa, WTiile breath and life pro - long my days [For some years before his death, which took
IIi-J-_ I I I
, place at Oxford, July
I 17, 1901, he had been
-Gi~. examiner for the Society of Arts. In a warmly
appreciative article on him in the Masicnl Ga-ctte
for Dec. 1901, his successor at Balliol, Dr. Ernst
'Walker, wrote, He struck out a line for
himself, and s])ent himself royally w"it]iand
absolute self-sacrihce in the ptopularisation of good,
and only good, music among the naturally
.\.more or less unmusical.'] c.
FARMER, TuOM.As, Mus.Bac, was originally
one of the Waits of London, and graduated at
composed instrumentalCambridge in 1684. He
Nothing is known as to either the dates or music for the theatre, and contributed some
liirth the second edition of Playford's Cliolceplaces of Farmer's and death ; and until songs to.
FARNABY FAIiKEXC 13
Ayres, Theater Manie, ppt.1675, to The of 1685-87, Joliii Farrant (West's Cailiedred Organists,
and to D'Urfey's Third Collection of Sougs, 29, 41, 78). M.
1685. In 1686 he published 'A Consort of FARRANT, Ricn,Ai;D, was one of the
GentleMustek in four parts, containing tliirty-three men of the Chapel Royal in the 16th century.
Lessons beginning witli an Overture, ' and in The date of his first apjiointment is not known,
'1690 A Second Consort of Jlusick in fourjjarts, [he was a member of tlic chajiel in the reign
containing eleven Lessons, beginning with a of Edward VI.] but he resigned in April
Ground.' [In Apollo's Banquet is, 'Mr. Farmer's on becoming1564, Master of tlie Children of
Magot for violins' Farmer also
; wrote music for St. George's Chapel, Windsor, of which he is
168'2'The Princess of Oleve' in (Brit. Mus. Add. said to have been also a lay vicar and organist.
MSS. '29,283-5).] Purcell composed an During his tenure officeelegy, of at Windsor heoccupied
'Ivahnni Tate, dwellingwritten by upon his death (printed a house within the Castle, called the
in Orpheus Britannieus, ii. from which it Old Commons.' On Nov. he was re-35), 5, 1569,
is certain that he died before 1695. "sv. H. H. appointed a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and
Giles,FARNABY, Mus.Bac, was of the remained such until liis death, which occurred
family of Farnaby of Truro. He commenced on Nov. 30, 1580. Farrant's church music
the study of music about 1580 [was living in merits all the eulogy wdiioh has bestowedbeen
London in 1589 (Churcliwardens' accounts of upon it for solemnity and pathos. The service
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate)], and on July 1592, printed by Boyce in G minor and given by Tud-7,
graduated at Oxford as way (Brit. Mus. , Harl. MSS. 7337 and inABachelor of Music 7338)
;
stating in his supplicat that he had studied music minor [is almost certainly by John Farrant, wdio
'for tw"elve years (Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. was possibly liis son]. His two anthems, Call257).
'
'
'was one to remembrance and Hide not Thou Thy faceHe of the ten composers employed by
were for many years performed on j\laundyThomas Este to harmonise the tunes for his
'
' Whole Booke of Psalmes published in 1592. Thursday during the distribution of the royal
1598 he published 'Canzonets foure voyces, bounty. The beautiful anthem, 'Lord, for ThyIn to
'tender mercies' sake (the words from Lydley'swith a song of eight parts, ' with commendatory
verses prefixed by Antony Holborne, John Dow- Prayers), was long assigned to Farrant, although
Holland. A it is attributed by earlier writers to John Hilton.land, Richard Alison, and Hugh
Tudway(Harl. MSS. gives another anthemmadrigal by Farnaby, ' Come, Charon, come,' is 7340)
—in the Royal College of Music, and another, ' Lord, Almighty,' full, four voices—as his,
edited by but this is questionable. [Various payments for'Construe my meaning,' has been
tlie plays jiroduced at Court by Farrant's boysW. B. Squire. w. H. H.
are entered in the Acts of the Privy Council,There are a number of pieces by him in
Virginal under dates between 1566 and 1579.]the Fitzunlliani Virginal Book (see
composition His son, Daniel, was one of the first authorsMusic), among which is a curious
'
'who set lessons lyra way for the viol, after thefortwo virginals, and a transcription forvirginals
the Raineliowe.' manner of the old English lute or bandora, inof his own madrigal 'Daphne on
his the time of Charles I. [He was violist in theThe same volume contains four pieces by
King's band between 1606 or 1607 and 1625Richard Farnaby, of whom nothing isson,
(Nagel, Annalen der englisehen in thecontributed harmonies Hofmusikknown. Giles Farnaby
Psalter Monatshefte Musikgesch. 1894-95). A bookto some of the tunes in Ravenscroft's f.
of organ pieces by him is in the Cathedral libraryWood's statement that he was a native(1621).
Durham.] w. h. H. Additions from Mr. G.though the name ofof Truro is probably correct,
E. P. Arkwright, the QueUen-Lexikon, etc.does not occur in the Visitation of Cornwall
FARRENC, Jacques Hippolyte Aristide,Thomas Farnaby's wife came fromof 1620.
Marseilles, April died in Paris,his life in London horn at 9, 1794,Launceston. He lived most of
Jan. 31, 1865,composedsome pieces for the flute,and Sevenoaks, and his descendants remained
but is bestknown as a writer on music. He tookthe early history of the family isin Kent ; but
the second edition of Fetis'sbetween Giles and an important part inobscure, and the connection
5iO(7J'a^j7j;'ci(?iji'erseW(',and wrotethebiographicalThomas Farnaby the Kentish schoolmaster
cannoticesin Madame Farrenc's Tresor des Pianistes.[Additions by vv. c. .s., andnot be traced.
FranceHe also contributed critiques to Lafronr the Dirt, Nat. Bioff.]of
'inusieale, and La Bci'ue de Musique o.neienneFARRANT, John. According to Hawkins
(Rennes, 1858). Some of his valu-of this name, who both et modernethere were two nmsicians
unpublished articles are amongis quite able notes andflourished about the year 1600. It
the MSS. in the library of the Paris Conserva-tliat therewas only one, wdiowas organ-probable
1567-72 of Hereford, 1592-93 ;' toire.ist of Ely in ;
Louise—born in Paris, MaySl, 1804Hiswife ;Church, Newgate Street, London, andChrist
died there, Sept. 15, 1875—was a sister of theCathedral, 1598-1602. A serviceSalisbury
sculptor Auguste Dumont, and aunt of Ernestis the work ofattributed to Richard Farraut
under Reicha, and at anReyer. She studied
' ' and contumelious speecheB to Mr.He w;i3 sconced lor railing early age could compose both for the orchestra
supper.time ' (Havergal's Fasti Mereforde^ucs)Cuatoa in the hall atFASCH14 FASCH
the rudiments of[liano. and inand She married in 1821, and made the violin and clavier,
wherestay at Coethen,several professional tours a shortin France with her harmony. After
at composition inhusband, attemptsboth performing in public witli great he made his first
Strelitz. Here hesent tosuccess. ]\Iadame Farrenc was not only a clever church music, he was
branchesHertel, inallwoman, but an able and conscientious studiesunderteacher, continued his
ataccompaniment,especially inas is shown by tlie many excellent female pupils of music, but
accompanist hadtheshe trained during the tiiirty years difhcult art, asshe was pro- that time a
17.'.1guide him. Infessor piano bass toof the at the Conservatoire (Nov. only the figured
declined toclavierist, haidng1842-Jan. 1873). Besides some remarkable Linicke, the court
supplyoffered toetudes, sonatas, and pieces for the pianoforte, accompany Franz Benda, Fasch
Benda's praisesharpsichord, andshecomposedsonatas forpianoand violinorviolon- his place at the
After hisgreater efforts.cello,trios, two quintets, a sestet, and a nonet, for incited him to still
histo completewhich works slie obtained iu 1869 Zerbst he was sentthe prize of return to
Magdeburg.Klosterbergen nearthe Academie des Beaux Arts for chamber-music. education at
intheir meeting, andShe also wrote two symphonies and tliree over- Benda had not forgotten
was appointedtwenty, Faschtures for full orchestra, and several of lier more 1756, when just
Frederickaccomjjanist toimportant compositions were performed at the on hisrecommendation
personwas no less aConservatoire concerts. More than by all these, the Great. His coadjutor
in turns toBach ; they took ithowever, her name will be perpietuated by the than Emanuel
soonflute-concertos,and asTr^or des Fia/iistes, a real anthology of music, accompanythe King's
to the royalcontaining ehefs-d'ceuvre of all the classical as Fasch had become accustomed
execution, hisharpsichord and impetuous style ofmasters of the pianoforte from amateur's
Thegave every satisfaction.the 16tli century down to Weberand Chopin, as accompaniments
Frederick's flute-more modern works of the highest value. Seven Years' War putan end towell as
salarywas and as Fasch received his (300[Her Tmiti des abbriviations published in playing,
worth only a fifth part of1897. See also Tr6sor des Pianistes.] g. c. thalers) in paper,
in which heFASCH, JoHANN Friedrich, born at Buttel- its nominal value,—a misfortune
compelled toanticipated Beethoven—he wasstedt (Weimar), April 15, 1688, was a cliorister
giving lessons. For hisat Weissenfels in 1699, a scholar of the Thomas- maintain himself by
made a collection ofLeipzig from 1701 to where he lessons in composition heschule in 1707,
samethousand examples. About thestudied law as well as music, the latter under several
several most ingenious canons,Kuhnau. He founded a 'Collegium musicum,' time he wrote
voices containingto have been the ancestor of the particularly one for twenty-fivewhich seems
' together, one being inseven parts,Grosses Concert ' and so of tire Gewandhaus five canons put
in four parts. After theconcerts he wrote overtures for the society in one in six, and three
;
and composed three battle of Torgau the King granted him anthe style of Telemann,
elsewhere. addition of 100 thalers to his salary, but theoperas for the Naumburg fair and
of the opera, whichIn after leading a wandering life for some increase covered the direction1714,
secretary Gera, and was put into his hands from 1774 to 1776. Afteryears, he was an official at
' ofthe Bavarian succession Frederick gavein 1719 went to Zeitz as organist and Eath- thewar
followschreiber,' where he remained for two years. up his practice, and Fasch was free to his
service with Count Jlorzini at natural inclination for church music. In 1783,In 1721 he took
Mass of BenevoU's, whichLucavei in Bohemia, and in 1722 was apipointed incited by a 16-part
court capellmeister at Zerbst,where he died, Dec. Reichardt had brought from Italy, he wrote one
was invited to compete for the for the same number of voices, which, however,5, 1768. He
post ofcantor at tlie Thomasschule against Bach, proved too diflftcult for the court-singers. He
apparently refused to do so. (Spitta, retained his post after Frederick's death, butbut
held himself with compositionJ. S. B(u:h (Engl, transh), ii. 181.) Bach occupied chiefly and
Fasch's music in high esteem, and copied out teaching. In the summer of 1790, as he himself
orchestral suites of his. In the collection tells us, he began choral-meetings in the summer-five
of music left by Philipp Emanuel Bach was a house of Geheimrath Milow, which resulted in
'whole set of church cantatas by Fasch. Several the Singakademie, ' an institution which under
eleven church cantatasmasses, a requiem, and his pupil and successor Zelter became very
motets, one Passion-setting, various overtures, popular, and exercised an important influence on
sonatas, etc., are pjreserved in JIS. at musical Beforetrios, taste in Berlin for many years.
Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, and Brussels (see his death Fasch was twice visited by Beethoven,
QuelUn-Lexikon, from which, with Riemann's who spent some time in Berlin in the summer of
particularsare he heardLexilc(m,t\n above taken). Fasch's 1796. On the first occasion, June 21,
of Fasch'sson, a chorale, the three first numbers
Friedrich Christiax Fasch, movements from his 119thCarl founder mass, and several
extemporised on one ofof the 'Singakademie' at Berlin, was born Nov. Psalm, and he himself
the 28th heat Zerbst. As a child he was delicate, the subjects of the latter. On re-18, 1736,
again extemporised, to the delightand much indulged. He made rapid progress on appeared and; ';'
FAURE FAUKE 15
of Fasch's scholars, who, as Beethoven used to 27, 1878), a symphony in D minor (Ghatelet,
say, pressed round him and could not applaud March '15, 1885), a one-act operetta,
L'Orfor tears (Thayer's Beethoven, ii. 13). The ganiste,' at the Salle Duprez, 1885, a Requiem
Acadeni}' at that date "was about ninety strong, (Madeleine, Jan. 16, 18b8), and a choral work,
atbut the time of Fasch's death, Augusts, ISOO, ' La Naissance de Venns ' (Colonne Concerts,
it had increased to 147. In accordance with a 1895, Leeds Festival, 1898). [' Madrigal,' op.
wish expressed inhis will, theAcademyperformed for35, vocal quartet and 'orchestra
; Pavane,'
Mozart's Requiem to his memory—for the first op. 50, for orchestra and chorus ad lib. five
;
time in Berlin. The leeeipts amounted to 1200 Melodies, op. 58, to Verlaine's poems a piano
;
thalers, an extraordinarj' sum in those days, quintet,and op. 60 'La
; Bonne Chanson,' op. 61
;
were applied to founding a Fund for the per- nine songs to Verlaine's words, are among the
petual maintenance of a poor family. lu 1801 most important of his recent works.] Music to
£elter published his Life—a brochure of sixty- various plays has been written from time to
two pages 4to, with a portrait. In 1839 the time, such as that to Dumas's 'Caligula'
Acadeni}' published Fasch's best sacred works in (Odeon, '1888), Ed. Harancourt's Shylock
sixvolumes. A seventh, issued bytherepresenta- (adajited from Shakespeare, Odeon, 1889),
tives of Zelter, contains ' 'the mass and the canon Maeterlinck's Pelleas et Melisande (English
above alluded to. Of his oratorio 'Giuseppe version produced at the Prince of Wales's
riconosciuto,' performed in 1774, one terzetto Theatre, June 21, 1898), and Lorrain and
alone remains, Fasch ' 'having destroyed the rest, Hcrold's Promethee (Beziers, 1900). In 1885
together with several other works composed and 1893 the Prix Chartier was awarded to
before the 16-part mass. As a master him.of com- In 1892 he succeeded Guiraud as
Inposition in many parts, Fasch is the last repre- Sjiecteur des Beaux-Arts, and in June 1905
sentative of the great school of sacred composers succeeded Theodore Dubois as Director of the
which lasted so long in Italy, and his works Parisare Conservatoire. a. .7.
worth studying. They combine the severity of FAURE, Jean-Baptiste, son of a singer in
ancient forms with modern harmony and a fine the church at IMoulius, wdiere he was born, Jan.
vein of melody, and constitute 1830. Whena mine which 15, he was three the family
rewould well repay investigation. [For list of moved to Paris, and when he was seven his father
extant works, see the Qucllen-Lexikon.'] F. G. died. In 1843 he entered the solfeggio class
FAURE, Gabriel Urb.«m, in the Conservatoire,born May 13, and soon after the rnattrise
at of the Madeleine,1845, Pamiers (Ariege), studied at Paris with where he was under Trevaux,
Niedermeyer, the founder oftheEcoledeMusi(jue an excellent teacher, towhom he owes his sound
religieuse also under Dietsch and Saint-Saens. knowledge of music. After
; the breaking of his
voice he tookHis first appointment on leaving the school in up the piano and double bass, and
1866 wasthat oforganist at St. Sauveur, Rennes was for some time a member of the band at the
in 1870 he returned to Paris, and after holding Odeon theatre. When his voice had recovered
he joined thethe posts ofaccompanying organist at St. Sulpice chorus of the Theatre Italien, and
and principal organist at St. Honore, became in Nov. 1850 again entered the Conservatoire,
maitre de chapelle at the JIadeleine, [where he and in 1852 obtained the first prizes for singing
and forbecame organist in 1896 ; in the same year he opera-comique. He made his debut Oct.
was appointed a professor of composition in the 20, 1852, at the Opera Comique. in Masse's
Conservatoire]. He became known as 'Galathee,' after whicha com- he advanced steadily
through various rolesposer by his touching and original songs, of until his creation of the
'which a selection of twenty was published by parts of Justin in Grisar's Chien du Jardinier'
the Duke of GreenwichHamelle, and 'Le Poeme d'Amour ' by Durand in Auber's 'Jenny Bell,'
in 1855 the Marquisand Schoenewerk, b>it his compositions in this ; d'Herigny in Auber's
'class are very numerous. [Among the most re- Manon Lescaut ' the Marquis de Valbreuse
;
'
'his later lyrics may be mentioned in Clapisson's Sylphe ' in 1856markable of ; Crevecreur
' ' ' 'in Gevaert's'Apres un rcve,' En Priere,' and Les Koses Quentin Durward in 1858 Hoel
;
d'Ispahan. He has also published many piano- in Meyerbeer's 'Pardon du Ploermel' in 1859']
the Rationale placed him in the front rank.forte pieces ; at Societe de Musique [Among his
he produced a Cantique de Racine, duets for greatest successes were the parts of Malipieri
' 'voices, and a violin sonata, afterwards in Haydee ' Peter the Great in L'fitoile dufemale ;
Nord' ; and the title role inplayed at the Trocadero, on July 5, 1878, which Nicolo's 'Joconde.
last has become popular in Germany. Among his On Sept. 28, 1861, he made his first appearance
works, besides a at the Opera as Julien de Medicis in Ponia-most remarkable Berceuse and
towski's 'Pierre de Medicis,'Romance for violin and orchestra, a beautiful and remained there
violoncello, two Quartets for piano as principal baritone for nearly seventeen years.Elegie for
'His new parts were in Masse's La Mule deand strings (1882 and 1887), two for strings
Pedro,' in 1863; Nelusko in ' L'Africaine,'alone, and a Violin Concerto, we may mention
(Salle Herz, Feb. ' Baden Baden.an Orchestral Suite 13, 1874), First produced at F.iure achieved a notable fouj*
<?f/Nree therein, sinfiug baritone on the stage and t*nor behind
'a pretty Chieur des Djinns ' (Trocadero, June the scenes.' ' ;;
1( FAUX-BOUEDONFAUST
acts, is in no respect con-April 26, 1865, chosen for this partby Meyerbeer romantic opera in two
was comjiosed athimself; tlie Marquis Posa Verdi's play. Itde in 'Don nected with Goethe's
"Wien, butCarlos,' theTheater anderin 1867 the title part in Thomas's Vienna in 1813 for
;
1818,Frankfort in March'Hamlet,' 186S Meiihistopheles on the first was performed at
; first
' favourite. Ityears a greatperformance of ' Faust ' at the Opera, March 3, and was lor many
companyby a German1869; Paddock in Diaz's 'Coupe du Roi de was produced in London
in1840; andThule,' and Charles A'll. in Mermet's 'Jeanne Theatre, May 21,at the Prince's
Spohr's baton,Garden underd'Arc,' in 1873. He made his final appearance Italian at Covent
'^there on May 13, 1876, in his great part July 1852.15,
bestknownHamlet, was founded that are nowin which his acting on The musical settings
five acts
; Faust, opera inhis boyish recollections of Macready in tliat are the following (i. )—
and CaiTe musicpart in Paris. {Musical World.) words after Goethe, Ijy Barbier ;
Theatre Lyrique,In London he first appeared atCovent Garden, Produced at theby Gounod.
MarchGrand Opera,April 10, 1860, as Hoel, and returned there March 19, 1859; at the
as 'Faust,'every season until 1866, excepting 1865. His 1869; Her Majesty's Theatre,3,
' beenparts included Figaro in Nozze, (selections had previouslyDon Juan, Le June 11, 1863
Hall, West-Tell, Assur, Fernando in 'La Gazza Larlra,' sung at the Canterbury Music
Opera, CoventAlfonso XI., Pietro in 'Masaniello,' Rudoljjh in minster) at the Royal Italian
;
' ' Marglierita,' July 2, 1863Sonnambula, ' St. Bris, Peter the Great, and, on Garden, as Faust e ;
'Faust,' at HerJuly 2, 1863, Jlephistopheles on production of in English (by Chorley), as
' some-Faust, ' in which he has never been surpassed. Majesty's, Jan. 1864. In Germany23,
'In 1870 he played, at Drury Lane, lago in times known as JIargarethe.
'
' Faust, dramaticthe revival of Rossini's Otello Lotario on (ii.) La Damxatiox de
;
'the production in England of Mignon, ' parts the words partly adaptedetc. legend in four ;
version ofGoetlie, partlyFrom 1871 to 1875 inclusive he was again at from Gerard de Nerval's
by BerliozCovent Garden, for the first time there as Ham- written byM. Gandonniere, and partly
Cacique the production Berlioz (op. 24). Per-let, Caspar, and the on of himself. Composed by
tlieOpera Comique, Paris,Gomez's 'Guarany.' In 1876 he sang at Drury formed(as a concert)at
BerliozLane and in 1877 at Her Majesty's for the Dec. 1846 two parts given under
; 6, ;
time in England as De Nevers, and Alfonso London, Feb. 1848, selectionsfirst at Drury Lane, 7,
the same year, andin 'Lucrezia,' which part he plaj'ed, May 19, at the same place, June 29 of
1877, on tlie occa,sion of the last appearance on at the New Philharmonic Concert of June 9,
Therese Titiens. In 1857 he was Choiiey's translation). First completethe stage of 1852 (in
at the Freefor a short time Professor of singing at the Paris performance in England under Halle
Conservatoire. In 1870-72 he sang with great Trade Hall, Manchester, Feb. 5, 1880. In
Brussels, and on Jan. 1903 it was put upon the stage at Monte Carlo,success in opera at 27,
1872, was appointed Inspector of the singing but the experiment, though tried in various
classes at the Conservatoire there. ^ In 1861 theatres, has happily not been piermanently
Meyerbeer's request, adopted.he appeared at Berlin at f. g. e.
>but the tremolo in his voice did not please the (iii. ) Mefistofele. Grand opera in a
proGermans. In however, he sang in Italian logue and five acts, words (after Goethe)1878, and
greatest success in two of his music by Arrigoat "Vienna with the Boito. Produced at Milan,
best parts, Don Juan and Mephistopheles, etc., March 5, 1868. Remodelled and brought out
appointed by the Emperor of Austria again, in a condensedand was form (prologue and four
sang acts),'Imperial Chamber Singer.' He also in at Bologna, Oct. 4, 1875 at Her Majesty's
;
concert tour of the French provinces, hut for a Theatre, July 6, 1880. [See also Liszt, Pieesox,
time past he has lived in retirement.] and 'Wagner.]long ji.
Faure is a good musician and a fine actor. FAUX-BOURDON, or Falsobordmie, a simple
is also a collector of pictures and a man of kind of CounterpointHe to the Church plain-song
voice is a baritone of greatgreat culture. His in other words, a harmony to the ancient
extent and of very fine quality. In 1859 he chant. The first kind of variation from strictly
married Mademoiselle Lefebvre (1828-1905), unisonous singing in the Middle Ages was the
the chief actress of Dugazon roles at the Opera 'Organum,' or the addition of octaves above
Comique. He has published two books ofsongs and below the plain-song or melody. Other
(Heugel), and a Train in 1886. G. additions
; parallel concords were also (as in the 'mixture'
by A. c. organ-stops) Ijlended with the octaves—as the
FAUST. Music to Goethe's 'Faust' was com- fifth, and even tlie I'ourth. These appear to have
posed by Lindpaintncr, and appears to have been been used as early 8tli century. Afteras the the
produced at Stuttgart in June 1832; also by Organum wasthe next improvement the
DiaPrince Radziwill, thescoreofwhichwas publislied phonum and Discant, and by the 14th century
Spohr's' Faust' (words Bernhard),in 1836. by a there are historical intimations that these had
' previously played by development, to theHe had thla part in London, during forrr led, a natural use of
IBW-OfJ.seasons,
' Faux bourdon,' at A\-ignon, whence it2 Isnardon's Tfiidtre de la ilonnaic. was— ; — — — —
FAUX-BOUKDON FAUX-BOURDON 17
taken to Rome on the retnni of tlic Papal Court
-after its se^'enty years' absenee from that city. ^- E^£E^?ii2^—P—
Hawkins (History, ch. mentions66) an English
MS. tract, by one Chilston, preserved in the
' Manuscript ofWaltham Holy Cross,'niostlikcly
the 14th century, giving rules and directionsof
The same harmony (in four piarts) is given byofdescant'for the sight . . . and ofFoJnirdoii.'
Altieri (1S40) a fifth higher. A Faux-bourdon
Gaforius (1451-1522), who is justly considered
on the same tone (transposed giveninto Fj) isthe father of the artistic music of the great
by M. C. Frank, Paris, 1857 :—
school which culminated in Counterpoint a la
- -Et ox ul t;i vit Spi • ri - tus me ua
Palestrina, as also Adam da Fulda, about the
ik I—I 1-—I—— —
same period, are among the earliest writers wlio 2ir3'-i!t=»'==t;^=5Z
-t:^— £i—Q—^—»-^-(Sspeak of this kind of Irarmouy. M. Daujou
discovered, in the library of S. Mark, Venice, C.F. i^-E->-.u_j_
treatises by Gulielmus Monachus, from which
it is plain that in the 15th century the
fauxbourdon was held in equal honour in England
in De - - - -in France. o sa, lu ta ri mcand
The English term Fa-burden is evidently a
corruptionfrom theFrenchand Italian. Burden,
-rBurthen, is both for refrain part-or used the of a
I
J J_J_J_J__,song or chorus, and for a vocal accompaniment
to dancing £
Foot it featly here and there,
And let the rest the hunkji bear. Falsi bordoni by Yittoria, Bernabei, de
ZachaA^iadana will found in Proske's Musicariis , atid beThe word Bordonr, and Bourdon, in its
priSacra, tom. iii. , Liber Vesperarum. T. H.mary sense, is (in both languages) a jiilgrim's
treatises by Gulielmus Monachus referredThehence, from similarity instaff; form, the
bassabove article are printed in the thirdto in thepipe, or drone, of the bagpipe ; and thence again
volume of Coussemaker's Scriptores, at 273,pp.simply a deep bass note. As the earliest Folsi
290, and 299. He speaks of Faux-bourdon asof which we have specimens are prin-bordoni
peculiarly English form ofcounterpoint (288J,acipally formed, cxcejit at their cadences, by
suc292rt), stmg by three voices, treble, alto, andcessions of fourths and sixths below the
plain:tenor. The following is his examplemelody, such an accompanying bass, tosong
liitherto to usethose wdio had been accustomed
the low' octaves of the organum, and to consider i^^^si^^i^pi^
and sixths inadmissible in the harmonisedthirds
,^LJ^J^the Gregorian chant, =^1:accompaniment of would
sonndfaisc and this ap)plication ofthemeaning
;
of the faJso and faux seems a more rational Here the open notes on the lower stave represent
l-sometimes given fromderivation than that fa the plain-song melody, wh ichwas not sung. The
sefto and fahcftc, as implying the combination open notes above represent the tenor part, the
of the high voices with the low in Falso Bordone np2)er row of black notes are the alto piart, and
harmony. the lou'errow of black notes the treble, which
The following example, from a MS.' copied was ofcourse sung an octave higher. The actual
authentic sources at Rome,'' will give afrom notes to be sung are therefore :
better idea of the nature of thi3 kind ofCounter- lower. 1 i i_^ 8ve _ I^^ ^^i iz
point than any verbal description. It is a Fatix- '--^ti)^rz'^mt- -mi
bourdon, ofthe 15th century, on the second tone
from D to originally written for(transposed G) ;
that in faux-botu'don the cantoThus we see
three voices with thecanto fermo in the alto ]iart
with syn-fermo, or an embellished form of it
and with a soprano part, ad libitum, added by
and cadences introduced, is to becoiiations—Eaini :
Inhle part : the alto sings at tliefound in the
sixthfourth below, and the tenor sings at the
the octave on the first and lastbelow, taking
C.F. intermediate cadences. Tlvenotes and at any
. <=! -S-_(=_d:
setunadorned plain-song melody was usuallym
beginning of the composition. Theout at the
Olo - ri Fa li
as rule, written, but was leftalto part was not, a
1 Modorum harmonlfe f.ict.ie nt modul.a-'Octo Melodiae octo
praescriptum Adami de Falda.ct Frauuhim to the extemjiore skill of the singer. If this"baiitur aaeculoVIL.ad
Oaforii.'
biii-ne mind, the ap]arently involved
'^ tunes, see be inthiaand siniil;ir specimens nf harmoiii^'i to otherFor
' Kev. T. Helniore,AcconipanyiDg Hanaonies ot Plaiu-Song.' by of Chilstonlanguage ofGulielmus Monachus and
Brief Directory, p. v.
o
TOT^ II'
18 FAVORITE, LA FAYEFAX
of the(if he he the author second elder brother as organistof the short treatise he succeeded an
sisteron discantinMS. In 1845, leaving aLansdowne763 : sccChilstox) parish church, Bolton.
Bolton, he came tobecomes at once intelligible. Chilston writes his duties atto discharge— Academy ofthus; ' Faburden the tenor part) entered the Royal(i.e. hath London and
Ben-under Sterndalebut two sights {i.e. sites or positions), a third Music, where he studied
(about twelveabove the plain-song in sight, the which is a nett. During his stay in London
Curzonsixth from as organist ofthe treble in voice : and an even with months) he officiated
he was admittedthe plain-song in sight, the which is an eighth Chapel. On Xov. 4, 1852,
Music at Oxford,from the treble in voice. These two accords to of Bachelor ofthe degree
'entitled Supplication{i.e. the sixth and eighth below the treble) the his exercise, a cantata,
on the previousfaburdener must rule by the mean (i.e. the alto) and Thanksgi^'ing,' performed
Professorof the j)lain-song, for when he shall begin day, highly commended by thehis being
Fawcett died, afterfaburden, he must attend to the plain-song and of JIusic, Sir H. R. Bishop.
in Manchester,set his sight even with the and his a short illness, at his residence
^voice in a fifth below the mean and after w. H. H.that July 1, 1857.
alwaysset his sight above the plain-song in a FAY. See Dotat.
Marie, bornthird : and, as oft as he will, he may touch the FAYOLLE, Francois Joseph
plain-song {i.e. descend the octave below after a brilliant careerto the in Paris, August 15,1774 ;
void twice the corjis destreble)and therefrom, except together, at the College de Juilly, entered
'
for that may not be, inasmuch as the plain-song ponts et chaussees in 1792, and became chef
'sight is an eighth to the treble and a fifth to de brigade of the ficole polytechnique on its
Here.undertheinstructionthe mean (alto), and so to every degree he is a foundation in 1794.
perfect accord, and two perfect accords of one of Prony, Lagrange, and Monge, he studied the
nature may not be sung together in no degree higher mathematics, but without neglecting
trans-of discant. literature, and with Fontanes' assistance
In the Trent Codices are numerous examples lated a great part of the ..^neid. Of his verses
—faux-bourdons other following line has alone survived ;of by Dufay, Binchois, and the
composers of the 15th century. An example
temps ii'epargne quon fait sans ]ui.Le pas ce a
by Dufay, printed at 163 of Dr. Adler's firstp.
Though forgotten as a mathematician and avolume of transcripts from these MSS.,
illuspoet, Fayolle has acquired a solid repiutation fortrates very clearly the method employed, the
literature. He studiedintroduction of embellishments and cadences his services to musical
plain-song the treble part, the move- harmony under Perne, and the violoncello underin the of
Bami, but abstained from printing his compiosi-ment of the tenor from the octave below to
withthe sixth and vice versd, and the manner in tions ; and contented himself pjublishing
the inner harmony Les qimtrc Saisons du Parnnsse (Paris, 1805-9),which the alto supplied
a literary collection in sixteen vols. 12mo, forextempore. J. r. E. s.
FAVORITE, LA. Opera in four acts words which he wrote many articles on music and
;
Donizetti. musicians. He also furnished the greater jiartby Royer and Waetz, music by
Proof the biograpihical noticesduced at the Academic Royale, Dec. 2, 1840 in the Dictimi-naire
;
'in London, as La Favorita, ' at Her Majesty's, historique des Musiciens, puljlished under the
names of Choron and himself (two vols. Paris,Feb. 16, 1847.
1810-11), work to whichFAWCETT, John, born at Wennington, a Fetis ismuchindebted.
Dec. was originally a In 1813 he published Sur Ics draynes lyriquis lILancashire, 8, 1789,
leiir execution. He collectedshoemaker, but abandoned that calling to follow materials ibr a
Historythe profession ofmusic, at Bolton-le-moors. He of the Violin, of wdiich, however, only
fragments appeared, under the titlecomposed three sets of Psalm and Hymn Tunes, Notices sur
CorcHi, Tartini, Gavinies,published at various periods under the titles of Pugnani, et VioUi,
Voice Devotion, The Harp Zion, The extraites d'nne- histoire du rioloii (Pa,Tis,The of of 1810).
After the fallCherubLute, a.ndMiriam'.sTimbrel{lS62),v;'hic\\ of Napoleon, Fayolle came to
are still very popular in Lancashire. In 1840 England, where he taught French, and wrote
arranged accompaniments for the Harmonicon. evehe edited and the to On the of the
Revolution ofa collection of psalm and hymn tunes and other 1830 he returned to Paris, and resumed
selected by .Joseph Hart, the music his old occupation as a musicalpieces pub- critic. Among
' his later works maylisher, entitled Melodia Divina.' An oratorio be mentioned a pamphlet
of his composition, called 'Paradise,' was pub- called Paganini et Biriot (Paris, and1830), the
He articles musicianslished in 1853. died at Bolton, Oct. 26, on in the supplement to
1867. His third son, Midland's Biographic UniverseUe. He died
Fawoett, jun., Mus.Bac, was Dec. 1852, at Ste. Perrine, a house ofJohn born 2, refuge
in Paris. G.about 1824, and when only eleven years old c.
Mus.Doc,obtained the a[)pointment of organist at FAYRFAX, Robert, is believedSt.
Farnworth. to have been descended from the ancient York-John's Church, Seven years later
of that name. He is said
1 ' shire family to haveThe MS. reads pluiD-soDg,' an (ibvioue ftlip.'' — ;
FAYRFAX FEIS CEOIL 19
been of Bayford in Hertfordshire, and was prob- sentative of the school of music whicli prevailed
ably horn in the last half of the loth century, in England ti'om the time of Edward lY., and
but nothing is known of his early life. Anthony which may be said to have culminated in hiui.
Wood is no doubt correct in saying that he was His njusic was soon superseded by that of the
Organist or Informator Chori at the Abbey of succeeding generation of composers headed by
St. Albans, with which place he was evidently Tye, and is now for the most part of purely
closely connected. He was at St. Albans on aiitit[uarian interest.
March 1502, when he28, received 20s. from The Ibllowing is a list of his chief
composi'Queen Elizabeth York,of for setting an Anthem tions, mostly in MS. :
of oure lady and Saint Elizabeth.' At the Muss™a 5 : (1| ' Eegali.*
' ; |2| Alban»» (3| Tecum
' ; ppineipiuu,
(4) o bone Jheao nil inbeginning of this year ; the Oxford Mu«lc Sehool Collection(1501-2) he took his and
elscMhepe. '(5) O quom eloriflca,' Lambeth and Cambridee (61
degree of Doctor of ilusic at Cambridge. The Bponsam,' lute arrangement in Epit. Man. Add.i.J'°SS°„'^,/"*,'
Mb. jy,.J46. An iinnanied Maae at Peterhouse. Camhridce may
'words of the Grace for the degree, conceditur be identical with one of these.
Motets : (1) Ave Dei Patris,' a
' 5 ; Bodleian, etc. (2) Maria plenaMagistro Fayorfax erudito in musiea quod post Vjrtute, a 5i Bodleian, etc. |3| 'Salve Eegina,' a 6; Eton MS.
141 Lauda vivi Alpha et 0,' Peterhouse. 'gradum bacallariatus sua erudieione possit stare, etc. (5) Eternae laudis
hhum. a 5 Peterhouse, '
; etc. (61 Maria Deo Grata,' Peterhouse.
Aveetc., may imply that he was already O) lumen gratiae.' 'a member a4; Brit. Mus. Addl. MS. 5054. In Deo.'(8)
K. Coll. Music. 'Ave eumme eternitjitis.' printed by HawkinsUniversityof the ; they certainly show that he inist. ii. '516), is an extract from Ko. (1) Ave Dei Patria.'
A Magnificat a 5, called 'Regalia, 'is at Peterhouse, and (withouthad made liis reputation as a musician at that
coiuposer'B name) at Lambeth
; a second Magnificat is at Lambeth.
Slagnificats at Cains Coll. anddate [Abdy "Williams, St. Michael's Coll., Tenbury may beDegrees in Music\. The
identical with one or other of these- IntheEton MS. wei-efornieriy
' 'Quid cantemnsexercise for his forme in proceadinge to bee Innocentes.' 'Stabat Mater,' 'Ave lumen grade.'
.-ind 'Ave cujus coneepcio.' Lute veraiona of three of the
above'Doctor ' was a live-part Mass, quam glorifica, named compositions are in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 29.246. An
instrumental piece o 3, appjirently a Canon, is in Add. MS. 31,9'22.still inwhich is existence [Lambeth, Cod. 1]. Two Bonga by Fayrfax were printed inWynkyn de Worde's
Songbook, 1530 'Ut re '
; mi fa aol la,' a 4, and My heartes luat,' aHe was incorporated at O.xford in 1511, being 3. A
fragment of a song, Welcome
' fortune.' is preserved atElyCathedral
the first recorded Doctor of Music there. In the Fayrfax MS., Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 5465, are (1) 'That was my
woo,' ' 'a 2 ; (2) Most clere of colour,' a 1 love,3; (3) loved and lo\ ed
Fayrfax seems to have enjoyed the favour of wolde I be,' a '3 ; (4) Alas for lak of her preaens,' a (5) ' Sumwiiat3;
musyng.'a The title-page3. also indicates two other songs ajj beingHenry YIII., after whose accession he was
by Fayrfax, though his name is not written against them. (6)
' 'Benedicite, what dremyd J,' a To complaynegranted an annuity of £9 : 2 ; 6 (June 3; (7) me, alas.' a 3.22, 1509),
being described as 'gentleman of the Chapel.' Burney printed 'That was my woo,' which
At Christmas, 1510, and the two following he thought (for no good reason) may have been
years, he was paid for the board instruction addressedand to Henry YII. after the battle of
twoof choir-boys, 'the King's scholars.' On Bosworth (Hist. ii. also extracts647) ; from
March 1512-1-3, John Fyssher, gentleman of some of the Masses. The6, songs numbere'd 2, 3,
the Chapel, received a Corrody in the Monastery and were printed4, 6, 7 by Stafford Smith in
of Stanley, on its surrender by Robert Fayrfax. A Collection Enejlish Songs. No.of 3 is also
In Nov. 151-3, Fayrfax resigned his annuity of printed by the Plain-song and Medifeval Mu.sio
'£9:2:6, which was granted afresh in suri-ivor- Society in Songs and Madrigals the l(>lhof
ship ' to Robert Fayrfax and Robert Bythcsee. Century. c.. E. p. A.
On Sept. 10, 1514, he was appointed one of the FEEN, DIE. Opera in three acts: words
Poor Knights of "Windsor, with 12d. a day. and music by Y'agner. AVritten at "Wiirzburg
'Other entries in the State Papers between 1516 in 1833 (the plot adapted from Gozzi's Donna
'and 1519 relate to sums paid to Fayrfax for a Serpente'), excerpts tried in the following ye:ir,
'
' ' for a book of anthems but never performedbook (£13 : 6 : 8) ; complete until it 'was
' ' ' produced
; for a prick songe book (£20) ; for a at Munich in 1888.(£20)
balet boke limned ' showing that he FEIS CEOIL, THE (Irish(£20) ; Musical Festival),
found emploj'ment as a writer ami illuminator was inaugurated in Dublin on May 17-22, 1897.
of MSS. : the celebrated Fayrfax MS. (Brit. The event takes place annually inMay, and
occuMus. Add. MS. may well have been one pies aweek. Itconsistsofconcerts6465) (orchestraland
Diet. Xat. Biog. for reference to ballad), and publicof these (see competitions in choral and
State Papers). In 1520 Fayrfax, with the rest solo singing, and in ensemble and solo
instruof the Chapel, attended tlie King to the Field mental playing in allbranches, which are
adjudiGold, being named atof the Cloth of the head cated upon by prominent musicians living out
of the singing men. His death probably took of Ireland. Competitions also in various classes
before Jan. 1525-26, as his name does of musical composition are held, previousplace 1, to the
not then appear in the list of gentlemen of the actual festival, the works which obtain prizes
King's Chapel he was certainly dead before being performed at the concerts. The objects
;
when Bythesee suri-endered of are,Feb. 12, 1528-29, the Association briefly : To promote(1)
the annuity granted in 1513. He was buried the study and cultivation of Irish music. To(2)
Albans Abbey, his tombstone being after- promote the general cultivation of music iuin St.
wards covered by the Mayoress's seat, according Ireland. To hold an annual JIusical Festival,(3)
to the Fayrfax MS. or Feis Ceoil. To collect and preserve by(4)
day (as Anthony "Wood luiblication the ancient musicFayrfax was in his of Ireland. Tlie
' Association liassays) in greatrenowne and accounted the prime its headquarters in Dublin.
nation.' He is the chief repre- The secoiiil and fourth festivals andmusitian of the (1898,
20FELDLAGEE IN SCHLESIEN, EENTONEIN
ofand almost despairwere of distress1900) held at Belfast ; all the others in the feelings
solace ceasedpatriots yet thatDublin. E. 0. the Amsterdam ;
countryclose of1813, theFELDLAGEE IN SCHLESIEN, EIN. towards theOpera once more
insurrection against thestate ofin three acts, words by Eellstab, music by being in a
and the gentle1815 came peaceMeyerbeer written and coruposed in memory French. After
;
a great part of the 19thof Great and duringFrederick the for the reopening of the arts again,
harvest of thethe spiritualBerlin Opera-house —burnt August 18, 184.3 century great was
;
' ' societytheir deserts ! Thereopened Dec. 1844. It was performed with happy through7,
in 1888.extraordinary applause at Vienna, Feb. 17,1847, ceased to exist
onceMeritis was more thanwith Jenny Lind as Vielka eighty florins were The name Felix
;
to Felix Mendels-given for places, and Meyerbeer was applied by Robert Schumanncalled on
' (Leipzig,Hchriften 1854),ten times. The Feldlager ' appears never to sohn ; see Gesammdtc
and 193. A. .J. H.have been played either in France or England, i. 219 also i. 191, 192,
;
born [B.A.but some of the music was FELTON, Rev. William, 1713,afterwards used up
' vicar-choral andM.A. 1745,in the Etoile du Nord." G. Cambridge, 1738,
Cathedral in 1741,FELIX MERITIS, an institution sub-chanter of Herefordin
Amsterchaplaindam that included witli tlie of the vicars-choral in 1769, andperformance ofmusic custos
was-Dowager of Wales]. Hethe cultivation of letters, art, and science. It to the Princess
composer for, andoccupied a building architecturally distinguished in his day as aimportant,
harpsichord. Hewith concert-room, on, the organ anda large library, and obser- performer
concertos for thosevatory, situated on the Keizersgracht, one ofthe published three sets of
those of Handel.larger canals. Orchestral concerts took place instruments in imitation ofin
the life of Handel prefixed to histhe winter, similar to those of the London Burney, in
relatesPhilharmonic and the Crystal Palace. The account of the Commemoration, (p. 32),
violinistusual number was ten, and the subscription on the authorityofAbrahamBrown , the
of Felton's unsuccessful attempt,was equivalent to £5. The early history of a droll anecdote
jirocure the name of HandelFelix Meritis has been narrated by Professor through Brown, to
Jorisson on the occasion of the Centenary, as a subscriber to the second set of theseNov.
Felton also published two or three2, 1877. It was founded in 1777, beginning concertos.
instruments. Heits existence on the Leliegracht of Amster- sets of lessons for the same
' was one of the stewards of the Meeting of thedam. The founders intended it to be for
Three Choirs at Hereford 1 and at Gloucesterthe furtherance of landaUe and useful arts 744,
1751-69.and sciences the augmentation of reason and 1745. He was vicar of Norton Canon,
;
'virtue the increase and prosperity of trade, Felton's Gavot' was long highly ]>opular it
; ;
'was introduced into Ciampi's Bertoldo ' innavigation, agriculture, and fishery,' etc. etc.
But Felix Ijegan at once \\itli music and fine 1762. He died suddenly, Dec. 6, 1769, and
to two was buried in the vestibule of the Lady Chapelart, adding literature the scheme years
w. H.later. The original locale soon proved to be too in Hereford Cathedral. H. ; additions
small, and in May 1782 the members removed from Diet, Nat. Biog.of
FENELL (name also writtento the Vorburgwal. In 1785 continued increase ffinell),
determined the erection of the present building Thomas, was an Irish musician, and "was
A'icaron theKeizersgracht ,completed three years after, Choral of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, in
and with 400 members, instead of, as at first, 1677, of which he was organist from 1689 to
40. (On May 1, 1876, the number of members 1694, with the exception of the year 1691-92,
was The wave of disturbance when William Isaac took hisof all classes 324.) place. Dr.
caused by the French Revolution waslied over Cummings says that there are some ilS. works
Felix Meritis, and in 1792, through want of by Thomas Fenell of Dublin, dated 1689, in
funds, the concerts ceased. However, the leaders the music library of Chester Cathedral. From
of the institution would not allow it to sink in 1694 to 1698 he was organist and vicar-choral
of political speculation of Christ Church Cathedral.the vortex ; and, in the In 1698 he
reabolition of societies throughout Holland this signed, and died about the year 1708-9. He
onewas exempted. During the clatter ofweapons was constantly in difficulties owing to his
the Muses were silent, but in 1800 the comple- temper. -w. h. g. f.
ment of members was again full, and in 1806 FENTON, L.AYixiA, born in London, 1708,
the reading-room, long closed during the pro- whose real name was Beswiok, \vas an actress
hibition of newspapers, opened again. In that and singer who first appeared in 1726 at the
Louis Bonaparte, Holland, Jlonimia inyear made King of Haymarkct Theatre as Otwaj^'s
offered his protection, which was declined, as 'Orphan,' anri afterwards at Lincoln's Inn
was also the proposal that the public business Fields Theatre, July 15, 1726, as Lucilla in
'comedy, The Jlan'sof the country should l>e carried on in the Sir W. Davenant's the
no particularbuilding. Napoleon I. and Marie Louise, were, Master.' She attracted
attenuntil slie appeared as Polly Peachumhowever, later received in it. In these troubled tion in
' Opera,' on the first nighttimes the music of Felix Meritis tended to soften The Beggar's of its''
FERRABOSCOFEO 21
performance. when she 'became voices, accompanied by the organ, I'tc. TheJan. 29, 1728,
townall at once the idol of the ; her pictures two kinds are known respectively as the ferial
were engraven and sold in great numbers ; her use and festal use. o.
written books of letters and verses to her FERLENDIS, Si(;>;ora, daughter of anlife ;
even her architect nauu'dpublished ; and pamphlets made of Barberi, born at Rome about
very sayings and jests.' This success led to 1778. Her voice was a strong contralto, but
being entrusted Avith more important parts somewhat hard and iutlc-xible. Having studiedher
her. the with a teacherthan had before been assigned to At called iloscheri, she made her
end of the season, after she had played Polly debut at Lisbon. Here she had the advantage
sixty times, she withdrew from the of some lessons from Crescentini, and liere alsoupwards of
live with Charles, third Duke she married Alessandro Ferlendis,stage and went to (1802) the
of Bolton. On Oct. 21, 1751, his wife, from oboist, member of a very distinguished Italian
whom he had been separated many years, leav- family of jilayers on the oboe and English horn.
Lavinia Beswick at She appeared at Madrid in nexting died, the Duke married the year, at
Aix,in Provence. She became awidowin 1754 Milan in 1804, and in 1805 at Paris (Theatre
;
'at West Combe Park, Luuvois) in Fioravanti's Caprieciosa pentita.died Jan. 24, 1760,
Greenwich She achieved there, however, no success inGreenwich, and was buried in any
Church, Feb. 1760. w". h. h. other role but that one. Soon after this, she3,
Fr.a.nce,sco, one of the masters of the made her first appearance in London withFEO,
'Catalani in Cimarosa's Orazi e Curiazzi.' SheNeapolitan school, was born at Naples about
' good actress, and at1685. The traditions of Greco and Scarlatti was a prett3' that time first
there, and it was at the sug- bulla she was less liked than she deser"\'ed, forwere still fresh ;
Domenico Gizzi she had a very good contralto voice, and was fargestion of the last named that
a bad butfa. She would have been thouglit,had opened the private school at which Feo from
singing and the princijiles of too, to have acted the jtart of Orazia well, hadlearnt tlie art of
was essentially dramatic, it not been for the comparison with Grassini,composition. His bent
and for Catalani's then eclipsing everybod}'.indeed was that of nearly all the Neapolitansas
epoch, with the exception of Durante, (Lord Mount-Edgcumbe. ) She accompanied herof his
temperament predis- husband to Italy in 1810 her later career iswhose colder and gloomier ;
known. J. M.him towards the ecclesiastical se^'erities notposed
Italian name for thestyle. Feo, like Durante and FERMATA is the signof the Pwoman
Vatican as the ^, which in English is commonly called aLeo, passed some time at the
master Pause, and signifies that the note over which itpupil of Pitoni, but the influence of liis
be held beyond itsto divert him from Opera. is placed should onwas not sufficient ^
'
'
' 'Andromache natural duration. It is sometimes HHis Ipermestra,' Ariana,' and
''appar- over a bar or double bar, in whichwere all published at Rome itself, and fait
case intimates a short interval of silence.residence there. [The MSS. itently during his
di Musica at Naples in- Schumann, in the first mov^ement of hisin the Real Collegio
'
'
' 'tirannico Faschingsschwank in Wien for the pianoforte,two other operas, L' Amorclude
'
' has tlie sign over the double bar in this manner,Siface Various oratorios,(1713), and (1723).
two flats to sixmentioned in the Quellen- where the key changes frommasses, etc., are
'of the sharps, and has also written Kurze Pause.'In 1730 he was directorLexikon.]
[In the older music the sign for the fermata isde' Poveri di Gesii Cristo atConservatorio
merely indicat-establish the school used, as frequently by Bach, asNaples, and did much to
addicted ing the end of the piece, after a Da Capo, whennursery of great singers. Thoughas a
modern composers usually write the wordFeo did not altogether neglectto the stage,
' in thedistinguished by fine.' It docs not then imply any pauseChurch music, and his work is
scientific know- music between the first and second part of theof style and profoundelevation
number.] c. H. H. P.sensuousness, even in hisledge. But a certain
suggested by tlie fact that FERNAND CORTEZ, OU LA CONQUETEsacred pieces, is
by him DU MEXIQUE. Opera in three acts ; wordsborrowed the subject of a KyrieGluck
Esmenard and De Jouy, after Piron musichis operas. [According by ;for a chorus in one of
Produced at the Academic Im-in E. H. r. by Spontini.Florimo he was living 1740.]to
Christian periale, Nov. 28, 1809 ; at Dresden, Marchand FESTAL. In theFERIAL
revision by the composer, at Paris,early times the term Fcria 1812 ; afterChurch from very
April 1818.Monday, Feria tertia May 28, 1817 ; Berlin, 20,was used to denotesccunda
FERRABOSCO,At,FONso(I),generallyknownHence tlie word Fcrui-, orTuesday, and so on.
England as ]\Iaster Alfonso, was one of thedenote a day marked by inFerial day, came to
Maria Ferabosco,festal or a sons of Domenico maestro diobservance, either of ano special
con- cappella to the church of St. Petronio at Bologna.So far as music ispenitential character.
already settled in England in 1562, atis that on the ferial He wastlie chief differencecerned,
than which date he was in receipt of a pension ofmusic is less elaborate and ornatedays the
100 marks a year, payable during the Queen'smore florid, for moreon festal days, when it is22 FERRABOSCO FERRABOSCO
fear ofpleasure. It is possible that in prohibited places, forhe had arrived dare to travel
some years earlier, ' at the mercy of the Inquisi-for in 1564 he speaks of his leaving his family
'
' eventually return tolong service and of his youth and did, however,health spent tion. He
inin the Queen's service,' but and in .June 1572, was concernedit would probably England,
be a before the (Jueen and themistake to attach much importance Masque presentedto a
appears to have re-phrases of tliis kind. In a Amljassador. Heletter to the Earl of French
at Green-Leicester he England (probably livingstates that he had left Bologna mained in
Alfonso was born) till the"without the necessary licence from where his sonthe Inquisi- wich,
country,tion, which had consequently when he finally quitted theconfiscated the year 1578,
property having bound himself never towhich his father had left him. His and (in spite of
of the Queen)father, however, was alive other service than thatfor some years after- enter any
Savoy,wards, and it ser-vdce of the Duke of atis probable that his letters (of entered the
given some appointment,which many exist written to Leicester, whose Court he wasSussex,
' Gentil'huomo dell'and Sir William Cecil) were describes himself asrather intended to for he
excite He left his two childrenthe interest and generosity of his patrons Altezza di Savoia.'
in the chargethan to contain an exact narrative in England, where they remainedof facts.
These letters (dating from van Austerwyke, one of the Queen'sOct. 1564), besides of Corner
later he sent for them,excuses for non-attendance at Court on account Musicians. Six years
go (perhapsof ill-health, etc., are chiefly taken Queen refused to let themup with but the
reasonswhy hostages for the return ofthe Queen's bounty shouldbefarther regarding them as
was still unpaidextended to him. On Sept. 10, 1567, he heard their father), and Austerwyke
that the Queen had granted keeji at the date of Ferrabosco's death,him a pension for for their
his in 1588.life so long as he remained in her service, which took place at Turin
was most-and wrote to ask that this might be secured to The eldest Alfonso Ferrabosco the
him in case of her death Italian musicians wJio livedby the insertion into important of the
the Patent ' 16th century, and was heldof the words heredibus et sueces- in England in the
soribus nostris. ' Perhaps partly on this account, in high estimation among his contemporaries.
but also on account and depth of skill,' saysof the unfriendly construc- 'For judgment
totion which his enemies put upon a visit paid by Peacham in 1622, 'he was inferior none;
liim to the French Ambassador, on Sept. 23 he what he did was most elaborate and profound,
was in disgrace, and the Queen refused and pleasing enough in Aire, though Masterto see
him. To add to his troubles, a young foreign Thomas Morley censureth him otherwise. That
musician of Sir Philip Sidney's household was of his Isav)my Lcu/Ae weeping, and the
XighUnmurdered as he w^as going Court gaU Avhich Dittie Master Bird and he into to exhibit (upon
his skill, and Court gossip acous(>d Ferrabosco a friendly aemulation exercised their in\'ention)
of killing him out of jealousy. He indignantly cannot be bettered forsweetnesse of Aire or depth
wrote Sussexto to protest his innocence (Oct. 13, of judgement. ' Morley tells us of another
'ver1567), saying that the young man was a friend tuous contention' between him and Bj'rd 'made
of his, and that he was in the country when the upon the plaine song Miserere, which contention
affair happened. In a later letter (Dec. 28) he of theirs (specially without enide) caused them
complains that until the Queen consentcil to both to become excellent in that kinde, and
receive him, it was generally supposed abroad, winne such a name, and gaine such credit, as
well as in England, that he was willas guilty of the never perish so long as Musick endureth.'
murder. After some delay the matter was The results of this contention, whichin each
settled, and in March 1563-69, Ferrabosco, in composer set the plain-song in forty different
writing, bound himself to the Queen's service ways, were printed by East in 1603, under the
' 'for life, and received a pension of £100 a year. title of Medulla Musicke ; no copy of it,
howThe Patent dated March contains26, 1569, the ever, is now known to exist.
words 'heredibus et successoribus nostris.' At His other printed works are : a five-part
thesame time Alfonsoobtained leave(after pledg- madrigal 'Tu dole' anima,' contributed to
Pever'ing himself to return) to visit Italy in order to nage's Harmonia Celeste' (Antwerp, 1583).
settle his atfairs. Accordingly, on June 25, he Two Sets of five-part madrigals by him
apwrites from Paris where he was delayed, partly peared at Venice in 1587 the first set
contain;
by business which he was arranging with a ing twenty madrigals is dedicated to the Duke
brother who was to accompany him to Italy, and of Savoy the second set containing nineteen
;
throughpartly having been robbed of all his madrigals Duchessis dedicated to the of Savoy.
property by his English servant. He writes Many of his madrigals found their way into
from Bologna on Oct. 30 of this year, promising Englishcollections: 'MusieaTransalpina' (1588)
'to return with as little delay as him Musicapossible, but in contains fourteen by ;
TransalSeptember of the following five areyear he is still mak- pina' contains six ; in Jlorley's(1597)
ing excuses from Bologna ; besides ill-health collection of 1598. Many of these areand taken
business, he is delayed by the two Sets of 1587.difficulty in obtain- from the
'by theing the Pope's licence, without which he did not Two pieces for the lute most Artificial!'
FERRABOSCO FEREABOSCO 23
and famous 'Alfonso Ferrabosco of Bologna ' were Ferrabosco is said to have sold his share for a
'printed by Robert Dowland in his Varietie of great sum of money.'
Lute-lessons,' 1610. On the accession of Charles I. Ferrabosco
reA large number of MS. works by him, ohiefly tained his former appointments, and was also
Motets, are in the British Museum ; Bodleian made Composer of Music in Ordinary to the
and JIusic School, O.xford St. Michael's College, King, with a salary
; of £40, from the death of
Tenbury ; Buckingham Palace and Royal
; John Coperario in 1626. He was also Composer
College of Music Libraries. G. e. r. a. of the King's Music, with aii additional salary
FERRABOSCO, Alfonso (II), son of the of £40. He died before March 1627-28,11,
first Alfonso, was born at Greenwich, and no when he was buried at Greenwich, where he
doubt was one of the children left behind in seems to have lived at any rate after 1619.
England when their father returned to Italy in Entries relating to members of his family are
1578. 'He was trained up to Musick,' says to be found in the Greenwich parish registers
Anthony Wood, apparently at the Queen's ex- (printed in the Musician, Sept. 20, 1897).
pense ; at any rate, after Oct. 11, 1592, he was Ferrabosco published two volumes of music in
'in receipt of an annuity of £26 : 13 : which4, 1609. The first, a book of Aj'res, ' dedicated
was paid up to Midsummer 1601. After James to Prince Henry, contains twenty-eight songs
I.'s accession he appears as one of the King's with accompaniment for lute and bass viol, of
Musicians for the Violins, a year's salary of £7 wdiich a large proportion are from Jonson's
'being paid him at Michaelmas 1603. He held Masques. The other is a book of Lessons
his place as one of the violins until his death, for 1. 2. and 3. Viols,' dedicated to the
by which time his salary had been raised to Earl of Southampton. They consist of short
£40. l_Audit Office, Declared Accounts.'] pieces, dances, etc., for the lyra viol, and are
' At man's estate he became an excellent com- printed in lute tablature. Each ofthese volumes
poser for instrumental musick,' says Anthony contains (amongst others) commendatory verses
'"Wood, lie was most excellent at the Lyra Viol, by Ben Jonson ; the first has also some verses
'and was one of the first that set lessons Lyra- by Campion, addressing Ferrabosco as Musick's
way to the Viol, in imitation of the old English maister and the offspring Of rich
|
and Bandora. The most famous man in Father Alfonso's Image living.'Lute Old He also
]
all the ^\'orld for Fantazias of 5 or 6 parts.' contributed three compositions to Leighton's
' 'The l}'re is in liigh favour with them, ' writes Teares or Lamentacions ' in 1614.
ComMaugars from Rome in 'but I positions (chiefly FanciesAndre 1639, in MS. for the \\o\s)
have heard none who could be compared with are in the libraries of the Royal Coll. of ilusic
;
Farabosco in England.' But it is chiefly as the Music School, and Christ Church, Oxford
;
of the music to some of Ben Jonson's and the British Museum. G. P.composer E. A.
Masijues that he is now remembered. Those FERRABOSCO, Alfonso (III), son of
for which he is known to have written music Alfonso (II), succeeded on his father's death to
of Blackness' (Tu-elflh Xigfif, the pension of which he had enjoyed aswere 'The Masque £50,
music-master to1604-5), 'Hymenad' (1605-6), 'The Masque former the Prince of Wales
;
of Beauty' (1607-8), 'The Masque for Lord and also to his })lace as ilusician for the Viols
Haddington's Marriage' (1607-8) and 'The and Wind Instruments. The latter double
printed appointment entitled the two liveriesMasque of Queens' (1608-9). The holder to
'description of the Hymensei ' (in which Ferra- of £16 : 2 ; 6 each, which were secured to
Ferraappeared as singer as well as composer) bosco by a deed dated Feb. 1627-1628.bosco 7,
as musicianscontains a testimony to the friendship existing His name occurs one of the in
at that date between him and Jonson, in a warm 1635, and again in 1641. He must have
composer, which, however, was died before the re-establishment of the King'seulogy of the
when toomitted in the folio edition of 1616. In 1604 Musicians in 1660, Child succeeded
' —(Xov. he was entrusted with £20 to buy Ferabosco's place Alphonsus composer of27)
,
'Prince Wales, to whom Wind M. ' and Hingeston for a viol place oftwo viols for Henry, of
Alphonso Ferabosco. G. E. P. A.he was appointed music-master, witli a pension
£50 a year for life (dating from Christmas, FERRABOSCO, Henry, son of Alfonso (II),of
and brother of Alfonso (III), succeeded his1604); on the death of Henry in 1612 his
the King's Music, and asservices were transferred to Charles, the new father as Composer of
Wales. To these sources of income one of the King's ^Musicians, receiving a salaryPrince of
share in a valuable property, of £40 for each^place. On Feb. 1627-28, hewas added in 1619 a 7,
liver}' Musician for thegrant for twenty-one years to him. Innocent secured his double asa
'Lydiard for cleansing the Voices and for the AVind Instruments. HisLanier and Hugh
' with power name appears as one ofthe Musicians at differentThames of fiats and shelves to sell
' whengravel with, in addition, an dates up to 1645, lie signed receipts onthe sand and ;
of one penny jier ton of behalf of the Musicians, the Court being thenallowance to them
at Oxford. His daughter Elizabeth, baptizedstrangers' goods and merchandises imported or
out of the Port of London.' at Greenwich, Dec. 3, 1640, may possibly haveexported into or' '
24 FERRABOSCO FERRARI
ofnativebeen the Mrs. Ferrabosco Gabrielli, an Italian singer,whom Pepys thought Francesca
Augustof engaging When Burneywas in Venice, inas gentlewoman for hia wife, who Ferrara.
' girl
' Ospedaletto orphansings most admirably {Diary, he heard at the anSept. 4, lee-l). 1770
' lass andShe was afterwards with an extraordinary eomj 'in the suite of the Duchess la Fcrrarese
from
' voice. ' Slie sang in Londonof Jfewcastle {Diary, May fair natural30, 1667). Henry a
andCherubini's 'Giulio Sabino'Ferrabosco may be 1787 inidentilied with the Captain 1784 to
success. In 1789Henry Ferribosco but without muchwho took part in the expedi- other parts,
Mozart wrotein ^'icnna.tion to Jamaica where he was prima donnakilled. The she was
introduced intocommittee appointed Rondo 'Al desio,'to report on arrears of pay, for her the
' on its revivalCountess in Figaro 'etc., due to relatives of tliose who fought part of thethere the
played Fiordiligi in 'Cos!recommend (.lune and she10, 16.58) that asum of £240 August 1789,
' Jan. 1790.should its production, 26,be paid for hve small children of Cajit. fan tutte' at
speak-much of her, I'or inHenry Ferribosco, lately slayne by did not thinkthe Enemy Mozart
' she is much betterin Jamaica, his wife being also AUegrandi he says,dead since his ing of
sayingthough that is notdeparture from England.' His place as Musi- than the Ferrarese,
owed her goodcian was filled by Thomas Bates great deal.' She probablyat the a
mouth, and topretty eyes andRestoration. G. e. p. a. fortune to her
Ponte, with whom sheFERRABOSCO, John, was probably her intrigue with dathe son
years. In theof Alfonso (II), who was baptized his mistress for threeat Green-\\ich, lived as
andwith the other singers,Oct. 9, 1626. There is a warrant dated Jan. end she quarrelled
Emperor. G.1631, for delivery of Chamlett and other was sent from Vienna by the17,
'dallaTiorba,'necessaries yearly Benedetto, calledto John Ferrabosco, one of FERRARI,
composer of words andHis Majesty's JIusiciaus for the wind instru- an Italian musician, and
dramas calledments, in the room of Henry during for the species of Italianmusic
musica,' was born at Reggio aboutHis Majesty's pleasure. As Henry was still 'dramme per
portrait prefixed toholding his place as Musician for the "Wind 1597 [as according to a
;
was fortyInstrunrents in this must have 'Andromeda' (printed 1637) he1634, been a his
From a letter, now intemporary arrangement,made solely with a view years old at that time.]
by him to theto providing for the child ofa favouritemusician the archives of Modena, -written
;
however, that Modena in 1623, we learn that hisit is possible, there were two Duke of
musician, and especially as amusicians of this name. John Ferrabosco •^^a3 reputation as a
appointed organist of Ely Cathedral in 1662 player on the theorbo, was by that time
con;
many anthems and services by him exist It was largely owing to him thatstill siderable.
'
' deep root inthere in ilS. In 1671 he took the degree of the dramma musicale took such
Mus.B. at Cambridge 'per literas regias and Germany, and herein lies his chiefItaly
His opera 'Andromeda,' set(Dickson's Catalogue of Music at Ely). The interest for us.
registers of Trinity Church, Ely, show that he to music by Manelli and brought out at the
married Anne Burton on June 1679 their Teatro San Cassiano at Venice in 1637, was the28, ;
childJohn was baptized in the following August, first opera pierformed before a mixed audience.
'and Avas buried May 1682 John Ferrabosco Inl639 followed his Adone,' set b3'Monteverde,8, ;
'himself was buried Oct. 1682. G. Armida, of w'hich he wrote both words15, E. p. A. and '
FERRARA. The earliest and best-known and music. Its success induced Ferrari to
musical academy in Ferrara was that of the devote himself more to composition than before.
'Intrepidi,' founded in 1600 by Giambattista He remained in Venice till 1645, when he [was
Aleotti d'Argenta for dramatic musical repre- in the Court band at Modena : in 1651 he] was
sentations. The magistrates of the city allowed invited to Vienna by the Emperor Ferdinand,
the academicians 100 scudi a year for public and remained in his service till 1653. A ballet
celebrations in their theatre. Previous to the by him was performed at tlie Diet of Ratisbon
founding of this academy, Ferrara could boast in 1653. In the same year he was appointed
one of the most magnificent theatres of Italy, maestro di cajipella Duke Alfonso of Modena,to
opened in 1484 by Ercole I., Duke of Ferrara, on whose deatli in 1662 he was dismissed, but he
'in which were celebrated the Feste Musicali,' was reappointed in 1674, and died in possession
thoseearliestformsofthemusical dramauniversal of the post Oct. 22, 1681. His librettos were
in Italy in the 15th century. While the 'Orfeo' collected Jlilan and Piacenza,and printed at
of Poliziano was represented at Mantua, editionsthe and passed through several ; none of
of Ferrara 'theatre witnessed the Cefalo ' of these however, are complete. Thecollections,
Niccoli da Correggio, the 'Feast of Anfitrione contains several of hislibrary at Modena MSS.,
'and Sosia,' and others. ' alloroThe 'Intrepidi' in 1607 including the ballet Dafne in (Vienna,
represented with great pomp the Pastorale not mentioned in the QncUcn-called 1651). [This is
' 'La Filla di Sciro by but an oratorio Sansone
' Guidubaldo Bonarelli. LcxiJion as still extant,
We have notFresoobalrli was a native of Ferrara, and made noted as at Modena.] sufficientis
on thehis studies there. materials to form any oi>iriion styleu. M. p. of
He published at Venice inFERRARESE DEL BENE, the sobriquet of his music. 1633,,'
FERRARI FERRI
'1637, and HUl, three books of Musiche varie Aneddotfi . . . occorsinellavitadiG. G. Ferrari,
voce sola,' iu which, according to Burney, the 2 vols. London, 1830. Besides the operas, ballets,a
' andterm Cantata' occurs for tlie first time, altliougli songs already named, Ferrari composed an
the invention of this Ivind of piece was claimed extraordinary quantity of music for the voice,
by Barbara Strozzi twenty years later, f. g. pianoforte, flute, and harp. [See
QuellenFERRARI, DoMENico, an eminent Italian Lcrtkon.] F. G.
violin player, born at Piacenza at the be^innini,^ FERREL, Jean Francois, musician in Paris
of the 18th century. He was a pupil of Tartini, about the middle of the 17th century, wrote
number of years at Cremona. a small pamphlet, savoirand lived for a A que les maistres
travel, and deAbout the year 1749 he began to dance, qui sont de vrays maistres larrons a
met with great success at Vienna, where he was I'endroit des violons de France, n'ont pas royale
considered the greatest living violin player. commission d'incorporrer is leur compagnie les
band ofIn 1753 he became a member of the orffardstes et austres musiciens, comrae aussy de
the Duke of Wiirtemberg at Stuttgart, of which leur aire paler redevance, demonstre par J. F.f
Nardini was at that time leader. If Ferrari Ferrel, praticien de musiqae a Paris, natif de
Tartini, he certainly, according I'Aiijou (Paris, the forwas a pupil of 1659). This was signal
to contemporary critics, did not retain the style a contest lasting for 100 years, between the
of that great master in after life. He had an Frenchmusiciansandthedancing-masters,whose
'the execution of octave- chief, the roi des me'netriers,' claimed jurisdic-astonishing ability in
altogether to all musicians. Hard were ex-runs and harmonics, and appears tion over words
have been more a player than a musician. He changed o]ibothsides,and afterseveral law-suits
twice visited Paris, at first in 1751, and played a decree of the Paris Parliament in 1750 settled
died at Paris the question in favour of the musicians. Somethere with great success. He
in 1780, according to report, by the hand of of thex^amphletshadcurious titles ; for example.
murderer. Ferrari published sets of six La clochefelee, ou le bruitfaictpar un musiciena
(Paris and London), and some qui ne veult etre maistre de dance parce qu'il neViolin-Sonatas
pied tenir, Discours pourfor two violins and bass which, however, are salt sur quel se and
partienow forgotten. p. D. prouver que la danse dans sa plus noble
GoTirREDO, a cultivated n'a pias besoin des instrumens de nuisique, etFERRARI, GiACOMO
son of merchant at qu'elle estentouteindependanteduviolon. [Seeand versatile musician, a
M. c. c.Roveredo, born there 1759. He learned the Fctis.]
aboutpianoforte at Verona, and the flute, violin, oboe, FERRETTI, Giovanni, born at Venice
at Roveredo, and studied theory 1540 [lived in Anoona from 1569, where heand double-bass
maestro di cappella at the cathedral fromunder Pater Marianus Steoher at the convent of was
'five books of CanzoniMariaberg near Chur. After his father's death 1.575 to 1.585], composed
in sixPrince Lichtenstein to Rome in five parts (Venice, 1567-91), two bookshe accompanied
half parts (Venice, 1573-86), and another of five-partand Naples, and studied for two years and a
(Venice, all excellent examplesunder Latilla on Pai.siello's recommendation. madrigals 1588),
' Slat' avertiti,'the acquaintance of M. of their kind. A madrigal of his,Here also he made
Antoinette's master of the house- for five voices, is included in Webb's madrigals,Campan, Marie
in vol. iii. of Novello's Glee Hive. m. c. c.hold, and went with him to Paris, where he was and
one of the most extra-appointed accompanist to the new The'atre FERRI, Baldassare,
lived, was born atcompany was dispersed, ordinary singers who everFeydeau. In 1793 the
France. Perugia, Dec. 1610. He owed to an accidentand Ferrari shortly afterwards left 9,
iu his boyhood the operation bywhich he becametravelled for some time he finally settledHaving
eleven he entered thecomposed a very large a sopranist. At the age ofin London, where he
chorister,and two service of the Bishop of Orvieto as anumber of works, including four operas
remained there until 1625, when PrinceIn 1801 he married Miss Henry, a andballets.
on visit at Rome,pianist. From 1809 to 1812 he Vladislas of Poland, then awell-known
In 1665of sight. In 1814 he went carried him off to his father's Court.suffered from loss
Emperortransferred to Ferdinand HI.,Italy with Broadwood the pianoforte-maker, he wasto
successor, Leopold I., loadedNaples, Venice, etc., returning in of Germany, whoseand visited
This prince h,adLondon, Dec. 1842. He was him with riches and honours.1816. He died in
hangingportrait of Ferri , crowned withlaurels,teacher of singing, and published a aan active
'bed-chamber, and inscribed, BaldassareSinr/iny in 2 vols., of which a iu hisTreatise on
sixty-dei Musici.' At the age oftranslation appeared in 1827. His Ferugino, ReFrench
permission to retire to his nativeprattica e teorica (London) is five he receivedStudio di musica
passport, the terms of whichTwo of his French songs, country, with aa useful treatise.
' ' the consideration in
' philosophie and Quand indicated sufiicientlyQu'il faudrait de
reached Italy iu 1675, anda Cythere,' were extremely he was held. HeI'amour nacquit
Sept. 16811.His acquaintance with died at Perugia, 8,popular in their day.
a knight of S. Mark ofmusician of im- Ferri was madealmost every contemporary
therefore, probably visitedhistorical value to his book Venice in 1643; and,portance gives a
C26 FERTE TESTA
of theItaly at that time. He aroused counterpoint with Pitterlin, conductorthe greatest of
death inenthusiasm wherever he theatre. On Pitterlin'sappeared ; hundreds of Magdeburg
pupil of August Eberhardtsonnets were written iu his lionour, he 1804 he became awas
Here he played a violin con-covered with roses in liis carriage after at Leipzig.simply Miiller
In 1806singing cantata, own with brilliant success.a and at Florence a number of certo of his
in the Duke of Oldenburg'sdistinguished persons went three miles out he accepted a placeof
year became solothe town, to escort him into but iu the followingit. (Ginguene.) band,
Reichardt at Cassel, where heHe is said also to have visited London, and to violinist under
and composed his firsthave sung here the part of Zephyr: six happy yearsbut this passed
symphonies, in-must and first twobe a fable, as Italian opera did not begin in seven quartets
especially when he himselfEngland till 1692,—twelve years after his death. teresting works,
after a visit toIt is true that in M. Locke's 'Psyche' the first violin. In 1814,(1671) played
in thethere is appointed solo violin, anda character called Zephyr; but he has Vienna, he was
concert-meister, to the Duke ofonly four lines to speak, and none to sing. following year
next elevenFerrihad, nevertheless,madeone Carlsruhe. During thejourney (before Baden at
'1654) to Sweden, gratify wrote two operas, Cantemir ' andto Queen Christina's years he
' quintets, chorales,wish to hear him. Ginguene says that his Leila,' overtures, quartets,
' diedportrait was engraved with the inscription and other sacred music. He atQui psalms
fecit mirabilia multa 1S26, of consumption, after
; but such a portrait (as Carlsruhe, May 24,
'
however, had notfar as the present writer knows) has never been many years' suffering, which,
seen. A medal was struck, bearing on side impaired his powers, as his last works containone
'his head best writing. His De Profundis,'crowned with bays, and on the other some of his
sungthe device of a swan dying by the banks of arranged in four parts by Strauss, was at
Meander. Ferri was tall and handsome, with his funeral. Fesca was thoughtful, earnest, and
refined occasional traits of humourmanners ; and he expressed himself with warm-hearted, with
sensibility anddistinction. He died very rich, leaving 600,000 in striking contrast to his keen
crowns for a pious foundation. lofty enthusiasm for art. He appreciated
sucsacrifice hisownHis voice, a beautiful soprano, had an inde- cess, but steadfastly declined to
scribable limpidity, combined with the greatest perceptions of the good and beautiful for
popuagility and facility, a perfect intonation, larity. Fesca's rank as a composer has beena
brilliant shake, and inexhaustible much disputed. There is a want of depth inlength of
breath. Although he seems to have surpassed his ideas, but his melodies are taking and his
all the evirati in brilliance and endurance, he combinations effective. His quartets and
quinwas quite as remarkable for pathos tets, without possessing the qualities ofas for those the
qualities, (Bontempi, Hlstoria Musica.) j. M. great masters,have agraceandelegancepeculiar
FERT6, Papillon de la, born in Feb. 1727 to himself, and are eminently attractive. His
'at Chalons; became in 1777, by purchase, symphonies are feebly instrumented,In- but his
tendant des lleuus-plaisirs ' to Louis XVI., and sacred works are of real merit. In richness of
'as such had the direction of the lilcole Royale modulation he approaches Spohr. A comi)lete
de Chant' founded by the Baron de Breteuil, edition of his quartets and quintets (twenty and
of the opera after the municipalityand had given five in number) has been published in Paris
up the administration of it. In 1790 he pub- (Eimbault). His son, Alexander Ernst,
lished a reply to a pamphlet by the artists born at Carlsruhe.of May 22, 1820, died at
—opera Me'moire justificatifthe ' des sujets de Brunswick, Feb. 22, 1849, was a pupil of
'I'Academie royale de musique —in which they Rungenhagen, AVilhelm Bach, and Taubert,
demanded a reform of the administration. He and composer of trios for pianoforte, violin, and
died in Paris, July 19, 1794. His son occupied violoncello, and otherchamber-music popular in
the same post after the Restoration. m. c. their day. The 'c. best of his four operas was Der
FERVAAL. Opera in three acts, words and Troubadour' (Brunswick, 1854). m. c. c.
music by Vincent d'Indy. Produced at the FESTA, Costanzo, one of the earliest
comTheatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, March 12, posers of theRoman School, wasbornsomewhere
at the Ope'ra1897; Comique in Paris, May towards the close of the 15th century. He was
1898.10, elected a member of the Pontifical choir in 1517,
FESCA, Friedrich Ernst, composer, born and died April 10, 1545. He eventually became
at Magdeburg, Feb. 1.5, 1789. His father was maestro at the Vatican, and his nomination was
an amateur, and his mother a singer, pupil of so far singular that he was at that time the only
A. Hiller,J. so he heard good music in his Italian in a similar position throughout the
youth, and as soon as he could play the violin Peninsula. His genius cannot be doubted, and
tastehad enough to choose the quartets and Dr. Burney, who had been at the trouble of
quintets of Haydn and Mozart in preference to scoring a great number of his Madrigals, was
Pleyel's music, for which there was then a astonished at the rhythm, grace, and facility of
perfect rage in Germany. 'Having completed them. He calls one of Festa's Motetti, Qiiam
his elementary studies, he went through a course pulchra es, anima mea,' a model of eleganceFESTIVALS,FESTING MUSICAL 27
simplicity, and fnire liarmony, and says that asses. On inquiry they found them to be the
' the subjects of imitation in it are as modern, orphans of Kytch, an eminent but imprudent
and that the parts siug as well, as i£ it were a German oboist, hadwho settled in London and
production of the 18th century.' Festa, ac- then recently died, literally in the streets, from
cording to Baini, fell in his motets into a sheer want. Shocked by this discovery Festing
fashion too prevalent in his day, of setting consulted with Dr. Greene, his intimate friend,
(Lifedistinct words to each voice. The Abbe and other eminent musicians, and the result was
Faleslrinu, vol. i. 95-103) explains in the establishment of the Society of Musicians0/ pp.
great detail the lengths to which this absurd for the suppin-t and maintenance of decayed
muand undignified affectation was carried, and sicians and their families. [SeeRoyal Society
quotes with obvious and well-merited approval a OF MusiciAXS.] Festing tor many years
perrebuke administered by the CardinalCapranica, formed gratuitously the duties of secretary to
singer thisin the pontificate of Niccolo V., to some institution. He died July 24, 1752. In
'who had asked him to admire the caprice. Mi September of that year his goods, books, and
pare,' said the Cardinal, 'di udir una mandra instruments were sold at his house in Warwick
porcelli, tutta Street, son,di che grugniscono a forza senza Golden Square, He left an only
theprofierire pero uu suouo articolato, nou che una Rev. Michael Festing, rector of Wyke Regis,
parola.' Dorset,who married the only child of his father's
The repertories music are friend, Dr. Greene. this union sprangprincipal forFesta's From
many name ofthe collections which flowed from the presses of descendants to perpetuate the
Gardano and of Scotto at "\'euice in the middle Festing, and not many years since an
Hertfordof the IGtli century, and for which the curious shire innkeeper, bearing the names of Maurice
Btbllographie Greene Festing, was living. Festing's composi-inquirer must be referred to the
violinof Eitner, or the Quellen-Lexikon. [His first tionsconsistof several sets of solos for the ;
book of madrigals lor three voices was published sonatas, concertos, and .symphonies for stringed
down to and other instruments part of the third chapterin 1537, and various editions appeared ;
Chapel, of Habakkuk, paraphrased; Addison's Ode for15(iS. Two masses are in the Sistine a
on morning;four-part Magnificat was published in 1554, and St. Ce(.'ilia'sday ; Milton'sSong May
double choir in 1583.] an Ode on the return of the Duke of Cumberlanda book of Litanies for
'are rich from Scotland in 1745 ; an Ode For thee howThe archives of the Pontifical chapel
'I do mourn and many cantatas and songsin his MSS., and a celebrated Te Deura of his ; for
Ranelagh. John Hawkins says that(published loJNi) is still sung by the Pontifical Sir 'as a
Pope. Burney, performer on the violin Festing was inferior tochoir at the election of a new
many of his time, but as a composer, particularlyin his History (iii. 245, prints a motet and6),
of solos for that instrument, the nature anda madrigal of Festa's; and a Te Deuni and
understood, hecollection (vi. 40). genius whereof he perfectly hadmotet are given in Book's 31,
' (' Quando but few equals,' Festing had a brother of theHis madrigal 'Down in a flow'ry vale
') name of John, an oboist and teacher of the flute,ritrovo la mia pastorella long enjoyed the
disin his profession was such that hepopular piece of this whose successtinction of being the most
acquired chieflyH. p. died in 1772 worth £8000, bydescription in England, B.
teaching. w. h. h.FESTING, Michael Christian, an eminent
FES'TIVALS, MUSICAL. The earliestperformer on, and composer for the violin, was
festivals which any trustworthywho was musical ofthe son of a flautist of the same names,
record exists were held in Italy. At an inter-a member of the orchestra of the King's Theatre,
view between Francis I., King of France, andin the Haymarket about 1727. Festing was at
Bologna in 1515, the musiciansthe band Pope Leo X. atfirst a pupil of Richard Jones, leader of
combinedunder attached to their respective courtsat Drury Lane, but subsequently studied
and gave a performance, but no details of thefirst appeared in public aboutGeminiani. He
liave been preserverl. In the earlyprivate programme1724. He became amember of the king's
century therewas a thanksgivingamateur part of the 17thband in 1735 and first violin at an
cessationfestival at St, Peter's at Rome on thewhich met at the Crown and Anchorassociation
of the Plague, when a mass by Beuevoli for si.xunder the name of theTavern in the Strand,
more than 200 voices withchoirs was sung byPhilharmonic Society. [In 1737 he was
apoccupyingorgan accompaniment, the sixth choirdirector of the Italian Opera.] On thepointed
thehighest part of the cupola. In FranceGardens in 1742 he was theopening of Pvanelagh
recorded is that which took placewell as leader first festivalappointed director of the music as
for the recovery of the eldestas a thanksgiving,of the band.
'
' DeuniXIV,, when LuUi's Teoriginators of the son of LouisFesting was one of the
ina similar happy eventat (written to celebrateof Musicians. Being seated one daySociety
life in 1B8G) was performedin the His Majesty's ownthe window of the Orange Coffee-house
In Bohemia the earliestthe by -lOO musicians.in company with Weidemann,Haymarket
Prague in honour of theobserved festival was held atflautist, and Vincent, the oboist, they
Emperor Charles VI. as Kingmilch coronation of theintelligent-looking boys drivingtwo very''
28 FESTIVALS, MUSICAL MUSICALFESTIVALS,
of Bohemia, ' forth,when the opera of Costanza hereunder sete held (all at Cardiff) as
Fortezza' —hy Fux was performed iu performed:the opeu principal workswith the
air hy a band of 1200 and a chorus of 100 voices Priise,' 'Golden Legend'Elijiili,' 'Hymn of
18'.I2. 'Messiah,'
'
' IMaekeiiZiei, Faust (Beriioz),(SullivanI Oreain of .Tub;tl ' '— somewhat singulara proportion of orchestral
'Blest Pair of Sirens' (HuljertMater' IDvoKk),'Stubat
oratorio,
' ' (Stanford), in addition to anto vocal resources— and of this Parry) lleveneean account is
festival by Dr, Josephcojuposed for the'Saul of Tarsus,'
given by Buruey in his Baniby.Gennan Tour, vol. ii. Conduettir, Sir JosephParry,
' .Judgment.' 'Requiem (\ erdi),'St. Paul,' Limt1895. 'Messiah,'
p. 178, French musicians united at Paris in (SullivaTil, 'Faust (Berliozl.Light of the "World''The
first per-Francis' (Edfar Tinell,'Choral Symphony,' 'St.ITiii in a solemn service at the funeral of time, 'The BardEngland and for the firstformance in ;
' (David Jenkins). Con-Rameau; and and A Psalm of Life'at Naples iu 177-1, at the burial (Stiinford)
interval of seven yearsSir Joseph Baraby. (Anduetor.
of Jonimelli, the service was was held.)performed by 300 before the next festivalelapsed
''Elijah,' 'Song of nestiny (Brahms),1902 'Orpheus' (Gluek).musicians. In Austria the earliest festivals ' Samson and'St-abat Mater' (Rossini),'Faust' (Berlioz),
'
' Flying Dutchman(Saiiit-SaOns), 'Ruth' (Cowen),Delikah'were given by the iMusical Institution atVienna
' (C(^-8ar Fitinckl, for the first
1 ami 'Ji. The Ee-ititudes'(Acts
time, two orchestral pieces(Tonkiiustler-Societiit) , by whose members, time iuEn-'land; and, for the firstto
'On the March,' by Arthur Hervey.'On the Heights,' and
the number of 400, oratorios were performed Cowen.Conductor, Dr. F. H.
'Faust (Schu-Hymn of Praise.' 'Eve' (Massenet).1904 'Elijah ''twice annually, in Advent and Lent, for charit- (Saint -Saens). 'Requiem'mannl 'Samson and Delilah'
' (Elgar). 'The Desert' (David).(Verdi), Dream of Gerontius'able purposes, beginning with 1772.1 In the 'Midsummer Night's Dream' music'Lohengrin' (Act 3),
same city forthe first time, 'John Gilpin '(Cowen),there was a festival in honour of (MendelssohnI; and,
'Welsh Rhapsody'Victory ofSt. Garmon'(HarryEvans),The
' 'Haydn in IbOS, at which the Creation was ' East," Her\ey, the two laet(Gennani. and overture In the
Conductor, Dr. F. H. Cowen^named being orchestral works.performed, and at which the composer bade
Festivals. See below.Diocesan Choralfarewell to the world. More important, and in
— seven con-Dublin. A festival comprisingits dimensions approaching more nearly to the
Smartwas held in 1831, when Sir Georgemodern festival, certswas a performance given at
conducted, the latter beingVienna in and Ferdinand Ries1811, also iu Haydn's honour, when
' The Triumph ofrepresented by his oratoriothe numbers are said to have been upwards of
'Faith.' Mendelssohn's Jlidsummer Night's700. [See also BE.iULiEU, Cincinn.A-TI, and
' overture was played from MS. parts,NiEDERRHEiNisCHE, Dreamfor important festivals
Feis Cecil,and Pagauini appeared. (See alsoother than British.] c. M.
ante,]). 19.)
— The first festival in the Scot-Edinburgh.British Festivals
tish capital was held in 1815 (seven concerts),
The following musical festivals are described of which a full account (published) was written
under their own lieadings : Birmingham, Graham (Edinburgh, 181G).by George Farqiihar
Bristol, Cecilia, Charity Children,St., The two succeeding meetings, in 1819 and 1824,
Eisteddfod, FeisCecil,FoundlingChester, were conducted by Sir George Smart. In 1843,
Hospital, Handel Festival, Leeds, Liver- Musicon the occasion of the opening of thenew
pool, Manchester, Norwich, Sons of the Hall in George Street, a festival was held (Oct.
Three Choirs, York.Clergy, and 9-14) , conducted hy the Reid Professor of Music,
—Bradford. In connection with the opening
Sir Henry R. Bishop. No new works were
proof St. George's Hall, a festival was held in 1853, duced on any of these four occasions, nor have
Mendelssohn performedwhenaMS .Credoby was any subsequent festivals been held. Mksic(See
for the first time. In 1856, J. L. Hatton's for the People, by Robert A. Marr, Edinburgh,
' 'Robin Hood,' and G. A. Macfarren's May 1889, for further information.)
28Day,' were produced on August 26 and re- Glasgow.— In 1860 the first festival took
spectively; and in 1859, on 26, Jackson's place in Glasgow, wdien the four concerts
in' The Year,' received its first performance. All cluded performances of ' Messiah,' 'Elijah,' and
three festivals were conducted by Costa. the production of a new oratorio by Charles
Bridlington.— This festival, inaugurated,
'Edward Horsley, entitled Gideon.' The next
financed, and conducted Mr. A. W. M.by music-meeting (six concerts) was held in 1873,
Bosville,D. L.,of Thorpe Hall, nearBridlington, ' ' 'at which were given Messiah,' Elijah,' Eli
was first held iu 1895 ; with one exception (Costa) and, for the first time, an oratorio,
;
it has been continued annually until(1902) 'Jacob,' composed by Henry Smart, and a
I'M'i. Works have been specially composed for
'psalm, Bow down thine ear,' H. A. Lam-by
the Bridlington festival by the following local who, withbeth, Costa, shared the duties of
musicians Mr.— .John Camidge, Mr. Arthur C. conductor. No other festival has since been
Edwards, and Mr. G. T. Patman. Further Glasgow. opening of St.held iu The Andrew's
details will be found in the Musical Timex of Halls, however, in Nov. 1877, partook of the
Jane 1903, p. 383. For thatnature of a musical festival. occasion—Cardiff. In spite of the tact that Wales is 'composed his cantataSir G. A. Macfarreu The
credited with a true love for music, no festival Mr. Jlarr's bookLady of the Lake.' (See
menon an adequate scale took place in the Princi- ' Edinburgh.')tioned above, under
pality until 1892. Since then and up to the North Staffordshire,Hanley. See below.
present time (1905) four meetings have been —The festival (notHoviNGHAM. quite an
in this remote Yorkshire1 HanBlick'e Concert- Wesen in Wien, 18. annual one) villagep.'
FESTIVALS, MUSICAL FESTIVALS, MUSICAL 29
Tvas Canonfounded iu 1887 by T. P. Pembertou made the fame of the Sheflield Festival. On
(formerly Hudson), and has al^^'ays been con- that occasion the 'programme included the
]\Iesducted bj- bim, tbe twelfth meeting taking 'place siah,' 'King Olaf' (Elgar), Samson and
Deli11103. A list of the 'iu works that have been lah' (Saint-Sacus), Tlie Golden 'Legend,' The
performed is given iu the Musical rimes of Choral Symphony,' 'King Saul' (Parry), and
December ltK)3 792). Those •(p. produced at the Hymu of Praise.' Sir (then Mr.) August
Hovingham have been composed by Dr. Alan Manns conducted ou both occasions.
Gray, Dr. E. AV. Naylor, Mr. T. Tertius AtNoble, the festival of 1902 the following works
Miss Alexandra Thompson, and Dr. Charles were performed, under the conductorship of
Wood. Dr. Joachim has taken part iu nearly iNIr. Henry J. Wood: ''Elijah,' Gareth and
'all the festivals. Lynette (a cantata composed lor the
occaPeterborough and Lincoln.— ' 'Originating sion by Dr. Coward), Triumphlied (Brahms),
' ' 'at iu 1882 as an oratorio service, The Dream of Geroutius aud Coronation
,
'this festival assumed its twiu-cathedral form Ode (Elgar) '
' Wanderer's Sturmlied (Richard
in wheu Lincoln ' '1889, became joint partici- Strauss), Israel in Egypt' (Selection), Stabat
'pator in the scheme. The meetings have been Mater' (Dvorak), Jesu, priceless Treasure'
held as follows: Peterborough iu (Bach) 'Meg1882, 1SS.5, , Blaue' (Coleridge-Taylor), ' Easter,'
1888, 1891, 1894, 1898, aud 1901: Lincoln symphonic poem for organ and orchestra (Fritz
'in 1889, 1892, 1896, 1899, and 1902, -while Volbach), Blest Fair of Sirens' (Parry), and
'one is announced to be held at Lincoln iu 1905. The Hymn of Praise.' Ever since the inception
Thus it will be seen that since 1901 the festivals of the Sheflield Musical Festival Dr. Coward has
have exclusivelybeen at Lincoln. The perform- held the post of chorus-master. For the
fesances have been conducted (with the exception tival of 1905, Herr F. ^\'eingartne^ is ai)pointed
of that in 1882) by the respective conductor.organists
—the two —of cathedrals Dr. Haydu Keetou, of Wolverhampton. Started in 1808, this
Peterborough: (the late) J. M. W. Young aud festival was held triennially until 1880, when,
Dr. George -J. Bennett, both of Lincoln. owing to lack of financial support, it ceased to
North Staffordshire.— exist.These festivals The first meeting (1808) was conducted
take rank for at least two new works produced by Mr. Alberto Eandegger, the following four
thereat, and for the excellence of the chorus festivals being under the direction of Mr. W. C.
singing for which the Potteries Stockley, of Birmingliam. Iuare noted. Since 1883, wdth the
their foundation appointment of Dr.(in 1888) live meetings have Swiuuerton Heap as
conbeen held, all taking place at Hauley. The ductor, the concerts occupied two days, instead
dates are 1888, 1890 (first performance of of one as formerly. The most important
proSwinnertou Heap's 'Fair ductive featureof WolverhamptonRosamond'), 1893, the Festivals
' 1.S80),18'H3 (first performance of Elgar's Kiug Olaf '), is associated with that last held (iu wheu
'and 1899 (first of Coleridge-Taylor's two cantatas, The Maid of Astolat,' by Dr.
' Death of Minnehaha,' the Heap, aud 'The Bridal fif Triermain,' Mr.second section of by
' 'the Hiawatha triology) . The late r)r. Swin- Frederick Corder, were performed for the first
nertou Heap conducted all these five festivals. time, both works having been written for the
Scarborough.—Two festivals occasion and conducted hy their respectivehave hitherto
composers.(r.«)5) been held— in 1899 and 1902, both
conducted by Dr. F. H. Cowen. The works
Diocesan Choral Festivals
'performed at the first meeting included St.
Paul,' 'The Golden Legend,' and 'Ode to These widelyspread festivals, known notonly
the Passions' (Cowen) : and at the second (in all over Great Britain, but in Britain beyond the
190'2), 'Messiah,' 'Elijah,' 'Faust' (Berlioz), seasaud also in America, originated iu the diocese
Lichfield, year wheuaud 'Revenge' (Stauford). of in, or about, the 1850,
—Sheffield. Although one of the youngest the Lichfield Diocesan Choral Associatiou was
of British festivals, Sheffield has rapidly come formed. Tlie first festival was held, upou the
Dean Chapter, iu Lichfieldinto the first rank, by reason of its magnificent invitation of the aud
LSoO, attendedchorus-singing, due to the exceptional choir- Cathedral, on Oct. 11, aud was
training skill of Dr. Henry Coward. This uota- twenty-sixchurch choirs coiningfromvariousby
music-meeting parishes in Staffordshire. But the germ ofble Yorkshire originated in a
very modest way, nothing more than a per- these important and beneficial choral gatherings
formance of Mendelssohn's 'Elijah,' in 189.'*, can be traced to the parish of Cheadle. iu
Stafconducted Dr. Coward. In the following fordshire, where, iu (or about) 1819, was foundedby
first festival proper, lasting two 'The Cheadle .\ssociation for the promotion ofyear (1890) the
'—works performed Church Music a society, wdiich notonly organ-days, was held, wdien the
in' ' Golden Legend,' Faust ised festivals of church choirs in the district,cluded Elijah,' The
' 'published its own music. One of the(Berlioz), and 'Job (Hubert Parry). but
however, until the meeting of first acts of this Association was to gatherIt was not,
together several neighbouring chi;)irs iu the1899 (three days) that the singing of the chorus;
30 TtTlS f6tis
parish church forof Cheadle, for the much pianoforte musicpurpose of composer he wrote
practisiug chanting and singing' chamber-music, duos, a{The Organist two and four hands,
and Choirmaster sestet for piano (fourof Nov. 15, 1896, in an article quintets, and aquartet,
' and sym-on Choral Festivals'). In the following string quartet, overturesyear hands) with
music.(August 29, 1850) similar operas and sacreda festival service was phonies for orchestra,
'held ' Mari (1820), Mariein Leigli church, nine choirs, L'Amant et le 'comprising His operas
'La Vieille (1826),100 voices, taking part. Such tcosse' (1823), 'gatherings came Stuart en
wereto known, de Bergame' (1832)be and they were speedily recog- and 'Le Mannequin
Comique with somenised and encouraged by the Lichfield produced at the OperaCathedral
seem feeble andauthorities. Thereupon the they nowmovement rapidly success, though
his sacred compositionsspread aud became firmly rooted in the various antiquated. Among
' Messes faciles pourdioceses and rural deaneries, not will only specify hisonly here, we
'
'but in the Messe de Requiem composedColonies and in America. These I'orgue,' and his
Queen of the BelgiansChoral Associations hold their annual festivals for the funeral of the
church musiceither in the Cathedrals of their The greater part of hisseveral dio- (1850).
Fe'tis's fame, however, restsceses, or in some large Parish Church. On such is unpublished.
but upon his writingsoccasions the singing of the combined not upon his compositions,choirs,
numbering hundreds theory, history, and literature of music.of voices, is always of an on the
^l^mentaire . . d'harnionie etimposing and soul-stirring nature. p. g. e. His Methode
whichF1<;TIS, Francois Joseph, born March d'accompagnement (1824, 1836, 1841),25,
Mons, translated into English (Cocks & Co.)1784, at died March 26, 1871, at Brussels, has been
his Solf'eges progressifs (1827);the most learned, laborious, and prolific musical and Italian;
Traitelitte'rateur of bis time. He was the Manuel desprincipes de musique (1837) ;son of an
organist at Mons, and early ^lemeniaire de musique (Brussels, 1831-32)learned to play the
ch<£ur —translated byviolin, piano, and organ, completing his studies Traite du chant en (1837)
coriv-at the Paris Conservatoire. Boieldieu and Helmore (Novello) ; Manuel des jeunes
Pradher were his masters for the positews ; Methode des tnethodes depianopiano, but he (1837)
des methodes du chantonly succeeded in gaining the harmony prize in (1837); Methode (1840);
' Plain Chant1803, and the second second prix ' for com- and Methode il4inentaire de (1843),
position in scarcely as much might have been of great service to teachers, though1807, as have
bear traces of having been writtenbeen e-xpected from one who delighted to style some of them
Farhimself the pupil of Beethoven. He married in haste for the publishers. above these
in and in 1811 pecuniary difficulties, must be ranked his Traits de l'acoompagnement1806,
of his wife's de la partition ; his Traits eomplet de lacaused by the loss fortune, com- (1829) •
pelled bim to retire to the Ardennes, where he th^orie et de la pratique de Vharmonie (1844),
remained till his appointment as organist and which has passed through many editions and
Douai in Dec. been translated into several languages ; and hisprofessor of music at 1813. In
1818 he returned to Paris, and in 1821 be suc- Traiti du contrepoint et de la fugue (1824), a
ceeded Eler as professor of counterpoint and really classical work. These two last Fe'tis
conConservatoire, sidered his best original productions, and lookedfugue attheParis becoming
librarian of that institution in 1827. For an account to them for his permanent reputation. They
of the historicalconcertsheinaugurated in Paris, were the more important in his eyes because he
575-76. [In 1828 he believed in the infallibility of doctrines.see vol. i. pp. was for three bis
months in England. (See the Harmonicon for Outside his own peculiar system of harmonic
—July 1829.) He came to England in 1829 for generation the 'omnitonic' system, whose
of giving a course of lectures on main principle is that harmonicthe purpose combinations
musical history. The season was too far ad- exist bywhich any given sound may be resolved
vanced to allow of bis doing so, and the planwas into any key and any mode—he saw nothing
single lecture being given but error andabandoned, a at Sir confusion. As a historian hewas
George Warrender's, on May 29, when illustra- equally systematic and equally impatient of
tions were given by Camporese, Malibran, contradiction. Nevertheless, in his Biographic
Donzelli,Mme. Stockbausen, Begrez, Labarre, urdverselle des Musiciens, and in his Ristoire
De Beriot,etc.] In March 1833 bewas appointed ginerale de la Musique, errors of detail and
director of the Brussels Conservatoire and mistakes in chronology abound, while many of
maitre de cbapelle to the King of the Belgians, the opinions he advances are open question.to
two important posts, which, besides ensuring Easy as it may be, however, to find fault with
him many gratifying distinctions, obliged him these two standard works, it is impossible to
take part in the labours of the Belgianto do without them. The first edition of the
Academic Royale, for which he wrote 1835-44) is especiallyseveral Biographic (Paris,
dememoirs. remarkableinteresting fective, but it contains a
introducmust be considered separately writings of Forkel,Fe'tis in his tion founded on the Gerber,
capacities of composer, and others. Fe'tisvarious author of theo- Kiesewetter, Hawkins,
inhistorian, introduction as materialretical works, and critic. As a tended to use this forFifcxiS FEVIN 31
a Philosophie de la Muslque, but had not time is a member of the Academie Royale in Brussels.
to accomplish it. The second edition of the [He is still (1904) active as Couservateur en
Biogruphie (Paris, ISliO-fio), though more com- chef de la Bibliotheque Royale. A younger
plete and more satisfactory than its predecessor, son of the historian, Adolphe Louis Eugene,
should still he consulted with discretion ; its born in Paris, August 20, 1820, died there
are stilldates often wrong, and there are mis- March 20, 1873, was a clever and successful
takes, especially in the articles on English pianist and teacher, and composed a good deal
musicians,which arealmost ludicrous,and might of music of little value.] g. c.
have been avoided. The two supplementary FEUILLET, Raoul Auger, a
dancing-masvolumes edited by Arthur Pougin in 1878 and ter of Paris, was the author of an ingenious
sys1880, added much to the value of the book. tem by which dance steps could be noted down
Fe'tis unfortunately allows his judgment to inbe diagrams showing the position and movement
biassed by passion or interest. It is a pity that of the feet corresponding to each bar of the
in his Histoire genirale de la Musique (Didot, 5 music. Something of the sort had been
prevols. 1S69-76) he is not more just to some of his viously attempted by a M. Beauchamp, but
predecessors, such as Villoteau and Adrien de la Feuillet carries out the idea with a degree of
Fage, whom he quotes freely but never without elaboration which tends to defeat itself owing
depreciatorysome remark, thus forgetting the to the bewildering complexity of the diagrams
—poet's words: which result. His book was first published in
'
' doit-onAh! hL^riter de ccux qu'on assassine ? 1701, and is entitled Choregraphie, ou L^Art de
In spite of this defect, and of a strong ten- deerire LaDance par curacteresfigures et signes
dency to dogmatism, the Histoire generals demonstrati/s.de la It was translated into English
Muslque, although a fragment— for it ceases by John Weaver in 1706, but was not found
—at the 15th century exhibits Fe'tis at his best. to be of much assistance in practice. Signer
Another useful work is La Musiqne mlse a la Gallini, who wrote on the Art of Dancing in
'portde de tout le monde (Paris, speaks choregraphie18130, 1854, 1847), 1772, of as an inextricable
which has been translated into German, English, puzzle or maze of lines and characters, hardly
Spanish, and Russian. The same elevation and possible for the imagination to seize or for the
clearness appear in his innumerable articles memory to retain,' and concludesand thatdiagrams
reviews, which were all incorporated in the such as those of Feuillet can only be intelligible
Biogruphie, the Curiosites historiques de la to dancing-masters, who are just the persons
Musique (Paris, 1830), the Esquisse de I'histoire who have no need of them.
de Vharmonie (Paris, 1840, now very scarce), Feuillet published several collections of
and other works already named. The Revue dances in this curious notation, and notably a
musicale which he started in 1827, and con- 'Recueil de Contredanees mises en Chore'graphie'
tinued till 180.3, was the foundation of the (1706), which is of the highest value as
estabFrance. lishing the English originmusical press of [Among his other of the French
contreworksmaybementioned biographies ofPaganini dause. Such well-known English times as
'
' ' 'and Stradivari (1856), Memoires sur Green Sleeves and Christchurch Bells appear(1851),
' ' *simultanie chez Grecs les here as Les Manehes Vertes and LeVharmonie les et Bo- Carillon
d'Oxfort an article innxains (1858) ; catalogues of the musical eshibits ' : see the Musical Times
in the Paris Exhibitions of 18.55 and 1867.] This of Feb. 1901. J. r. r. s.
short resume of Fe'tis's labours will suffice to FEVIX, Antoine de, composer of the 16th
to century, whose wtu'ks entitle him to positionshow the immense services he rendered musi- a
cal instruction and literature. Had hebeen a lit- amongst hiscontemporaries second alone to that
tle less one-sided,and a little more disinterested of Josquin Despres. We have only a few vague
model critic and conjectures as to the actual circumstances of hisand fair, he would have been a
life. He was born Orleans, for he is stjdedlitte'rateur. [After his death his library was at
bought the Belgian Government, and is now 'Aureliauensis.' The existence of Fevin's com-by
positions in MS. in the cathedral at Toledo,in the Brussels Conservatoire.]
opinion of Spanish musicians, lia\'eHis eldest son, Edouard Louis Fkancois, and the
born Bouvignes near Dinant, May 1812, caused him to be considered a Spaniard, by suchat 16,
assisted his father, and edited authorities as Gevaert and Eslava. There areat an early age
in the Vienna librarythe Bevne musicale from 1833 to 1835. He was some books of Masses
'art critic of the Indepeudance Beige, edited containing three by Anthonius Fevin. pie
5th vol. of Histoire generate de la Musique, memorie.' Ambros, in his History of Musicthe
L^gende de Saint Hubert (Brus- (ill. shows that the date of these booksand published 274),
Les Musieiens beiges (Brussels, lies between 1514 and 1516, and assumingsels, 1847), 1849),
work, Les Artistes beiges ii I'etranger that Fevin died about this time, and moreovera useful
Catalogue raisonnii of (as Glarean leads us to infer) that he died quite(1857-186.5), and a (1877)
m;iy,valuable library purchased by the young, places his birth about 1490. Wehis father's
was also professorof sesthetics at any rate, accept these dates as approximatelyGovernment. He
Acade'mie des Beaux-Arts and true, and at once see that it is scarcely correct toto the Brussels,
32 FEVIN FIBICH
call Fevin a 'contemporary ofJosquin. was printed those ofAlthough Le vilayn jaloys' among
he died a few years before the great thismaster, he Antoine de Fevin's, by Petrncci in 1515;
was probably boru forty years after the date masses are in the Sistine Chapel inof and other
'Josquin's birth. Had it not been for on La sol fa mi ' in the Munichhis pre- MS. and a mass
'mature death, might not relationthe Felix Jodoci library. The composer was probably a
semulator,' as Glarean calls him, Fevin. (Quellen-Lexikon andhave lived on of Antoine de
to work by the side of Lassus and share with Riemann's Luxikon.)
him the glory ofa brighter period? Surely FIALA, Joseph, eminent oboist, born 1751there
was in 'that noble youth, whose Lobkowitz in Bohemia. He taught himselfmodesty was at
'equ;il to his genius (again perfect passion,we quote Glarean) the oboe, for which he had a
every element of greatness, except being a serf was compelled to menial labourperhaps phy- but
sicr.l strength, requisite for making He ranawayandwasrecaptured,his name in the Schloss.
stand with those Lobkowitz,of Clement and Gombert in upon which his mistress the Countess
the gap between Josquin and Lassus. ordered his front teeth to be pulled out that heBut
although Fevin can never of playing but some of thebe the hero of any might be incapable :
chapter in musical history, there is little doubt nobility of Prague interceded for him with the
that when the compositions of his time Emperor, who commanded him to be set free.become
once more generally known, Wallerstein's band, andthe few works He first entered Prince
which he has left behind him will find favour in 1777 that of the Elector at Munich. He was
as soon as any, on account of the afterwards in that of the Archbishop of Salzburgpeculiar charm
which veils his most acquaintanceelaborate workmanship, where he made the intimate of the
the simplicityand of effect which seems tocome Mozarts. In 1785 he was suddenly discharged
so naturally to him, and so well agrees by the Archbishop, with a loss of 200 florins, onwith the
personal character for which which Mozart only urged him comeGlarean admired not to to
him. We give the following list of his works, Vienna, but offered him a good engagement.
and the various collections in which they After a residence of some years in Russia he
'appear:— Three masses, 1792 capellmeister to Prince(1) Sancta Trinitas,' became in
Fursten'
' Meute tola,' and Ave Maria,' from a book of berg at Donaueschingen, where he died in 1816.
£ve masses (Petrncci, Fossombrone, 151.5) . He published [two symphonies (MS. in theRoyalThe
only known copy of this Library at Berlin)]work, with all the two sets of quartets
(Frankparts, is in the British Museum. Burney has fort and Vienna, about 1780-80), 'Six duos
'given two beautiful extracts from the first mass pour violon et violoncelle (Augsburg, 1799),
History. ('J) and two triosin his Three masses, 'Ave Maria,' sets of for flute, oljoe, and bassoon
'
* Mente Tota,' and De Feria,' in 'Liber quin- (Ratisbon,1806), besides MS. concertos for flute,
'decimMissarum (Andreas Antiquis,Rom. oboe, bassoon, and violoncello. He played151(1),
of which is in the Mazarin several other instruments well, especiallya copy Library at the
Paris. (3) Six motets from the first book of violoncello and double ba,ss, and was evidently
' 'the Motetti della corona (Petrncci, Fossom- a man of mark. ai. c. c.
' ' '1514) A motet, FIASCO (a flask). Faire fiasco,'"brone, . (4) Descende in to make
' fiasco,' —hortum meum,' and a fugue, Quae es ista,' a i.e. a complete failure a phrase of
'
'from the Cantiones selectae ultra centum somewhatrecent introduction. Theterm, though
(Kriesstein, Augsburg, 1540). Two lamen- Italian, is not used by the Italians(.5) in this sense,
' ' ' buttations, Jligravit Juda and Recordare est,' first by the French and then by ourselves.
from the collection by Le Roy and Ballard, The date and origin of the expression are
un1557. Detached movements from known to Littre' but it isParis, (6) ; tempting to believe
' the image to bemasses in Eslava's Lira-sacro-Hisi^ana.' that of a flask falling and(7)
—One magnificat from Attaignant's fifthbook for breaking or, as our own slang has it, ' coming
two motets from his eleventh to utter smash.'four voices, and g.
' FIBICH, Zdexko,book (Paris, 1534). (8) One piece in the Bi- son of the chief forester a!
Gallica,' etc. (Rhau, Wittenberg, 1545). Vseboricnearcinia Czaslau inBohemia,wasbornthere
'O quam glorifica luce,' on(9) Three masses, Deo. 21, 18.50. After pursuing general studies
' '' Requiem,' and Mente tota,' in the Ambraser in Vienna and Prague (where his natural
incli' at Vienna, and three MS. motets in nation for musicMessen showed itself so emphatically
'A Salve sancta thatsame library. (10) mass, at fourteen he had not only composed a
the only copy of which is in the Royal symphony in Eparens,' flat but actually conducted a
at Munich. There is a tliree-part song first performanceLibrary of part of it), Fibich entered
le I'airray,' in Brit. Mus. Harleian the Leipzigof his, 'Je Conservatorium in lSli.5. There he
fragments of two masses in remainedMS. 5242; and until 1S07, studying under Mo.scheles,
extracts. Add. MSS. 11,581-2. Richter,Barney's musical and Jadassohn, and there he produced a
Quellen-Lexikon. j. r.s.-d.For other MSS. see G minor symphony among a great number of
de, born at Cambrai, w.asFEVIN, Robert compositions. But of more importance to him
Duke of Savoy at themaestro di cappclla to the than the composition of such works at this time
mass,of the IGth century. A on was the immense influence upon himbeginning of Schu-—— —
FIDDLE FIDELIO 33
maiiu. A j'ear in Paris (1SB8-69) was followed adapted by Joseph Sonnleifliner from Bouilly's
by a stay at Mannheim, 'where Vincenz Lachner Leonore, ou I'Amour conjugal.' He received
was his teacher. In 1870 he returned home, the text in the winter of 1804, and composed
and shortly afterwards his(1874) first opera tlie opera at Hetzendorf in the summer. It was
' Bnkovin,' a melodramatic 'work, influenced hy produced )atthe( 1 Tlieatre anderWien, ' \4enna,
"VVeber and Mozart, was produced. From 1873 onWednesday, Nov. 20, 1805, in three acts Ihe
;
to 1874 he was a music teacher at Wihia, 'and overture was probably that known as Leonora
on returuiug to Prague 2.'in the latter year he No. Cherubini was in the house. (2) It
becamein 1875second conductorofthe Bohemian was played again on the 21st and 22nd, and
Theatre. This post he occupied till 1878, when then withdrawn. (See vol i. 241-242.)pp. Tlie
lie was conductor of the choir in the Russian librettowasthenreduced byBreuning twoto acts
;
atChurch Prague till 1881. After this Fibich three pieces of music—said to have been an air
retired into private life in order to devote himself for Pizarro with chorus a duct, Leonore and
;
entirely to composition. He died at Prague, Marzelline and a terzet, Marzelliiie,
; Jaquino,
Oct. 10, 1900. and Rocco—were sacrificed, and the overture
' 'That Fibich was a very prolific composer the Leonora No. 3 composed. It was played again
list of his compositions testifies. His works at the Im))erial private theatre on Saturday,
amount to about 700, wTitten in some thirty-five March and29, 1806, April 10, and again
-withyears. Of these the most imjiortant, quantita- drawn. After the death of Guardasoni,(3)
tively, are his six melodramas, six operas, and the Italian Director of the Prague opera, in 1806,
' 'three scenische melodramen (the latter quite the apitointment of Liebich, and the adoption
distinct from the other melodramas) the melo- of the German opera
; there, Beethoven, with
' 'dramatic trilogy Hippodamia (' 'Pelops Braut- the view to a probable jierforniance of Fidelio,'
werbung,' Vienna, 1892 ; 'DieSidiue des Tan- wrote the overture known as 'Leonora, No. 1,'
'
' 'talus : Hippodamia's Tod,' the operas as an easier work than1892) ; ' either of the two
*Der Sturm' (after Shakespeare, 'Hady' preceding. The1895) ; performance, however, did not
'(1896); 'Sarka' (1897); and Helga,' the first come oH', and the overture remained in MS. and
'part of the 0}iera Der Fall Arkunas. ' A string unknown till alter Beetho^'en's death, when it
quartet in G, op. 8 a pianoforte quartet in E was sold in the sale of his
; ell'ects and jiublished
'
'minor, op). 11 ; and a quintet, wdtbclarinet, horn, in 1832 (Haslinger) as Overture in C, op. 138
'pianoforte, and strings, op. 42, represent the (Au,t. Charactcristische Ouverture See Sey-').
best of his chamber music, Avhile his orchestral fried, 9 Thayer, iii. 25.p. ; (4) Early in 1814
'works include the overture Eine Nacht auf the opera, as again revised by Treitschke, was
Karlsteiii ' pirobably his most familiar submitted to Beethoven ; be at once set to work,(1886),
'
*w^ork, the Komensky-Festouverttire and it was produced a third time, in two(1892) acts, at
;
symphonies in F (op. and E flat (op. the Karnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna,17, 1883) ; on May 23,
38, 1892); and seven symphonic poems, some 1814, as 'Fidelio.' The overture was that of
'352 pianoforte pieces for two hands, and four the Kuinsof Athens, ' but on the 26th over-the
'duets, besides a host of songs and ture in E, known as the Ovei'turesets of to Fidelio,*
vocal duets, and three compositions for chorus was first played. Nottebohm's reseai-ches in the
and orchestra. sketch-books have made it clear that for the
has largely overshadowed revival of the opera in Beethoven'sFibich's fame been 1814, first
by that of Smetana and Dvorak, but in some of intention was to recast tlie Prague Overture
his ]>ianoforte music especially there is nmch No. 3 (op. 138), changing the key to E. Of
great originality and this various drafts exist, andthat is full ofcharm ifnot ; some are given
Hcethoveniana,a good deal of his music deserves to be better in p. 74. Had this intention
known, though it would appear that none is been carried out the overture A\'ould have boi-ne
'the same relation op. that Leonoradestined to survive for any great length of to 138 No.
' ' 2,'time. K. H. L. 3 does to Leonora No. and we might then
FIDDLE. The old Englishword, before 'viol' have possessed five overtures to the opera ! It
more idiomatic than Violin was Beethoven's wish that the opera should became in, and still
{ij.v.). Both are possibl}" derived from the same called 'Leonora,' but it was never jierformed
root vitiila, a calf, from the s])ringing motion of under that name. It was produced in Paris,(5)
JJiclionar!/, and Littre at the Tlieatre Lyrique, translated by Barbierdancers (Murray, Oxford
;
and compare the connection of Geige and jig). and Carre, and in three acts. Ma}' 5, 18 60. In
FiDDLF.s'ricK is the violin-bow, as in the Epi- LondonbyChelard'sGerman company (Schroder,
: etc. ) at tiie King's Theatre, May 1832. Ingram on a Bad Fiddler 18,
Old Orpheus play'd so well he mov'd Old Nick, English (Malibran) at Covent Garden, June 12,
Whilst then mov'st nothing—but thy fiddlestick. 1835. In Italian (Crnvelli and Sims Reeves,
have three terms for instru- Recitatives by Balfe) at Her MayThe Germans the Majesty's, 20,
a.ment Fiedel, Geir/e, and Violine. 1851. The chief editions are- a PF.(6)
ODEPi, DIE EHELICHE LIEBE. score of the second arrangement (by l\Tosche]esFIDELIO,
opera (op. the words under B.'s direction) without Overture orFinale,Beethoven's single 72) ;
VOL. II'
34 FIELD FIELD
1810 withthem,
; 1815 ; bothentitled 'Leonore.
A ditto of the third arrangement, entitled
' Fidelio,' August 1814. A critical edition by
'Otto Jalin of tlie completework as Leonora,' in
PF. score, showing the variations and changes
(Breitkopf & Hartel, 1851). An English
translation by 01ii>hant (Addison & HoUier),
and another by Soane, with Preface (Boosey).
The four overtures are given in the Royal Edition
(Boosey). For the whole evidence as to the name
' ?'of the opera see Leonore oder Fidelio in Otto
Jahn's Gcsamrii. Schriften, p. 236, and Thayer's
Chron, i^erzcichniss, p. 61.
It may be well here to give a list of the
overtures to the opera in the order of their
composition.
Title.;
FIELITZ FIGURE 35
1832. From thence he went to Paris, and in of Breitkopif Hartel's complete& edition of
1833 tlnough Belgium and Switzerland to Italy, Schubert. g.
where at Milan, Venice, and Naples his playing FIFE. The name commouly given to the
did not please the aristocratic mob, and his chief instrument, or Flute, in theBb Drum and
concerts did not pay. Habits of intemperance Fife Band. More particularly considered, the
had grown upon him ; he suffered from fistula, designation signifies an early and simjile form
and his situation at Naples became worse and of small transverse flute (see Fli'te), the bore
He lay inworse. a hospital for nine months in of which was cylindrical throughout, and the
the most deplorable contlition, from which at intonation in consec^uence very faulty, but
last a Russian family named Raemanow rescued which was in some cases used in Drum and
him, on condition that he should consent to Fife Bands until the last lilteen or twenty
return with them to Moscow. On their way years. This form of the instrument is
practiback Field was heard at Vienna, and elicited cally obsolete, and tlie name now signifies a flute
'transports of admiration by the exquisite pilay- of the conical ' type, intermediate in pitch
'ing of his Noctiumes. But his liealth was gone. between the concert
' flute and piccolo. This
Hardly arrived at Moscow he succumbed, and modern instrument has, in addition to the usual
was buried there in Jan. 1837. six finger-holes, four, five, or six keys. It is
Field's printed compositions for the piano are pitched in (but occasionallyBb in C), and in the
as follows : Seven Concertos— (No. 1, E>> ; No. Drum and Fife Band gives the mass of the tone,
2, Ab ; No. 3, Eb ; No. 4, Kb ; No. 5, C, being assisted in the harmonies by piccolos and
' L'incendie par I'orage ' No. C No. flutes in F or of similar construction.
; 6, ; 7, Eb It is
minor) two Divertimenti,C ; with accompani- interesting to note, as relating to the subject of
twoment of violins, flute, viola, and bass ; a Musical Pitch, that the pitch of Drum and Fife
Quintet and a Rondo for piano and strings Bands until some time between 1S80 and 1890
;
Variations on a Russian air for four hands a remained the same as Srr Geo. Smart's
; pitch of
Valse,grand four Sonatas, three of which are 1828, practically identical with the present low
'dedicated to Clementi two Airs en Rondeau' orchestral p>itch (Philharmonic, although
; 1896),
'Fantaisie sur le motif de la Polonaise, Ah, quel from about the middle of last century Military
'dommage ; Rondeau Ecossais ; Polonaise en Bands, in accordance with the Queen's
regula'forme de Rondo ; deux airs Anglais, and Vive tion, used, and still use the high orchestral, or
Henry IV.' varies and twenty pieces to which 'old' Philharmonic pitch. This remains the
;
in recent editions the name of Nocturnes is official army pitch, as recognised by the Royal
apjdied, though it properly belongs to not move Jlilitary School of Music, Kneller Hall, and to
than a dozen of them. E. D. it both the Military and the Drum and Fife
FIELITZ, Alex.vnder Vo>f, born in Leipzig, Bands now conlbrm. D. J. E.
stopiDec. 2S, 1860, his father being half Polish, and FIFTEENTH is a or set of pijjes in an
his mother a Russian. He studied in Dresden organ sounding two octaves, or fifteen notes,
Kretschmer for composition, and above the Open diapason. Thus when theunder Edmund
OpienJulius SchulhofT for pjianoforte. In 1886 and Fifteentli and diapason stops are drawn
1887 he conducted under Nikisch, and then out at the same time, and the finger is placed
years, owing to delicate on the key of middle C, two notes are soundedwent to Italy for ten
c'music — and c"'.health, where he composed most of the
by which he is known, consisting of several FIFTH. A Fifth is the perfect consonance,
for orchestra, and tlieratioofthevibrationalnumbersof the limitingpiano pieces, songs, two suites
' Dorf, was sounds ofwhich is 2 : 3. It is called fifth becausetwo operas, one of which, Das stille '
produced at Hamburg, March 13, 1900, and has five diatonic notes are passed through in arriving
Bremen, Lilbeck, Ulm, etc. from one extreme of the interval to the other,been played in
in whence the Greeks called it Sia irivTe, Diapente.Von Fielitz is at present a Professor the
Conservatorium at Berlin, and was ap- The interval consists of three whole tones and aStern
the Theater des Westens in semitone. c. H. ii. p.pointed conductor at
See NozzE Di Figaro.1904. He is chiefly known in England by his FIGARO.
ballet-dancer who takessongs, of which the most important is a cycle FIGURANTE. A
w. E. c. an independent part in the piece also, in France,called 'Eliland.' ;
character in a play, who comes onFIERRABRAS. An opera in three acts by a subordinate
words by Kupelwieser. It was com- but has nothing to say,Schubert,
owing to his failure FIGURE is any short succession of notes,missioned by Barbaja, but
either as melody or a group of chords, which pro-was never performed, and remains in MS. in
the (!4esellschaft der Mnsikfreunde duces a single, complete, and distinct impression.the Library of
dated at The term is the exact counterpart of the Germanat Vienna. Act 1, 304 pages, is
bewhich is thus defined in Reissmann's con-and end 25th and 31st May (1823) Motiv,ginning ; —
:5th June. The overture tinuation of Mendel's Lexlkon. ' Motiv, Ge-Act 2, 31st May and
concerts. The full danke, in der Musik, das kleinere Glied einesi.s occasionally played at
ausdemdiesersichorganischentwickelt.'the sixth volume of series xv. solchen,score forms3G FIGURE FIQUEE
It is in fact the shortest complete idea in
music and
; in subdividing musical works into
their constituent portions, as separate
movements, sections, pei-iods, phrases, the units are
the figures, and any subdivision below them will
leave only expressionless single notes, as
unmeaning as the separate letters of a word.
Figures play a most important part in
instrumental music, in which it is necessary that a
strongand definite impression shouldbepjroduced
to answer the purpose of words, and convey the
sense of vitality to the otherwise incoherent
succession of sounds. pureIn vocal music this is
not the case as on
, the one hand the words assist
the audience to follow and understand what they
hear, and on the other the quality of voices in
combination is such as to render strong
characteristic features somewhat inappropriate. But
without strongly marked figures the very reason
of existence of instrumental movements can
hardly be perceived, and the success of a
movement ofany dimensions must ultimately depend,
to a very large extent, on the appropriate
development of the figures which are contained in
the chief subjects. The common expression that
'a subject is very workable,' merely means that
it contains well-marked figures
; though it must
be observed, on the other hand, that there are
not a few instances in which masterly ti-eatment
has invested with powerful interest a figure
which at first sight would seem altogether
deficient in character.
As clear an instance as could be given of the
breaking up of a subject into its constituent
figures for the purpose of development, is the
treatment of the first subject of Beethoven's
Pastoral Symphony, which he breaks up into
(a) (h) (c)
^^6==^^^
three figures corresponding to the first three
an example of his treatment of (a)bars. As
—may be taken
-9^^ =.--n— '
FIGURED BASS 37FIGURE
same, partly by the rhythm and partly by the importance of figures becomes proportionately
relati^'e itositinns of the successive notes. This greater. succession ofisolated tunes is alwaysA
manner of modilying a given tigure shows a more or less inconsequent, however deftly they
tendency in the direction of a mode of treatment maybeconnected together, butbythe appropriate
which has become a I'eature in modern music : use of figures and gi'oups of figures, such as real
namely, the practice of transforming figures in musicians only can invent, and the gradual
unorder to show dilfereut aspects of the same folding of all their latent [lossibilities, continuous
thought, or to establish a connection betA\'cen and logicalworks ofartmaybe constructed such
;
one thought and another by bringing out the as will not merely tickle the hearer's i'ancy, but
characteristics they possess in common. As a arouse profound interest, and raise him mentally
simple specimen of this kind of transformation, and morally to a higher standard, c. H. H. r.
(pioted a passage from move- Fiijiiruto, an-may be the first FIGURED. A translation ol'
ment of Brahms's PF. Quintet in F minor. other word for Florid. Figured Counterpoint
The figure stands at first as at (h), then by is where several notes of various lengths, with
(i). de\'ice3, aretransposition as at Its first stage of trans- syncopations and other ornamental
formation is ; further (k) {in) are pro- set against the single notes of the Canto fermo(/) (/) ;
gressive modifications towards the stage and Figured melody, or Canto fyuralo, was the(«),
breaking up notes of the churchof the long
(1)
melodies into larger or more rapid figures or
passages. The Jigurirtcr Choral, or FiguredpE^^5=^^
chorale, the German school was a similarof
which eithertreatment of their church tunes, in
the melody itself or its accompaniments are
'
'broken up into figures or groups of smaller
original. Of this numberless ex-notes than the
amples may be I'ound in the works of J. S. Bach.
See Chorale-AiiKANOEMENT.s.
is a species ofmusical short-FIGURED BASS
hand by which the harmony only of a piece is
indicated. It consists of the bass notes alone,
represent the chords. It seemswith figures to
having been repeated twice in different employed Peri, Caecini,which, to have been first by
imme-)iositions, appears finally as the figure Viadana, and Mouteverde, about 1600, in the
diately attached to the Cadence in D\y, thus accompaniments of their Recitatives and Songs,
for some time in universaland was afterwards
eol-use for accompaniment ; songs such as the
leetiou of the Orpheus Britannlmit, and anthems
collection, and gTeat works likesuch as Boyce's
too familiar to havingA similar very fine example— Bach's 'Passion' and Handel's 'Messiah,'
of Beet-need quotation here—is at the close accompaniments indicated in this manner. The
Overture to 'Coriolan.' consisted of the lowest part of -whateverhoven's bass line
"Wagner makes of strongly whether treble, orThe use which was going on at the time,
as hemarked figures is very important, tenor, oi' bass, and in choral works it often leapt
establishes a consistent connection between the about promiscuously in a manner that would be
situations and the music by using player unaccustomed to thecharacters and very harassing to a
which appearappropriate figures (Leilmoliven), process, as for example
theywhenever the ideas or characters to which
forward.belong come prominently
immenseThat figures vary in intensity to an
ithardly requires to be pointed out anddegree ;
'last chorus of the Messiah.'that figuresofaccompaniment from thewill also beobvious
represented the diatonic intervalsmarked as figures which The figuresnot require to be sodo
naturecounting upwards, without referencetothepositions ofindividual importance. "Withoccupy
chord thus 2 always meant the nextlatter it may be remarked that of the ;regard to the
above—D above C, as in (o), andin nuisic inwhich diatonic noteis hardly any departmentthere
up to4 the next note but two, as (h), and so oninspiration are more absolutelytrue feeling and
9th, above which the figures of the lowerno amount of ingenuity or theindispensable, since
and the choice of the par-figures as that octave were repeated ;can jirorluce suchperseverance
by aticular octave in which a note representedthe C minor Symphony, or suchwhich opens
should be pilaced, as well as the progres-as those in the death march figuresoul-moving figures
' was generally left to theGotterdammerung. sion of the parts,in Wagner'sof Siegfried
chiefly discretion of the player.conmion notion that musicAs the
was not customary to insert all the figures.tunes grows weaker, the Itof pleasantconsistsFILLUNGER38 FILIPPI
of theMusicale of Milan, and criticGazsettaas some intervalswere looked upon astoo familiar
wasfrom 1859. His influencePerseveranza,to require indication, sucli as tlie octave and
thebehalf of Wagner, andexerted onstronglythe tilth and the third, or any of them in
must beof Wagner in Italyearly acceptancecombination with other intervals thus a 7 by
;
pamphlet,his writings hisin part to ;itself being ascribedwould admit of any or all of them
translated into GermanU'agner, wasliicr.ardotaken without being indicated, as (c) ; and a 9
a series of musicalin 1876 ;publishedwould aiimit of a fifth and a third, as(rf) and and
;
ilusicisti, appeared in 1879,Musica eessays, asa 6 of a third, but not of a fiftli, as (e) ; and a 4
life and works ofmonograph on theand aof a fifth and an octave, as When a 2 was(/).
composedsome value. HeFumagalli is ofwritten alone over a note it admitted also of a
pieces, and songs.pianofortechamber-music,sixth and a fourth, as ; but more commonly(g)
1887. (EiemannMilan, June 25,He died atthe 4 was written with tlie and the sixth only2,
M.Baker's Dictionaries.)andwas understood ; and this seems to be the only
LA. Opera in twoDU REGIMENT,FILLEcase in which notes other than the octave or fifth
musicBayard and St. Georges ;acts words byor third are left to be understood. ;
at the Opera Comique,Donizetti. Producedby
as 'La Figlia di1840. In London,Feb. 11,
Majesty's (.Jenny Lind),Reggimento,' at Her
'The Daughter of the1847 and asMay 27, ;
Dec.
' (Fitzball) at Surrey Theatre, 21,Regiment
1847.
in Vienna, Jan.FILLUNGER, Marie, born
in the Vienna Con-servatorium27, 1850, studied
under Mme. Marchesi. Onfrom 1869 to 1873
advice ofBrahms she went to the Hochschulethe
remaining there until 1879,in Berlin in 1874,
following Mme.when she went to Frankfort,
While still a student of theHoch-Schumann."T-r
with great success in public,schule, she appeared
Germany,"When were chromatically altered the singing mainly in oratorio, in Northnotes
and Switzerland. Early in 1889 sheaccidental was added by the side of the figure Holland,
London at a Popularrepresenting that note or for sharpening a made her first appearance in(7b),
note a line was dra^vn through the figure or by Concert, where her singing of Schubert's songs
customary once as a great interpretativeits side, as at (7i), and as itwas not to stamped her at
write tlie ,whenthethirdwastobechromatically artist, while the exquisitely beautiful quality of3
alteredtheaccidentalwasplacedbyitselfwith the her soprano voice gave peculiar charm to all she
implied debut, she sang Beethoven'sbass note—thus a simple or tl, a sang. Soon afterherJJ, b, JJ,
! '
'or 3rd. When the bass movedand any or all Ah, perfido ' and Schubert's Die Allmaclit,'b, 5,
of the harmony above it stood still, at the Crystal Palace (Feb. and at the sameof the notes 25),
a drawnit was common to indicate this by line place undertook the soprano solo in the Choral
from the figures indicating the notes which Symphony (March 4, 1889), for which
engagestationary to the place where they ments she had the first instance come toremained in
notes happened tomoved again, and if the be England. Her success both in orchestral music
snch as were usually left to be understood by and in songswas so markedthat shemadeLondon
lines were drawn over the bassthe player, the herhome,and since that timehasbeen recognised
movefrom the point in which it began to under as one ofthe most highly accompilished singers of
imjjlied chord. Whenever the bass was to the best music. It is characteristicthe of her that
unaccompanied by harmony, the words 'Tasto shebe has never sung anything unworthy of the
Solo ' were written. high artistic position she haswon for herself, and
figures were usually written in their her nameThe will always be identified mth music
though for special purposes theynumerical order, of the noblest class. She phrases with the
be reversed when the composer required a delicacy andmight nmsicianship tliat are generally
disposition of the notes, and similarparticular associated with the gi-eat violinists, and whether
emergencies often caused the 8 or the 5 or the 3 in Schubert, in which her first successes were
inserted if it was indispensalile that the made into be ; Brahms, whose songs she sings with
those figures shouldnotes represented by not be deep expression and beauty of style ; or in Bach,
out. See Thoroughbas.s. o. h. h. p. some ofmissed whose solo cantatas she has made her
FiLiPPO, born at Vicenza, .Ian.FILIPPI, 13, own, her singing is marked by the highest
studied law at Padua, and took his degree qualities. In 1891 she went with Sir1830, Charles
1853. He had ah-eady taken up the Australia and tookthere in and Lady Halle to part with
of Verdi'scudgels on behalf 'Rigoletto,' and them in forty-eight concerts in 1895 she
;
acafterwards devoted himselfentirely to music companied these artists to South Africa,soon singing
criticism. He was editor In 1904 sheand musical of the in twenty-four concerts. acceptedFILTSCH FINALE 39
a iiosition as teacher in the Royal College of FINALE. The last movement of a sym-(1)
ilusic, Manchester. M. fihony, sonata, concerto, or other instrumental
FILTSCH, Charles, born July 1830, at8, composition. The piece ofmusic with which(2)
Herraannstadt, Sielienbiirgen, Hungary. He any of the acts of an opera are brought to a
appears to have received his earliest regular in- close.
struction on the piano from llittag at Vienna. The finales of the first gi'eat master of(1)
In 1842 he was in Paris, studying under Chopin the symphony, Haydn, though develojied with
and Liszt. In the summer of 1843 he came to extraordinary skill and inexhaustible invention,
London, and appeared twice in public, once on are mostly of a somewhat playful character.
June 14, at St. James's Theatre, between two of Though their treatment is learned, their
subthe plays, and again on July 4, at a matinee of jects are often trite. They are almost uniforndy
ownhis at the Hanover Square Rooms. On cast in the 'rondo,' as distinguished from the
the latter occasion, besides the Scherzo in B 'sonata' form. The finales ofmore recent masters
minor and other pieces of Chopin, he played a exhibit a somewhat severer purpose, and are cast
Prelude and Fugue of Bach's and a piece in A in forms for which, seeing their variety, no name
'
'from tlie Temperaments of Mendelssohn. In has been, or seems likely to he, devised. In the
the last of these 'he was peculiarly happy. finale to Mozart's so-called Jupiter Sympihony'
' Presto de Mendelssohn,' said Spohr, themoment every conceivable contrapuntal resource is
emhe saw Filtsch seated at the piano at Sir G. ployed, with a freedom unsurpassed by the
Sjuart's a few nights after. He also played at greatest masters of fugue, to give effect to ideas
Buckingham Palace before the Queen and Prince such as have been vouchsafed to few other
comAlbert. He was then thirteen years old, and posers. In those of Beethoven the great musical
,his playing is described 'as most remarkable poetgoes fromstrengthtostrength 'and having,
both for execution and expres.sion— full at once as he would seem to have thought, exhausted
of vigour and feeling, poetry and passion. (See all the capabilities for effect of the instrumental
the Musical Examiner for .Tune and July17 8, orchestra, brings the chorus to bear on his latest
1843.) Every one who met him seems to have symphony—a colossal monument of the
inven'loved him. He was le petit ' in Paris, and tion, and command ofinvention, ofits composer;
' 'little Filtsch in London. According theto surpassing in scale, variet}^ and effect all former
enthusiastic vonLenz, Chopinsaid that lie played and indeed subsequent elforts of tfie kind. [In
his music better than he himself, wdiile Liszt on Brahms's fourth sympliony in E minor, he
' 'one occasion exclaimed Quand petit voyagera thece adopts form of the old Passacaglia,' using
je fermerai boutique.' (Lenz, Grosse PF. Vir- the ground-bass with the utmost freedom, and
tuosen, 36 ; Beethoven ct ses trois Styles, making various modifications in its treatment.]p.
i. But he was not destined to fulfil the the earlier229.) (2) In operas, of whatever nation,
promise of so brilliant a childhood—the blade each act Avas commonly terminated by an aria
was too keen for the scabbard and, as Mos- or, at the most, a diiet, constructed rather to
;
cheles warned him, he practised too much for exhibit the powers of the singer or singers
emyiloyedhis strength ; consumption showed itself, and he in it, than to carry on or even
died at Venice on May 11, 1845. c. emphasise the action. The last act was
someFILTZ (also spelt FILS, FILZ, FILSL, and times brought to a close wdth a chorus, generally
FIELTZ), Antos, born (possibly in Bohemia, as brief and always of the simplest character.
is suggested bythe various spellings of his name), The finale proper—the great concerted piece
about entered the court band atMannheim in the course of which the interest of each1725,
in 1754, and died in 1760. He was a violon- act culminates—is a modern addition to the
cellist of great renown, and as a composer ranks musical drama, having its origin in the earlier
"with the best of the Mannheim symphonists. A Italian opera of the 18th century. Thebuffa
collection of his symphonies, together with some pirincipal masters of this delightful variety of
by Stamitz, was published in Paris soon after his musical composition were Leo, Pergolesi, the
death, another was published at the Hague, Italianised German Hasse, and Logroscino andset ;
operas of the last of these,*The Periodical Overture' in London, and two it is in the otherwise
books of trios in Amsterdam. A mass for four greatly distinguished for their inventiveness and
voicesandorchestrais inMS. intheRoyal Library spirit, that the finale first appears, though in
jiriniitive form.at Berlin, and other MS. compositions exist in a somewhat To Picoinni its
various libraries (see Quellen-Lexikon). The development, if not its perfectionment, is
sub'thirty-nine symphonies are given in sequently due. His opera La Cecchina, ossiathemes of
the volume of the Denknuiler der deutscher la Buona Figliuola ' owed much of its
extraTonl-itnst {Ba.yrrn), iii. which also contains ordinary poptularity to the introduction of finales1,
one called in wdiich the action was carried on, and whichthree of the symphonies— 'symphonie
'
periodique—in score. M. were first enlivened to the ear by the varieties
FINAL. The equivalent, in the ecclesiasti- of key and of rhythm given to the successive
and to the eye by the entrancescal modes, to the tonic or keynote of the later movements, and
scale. See Modes. exits of the difi'erent persons of the drama.' -
40 FINCKFINALE
humorousTwo of the cited the infinitelyfinest specimens of this class form times, may be
'
' Falstaff. J. H.large portions of Mozart's Nozze the end of Verdi'sdi Figaro.' fugue at ']
[fifth sonOne of them—tliat Hon. and Rev. Edwardto the second act—consists FINCH,
1664,of no Nottingham, was bornfewer than eiglit movements, as various first Earl ofin of the
in 1679, became a Fellowcharacter as are the nine personages degree ofM.A.who are took the
represented theuni-concerned Cambridge,in it, and whose several accusations, ofChristCoUege,
ordainedin 1689-90, wasdefences, protests, recriminations, and alterna- versity in Parliament
became rector of Wigan.tions of success and 1700, andfailure are wrought into deacon in
York in 1704,work prebendary ofa of musical art which, as has been well He was appointed
' He composed severalsaid, begins on an eminence Canterbury 1710].and rises to the and of
*
'these a Te Deunilast note.' church music. Ofpieces of
are'Grant, we beseech Thee,'The great concerted piece, whether introduced and an anthem,
collection of church musicat the end of an act in Tudway'sor elsewhere, was not made included
13.37-42).Museum (Harl. MSS.an essential feature of modern opera without in the British
Tlwroagh-Bass is in thestrong protest and this by [A MS. Grammar of
; the same writer
Brit. Mas. Biog.'] Hewhose amusing Library, Glasgow.designation of barytones and Euing
w.1738, aged seventy-four. H. H.basses has already been quoted. [Bass.] Lord died Feb. 14,
(1482-1519), passed theMount-Edgcumbe FINCK, Heinrich(Musical lieminisanccs. Sect.
Poland, and receivedyears of his life invii.) attributes its introduction to no other earlier
ofas one of the choristers thecause than the decline of the art of singing, and liis education
Later on the King's liber-the consequent Warsaw Hol'capelle.necessity for making
compensastudiestion enabled liim to continue his at ato the musical hearer for a deliciency of ality
There is a strong probability of hisindividual excellence by a superfluity of aggre- university.
' ' ' Bamberga, a bonusgate mediocrity. Composers, having beingthe HenricusFinckde ' '
' he says,
Leipzig,who is entered as a student at(now) few good voices, and few good singers to cantor,'
Universitats-Matrikelbuch(f 146) inl482write for, have been obliged to adapt their in the
He must havecompositions (Monatshefte, 1890, p. 139).to the abilities of those who were
to Poland, for he held the jiosition ofto perform in them and as four, five, or six returned
;
Director in the Hof-moderate performers produce a better elfect Musicus, perhaps also of
Alexandercapelle under Johann Albert (1492),jointly than they could by their single efforts,
andSigismund(1.506). Soonafterhewentsongs have disappeared, and interminable quar- (1501),
records of Duke Ulrich'stettes, quintettes, sestettos, etc., usurp their to Wiirtemljerg, as the
* evident Capelle at Stuttgart for the years 1510-11 stateplace.' And again, It is that in such
that Capellmeister Henricus Finck, called thecompositions each individual singer lias little
' salaryroom for displaying either a fine voice or good Singermeister,' received a yearly of sixty
gulden, etc. His name appears only until 1513,singing, and that power of lungs is more
essenprobably remained there until whential than either very good singers therefore but he 1519,
;
are scarcely necessary, and it must be confessed Joh. Siesswas appointed Capellmeister (Sittard,
so good, neither Zur Gescli. derMnsikam- IViirtternh. Hofc, 1890,that though there are now none
Benedictineare there many so bad as I remember in the p. 8). Hedied June 9, 1527, at the
inferior characters. In these levelling days, Schottenkloster, Vienna (E. Bienenfeld,
»S'a«!the rrmlhand of the Int. Mtts. Oes. vi.equalisation has extended itself to stage 96).
and musical profession and a kind of medio- In Hermann Finck's Fradica Mi/sica, 1556,
;
crity of talent prevails, which, if it did not occa- there are the following references to his great
' quibussion the invention of these melodramatic pieces uncle, Heinrich : Extant melodiae, in
is at least very favourable to their execution.' magna artis perfectio est, compositae ab Henrico
extraordinary thing connected with Finckio, cuius ingenium in adolescentia inThe most
this passage is that it was written half a century Polonia excultum est, et postea Regia liberalitate
'aftertheproduotionofMozart's Nozze di Figaro, ornatum est. Hie cum fuerit patruus mens
venerable critic waswith which the certainly magnus, gravissimam causam habeo, cur gentem
well acquainted. From the most recent form Polonicampraecipuevenerer, quia exeellentissimi
opera, that of Wagner, the finale, like the Regis Poloniciof Alberti, et fratrum liberalitate
air, the duet, the trio or other self-contained hie mens patruus magnus ad tantum artis
fasti'movement, has entirely disappeared. Each act gium pervenit ' 4 of dedication : There are(p.
described onemay be as movement, from the melodies composed by Heinrich Finck whicli
beginning to the end of which no natural pause show great skiU. As a youth he received his
be found, and from which it would be royalis to im- education in Poland, and by liberality
possible to make a connected, or in itself com- was afterwards enabled to continue it. Since
plete extract. It is difficult to conceive tliat this Heinrich Finck was my gieat-uncle, I have
' the Polishsystem ' should in its integrity maintain, or very great cause to venerate nation,
attainedattain, extensive popularity but itwill no doubt for the height to which he in his art
;
affect all future liberality of the mostmore or less musical dramas. was owing to the excellent
and his brothers.')[As a bright example of the set finale in modern Polish King Albert— ;;
FINCK FINCK 41
3 Trium vocumcarminaadiversiamusiciscomposita. Kilrenberg,'Circa annum 1480 et aliquanto post alii
Hieron. Fomiachneider. 16^8. No. 22, fur three voices, without
words.exstiterunt praecedentibus (niusicis) longe
prae4, Ein ausszug guter alter und newer Teutschur Liedlein {G.
stantiores. eiiim docenda 'lUi in arte non ita Forstor). ^U^nbe^g. Johan Petreio. 15.*Ji). No. Ach hertzigs7.
hertz ' (no composer's name) and No, 87, 'Kuiitachaft mit dir' (\sith
ininiorati sunt, sed erudite Theoricam cum compoaer's name F. Holfheymer). They are Noa. 8 & 29 in Finck's
SchiJne ausserlesne Lieder fur four voices.Practica conjunxeruut. 4nter hos sunt Henricus
Der ander Theii, kurtzweiliger guter fiiacher Teutscher Uedlein.
rinck, qui non solum ingenio, sed jiraestanti NUrnberg. Johan I'etreium. 1540. No. 63 'Der Ludel und der
Henuel (with
' composer a name L. Heidenhamerj is No. 10 in Schone
etiam eruditione excelluit, durus vero in stylo.' ausserleane Lieder,
5, teiicroruni hymnorum. Liber primus. GeorgP,haw.Vitebergae.(Ch. i. 3 ; 'About and soon after 1480 musi-p. 1542. Twenty-two motets, in which ancient church melodies forni
the Cantua firmus. Eitner rcpiinted five of them in i'ublikution,cians appeared far superior to their predecessors,
etc. 1879. vol. 8.
6, Coneentuswho did not give so much time to teaching the 8, 6, 5, & 4 vocum omnium jucundissimi. (Sigia,
Salblinger) Auguatae ViiKlelicorum. Fh. Ulhardua. 1645. No.2;i"'0
art, but skilfully combined theory with practice. Domine JeBuChriate.' inseven movements, for four voices. Ambros
describen this as an exceptionally beautiful work, the 'sevenAmong these were [others and] Heinrich Finck,
greetings of the Buttering Redeemer ' are in fact seven short motets
full of deep devotion and feeling
; in the last part two more voiceswho excelled not only in talent, but in learning.
'join in a canon in Epidiapasou post duo tempora.'
He was, however, hard in style.') 7, Officiorum (ut vocant) de nativitite, etc. Toniusprimus.
Vitebergae. Rhaw.G. 1545. f. 51 'Puer natus eat nobis'— ' Cantite
Heinrich Finck's '^' —compositions Avere printed Domino Grates 'nunc omnes reddamua ' Huic oportet ut
canamus,' for four voices.
only twenty years before Practica Musica,
8, Erotemata musices practicae . . . collecta ab Ambrosio
Wilphlingaedero. Noribergae, C'hr. Heuasler. 1563, p. 160. One musicalwith the title : Schone ausserlesne lieder, des
example from the mass ' Sub tuunj ' two voices.praesidium for
hochberum[iten 9, Suaviasimae et jucundissimae harmoniae: vocum, exHeinrici Finckens, sampt andern 8, 5, & 4
duabua vocibus. . . Clemente Stejjhaui Buchavenae. Noribergae.
newen liedern, von den fiirnemsten diser kunst ' 'Th, Gerlatzenum. 15C7. No. 12, Dies est laetitiae for four voices,
Reprinted by Eitner Publikation. vol.in etc. 1879, 8.gesetzt lustig zu singen, und auffdie Instrument
In MS. ; Augsburg Eibl. Cude.>L 142«, one motet for four voices.
(Schletterer'a Cat. a.dienstlich. Vor nie im druck aussgangen. p. I
' 'Basle Eibl. Ich atund an einem morgen for four voicua.
Berlin kijnigl.1536. (In the Tenor part-book only) Gedruckt Eibl.CodexZ21,motetsfor four voices: 1. Misereatur
Dominus, 2,Ave JesuC'hriste, S.Deodicamua, 4-Gloria laus, S.Lieber
zu Niirenberg durch Hieronymuni Formschney- her santh peter. (Eitner.)
Breslau Stadtbibl. MS. 03, Introit infourmovements : Fuer natuaFour part-books, obi. 4to, in the Munichder.
est nobis, etc. for four voices (Bohn's Caf.\. See above. No. 7.
Kbnigsberg Bibl. J/^S. 24. Four and4. moteta, Nos. 43, 53, 89, 90,Hofbibl. and in Zwickau Ratsschulbibl. Of
for four voices. (Eitner.)
the iifty-tive compositions, the lirst thirty are Leipzig Uuiversitiitsbibl. Codex MS. 1494, Der Mensuralcodex
des Magister Nikolaua Apel vonKonigshofen. 1504. DescribedbyDr.
Heinrich Finck only six are to sacredby ; Hugo Eiemann, Klrche-nniusikdlUches Music byJahrbuch. 1897.
" 'Heiiiricus Finck :—two copies of Et adhuc tecum sum (2nd part),
words. No. 1, 'Christ ist erstanden ' is for
'Domine probasti me' for four voices; and 'Wer ych ayn faick'
Ko,for four voices, identical with music in the Berlin MS. Z 21, 95,five, the others for four voices. In vol. 8 of
words ' regi jubilo.'withoutname of compoeer, to the Latin Invicto
dlterer prak. theoret. Musikicerke, Also five songa f<T four voicea, without text, all initialled H. P.the Piibl. u.
LUbeck Stadtbibl. Ilymni- No. 91, Fit portaChristi, forfour voices,
compositions1879, Eitner reprints these in tenor part missing (Stiehl'a Cat. p. 9). In Sac. IJyjii. 1542. No. 30.
Munich Hofbibl, ilSS. 4~ andCS. two copies of a Missa Doniinicalis
score, with the exception of No. 2, 'In Gottes
for four voices ; in MS. 42 a motet for four voices. (Eitner,!
'
' Pima Stadtkirche Eibl. MS. Chorbuch, Codex IV,, Fuer natusNamen faren wir (publ. in score by R. Schlecht,
'est: Cantate Domino,' and Te Tuaneat semper' (initialled H. F.) :
' 'Musikbeilage, Codex vi., Ecce devenit ' (initialled and Borate coeli ; allGcsrh. clcr Kirchcniiiudk, 1871, E. P.), '
for four voices, (Eitner.)
'Ko. No. 11, Freu dich du werte Christen-44) ; Proske biachofl, Bibl. 'Missa de beata virgine,' for three voices
(publ, in score in Ambros's Geachichte der .Uusik, v, '247, No, ;{5).heit' (publ. in score by C. v. "Winterfeld, Der
voices in seven move-Motets—for four : 1. Domine Jesu Christe,
ments (printed in Concentuf:, 1545, No. ; 2. Nisi Dominus. in twoMusikbeilage, 23)evang. KirchcngesoMg, 1843, I.
raovements. For five voicea: 1. Chriatua resurgens, 2. Et valde
'No. and No. 18, Ich stund an einem mane, 3. Illuminare Hieruaalem, 4, Ite in orbem, 5. Petre amas me,12);
estis aancti, in foui'6. Verbum caro. For five and six voices : Beati
morgen ' (publ. in score by R. v. Liliencron, movementa. For seven voicea : Reple tuorum corda. (Eitner.)
'ViennaHofbibl. M^. }9,242. No. 56 O DomineJesu Chriate,' motetIV. BeilageDie liistorisclicn Volkslicdcr, 1865,
'for four voices ; MS. i8,8IO, No. 24 Greiner, zanner ' for five voices.
(Mantuani's Cat.)Eitner notes that there is no Cantus firmus7).
Zwickau for five voices: 1,Katsschulbibl. J/.S, 4. Motets
Apin Finck's secular songs, he composed his own paruerunt apnstolis, in two movements 2, Felix namque, in
;
' three movements ; 3. Illuminare Hienisalem, in three movementa
' an einem morgenTenor, only in Ich stund voices4. Verbum caro, in three movements. MS. iG. For four (altuB
part misaing) 'De Evangelistis " (anAlleluiaandProseinten aections);
'and Oreiner, zanner,' does he use the melodies
2. Apparuit gratia dei, in two movements 3, Ave praeclara maris
;
etella, in six movements ; 4. Discubuit Jesus, in three movementafolk-songs. The German songs, of whichof
5,Salverexnjiaericordie, in ninemovementa; 6.Venicre;Ltor spiritus.
* ' characteristic example, voices: Domine Jean Christe, in seven move-Ach hertzigs hertz is a For four and six O
ments (see above). For five voices: Ecce Maria geniiit, in twcf
are marked l.iy great freedom of expression, movements. For six voices : Grates nunc omnes reddamus, Huic
oportet ut ciinamus. (Vollhardt's Cat.) q c;sympathy, and feeling. The motets are more
'tlie Christ Heesiann was bornfettered by their century ; although FINCK, (1527-58),
ist erstanden ' for five voices is one of Finck's March 21, 1527, at Pirna. Saxony, and probably
finest pieces of work, as a rule in his sacred received his early education as a member of the
counterpoint Ferdinand of Bohemia. Hemusic, ingenious handling of the Hofcapelle of King
Wittenbergoutweighs harmonious beauty. This p'^rhaps is entered as a student at University,
aci.-ounts for Hermann Finck's stricture in September 1545, in the Album Academiae
Forstemann,Practica Musica 'durus vero in stylo.' Vitebergensis, 1502-60, edited by
:Compositions in printed works 1841 (see extract in Monidshefte fiir
Musikzweii1. Ein new geordnct kUiiatllch Lautcnb\ich. In Theyl On June 1554, theciexehicfiti-, 1878, p. 54). 1,
Hansen Newsidler. iry.lG. H. F.'s uaisic ingetheylt. Nlirnberg.
University formally announcedthe second part inchidea 'Ich stund an einem morgen.' (Vogel, Rector of the
Eitner.)
that Hermann was at liberty to give instruction
2. Sec-Tiiidu3 tomus novi operis mweici, 6, 5, & 4 vociiin. 15-38,
(Johannea Ottocivis Noribergensisl. No. 40, |i.)Magnua eatu Doraine, students (Fiirstenau,in music to the
for four voioe.'*. Although the tnnaic is
(ii. ) Tupauperum refugium,
here Finek, it is printed in Glarean'a Dodecachnrdon, remainedattributed to Monatshcfte, 1879, p. 11). That he
1647, 221, aa the work of Joaquin des Pr^s. It was also publishedp.
there and was appointed organist in 1557, mayby Fetrucclln 1504, p. '2Tt. but without thecomposer's name, Kitner
theincludes it in vol. 8 of the J'ublikation, etc. 1879, but auya from a statement made by Nicolasbe jfatbered
authorship is doubtful.
d: — —
42 FINCK FINGER
Selneccer arein a work published in of some note. Few of his works1581 (Erk, a composer
Monalsheflc, but they show that he was dis-1879, p. 63). Selneccer explains in existence,
that in time, both in form and1557, the organistship being vacant, in advance ot hisat tinctly
the threerequest of the Praeceptores, he expression. Eitner included comi)03i-filled it in
for a month. Then I'ublikalion dllerer prai:t. undthrougli Court influence tions in the
'Hermann ' Pectus utI'inck was appointed to the post, theorct. Musihwerke, 1879, vol. 8 :der
bald hernach elendiglieh und ' three sections for four voicesjemmerlich zu in sponso in ;
Wittenberg ' two sections, for fivegestorben' (who soon after miserably Semper honorabile ' in
died the motetin Wittenberg). He may have both wedding hymns ; andstated this voices,
on the authority of 'Christ ist erstanden,' partJohannes Garcaeus, Astro- for five voices 1,
' with that com-logiae mcthodus Basiliae, 1570, Hermanuus which it is interesting to compare
Finckius Pirnensis. Insignis l:iy Heinrich Finck at a much earlier date.liic fuit Musicus et jiosed
Organista, reconstructed by Ottomiserrime subitanea morte extinctus Tlie score was carefully
JIS. Chorbucli inest. Nascitur 21 mart. etc' Fade from a very defective1527, But the
suggestion is negatived Stadtkirche Bibl. Codex VII. (date,by the discovery of the the Pirna
date of two movements of the motetHermann's death made by II. Filrstenau, the last1556) ;
in the Wittenberg University almost entirely destroyed.records (Scrip- were
torum :jyuUice. Witebergae. 1559-62. See Compositions
1. Melodia epithaLunii . . , Johanno Friderico II Duci SaxoniaeMonatshefte, 1879, where it states that hep. 63),
, . . coiiiposita ab Hermantio Finck Pymenai, Quiuque voeum.
died peacefully on Dec. Khaw, 1555. Five part-28, 1558, 'auf fromme Vittjljergae excusa typis haeredum Georgii
' Atnore ftagrantissiino apoiisain,' andlioolts, obi. 4tu Text;Weise aus diesem Leben geschieden ist.' epithalamii . . . Henriuo Paxmanno . , . cumi^jaita abMelodia
Herm. Finck Pimensi. Qujituor vocum. Vitebergae. 1555. FourThe important theoretical work by which
'Iiart-booka obi. 4to. Text : Pectus ut in pponan ' by Philip
MelancRitter-Acadeinie Bibl. (Pfudel's Cat.).Hermann Finck's name is bestknown is tlion. In the Liegnitz konigl.entitled
Melodia epithalamii , . Johannis Schraiiiiiiii . . . compositei .
'Practica musica Hermanni Finckii, exempla ab Herni. Finck. Quinque vocuni. A'ittenibeiyae. Haeredes G.
Rhaw. 1557. Text :' Semper honorabile. ' Five part-books, obi. 4to.
variorum signornm, proportionum et canonum, C'lt.l.in the Erieg Gyinnasialbibl. (Kuhii's
" Was mein Gott wil da«
'S. Ein acboner geistlicher Text : :judicium de tonis, acquaedam arte suaviterde et
^eachichtallzeit,' etc. von . . . Albrechten
MarggravenzuBrandenburg . . . selber geniacht. Und, wie folget, aulf viererley Art com-artificiose cantandi continens. Vitebergae
exprinjua,Ijoniret durch Herm. Finck Muaicum. Discantus anno 1558.
cudebant Haeredes Georgii Rhaw. 1556.' In one This na ia known, the only voice part in existence4to. is, so far ;
it in a miscellaneous volume in the Weiuiar grossherzogl. Eibl,isvolume, 4to. In British Museum, Theetc. Tbe Dedication ia aigned by Finck. Musicus, 'Wittenberg, den 25
Dec. anno 1557.' (Eitner, I'ublikacion.}dedication is to the Count Gorca, and shows that
Hermann must have visited Poland and been Eitner mentions that in the Proske hischofi.
hospitaljly received the Gorca Bibl. iVS. 940 four part-books, obi. 4to,by family, to (1557),
there is student's drinking-song forwhom he expresses a warm sense of gratitude : a four voices
' Itaque in editione huius operis, praecipue ad by Herm. Finck, No. 169, 'Sautt' aus und niachs
vestram nit lang,' etc.Celsitudinem scripsi, ut ostenderem me c. .s.
' ')beneliciorum memoriam, quae inmeam familiara FINE (Ital. end is generally pilaced above
a Regibus et Princi[)ibus Polonicis collata sunt, the stave at the jioint wdiere the movement
' 'perpjetua gratitudine et retinere et celebrare. ceases after a Da Capo repetition. Its place
Fuit eximia erga me quoque liberalitas Celsi- is occasionally taken by a pause (see Fermata).
tudinis tuae lUustris Domine Stanislae. Quare It is often Ibund, too, at the end of works which
tui nominis mentionem hie feci, et finish on the right-hand page (redo),et fratrum et and is
vobis hoc opus dedico, ut gratitudinemmeam et placed there, apparently, in order to warn
imobservantiam erga vos perpetuam, ostendam.' jierfectly trained musicians that it is not worth
into five books. The first while to turn overThe work is divided the last l>age.
'book De musicae inventoribus ' is of some FINGER, Gottfried or CJodfrey, a native
historical interest owing to its mention of con- of Olmiitz in Moravia, came to England about
Heinrich Finck) and and enjoyedtemporary musicians (see 1685, the patronage of James II.
to the light it throws on the musical taste of In 1688 he published 'Soiiatae XII. pro Diversis
long (quotation from Instrumeutis. Ojnisthat time. A pp. 2, 3, 4, Primum,' and in 1690
'FayoUe)is given in the Did. Hist. (Choron et Six Sonatas or Solos, three for a violin and
a French translation. In the third three for a flute.' Inwith 1691, in conjunction
' 'are numerous examples with Johnbook de canonibus ' Banister, he published Ayres,
Cha' four voices: cones.of canons: Clama ne cesses,' Divisions and Sonatas for Violins and
& Veritas,' Bassus & Tenor; '.Jus- Flutes,' and shortly'Misericordia after joined Godfrey Keller
'Altus Gande cum in producingticia et pax, ' Discant & ; 'A Set of Sonatas in five parts for
gaudentibus,' four voices; 'Qui se humiliat, flutes and hautboys.' He subsequently
pub' '— Laiiguir me fais,' four voices; lishedexaltabitur other sonatas for violins and flutes. In
'
' quant resp(f'ranceand Le desir croist quant et 1693 Finger composed the music for Theophilus
— parfaict m'a donne hardiesse,' four Parsons' Ode'Amour for the annual celebration of St.
French words. A German Cecilia'svoices, with the Day. Inl696,in conjunctionwith John
'of the fifth book De arte eleganter Eccles, he composed the music fortranslation Motteux's
cantandi,' with music, was published masque, 'The Loves andet suaviter of Mars Venus,' and
FinckMonatshrfte, 1879, p. 129, etc. was in the next j'car that for Ravenscroft'sin comedy,— '
FINGER-BOAED FINGEUING 43
'The Anatomist, or, The Sham Doctor,' and The finger-board, gettingworn bythe constant
(with 1). Purcell) that for N. Lee's 'Rival action of the fingers, must be renewed from time
Queens.' In 1701 he set to music Elkanah to time. The modern techniqueofviolin-playing
'Settle's opera, The Virgin Prophetess, or, The requires the neck, and in consequence the
fingerSiege of Troy.' In the previous year he was board, to be considerably longer than they w^ere
awarded the fonrth prize for the composition of at the time of the great Cremona makers. For
Congreve's masque, 'The Judgment Paris,'of these reasons we hardly ever find an old
instrugiventhe others being to John Weldon, John mentwitheithertheoriginal finger-board, bridge,
Eccles, and Daniel Purcell. Finger was so sound-post, or bass-bar, all which,of however,
displeased at the ill reception of his composition can be made just as well by any good
violinthathequittedEnglandandreturned toGermany, maker now living as by the ancient masters.
where in 1702 he obtained the appointment of The finger-boardsoftheVioloncelloand
Diiublechamber musician to Sophia Charlotte, Queen bass madeare on the same principle as that of
of Prussia, and lived for some years at Breslau. theviolin, except that the side ofthe finger-board
Whilst at Berlin he composed two German over which tlie lowest string is stretclied is
'
'operas, Sieg der Schbnheit liber die Helden flattened in order to give sufficient room for its
'and Roxane,' both performed in 1706. [This vibration. Spohr adopted a somewhat similar
latter is very possibly by Telemann. See Did. plan on his violin by having a little seooping-out
Xal. £iog.'] In 1717 underneathof he became chapel- the fourth string, which grew flatter
master at the court of Gotha, [and in March and narrower towards the nut.
1718 is mentioned by 'Walter as part-composer In the instruments ofthe older viola-, gamba-,
'of the opera L' amicizia in terzo.' His name andlyra-tribe, the finger-boardwas providedwith
occurs in a list of 1723]. Nothing is known frets. p. I).
of his subsequent cai'eer. Besides the above- FINGERING (Ger. Fingersatz, AppUcatur
;
mentioned compositions Finger wrote instru- Fr. Doigti'}, the method which governs the
'mental music for the following plays— The application of the fingers to the keys of any
"Wives' Excuse,' 1692 ; 'Love for Love,' 1695 keyed instrument, to the various positions upon
;
' 'The Mourning Bride,' 1697 Love at a Loss,' stringed instruments, or to the holes and keys of
;
' 'Love makes a Man, ' The Humours of the Age, win<l the object of the rules being
and 'Sir Harry W^ildair, ' 1701. Some concertos in all cases to facilitate execution. The word is
and sonatas are mentioned in the Quellen- also applied to the numerals placed above or
w. beneaththenotes, by which the j>articular fingersL''xil:on. H. H.
FINGER-BOARD. The finger-board is that to be used are indicated.
part of the violin and other stringed instruments (i.) Fin(;ering of the Pianoforte (that
overwhich are stretched, and against of the organ, though difi'erent in detail, isthe strings
which the lingers of the left hand of the player founded on the same princiiiles, and will not
the strings in order to produce sounds not require separate consideration).I'ress
In order to understand tlie principles upongiven by the open string.
The finger-board of the violin is best made of which the rules of n\odern fingering are based,
ebony, as harderand less easilyworn out thanany it will be well to glance briefly at the histoiy of
surface somewhat curved those rules, and in so doing it must be borne inother wood. Its is
mind that two causes have ojierated to influencecorresponding to the top line of the bridge, but
not quite so much—in order to allow the bow their development—the construction of the
keywdiich would board, and the nature of the nnisic to be jier-to touch each string separately, be
formed. is only in comparatively modernimpossible if bridge and finger-board were flat. It
On an average-sized violin it measures 1 0-^ inches times, in fact since the rise of modern music,
in while its width is about 1 inch nearest that the second of these two causes can havelength,
much for the earliest use of theto the head of the violin and Ij inch at tlie had influence,
bridge-end. It is glued on to the neck, and organ was merely to accompany the simple
from the head to about three-fourths of melodies or plain-songs of the Church, and whenextends
instrumental music proper camethe distance between the neck and the bridge. in later years
At the head-end it has a slight rim, called the into existence, wdiich was not until the middle
' strings and keeps them of the 16th centur}^ its style and characternut, ' which supports the
the ofat a distance suflicient to allow them to vibrate closely resembled that of vocal music the
touching the finger-board. Thisdistance time. The i'orm and construction of the key-without
board, on the other hand, must have afifectedvaries considerably according to the style of the
development of any sj'stem of fingeringplayer. A broad tone and an energetic treat- the
instrument require nuioh room for from the very beginning,and the various changesment of the
wdiich p)lace from time to time are in factthe greater vibration of the strings, and conse- took
for certain remarkable differ-quently a high nut. Amateur players, as a rule, surticient to account
which makes it easier to piress ences which exist between the earliest rules ofprefer a low init,
does fingering and those in force at the present time.the strings down, lint not allow of the
propowerful tom\ Until the latter half of the 16th century thereduction of a— —
44 FINGERINGFINGERING
accomplished.'whatmanner it iswould appear to have been no idea of establish- matterhowor in
wasof these experimentersing rules for fingering the boldest
; nor could this have been One of
leL'art de toucherwho in his work,otherwise, for from the time of the earliest Gouperin,
numerous examplesgivesorgans, the keys of which were from c^auccm (Paris, 1717),three to
He uses it,of the thumb.six inches employmentwide, and were struck with the closed of the
unmethodical way for in-in a very ;fist, down to about the year1480, when, although however,
first note of anuse it on thenarrower, the octave stance, he wouldstill measured about two
throughout thenot againscale, butinches more than on the modern keyboard, any ascending
for a change of fingersemploys itattempt at fingering in the modern sense octave hemust ;
extensions, but inand forhave been a single note,out of tlie question. The earliest on
usefingers he only makesit under themarked fingering of which we have any know- passing
two cases, in one offinger, except inledge is that given by of the firstAmmerbach in his Orgel
is passedfinger of the left handwhich the secondOder Iiislrument TabulcUiir (Leipzig, 1571).
the other the thumb isthumb, and inThis, like all the fingering in use then and for over the
in the very un-the third finger,long afterwards, passed underis characterised by the almost
theshown in the last bar ofcomplete practical fashionavoidance ofthe use of the thumb and
is an extract from aexample, whichlittle finger, the former being only occasionally following
Moucheron,' andhis entitled 'Lemarked in the left composition ofhand, and the latter never
fingering.give general idea of hiswill serve to aemployed except in playing intervals of not less
than a fourth in the same Ammerbach'shand.
fingering for the scale is as follows, the thumbs
being marked and the fingers with the first
;three numerals
Eight Hand.
w
^
Left Hand,
This kind of fingering, stiff and awkward as it
ajjpears us, remained in use for upwards ofto
is found as late as 171a century, and even
the third edition of an anonymous work entitled
Kiir:i:r jedoch gri'mdlicher JVegweiser, etc.
probably contributed to retard theTwo causes cameAbout this time also the thumb first
introduction of a more complete system. In the into use in England. Purcell gives a rule for
first place, the organ and clavichord not being fingering in his Choiceit in the instructions for
system of ecpial temperament,tuned upon the Collection Lessons for the Harpsichord, pub-of
"written inmusic for these instruments was only lished about but he employs it in a very1700,
the simplest keys, with the black keys but rarely throughouttentative manner, using it only once
second place the keyboardsused ; and in the :a scale oftwo octaves. His scale is as follows
of the earlier organs were usually placed so high
Higlit Hand (ikvmh numhered 1).
above the seat of the player that the elbows were
considerably lower than the fingers.of necessity
The consequence of the hands being held in this
position, and of the black keys but seldom
Le/t Hnvd {thumb numbered 5).that three longrequired, would be the fingers,
stretched out horizontally, would be chiefly used,
n 2 3 2
while the thumb and little finger, being too short
toreach the keyswithout difficulty, would simply
hang down below the level of the keyboard.
although this was the usual method we SebastianBut of ContemporarywithGouperin find
the time, it is highly probable that various Bach, to whose genius fingering owes its most
experiments, tending in the direction of the use striking development, since in his hands it
beof the thumb, were made from time to time by came transformed from a chaos of unpractical
different players. Thus Praetorius says {Syn- rules to a perfect system, which has endured in
ilasicu/m, present Bachtagma 1619), 'Many think it a matter its essential parts to the day.
of great importance, and despise such organists adopted the then newly invented system of
do not use this or that particular fingering, equal temperament for the tuning of the clavi-as
enabledwhich in my opinion is not worth the talk for chord, and was therefore to write in
;
keyslet a player run up or down with either first, every key thus the black were in
con;
this fact, together with themiddle, or third finger, aye, even with his nose if tinual use, and great
music, rendered thethat could help him, provided everything is done complexity of his adoption
offingeringand gracefully, of an entirely new system inevitable,clearly, correctly, it doesnotmuch—
FINGERING FINGERING 45
all existing methods being totally inadequate. the second finger over the first, the little finger
Accordingly, he fixed the place of the thumb in under the third (left hand), and the third over
the scale, and made free use of both that and the little finger (left hand also).
the little finger in every jiossible position. In Bar -2. 23.
consequence of this the hands were held in a
more forward position on the keyboard, the ?^?^
wrists were raised, the long fingers became bent,
and therefore gained gi-eatly in flexibility, and
thus Bach acquired such a prodigious power of
execution as compared with his contemporaries,
it is said that nothing which was at allthat
possible was for him in the smallest degree
difficult.
knowledge of Bach'sOur method is derived
from the writings of his son, Emanuel, who
taught it in his Versitch iiber die 'wahre yirt das
t>pieJen. wouldClavier zii But it not be safe to
conclude that he gave it literally and without
omissions. At any rate there are two small
pieces extant, the marked fingering in which is
undoubtedly by Sebastian Bach himself, and yet
ditiers in several respects from his own rules as
given by his son. These pieces are to foundbe
'in the Clavierbiichlein,' and one of them is
'also published as No. 11 of Douze petits
Preludes,' but without Bach's fingering. otherThe
:is here given comjilete
In the above example it is w'orthy of notice
that although Bach himself had laid down the
rule, that the thumb in scale-playing was to be
used twice in the octave, he does not abide by
it, the scales in this instance being fingered
older plan of passing tlie secondaccording to the
finger over the tlrird, or the first over the
thumb. In the fifth bar again the second finger
progressionpasses over the first—a wdiich is
disallowed by Emanuel Bach.
discrepancies between Bach's fingeringThe
shown in the otherand his son's rules, piece
mentioned, occur between bars 22 and 23, 34
and consist in passingand 35, and 38 and 39,46 FINGERING FINGEEING
it from a condition of uselessness, Fingering of Stringed Instrument!?.so have they (ii.)
freed exact jilaoing of the fingersits employment from all rules and restric- —Fingering, the
musical notestions whatsoever. Hummel, in his the strings in the order thatArt uponof
'Flaifing the Pianoforte, says, "We made. This order first suggests a scalenmst employ are to be
from first to second, second tothe same succession of lingers when a passage asthe fingers follow
Fingering alsoconsists of a progression of similar to fourth, and so on.groups of third, third
figures placed over notes to indicatenotes .... The intervention of the black key means the
stop or press the string.changes the S3nrimetrical progression so far the finger required toonly
as the rule forbids the use of the of sound technique is the scales andthumb on the The basis
various chords fingered accord-black keys.' But themodern system of fingering the arpeggi of the
would employabsolutely the same order rule. The practice of these perfectly inof lingers ing to
throughout such a note a true musical sound, is a sureprogression without consider- tune, each
advancement. Techniqueing whether black keys intervene or no. Many means of technical
handicraft of everyexamples of the application of this principle may be regarded as themay
but it is only a means to anbe found in Tausig's edition of dementi's Gracilis practical artist,
education mustad Parnassum, especially in the first study, a end, the highest technical go
comparison of which with the hand hand with artistic cultivation, or theoriginal edition in
unsatisfactory.(where it is No. 16) will at once show its dis- result at maturity is
position and carriagetinctive characteristics. That the method has In violin fingering, the
inmiense advantages and are of the greatest importance thetendsgreatlyto facilitate of the hand ;
underneath the violin neckthe execution of modern difficulties cannot be thumb should be
doubted, even if it but rarely produces the below the first and second fingers, the tip bent
neck resting on the thumb nearstriking results ascribed to it by Von Biilow, outwards, the
thumb will then give thewho says in the preface to his edition of Cramer's its first joint, the
Studies, that in his view (which he admits may necessary counterpressure to the force of the
be somewhat chimerical), a modern of fingers. The violin should be held by the chinpianist
Inthe first rank ought to be able by its help to and shoulder, firmly, but not stiffly.
chang'execute Beethoven's Sonata Appassionata ' as ing position, the whole hand should go in one
Fj( minor movement.readily in the key of as in that of F
minor, and with the same fingering ! It is necessary from the first to study an
There are two methods of marking fingering, economy of finger movement. Taking the scale
alone of three octaves as exampjle beginningone now used in England (though not by A in in
anymeans exclusively), and the other in all other the first position, first finger on the fourth string,
countries. Both consist of figures placed above the first, second, third, and fourth fingers should
English system succession, and downthe notes, but in the ' ' thethumb be played in held until the
is represented by a x and the four fingers by first finger is used on the third string, wdien
,
and while everywhere else, the first they should be raised and the same order1, 2, 3, 4,
five numerals are employed, the thumb being followed on the third string and the second,
numbered 1, and the four fingers 2,3, 4, and 5. second and first. The shift from first position
plan was probably introduced into Germany to third goes between Gj! and A,This first finger
adopjtion only dates from the time under second, whole—where its the hand going forward in
of Bach—from Italy, since the earliest German one movement, keeping exactly the same form
fingering (as in the example from Ammerbach in the third as it had in the first position. The
was precisely the same thequoted above) as next shift is from third to fifth position, and
'
'present English system, except that thethumb goes between B and this is a moreCS ; difficult
indicated by a cypher instead of a cross. shilt, as the hand haswas to pass the shoulder ofthe
partialThe same method came into use in Eng- violin, the advantage given by the thumb under
land for a short time, and may be found spjoken the neck will be at once seen, as it enables the
' Italian manner of fingering ' in a player moveof as the to forward to the fifth position
'treatise entitled The Harpsichord Illustrated maintaining the same shape of the hand as in
and Improv'd,' published about 1740. Purcell the first and third positions. The next shift
' 'in his Choice Collectionalso adopted it quoted lies between D and E, and brings the hand to
above, but with the bewildering modification, the seventh position. The first finger is kept
whereas in the right hand the thumb wasthat on the first string through all the shifting
upnumbered 1, and so on to the little finger, in ward. In this case it begins at Fit, and remains
the left hand the little finger was called the first, on the string up to E in the seventh position.
thumb the fifth. [Theand the rational system The first finger must not smear the notes at the
3, 4, 5) which is, rightly or wrongly, shift. The forward(1, 2, movementmust be both swift
*as the continental,' has, forknown many and quiet ; it should not be heard. This ofis one
excellent reasons, been widely adopted by the the points of excellence in scale playing
: there
better English publishers, so that there is more are three—intonation, equality oftone, one note
theunanimity in present day than there was after another, absolutely silent shifting. The
twenty years ago.] r. T. movements descending are the reverse of thoseFINGERING FINGEEING
ascending, second finger going over first the
; to Bi] on the first strhig, in the first position,
first is not held down. The movement described measures 3 inches, the same interval in the
in the foregoing is a whole shift of the hand, eighth position measures 1-^ inches). The
apfirst position to third, third to fifth, filth to preciation of this gradually lessening distance
seventh. "Whole shifts go also from second has to become instinctive by practice it too
; is
position to fourth, fourth to sixtli, and so on. subtle to be thought out at the moment, and
half shift fromA is a position to its neighbour- only careful practice will bring the instinct of
ing one, viz., first to second, second to third, true intonation.
etc. It will be found that the scales of G, G
This studied economy of finger and hand minor, Ab, A'p minor, A major, A minor, Bb,
movement should be followed through all violin Bt> minor, B3, B and (with an extension
technical in-actice. of the fourth finger) lieC, in the first position.
A Position is the space on the finger-board C, C minor, Cjl, C]J minor lie in the second
which can be covered without moving the hand. position. Dw, T>h minor, D, and I) minor, in
A full command of the finger-board can only the third position. Et>, E'p minor, E, E minor
be attained by being well grounded in the in the fourth position. F, F minor, FS, Fjf
dilferent positions, which are eleven in number. minor, in the filth position. Scales of two
In the first position, the first finger stands on octaves through the twenty-four keys major and
F on the first string, and takes the correspond- minor are therefore included in the first five
ing notes on the other strings, B, E, A ; really positions. It will be well at this point to show
each positionin there are two half positions the principle of fingering scales of two octaves,
easily shown by playing in the first position going through the keys in chromatic order,
the scales of B flat and B natural. The hand beginning on G. The lingering 'of scales oftwo
stands half a tone higher in the one than in the octaves in the first position needs no explanation,
other. This occurs in all positions. In the as one finger follows the other, arriving at the
second position the first finger stands on G on scale of B, the fingering for that will carry the
the first string, and takes also C, F, and B on player through the rest of the keys by moving
the other strings. In the third position the the hand forward a semitone for each major
first finger stands on A on the first string, and and minor scale, and following the order of
takes D, G, and C on the other strings. In the positions until he arrives at and minor,Fff, FJI
fourth position, the first finger stands on B on and so completes the cycle. The fingering for
the first sti'ing, and takes E, A, D on the the minor scale is the same as the major in
others. In the fifth position C on the first each case. The melodic form of the minor scale
string, etc., and so on up to the eleventh is of much greater nmsical in)portance than
position, in which it stops B, E, A, and D. the harmonic both are necessary in
; modern
The distance between notes gets gradually closer music.
movesas the liand forw^ard to the higher Arpeggi in Udo octaves form-ed co^nraonof
positions (the same interval measured an octave chords, viajor avd minor, subdojiiinant inajor
apart will show a considerable difference. and minor, diminished do^nina.ntFJJ and sevenths.
Formula for Arpeggi working through the Keys.
two—Scales and arpeggi practised in this manner Intermediate scales between and three
with a strict economy of finger movement give octaves in compass, may follow the same order
firmness the stop, strengthen the hand, as those of two octaves, viz., chromatic progres-to
forenabling it to keep a true position, and form the sion of keys. The fingering the scale of B
first step in training the fingers to feel the closer will complete the round of keys as before, the
moves forward to the higher fingering for those below B will be obvious.stops as the hand
positions.
Intermediate Scale of B.48 FINGERINGFINGERING
Formula.Intermediate Arpeggio
chromatic scales, but it isof fingeringoctaves in oiic jwsition. only wayCAromalic scales of two
There is nois easily understood.direct, and—The fingering lor the scale beginning on B will very
In actual playing it is usualfingering.suit all the rest. Below B the hngering varies standard
suits the difficulty.thetingering that bestthe to takesomewhat. It is not claimed that this is
beginning on B.Chromatic Scale
3^2! 1
1112 <|.l l^2 3 12 2 3 3 »i«j!rji*St»,M-.i,.., 1''_i*l
became a difficulty when the compassThe Double Note Scales which properly belong fingering
augmented to three and fourof the violin wasto the foregoing scale technique, should be one
octaves. Paganini was the inventor of theoctave in compass and progi'ess through the
violin technique, his genius opened outkeys from major to relative minor. Beginning modern
the violin, as Liszt didkeys entirely new avenues forat C major and A minor, through the flat
enormouslyfor the pianoforte. He added to theto —enharmonic Bj, then through tlie sharpCi>
the instrument, as is fully showncomplete the round. resources ofkeys to
twenty-four Caprices, op.in his masterpiece, 1,
Double Scale in Thirds.
real treasure of technical material.1212 a1212 !t?i2!i2
interesting to give, as fully as mayIt will be
be in an article of this kind, the technical^^^^^^fE^\
equipment of a violinist of the present day.
seem enormous, its diflScultyIn bulk it willof fingering.All the scales on the same principle
will dismay ; but worked at item by item these
Double Scale in Sixths. one step upward brings the next stepdisappear,
2 .1 2 .1 2 ,1 3 3 2 .1 2 32 31-212121 2 12 1 21. 2
within reach, and so on to the goal—a
sound
g_-l^-«L;«--g--lglg-gLI r j -j-nf J and masterly technifiue able to meet all the
requirements of a great concerto, a light salon
piece, or the intricate and beautiful work of the
All on the same principle.
string quartet, and other ensemble pieces for the
Double Scale in Octave.?. various combinations.
Principles of scales and arpeggifingering forisi
.:?--*- three octaves, etc.—Diatonic scalesof of threeUs^^i^l octaves compass in chromatic order of keys.^ m
Again the fingering for the scale of B will go
cover through the ofThe scales and arpeggi indicated above rest the keys. Below B the
the compass required for the performance of fingering needs no special mention.
the great masters of the violin from Jliree-octave scales in progressionworks by from major
Corelli to Viotti, excepting the six solo sonatas to relative minor, through the keys, each scale
of Bach, which must await a more advanced beginning in the position.—The fingeringfirst
difliicult chords falls into groupstechnique able to grapple with of C's, D's, E's, F's, G's, A's, B's.
of three and four notes, and the power to play All the scales of C and E, and that of G flat,
and four parts. require exceptional fingeringin two, three, ; it includes a
halfThe famous opera qiiinta of Corelli—twelve shift in ascending the scale, and in descending
sonatas for violin, the model for the solo sonatas a shift on to the third finger jiosi-in the third
of his contemporaries and followers, do not in tion. Each group has some slight difference
any case go higher than E in the third posi- of fingering, but the main principle sameis the
double in first allegro all,tion ; a few notes the of through viz. shifting foi-ward on the first
the sixth sonata must be taken in the fourth fingerunder second, withthe
reverseaitiondownposition, but in all other cases the third posi- ward. Arjieggi ofcommon chords, three octaves
—tion is the limit. Corelli's brilliant passages, compass : these also fall into grou])S. The
both in the opera quinta and other works, are downward shift is a difficult one
; it is effected
invariably made the handup of broken chords, broken on the first finger, has to descend
thirds and sixths, thirds and sixths in double generally two whole shifts in the one
movenotes. Arpeggi are numerous, but always in ment, a little sound ofthe glide of the first finger
admissible. Arpeggi ofthe first position. is dominant sevenths
major orFrom the point of view of the modern player, belong equally to the minor keys, there-FINGERING FINGEEING 49
fore there are but twelve of them. Arpeggi of ing. All scales of B, F, and D must start in
diminished sevenths belong more properly to the second position.
—the minor keys ; there are twelve of these. Scales broken sixths in tvjo octaves.of
Scales broken thirds in t/iree octaves.—The Several scales require an extension of bothof the
principle of fingering the thirdis the same through and fourth fingers.
twenty-four ke}s ; the shift is always made on Scales of broken octaves thrcnigh all keys.
the second finger both ascending and descend- tenths through all keys.of
Brokex Tenths.
4 Sua
, 4 J
.11* 143_^^1^ 1 4
mW -^r^- £^=F=^
—Chroviatic 2 3scales, three octaves co'inpass.
shift, and, „, so on to the top, where, in most
These need only be "worked a3 high as D, in
chromatic order of keys from G. Add the third cases, the third and fourth finish the scales.
octave to those Reverse the order for the descent. Some scalesalready given in two octaves.
I'cquire an extension of both thirdExtension.—Thissubjectisanimportantone, and fourth
as the extension simplifies many passages that fingers. An awkward cross movement of the
otherwise second finger jirevents sixths being played veryrequire much shifting, for instance,
rapidly, especially in the lower octave, inthose that lie between first and third positions. but the
second half of the second octave they n)ay be
Extension Forward. played quite rapidly by keeping the second and
third fingers on the stringand moving the whole
hand in short jerks forward ; the fingers then^^fe^ fe merely adjust themselves to make the sixths
major or minor. A few chromatic scales in
the fourth is indis- should be w^orked out entirelyThe extension of finger sixths on the
pensable in the high scales ; the fourth finger first and second strings in one octave. Two
thus employed easily takes the niinor second at fingers are placed upon the strings stopping a
perfectly tune, otherwise almost the hand goes forward in little jerks,the top in it is sixth,
an impossible interval, even for the smallest making this small, strong movement for every
finger-tips, owing to the closeness of the notes. semitone perfectly in tune. The same thing
in nearly all the three- done on any two strings. It should beThe extension is needed can be
octave arpeggi. Backward extensions of the worked in thirds, sixths, and octaves. An
first finger are also frequently used. extraordinary rapidity can be attained on
chromatic scales from the highest note downwards,
ExtensionExtensions Back- compositions Vieuxtempsand ismuch used in by
Backward.WAKD AND Forward. and Wieniawski, and composers of the brilliant
school. may appropriately be called left-It
hand staccato.
Chromatic octaves, two octaves compass, should
be worked through all keys and in one octave
;
—Double scales in thirds, tivo octaves compass. com[iass up and down each pair of strings.
The fingering follows the same principle through Double tenths, tico octaves, in chromatic
12 progression of keys, beginning on G and work-12
and on thethe keys „ , shift, „ , shift, so to
ing up to F with the same fingering as broken
top. Reverse the order for the descent. Some tenths, the lower ones are the more difficult
extension. A few chromatic owing to the wider stretch.scales require an of thirds should be worked. Double scales in fingered octaves are used
—Double scales in sixths, two oetccves compass. rarely, and only for rapid ascending scales they
;
of fingering throughout. long fingers and a strong hand.The same principle require
Double Scale in Fingered Oct.a.tes.
4
important first be taken very slowly,Double note scales are an feature 1 They should at
strivmodern violin technique, as their practice ! ing always for an ideal intonation, giving eachm
fingers and shapes the hand. double stop a whole bow, with very even pressurestrengthens the |
VOL. II E—
50 FINGERIKG FINGEEING
on both strings, high.and listening finger should not be raised tooattentively for force. The
the resultant tone. major shakeIt has to be remembered The intonation be true, a
that any two notes chains ofplayed together, whether minor shake as required. Inin or a
or out of tune, will produce rule to attach a turn only to thea resultant tone shakes it is a
;
the point is to produce exception to this would bethe correct resultant last note, and any
and to hold it steady this is the the composer.
; most severe indicated by
test of absolutely true intonation. shake does not admit of the sameThe follow- The double
ing simple tests will shake a moderate paceshow the point clearly : as the simpjle ;rapidity
of utterance should be attainedwith clearness
Examples
The beat of the two shakeby careful practice.
11^ Double stops.
f must be exact.fingers
trills are very difficult. TheAccompanied
Thirds. [Eesultant.
interfere with theaccompaniment must not
^^ fDouble stops. regular beat of the trill, or the efiect is spoiled.
MiXOR J independence in both hands isConsiderable
Thirds. [Resultant.
so easyrequired to be fully successful ; it is to
with the bow what the left hand does well.Double spoilr stops.IN
is not exactly a trill,Tremolo of the left handPerfect -j
though it is of the same family. The Andante ofFourths. Resultant.I
Mendelssohn furnishes a beauti-the Concerto by
IN f
Caprice by Paganiniful example, and the SixthDouble stops.Perfect \
a difficult one requiring great regularity and
Fifths. (Resultant.
rapidity of beat.
IN The vibrato is one of the most importantDouble stops.
M.A..JOR embellishments used by the player. It is a
obtainedSixths. tremulous wavering of the tone by a
V.Resultant. vibratory motion of the left hand, the finger
IN '~ rolling forward and backward on its tip, theDouble stops. n
IMinor
centre of this an absolutely true note.roll The
Sixths.
Resultant. vibrato used slowly gives tender expression to_
long notes. Where crescendo froma p to/ hasThe shifting in double stop playing is
exto be made on a long note, it should begin withtremely difficult, especially where a shift and a
a slow wave and gradually quicken in movement,havechange of strings to be made together.
so increasing the intensity of the sound to theThe stops must be firm and true, the shift made
highest point ; the reverse for a diminuendo.swiftly smearing.without
Used very rapidly, it intensifies passionateThe shake is undoubtedly the most beautiful
expression. The player haveshould at his com-of all the ornaments. A fine shake, brilliant,
mand, the quick, the slow, and the gradational.pearly, or limpid, as occasion may require, is a
Scales and arpeggi common chords inof fonrcrowning glory to an artist. This command of
octaves.—The compass of the violin in modernthe trill is not easily obtained, indeed it may
be said to be most difficult, and requires long
and patient study. Before Beethoven's time to
times is from ]~ ; it is therefore pos-shakes were generally short, but in the first
movement of his violin concerto long shakes
and chains of shakes are given, producing a
lovely effect this example has been followed
; sible to play scales and arpeggi ofG and G minor,
Mendelssohn,by Spohr, Bruch, Saint -Saens, minor. A,Ab, Mr A minor, Br>, Bl>
Brahms, and others. B, B minor. The fingering given in the
exTlie shake must be practised vdih each finger, amples will suit all the scales and arpeggi
the beat should be firm but with not too much mentioned.
Scale of G in Four Octaves.
Sya
-J^— .1 ^r^ -^*—i-^^fl(-ti Ci lJ.3-2^^' 4-3 &*^l-'—
FINGERING FINGERING 51
Scale of A.
Harmonics. See article under that heading. less individual, and will vary according to the
applies e(jually to the ability, the experience, and taste of the player.This system of fingering
Viola, but as its compass is limited, the scales The fingering of the violoncello was originally
and arpeggi must be only of two octaves, and taken from that of the violin, as that of the
between two and octaves. Scales of C, D, Viol da Garaba was obviously not suitable,three
and E, with their arpeggi can be played in three owing to the smaller intervals between the pitch
octaves. The chief point of difference between of its seven stiings. The }'rinci])le of the
two instruments is the production of tone. present system is the normal distance of a semi-the
arpeggi, chief subject of tone between two adjacent fingers. The intei'-The scales and the
this article, form the systematic fingering of val of a whole tone is taken, either by leaving
and with some well-chosen exercises out one finger, which is kept in reserve for thethe violin,
of fingers should semitone, or by the first and second fingersto develop the percussion the
be sufficient for their purpose. The great classi- only (as in the A flat and E major scales,
cal studies shonld go hand in hand with them, see page very seldom by the second and52),
Gavinies, the Solo third, or third and fourth fingers. The firstKreutzer, FioriUo, Rode,
Sonatas of Bach, and the Caprices of Paganini. and fourth fingers, therefore, take the interval
The first requirement of interpretation is of either a minor or a major third, in the
'
' 'of life for normal ' and extended positions of the handmechanical skill ; there is a time
takeworking out difficult technical problems and respectively. Large hands may even a
playing compjositions of extraordinary brilliancy fourth.
According to the oldest school, Corrette,and daring, but as the artist comes to maturity, if 1741,
;the true spirit animates him, these things having the fingering for the diatonic scale was
purpose in training him to overcomeserved their 1st position . .12 4
interest him, the greatdifficulties will no longer 2nd 4,, .
classical works will attract him more and more,
3rd ,, . .12 3 4
and his artistic sensibility will be trained to the
4th 3,, .
taste.highest point of pure refined A. G.
moveable saddle in theFiNGERiNO OF THE ViOLON'CELLO.—Besides The thumb acts as a
two strings.differences in size and length of hands and higher positions, being placed acrossthe
which early in use for this pur[iose, but up tofingers, there are some other influences It was
century the fourth fingermodify the fingering in general use, such as : the end of the 18th
fingers their stretching was not employed in the thumb-positions, beingthe strength of the ;
too weak. With the help of thecapacity, as gained by practice the example considered
;
octaves, fifths, sixths, andteacher the course adopted as to the thumb, thirds andof the ;
inevitable tendency even tenths can be easily played, as the thumlikind of studies and the
;
afibrds firm hold on the strings. It could botowards what gives the least trouble. All com- a
therefore, will be more or as easily used in the lower positions.plicated fingering,— —
52 FINGEEINGFINGERING
with theThe positions, positions are takenas shown in the following The higher
tible, contain of course in each case either thumb.a
A, F,normal position of up, in some scales (G, D, Bb)the hand or an extended Higher
the hrst andposition, fourth position upwards,as referred to above. from the
used alternately, each scalefingers aresecond
with 12 3. Thisor four octaves closingof three
fromw^ to all scales starting thesystem applies
starting from anotlierposition. ScalesNonnal. Extended. Normal. Extended. first
based on the three-have their fingeringposition
Half Position. First Position.
tinger system.
The Seven Positions with the
Half-positions.
^Aftit^T*^.
m
Position I II IIJ HI Illi IV V Vi VI Vli VIIi
This generally-recognised table of the
positions is based on the principle that each step took a very long time—nearly a centuryIt
of the major scale on the firstC string, be- became fixed in a correctbefore the fingering
gianing with A, is a full position, and each the improvement wasand methodical way, and
accidental a half position, Davidov and
the French (Tilliere, Cupis, Miintz-started by
placeSchroeder the positions in accordance with were J. L. Duport'sberger). The bestmethods :
the major scale of each string, the principle work lastingEssay on Firu/ering, an excellent of
being uniformity of all positions on all four
value and the Mithode de Violoncelle, by
;
strings, the positions of the C major scale on Levasseur, Catel, and Baudiot (Paris,Baillot,
the lowest string forming the basis.
^ ^ the first method in use in the Paris1804),
Conservatoire. With the development of
techBi It^^i^ century well-knownnique in the 19th by^ masters the fingering was more and more
dePosition I II II Itl Illi IV rvt V V) VI VIIi
finitely fixed. Absolute uniformity is even now
:The fingering of the scale of C is as follows lacking, as may be seen from a comparison of
4
the different methods in one scale, as shown
4 0134 0124 5^1*-*- ^12 4 12
below. The reason for this lies in the fact that
wellthe instruments as as the hand and fingers
of the players will always vary, not to speak of
other causes mentioned above.C string.
M rr— — —
FINGERING FINGEPJNG 53
sliding from one to the other semitone with place in favour of the first, second, and third
fithe nearest finger. Here also the change took Offers ill succession.
==!^tw
12 30 123 12 304«|--^-ffn»*'= 3IjTi^-W
O Vi '2 3
In the higher positions the fingerin; of the fingers, the fourth fingers not being used. The
chromatic scale may be alternatel}^ tonic sounds from the full length of the tube,
liut with exceptions to be subsequentl}' noticed.
1 and 2 going np and coming down.
By over-blowing on the fiute, all these notes aresuccessively going up, and1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1,
repeated an octave higher, and the productioncoming down
;
of the octave of the tonic can be facilitated by3 and 2 alternately coming down, as
recomlilting the finger from the sixth hole.mended by Servais.
These six holes, therefore, supply all that is
Thirds are comparatively easy in the upper
required for the production of a diatonic scale
positions, with the aid of the thumb. They
of two octaves in instruments of the flute class,
are fingered thus, in both upper and lower
and also in conical played either
positions :
1 2p with a reed, as the oboe, or with a cup
mouth2 3 4 piece, as the old zincke. In the oboe, and
In the lower positions only, 1 and 4 are avail- similar conical instruments, the production of
2 and 3 with open strings (without the the notes of the second octave is greatly facili-able, or
tated by the opening of one or more smallthumb).
' 'tubular holes or pipes in the upper part ofFor sixths in the lower positions the fingers
more frecpiently the instrument.change
On an instrument with six finger-holes, scales12 3 4 4 ,3
'^'"^^ other than that in which it is set, and therel'ore112 3 2
12 3 requiring semitones foreign to the original scale,
thumb-positionsIn the -,q o can be rendered only with a rough
approximation to accuracy by partly closing, and so liattcn-2 3 3
In the higher positions without thumb
closinging the speaking hole, or by one or more
-positions are fingered holes below it. For a complete chromatic scale,Octaves in the thumb
or the cycle of twelve diatonic scales, five extra3 3 4
either _ consecutively, or_ alternately. In
^ controlled by keys have been introducedholes
;
positions by the first and fourth these, with the six finger-holes, giviugthe eleventhe lower
different lengths of tube required in addition tofingers only.
the total length, for the twelve degrees of theThe fingering of arpeggios sometimes shows
instruments wliichcombinations over four strings and chromatic scale. On cannotinteresting ;
one finger, or from be overblown, however, whether conical, as thethe practice of sliding with
or cliaunters of the various bagpipes, or cylindrical,one finger to another forward, backward,
chalumeaux, a seventh holecrossing over a neighbouring finger, is an indis- as the rudimentary
violoncello player. Sjiace is required for the completion of the scale of onepensable device of the
of octave, and this liole is usually controlled bywill not permit the detailed explanation
thumb of the left hand.in a dictionary. E. K. thethese points
above,Wind Instruments. In the ordinary flute-scale, as described(iii.) FixGERixG OF
harmonic scale, or the fundamental note of the tube is used ; and—The fact that the natural
next note to this in the H.S. is the(referred to below as H.S. as theseries of notes ),
diiferent ways, must be octave, the whole of the intermcd'atc notesalthough utilised in
of all have to be obtained by means of variations inregarded as the basis of the intonation
If, however, the fundamentalis briefly dealt with under thelengthoftube.wind instruments,
witha slightl}^ more ex- note were not required, the original length"Wind Instruments, but
three variations would give the diatonic scale,tended, although necessarily limited view of
third, and fourth notes of thefingering of all such instruments as as the second,the scale
twelfth, and double octavegiven. (For the scale H.S. are the octave,have side-holes is here
of prime. A diatonic scale in the secondbrass instruments generally, see theschemes of
octave requires, therefore, only threeand V,a.i.ve.) harmonicHorn, Trombone,
mediant, andfinger-holes, giving the su]iertonic.The simplest basis for consideration is an
the dominant or third note inbored with .six finger-holes as the subdominant,iuistrument
from the full length of thekeys. Since tlie H.S. being derivedcommon fife or flute without
and this was the usual arrangement in theof the modern major diatonic scale, tube,prevalence
and galoubet.been jilaced in such positions as tabor pipethe holes have
bagpipe cbaunter, the sixof which lie Returning to theto give the six degi-ees this scale
normal holes of the flute are supplemented nottonic and its octave, or second notebetween the
seventh, or thumb-hole, to give thesuccessive raising of the six only by thein H.S. by the54 FINGERING FINK
theoctave, but of these is that known asby an eighth hole closed by the most important
fourth Boehm, Theobald), thefinger ofthe right hand. This is required system (seeBoehra
speaking holeby a prolongation of which is that everythe tube sufficient to give basis of
a note one the hole giving the semitonetone lower than its keynote, the is vented by
To attain this resultkeynote itself now sounding from below it.this eighth immediately
hole, instead of from of a somewhat elaborate descrip-the full length of tube. key-work
This is justified by the equalitysimple case of extension of the scale tion is required,
butdownall keys.wards is typical of many and power obtainable in
; the point to be ob- of tone
served is that is seen at its best and simplestsuch extension does not affect the The system
of it on the clarinetgeneral scheme of fingering, and the flute, but the usenatural, or on the
characteristic scale established increasing.by the six finger- is
summary of the scheme of finger-holes. In the same sense that the natural This general
with side-holes,scale of the pianoforte is common to all instrumentsC, and is not altered ing
by the extension rather than under the name of anyof the compass downwards is given here
certain details peculiar tofrom CO to AAA, so the natural scale of a wind one instrument, but
underinstrument is that determined are, when possible, noticed theirby the six finger- each
D. -T. E.holes, and is not altereii by the extension of its respective articles.
compass. From this point of view the key or FINK, Christian, born August 9, 1831, at
scale of the modern concert Dettingen in Wiirtemberg, studied music untilflute is D, although
with his father, who combinedhaving downward extension to c', and in some his fifteenth year
and organist.cases to or even h'^ the oboe is also in D, the offices of schoolmaster In&a ;
extension was sent to the "Waisenhaus-Seminarwith to 65 or h'ly. The bassoon mth 1846 he
where he remained for three years,its six finger-holes closed, sounds G a twelfth at Stuttgart,
lower than the oboe, but its natural scale is C his musical education being in the hands of Dr.
Appointed in 1849 assistant musicmajor, the highest finger-hole sounding / and Kocher.
seminary at Esslingen, he pur-not as required in the scale of G. The holes teacher in the/((
for the left hand only being closed, the instru- sued his studies with such success that he was
fingers able in 1853 to pass the examination for thement gives c ; d, e, and/ sound as the
are successively raised, and on the closing of upper class ofthe Leipzig Conservatorium. After
holes for the three fingers the right hand, a year and a half he went to Dresden to studythe of
raising fingers, organ under Schneider. From 1856 tois obtained, followed, on the theg
by a, b, ami c' all as octaves of their respective 1860 he appeared as organist at many concerts
primes G, A, B, and C. The extension down- and oratorio performances in Leipzig, and in
BBiy by was appointed head of thewards from G to is obtained chiefly 1863 seminary at
key-work. Esslingen and organist of the princijial church
the octave harmonic has no existence on of that place. Two years afterwards he wasAs
instruments with cylindrical bore, no rei^etition given the title of Professor. He has published
of the scale in the octave, on such instruments, many excellent works for the organ, some of
obtained. Therefore e.xtra holes be- which have appeared in the Organist's Quarterlycan be
yond the normal six or seven are imperatively Jaurnal (Novello), besides psalms for chorus
called for if the scale is to comprise more than and orchestra, songs, choruses, etc. (Mendel's
some of such instruments, as Zcxil'07i.)eight notes. On M.
wasthe racket, much ingenuity displayed in the FINK, Gottfried "SVilhelm, theologian and
doubling of the tube, so as to bring more than musical critic, born March 7, 1783, at .Suiza in
under the control of a single finger or Thuringia, was educatedone hole at Naumburg, where
thumb. On others, as the sourdine and krumm- he was chorister, and Leipzig He(1804-9).
key-work was used long before the evolu- began writing forhorn, the ^l/g. Mits. Zeitung in
clarinet. distinctivetion of the modern The 1808, and in 1827 succeeded Rochlitz as editor,
feature of this instrument is not so much the a post he held till 1841. In 1842 he became
of keys to extend the fundamental for a shortaddition time professor of music to the
compass from an octave to a twelfth, as the University of Leipzig. He died at Halle, August
peculiar use of thethumb or pipe-key, as ameans 1846. Fink's27, only musical works of value
of ensuring the production of notes, speaking as "were the 'Musikalischer Hausschatz, 'a collection
the fundamental notes do from the different of Lieder, etc. (Leipzig, 1843), and 'Diedeutsche
the instrument as determined by side-lengths of Liedertafel ' {ihid. 1846). As an author he
pubholes, but in each case a twelfth higher than lished various volumes and ]iam]ihlets, but none
the fundamental. ofwhich the namesareworth preserving. Besides
The foregoing remarks give a general indica- the A.i[.Z., he was a prolific contributor to the
tion of the fundamental jirinciples and develop- Conversations - Lc^-icons of Ersch and Gruber,
of fingering from ament diatonic basis ; but as and of Brockhaus, and to Schilling's Lericon dcr
the free use of all scales necessitates working Tonkunst. He left in j\TS. a history of music,
a chromatic basis, modern improvements uponwhich he had beenengaged forfrom twentyyears.
have been influenced by this principle. The Fink was at once narrow and superficial, apd aFINTA GIARDIXIEEA, LA FIOEITURE 55
sti'oiif,' conservative ; and the Zcitwivj did not operas. His character was gentle and retiring
;
maintain under his editorship the position it lield and the last few years of his life were spent
in tlie musical world under Rochlitz. M. c. c. very (piietly. He died at Capua, on his
GIARDINIEKA,FINTA LA. Opera bulla way to Naples, June 16, 1837. Like Paisiello
in three acts, author of libretto unknown and other considerable Italian composers of
;
music by Mozart produced at Munich, Jan. that date, Fioravanti was extinguished by
;
13, 1775. Rossini.
FINTA SEMPLICE, LA. Opera bufta in His son ViNCENZo, born April 5, 1799, died
three acts libretto by Coltellini, music
; by March 28, 1877, also composed operas with
Mozart ; composed at Vienna in 1768, when he ephemeral success. m. c. c.
was only twelve, but apparently never put on FIORILLO, Federigo, violin player and
the stage. composer, was born in 1753 at Brunswick, "where
FIOCCO, the name of a family of some dis- his I'ather Ignazio, a Neapolitan by birth, lived
tinction who flourislicd in Brussels in the 18th as conductor of tlie opera. He appears to have
They may havecentury. been related to a been originally a player of the mandoline, and
Donienico Fiocco, a mass of whose composition, only afterwards to have taken up the violin.
for four voices (with added parts by Brossard), In 1780 he went to Poland, and about the year
in Bibl.is the Nationale in Paris ; the head of 1783 we find him conductor of the band at
the Brussels family was PieteoAntonioFiocco, Riga, where he stayed for two years. In 1785
a Venetian, who was in the court band at jilayedhe with much success at the Concert
Brussels about and conductor of1696, it from Spirituel at Paris, and published some of his
1706. Van der Straeten states that he was the compositions, which w^ere very favouralily
refirstdirector ofthe musico-dramatic Accademie' ceived. In 1788 he went to London, where he
in 1704. volume of Sacri concerti, wasA op. 1, appears to have been less successful as a violinist,
'printed at Antwerp in 1691, a cantata, Le as ^^e conclude from the fact that he plaj'ed the
Retour de Printemps, ' is dated Brussels, 1699, viola ]»art in Salomon's quartet-party. His last
and various masses and motets are mentioned appearance in public in London took place in
in the Quellen-Lcxikon. He died in Brussels, the year 1794, when he perlbnned a concerto
Nov. 1714. His elder son, Jean Joseph on the viola at the Antient Concert. Of the rest3,
(or Giovanni succeeded his of his life but little is known,Gioseffo) Fiocco, except that he
wentfather as conductor at Brussels in 1714, but the from London to Amsterdam, and in 1823
younger son, Gioseffo Hectoee Fiocco, the was in Paris. The jilace and date ol his death
third in succession in the conductor's place, are not known. His numerous com|"iositions
violins,seems to have been the most important of the are Duos for for piano and violin, and
three. He was suli-conductor at Brussels in violin and violoncello Trios for flute, violin,
;
from 1731 master of the choristers at and tenor, for two violins and bass Quartets1729,
;
Antwerp Cathedral, and master of the music at and Quintets for stringed instruments
Con;
Ste. Gudule, in Brussels, in 1737. He Avas a certos for the violin ; Concertantes for t\\'0
distinguished harpsichord player, and in his violins, etc. (see QiicVcn-Lexilcon for fuller
list). were very favourablyfirst book of ' Pieces de Clavecin ' are many things Tbey received in
of value, some of which were reprinted by his time, and, although somewhat dry and
oldA''an der Straeten and in Elewyck's selections fashioned, show him to have been a sound and
masters. (QiicUeii- earnest musician. There is, however, one par-from the Netherlandish
Lexikon.) ticular work which has brought his name down
FIORAVANTI, Valentino, composer, born to our time, and will probably long remain a
Sala at the standard. His thirty-six Caprices orin Rome in 1764, studied under Etudes
' Pieta de' Turchini ' at Naples. His first opera are known and valued by every violin player.
' Le avventure di Bertoldino,' produced in Rome, They rank with the classical stuilies of Krentzer
and Rode, and, apart from their uselulncss,1784, was follo'A'ed by at least fifty others, all
comic, the last of wdiich, 'Ogni eccesso e vizioso,' are not without merit as compositions. They
was at Naples in 1823. He was in- have been edited over and over again—ni' stproduced
Ferdinand Davii (Lei]izig,vited to Paris in consequence of the success of recently by Senff).
'
' Le Cantatrici Villane (1806), and there wrote Spobr wrote and published an accomiianving
anibulanti ' These two violin-part to them. p. D.'I virtuosi (1807).
"were on the whole his best operas, though all FIOEITURE. The Italian term for
ornapossessed a genuine vein of comedy, a freshness, ments—scales, arpeggios, turns, shakes, etc.
part-writing, which concealed —introduced by singers into airs. In the 18thand an ease in the
want of originality, and airs were often writtentheir triviality an<l century plain, and were
very popular in their day. He was embroidered by the singers according to theirmade them
'and in June 1816 he taste and ability. Such songs as dolce con-again in Naples in 1807,
' ' pii'i weresucceeded Januaconi as maestro di cappella to St. cento and Nel cor ' seldom sung alike
Rome, and while in that post wrote by two difl^erent singers. Rossini's early airsPeter's at
music very inferior to his were written for the same treatment—witness3. quantity of church—
56 FIPPLE FLUTE FISCHEK
' Non piu mesta.' A remnant of it at Mayence, August 18, 1746,some will Ho was born
still remember in the long, at the theatres of Muuichtasteless cadenzas and well known
indulged in at Italythe close of Handel's airs. Vienna Paris (1783),This (1778), (1779),
was all very well as long as singers etc. Hewere also Berlin (1788),(1784),
good musicians, and as 1825. Plong as the singing was died at Berlin, July 10,
1=more tliouglit —of than what was sung. original Osmin in theBut now He was the ^
'these things are changed, and and had a compass —"^the composer Entfuhrung,'
writes exactly half ' allwhat he intends to be sung two octaves and aof
'notes, nt(anci:s, and e.\[)ression. even, and in tune (Reichardt).round,
'The practice of fioriture great ally of Mozart's, who
' was not unknown Fischer was a
to ' viene,' andplayers in tlie orcliestra as well as singers. for him Kon so d' ondeto wrote — trulySpohr gives some amusing and almost him with aff'ection 'Aincredible otten mentions
instances of such Archbishop told mefreaks of Horns and Clarinets splendid voice, though the
in the ' assured liini heI'uUi of his Scena Contante ' Concerto, sang too low lor a bass, and Ihe
'at Rome in 1816 {Sdbslhiog. higher next time (Sept. 26, 1781)i. 330). G. should sing ;
'FIPPLE ' irretrievable (Feb.FLUTE. The designation Flute, A man whose loss is 5,
' cannotas applied to modern European instruments, I went to see the Fischers ; I1783) ;
includes broadly all the wdiole family desirein whicli the tone is jiro- describe their joy,
'duced by (JIarchthe breath without the use of either to be remembered to you 17,
a reed or a cup -shaped mouthpiece. The others of the family were hisLi the 1781).
more limited than respectable singermodern use, the term is applied wile Barbara, a more
to those instruments only in which the current and actress; his son Joseph (1780-1862),
of air proceeds directly from the of renown, but more knownlips across the also a bass
mouth-hole, or singer his dauglitersembouchure. In a large class as an impresario than a ;
—of flutes, however, now rapidly disappearing, Fischer- Vernier who in 1835 founded a
the wind was blown through a tube into a singing school of great repute for giils in
and Joseph's adoptedcavity from which it issued in a flat stream Vienna—and Wilhelmine,
against a sharp lip opposite. Tliis flat form daughter, Fischer- Maratfa, all good, efficient,
was given to the air-reed or stream by a block intelligent artists. M. c. c.
in the chamber or cavity, and this block was FISCHER, JoHAXX, violinist and composer,
called the tipple. Hence the instruments vari- was born in Swabia in the middle of the 17th
ously called recorders, flutes-a-bec, and flutes probably about 1650. He was acentury,
douces are all fipple flutes, as are also flageolets, nuisician whose career presents features not a
ocarinas, and whistles generally. For derivation little remarkable, the (musically) remote period
of the word tipple, and many interesting details, being taken into considera-in which he li\'ed
'Welch's paper relatingsee Jlr. Literature to tion. A thorough Cosmojiolitan, a writer and
the Rejorder' in Froc. Mas. Assoc. 1897-98. performer of what is known to-day as Virtuoso
Flageoli-;t, Flute, Recorder.) .t. b. comjioser(See d. music, and of at least one example of
*FIREWORK MUSIC. A series of pieces- progi'amme music,' he possessed a conil:>iuation
Overture, Allegro, Lentement, Bourree, Largo ot qualities we are accustomed to look upon
alia siciliana. Allegro, and two Minuets, all in as essentially modern. His instructor in
the key ofD—written by Handel and perlbrnied violin playing is unknown, but it is recorded
at the Fireworks given in the Green Park, that he was taught harmony by Capricornus
on tlie occasion of the PeaceApril 27, 1749, at Stuttgart, and sent in early youth to
-of Aix-la-Cliapelle. The baud—100 in all Paris, where he became copyist Lully,to
contained twenty-four oboes, twelve bassoons, whose music he saidis to have subsequently
nine threenine trumpets, horns, drums, besides introduced into Germany. In any case, traces
<'•,strings. of that composer's influence are to be found in
FIRING is pulling all the bells in a tower ]iis compositions.
at once, so as to make them strike togethi/r. After leaving Paris, he life,led a wandering
It is practised in England on specially joj'ful remaining for a time at Augsburg (in the
or mournful occasions—on the latter with the Barfiisser Kirche) and at Schwcrin, where he
bells muffled. C. A. w. T. liold an appointment as Capellmeister. He
and FISIS, the German terms for FjFIS also visited Denmark and Sweden, finally
settand F x respectively. The e([uivalent French ling down in Schwedt in Pomerania as
Markterms are Fa diese and Fa double dicse. grailicher Capellmeister. Here he died at
FLSCHER. A family of singers of the 18th the age of sevent}' years.
and 19th centuries. The founder was Lud^vig, He composed Tafehnusik, Overtures, Dances,
of wliom Otto Jahn (Mozart,a bass, 2nd ed. i. Madrigals, Minuets, and Solos for violin and
661, 630) speaks as 'an artist of extraordinary viola. In a list of his compositions given by
gift, for compass, power, and beauty of voice, Fetis found various vocalare also to be pieces,
and artistic perfection both in singing and play- and the primitive example of programme
'ing, probably the greatest German bass-singer.' music, already alluded to, entitled, Feld und,
FISCHER FISCHER 57
Helden iibor pedals are only required for tlieMiisik, die 1704 bei Hochstadt and the Preludes.
geschehener Scblaclit, woriu die Violine der Many of the themes have a remarkable
resemMarlborougli, und die Hoboe der Tallaid verstel- blance to those afterwards made use of by Bach.
It is interesting to that major fugue lor example beginslen.' note Fischer Tlie E with
|ierforinedwrote and Violin pieces in which the precisely the same theme alia breve as that in
device of special tunings (Scordatura), found in the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier,
latter days in the works of Paganiui and others, See also the beginning of the F major fugue.
Avas occasionally employed. These U)nsfiiii- Max Seifl'ert points out many other striking
munrjcn.^ as the Germans call them, are even resemblances (^G-eschiehte der Klavier- Musili,
found in pieces written by him for the viola, To these preludes and fugues the com-Bd. 1).
an instrument for which be liad a marked pre- poser has subjoined Ave riceroari on the church
dilection, w. w. c. melodies: 'Ave Maria klare,' 'Der Tag der
FISCHER, JoHANN Caspae Ferdixakd, an Freudenreich, ' 'Da Jesus an dem Krenzeist so
'almost totally forgotten predecessor and innne- stund,' 'Christ ist Erstanden,' and
Kouunlleilidiate forerunner of Handel and Bach in clavier ger Geist. ' Two otherworks of Fischer appeared
'between without date, one entitled Musicalischerand organ music, was born some time later
of nine suites1660 and 1670, and died about 1738 (according Parnassus,' consisting of a series
to Ernst v. Werra, see below). Of his life for clavier named after the Nine Muses. These
was are of a more solid German character,nothing further is known but that he suites
French taste in thecapellmeistcr to the Jlarkgraf Ludwig of Baden with fewer concessions to
at the Schloss Schlackenwerth in Bohemia. use oiagremens. The remaining work is entitled
Markgraf Ludwig had been obliged to take \ip Blumenstrauss, and would seem to have been
after Fischer's death. is arrangedhis residence at this Bohemian Schloss in con- published It
scciucnee of the destruction of the Residenz at according to the eight Chmxli Tones, each tone
Fischer's op. 1 having a prelude followed by eight very shortBaden by the French in 1688.
concluding with a flnale. Although noa}ipeared at Augsburg in 1695 with the title fugues,
tlie fact, it would seem asLc Journal du Frintemps consistant en Airs ct mention is made of
Trompcltes el plaisir. if these pieces were intended to accompany theBnhts a 5 Parties et les
singing of the Magnificat in theIn 1696, op. 2, 'Les Pieces de Clavessin,' ap- plain -song
became common in the 17thpeared at Schlackenwerth, but was repuljlished fashion which
title Musica- century that is to say, wliile in the 16that Augsburg in 1698 with the ;
con- it w'as usual to sing altei-nate verses oflischcs Blumen-Bilschlem, etc. This work
in vocal harmony, witli tlie otlierof eight short suites for clavier, each intro- the Magnificatsists
prelude. Fischer, however, does not verses sung to the simple plain-song, in theducedby a
in 17tli century the custom grew up for the organistadhere to the regular order of dance-forms
his own playing in place of thesuite as established by Froberger, viz. to substitutethe
alternate verses. VeryCouraute, Sarabande, Gigue, but vocal harmony of theAllemande,
substituting, dignified examples of this kind of work may befollows the newer French fashion in
Frescobaldi's Fiori Mtisieali, 1635, alsoael libitum. Gavottes, Menuets, Bourrees, Passe- seen in
Nova, 1624. Pacbelbelconsists only ofa prelude and in Scheldt's Tabulatnrapieds, etc. Suite v.
consists of also left some very florid and less ecclesiasticalaria with eight variations. Suite viii.
specimens of these Organ Jlagnificats. Theprelude with chaconne only. In 1701 appeared
Fischer hold a right meanwith ad libitum short movements ofop. 3, Vesper Psalms a 8
basso con- between the earlier simplicity and the later moreaccompaniment of two violins and
and although tliey have so littleand violone. In 1702 appeared florid style,tinue for organ
themselves and tliewithout development, the themesFischer's op. 4 (republislied in 1715
in
' modulations have much of the spirit of Bachopus number) entitled Ariadne Musioa
Neoonly remains to mention that thework is a direct fore- them. ItOrganoedum,' etc. This
Fischer have beenClavier. Its clavier and organ works ofshadowing of Das wohlfcniperirtc
vonrecently republished in one volume by Ernsttitle points it out as intended to be a clue to
orchestral work Le Jouinul desto guide tliem througli the "Werra, and thebudding organists
the Denlmiiler dermajor and Printemps in Band x. ofmazes of all the newer modern keys,
Tonkmist, 1902. J. i;. M.consists of twenty preludes and deutsehenminor. It
JoHANN Chrlstian, distinguisheddifl'erent keys, only the key FISCHER,fugues in as many
(Brei.sgau), was foroboist, born 1733 at FreiburgofE minor occurs twice, once without signature,
in the court band at Dresden fromPhrygian mode, and then with two some yearsas if in the
then in the service ofOf the twenty-four 1764 to about 1771,sharps as if in the Dorian.
successful con-Frederick the Great, and after aonly five are unrepresented, G sharpmodern keys
by Mannlieim, Holland, and Paris,major, E flat ndiior, B Hat minor, cert tourand F sharp
and made his first appearancesharp minor and F sliarj) came to London,and G minor. C
fonrshar) issignature, at the Thatched House, June 2, 1768 ; J. C.bothwritten withminorare
'playing the pianoforte ' for the firstsliarps,A flat with three flats, BachBminor with three
was formanyshort. time at the same concert. FischerBoth preludes and fugues are veryetc.
e—
58 FISH FITZWILLIAM
music, thenyears a great attraction at the Bach-Abel and there. He was teacher ofnext a
eventu-Vauxhall concerts, and as a member of the andprincipal oboist at the theatre, etc. ,
frequently before the Court. concerts. HeQueen's band played ally leader of the band at the
Taylor,His playing of Handel's fourth oboe concerto at numbeied among his pupils Edward
the HandelCommemoration in 1784 so delighted afterwards of music, andGresham professor
expressed his satisfaction the band ofthe King that he in George Perry, afterwards leader of
died ina note on his book of the ^^'ords. (lUemoir the Sacred Harmonic Society. Heof
Dr. Biirnry by Mme. D'Arblay, ii. 385.) His Nonvich, 1866. He composedMarch 15,
powerful, since Giardini pieces, a piano-tone must have beenvery numerous songs, and other vocal
'the violinist characterised it as such an impu- forte sonata, op. and concertos for various1,
asnootherinstrumentcouldcontend instruments. w. H. h.dence of tone
'with' ; and according to the ABODario it was FISHER, John Abraham, Mus.Doc, was
very tine and inexpressibly well-managed. ' On born at Dunstable (or London) in 1744, He
of the King's band became a student violin under Pinto, andthe death of Stanley, Master of the
made his public in JulyFischercompeted withBurney and others first appearance in 1765(1786),
for the vacant post, but Parsons was appointed, at the King's Theatre, in a concert for the benefit
of the Musical Fund. About 1770 heand Fischer soon after went abroad , probably in married
daughter Powelldisgust at his failure. Mozart in 1766 as a boy a of the actor, and became, in
had been enchanted with his playing in Holland, her right, proprietor of a sixteenth share in
Vienna, severely Covent Garden Theatre. He composedbut on hearing him again in for that
criticiseshim(letter to his father, April 4,'178 and other theatres the music for the follow-7),
his execution, ing pantomimes, viz., 'Zobeide,'and condemns alike his tone, and 1771 ; 'The
Monster of Wood,'his compositions. From 1790 he remained in the 1772; 'The Sylphs,'
'London. While playing at Court he was struck 1774 Prometheus,' 1776 and 'The Norwood
; ;
died April Gipsies,' 1777 and also music forwith paralysis, and 29, 1800 (see ; the opening
I'imes of ila.j Kelly, in his -Reminiscences of 'Macbeth.' On July 2, 1777, an oratorio1).
'(vol. i. gives an anecdote of Fischer's pride by Fisher, entitled Providence,' was performed9),
having inas an artist. A certain nobleman invited the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford, and on
him to supper much against his wall, said when the 5th of the same month the composer (as a
arrived, 'I Mr. Fischer, you have member of Magdalen College)he hoi)e, accumulated the
brought your oboe in your pocket ' to which he degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Music. His
;
'replied, No, ray lord my oboe never sups, ' and oratorio was performed in Freemasons' Hall,
;
left the house. London,instantly He was very intimate on May 28, 1778, for the benefit of
with Gainsborough, who was a gi'eat lover of the Middlesex Hospital, and again in 1780. On
music, and wdiose pretty daughter Mary he the death of his wife Fisher disposed of his
married, though the father gave a very unwilling interest in Covent Garden Theatre, and started
consent, foreseeing the short duration of the on a professional tour through Russia and
mart'iage. (Fulcher's Life Gainsborough.) Germany.of In 1784 he reached Vienna, where
There is a fine portrait of Fischer by Gains- he induced the youthful Anna Selina Storace
borough atHamptonCourt (private dining-room. to become wifehis second —contrary to the
Thicknesse mentionsNo. 747). a second in full advdce of all her friends. The union proved
'—uniform scarlet and gold like a colonel of the an unhappy one, and in a short time the parties
Foot Guards.' separated and the wife never after used her
Zuck and Kellner were his best-known pupils husband's name. The Emperor, incensed at
in London. J. C. Bach wrote for him a quartet Storace's having had to submit to blows from her
for two oboes, viola, and violoncello, which he husband, ordered Fisher to quit his dominions.
played. His ownoften compositions (of which He then went to Dublin and gave a few
successFetis and Gerber give a partial list) consist ful concertsof in the Rotunda. [He was in
solos, duets, concertos, quartets, etc. IrelandOn this from 1786 to 17S8 (see Lady Morgan's
'point the ABUDario says, As a composer his Memoirs). He left Ireland before 1798 and
desire to be original often makes him introduce died, probably in London, in May 1806.
whimsical and outre passages, which nothing w. H. c. F.] Besides the above-named
combut his playing could cover.' Mozart, in positionsspite Fisher published some symphonies for
of his unfavourable ojiinion ofhim, immortalised orchestra, and other works, thefor which see
minuet writinghis by variations for it QucUcn-Leril-nn.(1773), w. H. H.
wliich he often played to dis]ilay his bravura FITZWILLIAM, Edwaep Francis, son of
'(Kiichel, No. This179). minuet was then all Edward and Frances Fitzwilliam—both actors
the rage,' as Kelly writes, after hearing andFischer singers—born at Deal, August 1824.1,
play it in Dublin {Pvem. i. and9), it continued He was educaterl for the musical profession,
be the rage for Tnanyto years. c. r. p. and devoted himself especially to the study of
FISH, William, born in Norwich in composition.1775, In 1853 he published a set of
became, early in life, a violinist in the theatre twelve songs which were much admired, and in
' See Otto Jahn'a Mozart (Oerman edition),
iii. 309. the same year was appointed director of thea ' —
FITZWILLIAM COLLECTION, THE FLAGEOLET 59
music at tlie Hayniarket Theatre, where lie Fitzwilliam Mu.sic.—The list is as follows
'produced an operetta called Love's Alarms (' Orch.' :implies orchestral accompaniment)
Bouno. C\no Sancto.(1854) and music for some minor jneces. About
1855 he married Miss Ellen Chaplin, a member
of the Haymarket Company, well known as
Fitzwiliianr. His compositions wereMrs. E.
distinguished by an intelligence which gave
promise of great excellence when he should ha^'e
mastered the technicalitiesfully of his art—
hope disappointed by his early death, after a
lingering illness, on Jan. 20, 1857. Besides the
'above mentioned, he wrotesongs music for The
'Green Bushes,' 1815 ; Anything for a Change,'
1846, 'Queen of a Day,' comic opera; and
'and apublished a Te Deum, hymn,
incomprehensible Creator. ' A quartet from the former
'is given by ilr. Hullali in his Sacred Jlusic
for Faniilv Use.' w, H. H.
FITZWILLIAJI COLLECTION, THE. In
the year 1816 A'iscount Fitzwilliam died, leaving
to the University of Cambridge, ofwhich he was
a member, the annual interest on £100,000 in
money, and a large number ofvaluable paintings,
books, engravings, and other works of art. Of
these a collection of music, ilS. and printed,
forms a portion. Its most jirominent features
'Virginal Book formerly called Queenare the
'Elizabeth's ; a volume of anthems in the
handwriting of Henry Purcell, and another in that
Blow, containing various pieces not yetof Dr.
collectionprinted ; and a miscellaneous
embracing the works of more than 250 composers,
mostly of the 17th and 18th centuries, and
instancechiefly of the Italian school ; as for
Claiii, 3 masses, 3 Dixit Dominus, a Stabat, a
Confitebor, etc. ; Leci, a Mass, 2 Miserere, 3 Dixit
— n. Oratorioa 5, aS (in autograph) and 10 ; an
etc. COLONNA, a Magnificat, a Contitebor, a
;
Domine ad adjuvandum, a Beatus vir, a Dixit,
Dixit 2etc. ; JoMMELLi, a Miserere, a (n 8),
Operas, an Oratorio, etc. ; BososciNI, a Mass («
an Opera, a Psalm, Cantatas, etc. ; Py'.iiGOLEsi,8),
and Gloria (a portions of aa Mass, a Kyrie, 10),
Dixit, etc. Dur..\NTE, a Messa de' Morti («
; 8),
Litany and Motets. In addition to thesea
'Symphony in F, dithere is the autogi-aph of a
Giuseppe Haydn 787,' and some interestingme
Kelway saidMS.S. in Handel's autograph. is
to have been emplo3'ed by Lord Fitzwilliam to
collect for him in Italy. The Catalogue, by
JLannJ. A. Fuller Maitland and Dr. A. H. (the
latter of wliom contributed a valuable analysis
of the Handel sketches) was published in 1893.
.1.By the generosity of the late Pendlebury,
M. A., of St. .John's College, a large collection of
musical compositions, mainly modernimportant
works, wasgivenand bequeathed to the Museum.
The contents of the Virginal Book were
pubof the authorities, editedlished by permission
and W. Barclayby J. A. Fuller Maitland Squire
(finished See Virginal Music.1899).
the above music was publishedA portion of
by the late Vincent Novello in 1825 as. '
60 FLAGEOLET FLAT
In the whistle, and in case the two instrumentsthe English Flageolet, it appears that in this
the scale than this beingis simply that of the Flute indeed, play thirds intervals larger
; in ;
are setflutes are made from \\'hich the usual cases. The two tubeshead can possible in a few
be removedaud that blown by one mouthpiece.ofthe Flageolet substituted. in a single block and
The French silencing one of theFlageolet is similar in its upper Contrivances were added for
havepart, but possesses a more required, but they seem tocomplicated scale, two pipes when
and an abundance unison to a single note.of auxiliary keys. been often blown in
made. TheseThe inventiou of the Flageolet is flageolets have also beenascribed by Triple
Burney {Hist. still within the memory ofiii. 278 note) to the Sieur .Juvigny, instruments, though
'who most deservedly goneplayed it in thefamous Ballet comique de la some, have entirely and
seems toRoyiie,' 1,581. In the time ofllersennus No music of importance(l,588- out of use.
1648) the principal for them.teacher and player was Le have been composed
French flageolets areVacher (Hawkins, chap. 126). It appears The single English andto
have superseded the more ancient met with, chiefly in dance music.Recorder, still to be
much as described as a simple formthe Violin did the Viol. The two were The former has been
far more com-obviously for a time in use together of Flnte-k-bec. The latter is ain this
'country for the Genteel plicated instrument, possessing two holes for the
; Companion, being
and four in front for theexact directions for the Recorder, carefully com- thumbs at the back
Indeedposed and gathered by Humphrey Salter,' is two first fingers of the two hands. it
'
'dated from distinctly a descendant of the old Flageolettlie Lute in St. Paul's churchyard is
half-stopping of the left handin 1683, whereas the 'Pleasant companion, or given above. The
grooved plate for thenew lessons and instructions for the Flagelet 1 ly thumb-hole by means of a
' thumb-nail, and the introduction of the tip ofThomas Greeting, Gent, ' was printed for J
finger into the small evertedPlayftrd, and sold at his shop near the Temple the right little
are devicesChurch' inl682. The former work gives a plate bell at the bottom of the instrument,
peculiar this difficult but rather inetteotiveof a long bulky Recorder, reaching lialf-way to
compass is two octaves anddown to the player's knee, whereas the latter instrument. Its
g'represents him sitting over a table on which lies three semitones, from to b'" flat. A full
Method is published by Bousquet.his book, holding in his mouth and hands the
never found in orchestral'Flagelet,' a pipe not more than nine inches The Flageolet is
lies somewhat larger, scores, but there is a tradition of some authoritylong ; on the table one
' '0that the solo pjart in ruddier than the cherry,'apparently about twelve inches in length. It
' was playedmay be carried in the pocket, and so withoutany marked in the score as Flauto,' in
trouble be a companion by land and by water.' Handel's time on the flageolet ; and Sullivan
introduced it with excellent ert'eet in the partIn the same way the early Violins were termed
'piecoli Violini alia Frances^ in opposition to the of Dr. Daly in his Sorcerer. w. h. s.
more bulky A'iol. Both the flageolet and the re- FLAGEOLET. The French and Italian term
for the harmonic notes in the violin andcorder read from a staff of six lines, each ofwhich other
represents a hole to be stopped. In the Recorder instruments of that tribe ; doubtless so called
the tune, with proper notes and time, is because in quality they resemble the flageolet,music
[Harmonics.]placed on a staff above, whereas in the Flageolet m. c. c.
a single symbol above the staff shows the time, FLAT. A term employed in the sense of
intervals of the melody. [See Re- lowering an artist sings or plays flat when hisbut not the ;
notes arecorder.] The flageolet has only six holes, below the right pitch. B flat is a
stopped bya different arrangement ; their closure semitone lower than B, E flat than E, and so on
;
' 'appropriated successively to the thumb, to flatten (baissri-') a sound or an instrumentbeing
first, and second fingers of the left, followed in is to make it lower than before, just as to
'first finger, thumb, and secon<l shar])en ' it is to raise The sign used toorder by the it.
This fingering denote this flatteningfingers of the riglit hand. seems in music is called ab,
to be unique of its kind, and persists in the flat—Fr. bimol Ital. Beinolle Germ. Be.
; ;
French Flageolet. It has been already shown under Acciiientals
The Double Flageoletwas inventedbya person and B (vol. i. 19 and 141) how the signspp.
named Bainbridge about 1800, and his Method of the flat and natural were derived from(t>) (tj)
twofor the instrument is supjilemented after about forms of the letter b. A double flat is a
twentyyears by his son-in-law. It consists oftwo descent of two semitones, and is marked by
bb' Flageolets, the close to each other (See also Double Flat.)pjatent sides
;
the one has seven holes in front and one behind In German musical nomenclature the notes
;
other only four in front. The seven-holed are flattened by adding s (or cs) to the letter, asthe
Flageolet is played with the left hand, the four- Es, Des, Ges, etc. ; A flat is As, and B flat B,
Flageolet is played with the right hand though Hea has been used. Double flats areholed ;
have Deses, etc. The and in Germanand in playing duets you will in general b ( literature
express minorsame rmmber of holes covered on the second were formerly used to and major,'the
From the examples as for G minor, DJJ for D major, and evenFlageolet as on the first.' Gb''
FLAUTO MAGICO FLOEENCK 61
for E minor,Eb and Asj( for A fiat major. many improvements in organ- building which
(See the earlier Indexes of tlie Allgemfine prepared the way lor still superior mechanism.
"inuHkalische Zeitiing for frequent instances of Amongst them was an apparatus for steadying
this strange usage. ) Such ambiguities are now the wind, added to the bellows during a
reparaavoided by the use of the words dm- and moll tion of Father Schmidt's organ at Trinity
for major and minor. g. College, Caniln-idge, which preceded, and
posFLAUTO MAGICO. See Zauberflote. sibly suggested, the concussion bellows. B. TRAVERSO (Ital. ; Fr. Fldte Flight died in 1847, aged eighty, and Robson
traversiere). Tlie distinguishing name of tlie in 1876. w. h. h.
Flute with a lateral mouthpiece, held across the FLINTOFT.Rev.Luke, anativeofWorcester,
jieriormer, as opposed to the FhUe-d-bcc or Fla- took the degree of B.A. at Queen's College,
geolet, held straight in front. [Flute.] w. h. .s. Cambridge, in 1700, and was appointed
GentleFLEMMING, FiiiEPEicH Ferdinand, born man of the Chapel Royal in 1715, having been
Feb. 28, 1778, at Neuhausen in Saxony studied
; Priest-Vicar of Lincoln Cathedral from 1704 to
medicine at Wittenberg from 1796 to and1800, 1714. In July 1719 he was apjiointed Reader
subsequently at Jena, Vienna, and Trieste. He in Whitehall Chapiel. wasHe also a minor
practised in Berlin, where he took a keen canon of Westminster Abbey from 1719. He
interest in all musical matters, composingmany died Nov. 3, 1727, and was buried in the South
part-songs, especially for male voices, for the Cloister of Abbey. He is presumed
society founded by Zclter. He died in Berlin, to have invented the double chant, his beautiful
May 1813. His claim notice27, to in this chant in G minor being the earliest known.
Dictionary basedis upon his excellent setting (But see Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. x. 206,
of Horace's ode beginning 'Integer vitae, ' which xi. and267, 391, 445.) w. h. h.
is still universally popular in English schools FLORENCE (Flren:e), although in point of
as welland universities, as in Germany. The great masters inferior to the otlier schools of
curious resemblance in style and structure music in Italy, can still claim her place among
'between this and "Webbe's Glorious Apollo the earliest institutions for instruction in that
is certainly fortuitous, since the latter was science. Casella, the friend of Dante, was a
written in 1787, and Flemming can hardly native of Florence, and as early as 1310 tliere
have become acquainted with the Englishman's existed philharmonica society there, which
'work. M. Bnrney, writing in 1789, speaks of as still
FLIEGENDE HOLLANDER, DER. Opera in existence,' and which invented the Laudi
in three acts, words and music by Richard Si'iuiTUALi. Under the famous Lorenzo de'
"Wagner; produced at Dresden, Jan. 2, 1843. Medici, the streets ofFlorence resounded withthe
'
' 'In London at Drury Lane, as L'Olandese dan- Canti Carnascialeschi, ' tlie gay and frivolous
nato,' July and by Carl Rosa, as the songs of the Carnival, against wdiich Savonarola23, 1870 ;
' the Lyceum, Oct. 1876Flying Dutchman,' at protested, and the music of which was often
;
' 'at Oovent Garden as II Vascello fantasma, sacrificed on the pile of Vanita. ' To the history
of Florentine music during that epoch may beJune 16, 1877.
Wagner to the Squarcialupi,The words were sold by added the name of Antonio
organmanager of the Grand Opera in 1841, set bj' ist of the Duomo but passing over the other
;
'Dietsch Vaisseau fantome, ' and brought masters of this first epoch of the Florentineas Le
opera nmsic,out there, Nov. 9, 1842. o. school we come to the dawn of the
FLIGHT, Ben.iamin, an eminent organ- which had a fitting birthplacein festive Florence.
about was the son of For the purpose of promoting this kind ofmusic,builder, born 1767,
Benjamin Flight, who, in the latter part of the a private musical academy called 'Degli Alterati'
18th century, carried on, in partnership with (the thirsters) was founded in 1568 at Florence
'of Flight & seven Florentine noblemen who assendjled atJohn Kelly, under the style by
Kelly,' the business of organ-building at Exeter the house of Giambattista Strozzi. They chose
Flight learned the art of con- as their device a cask of grapes filled to over-Change. Young
'About the motto Quid non designatstructing organs from his father. flowing, and the
? Bardi, Conte di Varnio,year1800 he commenced business, in partnership ebrietas ' Giovanni
in Lisle Street, Leicester belonged to this academy, and, after the deathwith Joseph Robson,
' Flight & Robson.' his house became the rendezvous ofSquare, under the style of of Strozzi,
yearsafterwards removed to St. Jlartin's Lane, the academicians. Bardi had for manyThey
and for many years studied theory and practice of music till hewhere they constructed the
Apollonicon (q.r.). The and good composer and hepublicly exhibited the became a correct ;
dissolved in 1832, after which was often solicited to prepare for the stage thosepartnership wa.s
Davison bought Robson's mythological representations which under theMes-srs. Gray and
'Flight ,in conjunction musicali were among theshare ofthe business, while name of Feste_ '
Flight, who had long actively earliest forms taken by the musical drama.with his son, J.
on business in St. Martin's entertainments were first represented atassisted him, carried These

' invented PubUahed by Grazzini, Florence. 1559.Flight & Son. ' FlightLane as''
62 FLORENCEFLOKENCK
popularFlorence order than theon a scale of magniticence in keeping of a nobler and higher
maim the words,with the gorgeous character of the does not sever orMedici song ; which
andfeasts. life, but gives new forcenor deprive them of
a new and wonderfulVincenzo Galilei—father of the great Galileo to both. It is thenvigour
' ancient—was another member of the academy rather a revival of theDegli invention, or
which has been lost to usAlterati. ' He wrote a clever treatise, Dialogo Greek musical drama
vii. 1321).della Musicci anticci e inoderna centuries' (Tiraboschi,(Florence, 1581), for so many
Arianna,' composed byupon the abuse of modern music, in which he Rinuccini's next opera,
nujitials ofplaces in the mouth of Bardi an attack upon was represented at thethe Monteverde,
madrigalists and the researches of Mantua with the Infantaafter counter- Francesco Gonzaga
Oipere, ii. 25).point. He was also a composer, and is supposed Margaret of Savoy (Doni,
music wasto be the first who composed melodies academy for theatricalfor a This first
others, as the passion forsingle voice. He set to music the speech of succeeded by many
universal in Italy.Ugolino xxxiii. ) beginning 'La bocca musical representation became{Inf.
Florence,sollev6 dal fero paste also portion of mentions three in
' ; a the Quadrio (i. 71)
Immobili,' 'de' Sorgenti,'Lamentations of Jeremiah. 'degl' Infocati,' 'degl'
especially forGirolamo Mei was another member of this founded between 1550 and 1560
this kind of music. Each of theseacademy, and Emilio del Cavaliere, a composer promoting
with the others inof the Roman School, who, previous to the com- had its own theatre and vied
representa-position of the first entire musical drama by the splendour and magnificence of its
in the middle of the 16th cen-Rinuccini, had divided into scenes and set to tions. Indeed,
— in manymusictwo Pastorales 'LadisperazionediSileno tury, the tlieatres of Italy, constructed
'
'and latter words Laura cases by no less an architect than Palladio, andII Satiro —the to by
melodious ofallmodernlanguagesGuidiccini, a lady of Lucca. wherethe most
sweet harmony, wereWhen Bardi was summoned to Rome by first appeared married to
' the wonder and admiration of the world.Clementi VIIL , the society of the Alterati
Florentine school ofmusic differs from theassembled in the house of Jacopo Corsi, a The
Florentine nobleman, an enlightened lover ofthe other great schools of Italy in that the
composers of dramatic music just enumerated werefine arts, and passionately devoted to dramatic
amateurs, and had been for the most partmusic. They soon added to their number the only
Ottavio Rinuccini the poet, Jacopo trained in the great schools of Rome and Bo-names of
Giulio Caccini, who, logna. Nordid Florence ever ju'oduce any greatPeri the composer, and
of church music, although composerbesides his talent for composition, had the gift composers
ofa beautiful voice. These three occupied them- succeeded composer in that brilliant operatic
attempts at musical music of which we have traced the first begin-selves in developing the first
Cherubini,drama into the finished performance called the nings, until we arrive at the great
opera. They invented the recitative by which who was a master in both the church and the
oratorio are distin- theatre.the Italian opera and the
guished from the opera of other countries and The present 'Royal Musical Institute' of
Florfromotherspeciesoftheatricalmusicalexhibition. ence is of modern foundation,and was opened for
' united publicDafne ' was the first result of their instruction in 1862. Its objects are. To
efforts. Rinuccinicomposed the poetry, Caccini teach the science, history, and practice ofmusic
;
music, and the whole was repre- to maintain a pulilic library of nuisio to gi-antand Peri the ;
Jacopo Corsi, 1597. rewards to deservingsented in the house of artists ; to perform the best
' 'This,' says Burney {Hist. iv. 18), seems the works of modern and ancient masters. It is anp.
opera or drama wholly set establishment for public andtrue era whence the gratuitous
instrucneither tion,to music , and in which the dialogue was and comprises three sections—that of
admeasure nor declaimed without music, ministration that of instruction and thesung in ; ;
simple musical tones which Academy. The administrationbut recited in is directed by a
amounted not to singing, and yet was different President, assisted by three Professors, who form
'
'should be dated.' Dafne was the Council of Management.from speech,— The department
succeeded by 'Euridice, ' represented with gor- of instruction contains schools for the rudiments
splendour in 1600 at the feasts given in of music and musical reading for solfeggiogeous ;
;
marriage ofHenry IV. for solo and part singingFlorence in honour of the ; for keyiil, stringed,
of 1''ranee with Maria de' Medici. None of the and wind instruments for thorough - bass,
;
compositions of the great masters of coimterpoint, andsubsequent composition ; and forfesthetics
operatic music produced anything like the elfect and musical history. The Academy is
comfirst representations, which introducedof these posed of resident, corresponding, and honorary
Italy as it were to a new art—that of musica members. The Examiners are chosen from the
The poet Angelo Grillo (the friend of resident membersparlanU. of the Academy, as are also
observed 'YouTasso), writing to Caccini, : are the three of the council of
managefather of a new kind of music, or rather ment. The number of pupils averagesthe 220, and
which is not a song, but a recitative song is regulated by the applicationssinging, for admission,FLORENCE FLORIMO 63
the result of the examinations, and the means Italian term is Figiirato. Examples are hardly
available for imparting instruction, c. M. p. necessary but the genesis florid
; of passages is
FLORENCE, Evasgelixe, the Christian highly interesting, and an instance or two, from
names of Miss E. F. Houghton ,' born at Cam- the simplest form to the very highest art, may
bridge, Mass., U.S.A., Dec. 12, 1873. She tbrgi\-cn.be
was first taught singing at Boston by the late Bach, Christmas Oratorio.
Mme. Edna Hall (well known at Loudon
concerts in the early seventies), and made her
debut in public at Boston at the age of eighteen
'as the heroine in Flotow's Martha.' She Hayds, Quartet 1.
caused considerable sensation by singing, by
-*'way of encore, the last verse of The Last Rose
of Summer an octave higlier
' than originally
Avi'itten, having a phenomenal compass from g
<"".to double high C in alt, In London she
received further instruction from Henschel,
Blume, Randegger, and the late Mrs. Rudolph
Lehmann, thewell-known amateur, who gave her
gratuitous instruction, and became her life-long Beethoven, Concerto No. 5.
friend until her lamented death in 1903. On
May 11, 1892, as Miss E. Florence, she made ^^gCfJ^^^her debut at St. James's iiHall at a concert ^
given by herself in conjunction with Miss
MarDo., Ninth Symphony (^Adagio).guerite Hall, the daugliter of her first teacher.
' 'She was remarkably successful, ' having a
light soprano of phenomenal compass and of ^^1^^^^^^
exceedingly beautiful cjuality, absolutely pure
throughout its large extent. ... In Alabiev's
"" Nightingale the A fiat in altiss was reached ^^^l^^pHi
with apparent ease' {Timts). On Dec. 1 she
' 'sang Elsa's Dream at Henschel's Symphony
Concerts ; on Jan. 16; 1893, she sang in the ^^g^^^^i
'first production in London of Parry's 'Job by
the Highbury Society ; on March 6 she sang at Such florid passages are essential to
Variathe Popular Concerts the London Ballad
Con; tions, and the last of these examples is taken
certs Feb. at the Crystal Palace—
; 17, 1894, at from the finest set of variations existing.
all which concerts she frequently sang subse- For Florid Counterpoint see Countekpoint
quently. In 1894 she sang at the Hereford and Strict Counterpoint. g.
Festival; and Birmingham.in 1897 1900 at FLORILEGIUM PORTEXSE. A collection
She sang at the Philharmonic, May 18, 1899, of sacred vocal music of the 16th century, in
in the Choral Symphony; on Feb. 1903,25, separate parts, published in 2 vols, by
Bodenin 'The Light of the World,' and on April 1, scliatz in 1618 and 1621, and containing in all
1904, in the 'Messiah' with the Royal Choral 265 pieces. [See Boden.schatz, vol. i. pp. 346,
Society. She has also appeared with the Queen's catalogue is given.]347, where a full
Hall Choral Society, various provincial towns,in FLORIMO, Francesco, born Oct. 12, 1800,
etc. For a good many years she has been the Criorgio Morgeto, Calabria, was taughtat San
principal soprano at Messrs. Boosey's Ballad dimusic at the Real Collegio Musica at Naples,
Concerts. In 1895 she sang on tour in Aus- where he learnt counterpoint and composition
tralia, in 1898 on the continent, and in 1899 from Zingarelli, Furno, Elia, and Tritto. He
in her native country. The phenomenal high Librarian ofwas appointed in 1826 the College
notes she rarely uses now, on the advice of of Music (afterwards incorpoi'ated with that of
musiciaTis, but relies for lier piijiularity on the SanPietro diMajella),where, finding the archives
many modern songs she has introduced, such in a state of chaos and disorder, by his energy
as those of Mrs. Lehmann ('A. L.'), Mrs. Bed- and perseverance he gradually made the Library
ford(Liza Lehmann), Mrs. Needham.and others. interesting and valuable inone of the most
She was Alexandermarried to Jlr. Crerar, at Europe. He added a number of important
Boston, U.S.A., on Oct. 17, 1894. .\. c. works, besides a collection of autographs and
FLORID. Music in rapid figures, divisions, masters of the Neapoli-manuscripts, of all the
stem of the simple melody,or passages, the tan School, Florimo's compositions include a
bursting forth, as it were, into leaves and flowers. Cantata, op. in honour of the Duke of Noja,1,
The image is the same as that in Fioriture. The College of San Sebastiano aDirector of the ;
Dixit a Credo a Te Deum a Funeral
; ; ;
' surname of Houghton to prevent confuaionshe dropped the
that name in London. on the death Bellini,with another singer of Symphony composed of— '
64 FLOTOW FLOTOW
afterwards performed at Zingarelli's funeral operas, such as
; a the Paris theatres several other
' 'LameOtiorus and Fugal Overture on the unveiling of L'esclave de Camoens' (18-13), and
' 'Zingarelli's jjortrait at the College Ore musi- known London as 'Leoline'
; en peine (1846) in
cali, songs, vocal duet and 'Stradella'
' a setting of ten quar- (Princess's Theatre, Oct. 16, 1848).
tet(Girard,Naples) 1835; twelve songs published was rewritten as an opera, and brought out at
under the same title by Boosey (London, Hamburg, Dec. 1844, and has had extra-1845), 30,
in the iirst In Paris,six of which were included collec- ordinarysuccess throughoutGermany.
tion three popular Neapolitan songs in a though published, it has never been produced.
;
tion Lonsdale, 1846 twenty-four In London it was brought out in English atpublished by ;
—1846Songs (Rioorili, Milan), etc. He was Bellini's Drury Lane, June 6, —a dead failure
dearest friend, and in 1876 took that composer's and in Italian in 1864 at Covent Garden, when
Pere-la-Chaise, Paris, to Catania it lasted two nights only, killed by a joke ofremains Ironi
;
he wrote a pamphlet, Trasporto dclle ccneri, Ronconi's. Itwasfollowed by 'Martha' (Vienna,
etc., on the event. He also founded the Nov. 25, which was remodelled from a1847),
' competition ballet in conjunction withBellini ' prize at the College, a written BurgmiiUer
only open to Italian composers not over thirty and Deldevez in 1844, and in its new form
(Baker's Didionarij). He wrote a Method of quickly spiread all over the world (London,
edition 1866 C'enno Covent Garden, These two works FlotowSinging (Rico)'di), 3rd ; 1858).
storico sulla scuola musicale di Napoli, Naples, has never surpassed, and of his later operas
vols., enlarged into 4 vols, and 'Die Grossfiirstin ' 'Indra'2 1869-71, (1850), (1853),
'Riibezahl' 'Hilda'republished 1830-84 ; a History of the College (1854), (1855), 'Albin,'
'
' 'San Fietro, Naples, 1873 liiccardo Wagner td or Der Mtiller von Meran La Veuve
; (1856),
' ' 'JVagneristi, 2nd edition, Ancona, Grapin' Pianella Zildai 1876, 1883, (1859), (1860),
with a supplement containing letters from Verdi (1866), 'L' Ombre' 'Naida' (Milan,(1870),
and B iilow, from Frau Wagner 'to the most 'II Fior d' Harlem ' (Turin, the1873), 1876),
ones which have attainedamiable of librarians, and the juvenile octogen- only any general
arian,' expressing the satisfaction of herself and popularity were 'Indra,' 'La Veuve Grapin,'
her husband at a performance ofaMiserere ofLeo and 'L' Ombre,' the last of which was
enorby the students of the College on the occasion mously successful not only in Paris, but in
of their visit there in 1880 also a lithograph Italy and Spain, and has been produced in
;
"Wagner himself London (Her Majesty's) Jan.copy of a letter from to the 12, 1878, as
:Duke of Bagnara the President, from the Villa 'The Phantom.' His ballets are as follows
d'Angri, Naples, dated April 1880. Florimo •Die Libelle' (Vienna, 'Tannkbnig'22, 1866),
(Darmstadt,also wrote a memoir of Bellini (1885), and died 1867), 'Am Runenstein ' (Prague,
at Naples, Dec. 18, 1888. A. c. 1868). His 'Enchanteresse,' known in England
' 1'FLOTOW, Friedrich, Feeiherr vom, Ger- as Alma ineantatrice, ' a revised version of
man opera composer, born April 27, 1812, son 'Indra,' was produced in Paris, 1878, and his
'of a landed nobleman of the arch-duchy of Rosellana' was left unfinished at his death.
was educated with In 1856 was appointedMecklenburg ; a view to the he Intendant of the
diplomatic service. In 1827 he went to Paris, court theatre at Schwerin, a post which he
rewhen music was at its best. The brilliant tained till 1863. , The most important works
artistic life into which he was thrown aroused he produced during this period, when he had
hira to a consciousness of his own talent for so many inducements to compose, were a
'music, and he devoted himself to a course Fackeltanz ' and some charmingof music to
Reicha. Shakespeare'sstudy under The Revolution of 1830 'Winter's Tale' (1862). After
drove him away for a time, but feeling that the givingup the management of the theatre in 1863
atmosphere of Paris was necessary to his success, he returned to Paris, and in 1868 removed to the
he soon returned, and produced his first dramatic neighbourhood of Vienna. He died at
Darmattempts at the private houses of some of the stadt, Jan. 1883.24, His remaining
composi'aristocracy. Stradella was tions,
' brought out at overtures, songs, and chamber music,
the Palais Royal as a short piece lyrique in are little known, and call for no remark. In
1837 [and Flotow wrote many numbers for the 1864 Flotow was elected corresponding member
' Melvillojjeras Lady ' and 'L'eau merveilleuse,' of the Institut de France.
performed in 1838 and 1839 respectively as the The great success of 'Stradella' and 'Martha'
work of A. Grisar.] His first public success must bo mainly ascribed to the melody which
"Was at the Theatre de la Renaissance, where he pervades them, and to their light and attractive
'produced, May Naufrage31, 1839, Le de la character. Flotow's comic talent is considerable,
Meduse, ' which was given fifty-three times in and he has great natural instinct for the stage.
twelve months, and at once established his His early French experience taught him the
position. He afterwards rewrote the piece, virtue of lively and well-accentuated rhythm,
and produced it at Hamburg in 1845 as 'Die and gave him dexterity in the construction of
whenceMatrosen,' it spread to the other theatres extended pieces, to which he writes pleasing
of Germany. Meantime he had composed for harmony and piquant orchestration. On theFLOWER FLUE-WORK 65
other hand, his music has rarely anything below beth in France and the Low Countries, born at
the surface, his rhytliui frequently degenerates Milgate, in the jiarish of Bearsted in Kent, 1574.
into that of mere dance-tunes, his modulations At the age of seventeen he became a student of
are poor, and he is prone to sentimentality. St. John's College, Oxford, wdiere he studied
In the scientitic jiart of coni})osition he too pihysics. After a short time of residence he went
often betrays the amateur. On the whole the abroad for a few years, at the end of which he
conclusion is forced upon us that, in spite of his returned and took the degree of Bachelor of
popularity, Flotow will not live in tlie history Arts in 1596, and of M.A. in 1598. In 1605
of dramatic music. A. m. he received the M.B. and M.D. degrees, and
FLOWER, El'za, born at Harlow, Esse.x, in 1609 was made a Fellow of the College of
April 19, 1803, was the elder daughter of Physicians. F'rom 1616 until his death he was
Benjamin Flower, the political writer. She engaged in the composition of various
philo'published a set of Fourteen lUusical Illustra- sophical treatises, in which he refuted the
tions of the Waverley Novels,' in 1831 a once theories ofKepler and Mersennus, and advocated
;
popular chorus, 'Now pray we for our country,' those of the Rosicrucian and other mystics. In
in 1842 and a set of H}'nin3
; and Anthems, the history of philosophy his name is of some
the publication of which began in 1841 ; a importance, since his writing exercised a
powerselection from them was reissued in 1888. ful influence over Jacob Behmen. In musical
Among them is the original musical setting of literature he holds a far less prominent itosition,
'Nearer, my God, to Thee,' the words of which his chief connection with the art being found in
were written by the composer's sister, Jlrs. a treatise printed at Oppcidieim in 1617-24,
'Sarah Flower Adams. Her music shows marked entitled Utriusque cosmi majoris, scilicet et
originality and traces of decided talent, if not miuoris metaphj'sica, jihysica at<|ue technica
actual genius. She died Dec. 1846, and historia. The following sections treat ofmusical12, '
was buried at Harlow. {Did. Nat. Biorj.) phenomena Tractof ; I. Book iii. and Tract II.
FLOWERS, Gi;oi!GE French, Mus.D., son Part i. Book vi. and Part ii. Book iv. His
'of Rev. Field Flowers, Rector of Partney, Lin- Monochordon muudi symphoniacum,' written
colnshire, born at Boston, June 2S, in reply Kepler (Frankfort,1811, studied to 1622), contains a
music in Germany under C. H. Rinck and curious diagram of the universe, based on the
Schnyder von Wartcnsee, and was organist of divisions of a string. He died at his house in
Engl Paris 1836-37. Coleman Street, Septt. andthe sh Chapel in in 8, 1637, Avas buried
Returuiiig home he became organist of St. at Bearsted. M.
Mark's Church, Myddelton Square, and St. FLiiGEL (a wing). The German appellation
was afterwards oigan- of a grand piianoforte or a harpsichord, fromJohn's, Paddington. He the
ist of Beverly Minster, and St. Maiie (R. wing shape common to both. See Goethe's p>unC. ),
High Barnet. In 1839 he graduated as Bachelor on gefliigelte Geister in Goethe and Mendchsohn,
'of Music at O-xford. He founded a Contra- 24. Stutz Fliigel is a short grand jiiano-p.
[SeeHAEPSicHOEii, Pianoforte.]puntists' Society' in 1S43, and about the same forte. a.j.h.
time was the music critic of the Lilerary Ocuelte. FLDGEL HORN. The German name for
was an uusTiccessfnl candidate for instruments of the Bugle family. Originally,In 1848 he
a hunting-hornthe Professorship of Music at Oxford, as he was say the dictionaries, U'aldhorn,(
in 1863 for that in Gresham College. In 1851 Jagdhorn), used by the liuntsman whose duty it
' British School of Vocalisa- was to watch in theFliigeln, or aths cut thi'oughhe established The j
'tion for teaching singing on new principles, and thewood, and give a signal on the approach ofthe
in the two years following gave concerts for the game, [The Fliigel horn nowused in the English
anil German armies is of the cornet pitchpurpose of exhibiting the progress made by his Bb
compiass, but its tone is more mellow thanpijpils, the most notable of whom was Miss and
afterwards Mrs. Howard Paul. that of the cornet, and has something of theFeatherstone,
character the contralto voice. It is furnishedIn 1865 Flowers proceeded Doctor of Music. He of
' pistonwrole an Essay on the construction of Fugue, with valves, either of the or cylinder kind,
containing new Rules which have superseded a clumsy kind of keys,with an Introduction of
' ' from which it used to be calledKlappenhorn.'\Harmony aud a Pictorial Representa-(1846),
' sevei'altion of Science ofHarmony (translated from Tlie name is also applied to instrumentsthe
composed Fugues in the in the Alto, Tenor, and Bass clefs. w. H. s.Easier, 1850). He
Organ-stops, in regard tostyle of Sebastian Bach, and other organ music, FLUE-WORK.
Tennyson's Ode on the the manner in which their sound is generated,a mass (about 1860),
Wellington, are grouped in two gi-eat classes—REED-woitKdeath of the Duke of and other
organ-stops whichvocal pieces. He was also a copious contributor and Flue-work. All in the
periodicals. He died of cholera, sound is produced by the wind passing throughto the musical
and buried fissure, ,/?«c, or wind-way, and striking againstJime 14, 1872, in London, was at a
Keusal Green. w. H. H. an edge above, belong to the Fine-work, whatever
FLUDD, Robert, the son of Sir may be the shape, make, or tone of their prijies.FLUB, or
of shape orThomas Flud, Treasurer of War to Q\ieen Eliza- The peculiarities proportion, make,
VOL. II F'
66 FLUTE FLUTE
and tone, lead, however, to a subsequent of form have been in-division flute two modifications
into Peincipal-work, desiredGedact-wokk, and troduced a view to restoring thewith
Flute-work. e. older of these resulted in thej. h. correctness. The
FLUTE ' '(Germ. FUte, liead-joint is cylindri-Querflote ; Ital. Flaulo, cone flute, in which the
Flaulo traverso Fr.
; FlMe, FlMe traversiere). lower three-fourths of the instru-cal, and the
[Tlie Greek name Aulos was much more conical in bore, the diametercom- ment is slightly
prehensive that our word In this way theFlute, by which it is decreasing towards the foot.
generally translated. It usually signified an necessary correction was obtained. The second
instrument with a reed, either single introduced by THEOB.iLDor double, modification was
these varieties being respectively represented, BoEHM {q.v.) about the middle of last centurj',
in their modern developments, by the clarinet and consisted in a modification of the bore of the
and oljoe, rather than by any approximately theinstrument that head-joint, by a coning on
would now be classed with flutes. In the same lines of the parabola, the main bod}' of the flute
way, theancientEgyptian instruments restored by him to its cylindrical form.discovered being
'by Professor Flinders cylinderPetrie in 1890, though Thus designed, we have the ' flute of
commonly referred to as flutes, were in the present day, which for solo and orchestralall
probability played with reeds. now generally preferred, altlioughThe ancient purposes is
'Egyptian Nay, however, flute isofwhich two interesting in military bands the cone ' chiefly
specimens were found by Mr. John Gar- used.
stang in 1903, was a rudimentary characteristics of the fluteflute, The peculiar are
the tone of which was excited by blo\v- the beautiful mellowness of its tone, and the
'ing directly across the cut end of a reed. facility it ofters for the rapid and vocal
One example of the Nay is here execution of runs and shakes. Its tone-qualityfigured.'
Hence there is clear evidence that, after at its best is well described by Mr. R. S. Eockstro
eliminating, from the many instruments in his work. The Flute, as lying between the
called flutes in translations, somewliat nasal tone the andall those of oboe the hollow
which are strictly reed instruments, there sound of the cooing of a dove. This latter
remain, of very ancient date, certain quality is due to a deficiency in the number or
kinds which with strictness may calleil strength of harmonicbe partials, and is
characterflutes. Whether a lip-blown instrument, istic of a tube freely open at both ends. The
such as the Nay, or a flute with wliistle diminishing of one open end by the mouth-hole,
mouth-piece (see FiPPLE Flute) already noticed,is really and the piresence of the small
the chamberolder, it is impossible to say. or extension of length between the
The modern instrument, known as the mouth-hole and the cork, are largely influential
Transverse Flute, has not been traced in giving the true flute quality, and the exact
back for more than four centuries. It position of the cork has a very distinct influence.
has a compass of three octaves from Helmholtz (Ellis's Trans. 2nd ed. p. 205)
middle C (c') upwards, but in a few in- appears to have considered that the octave and
struments the lowest note is h, or even h'rt. twelfth were the only upper partials heard, but
It sounds as an open tube, that is to say its the jjresent writer found that when ct on the
length is approximately that of the flute washalf-wave sounded, the seventh partial was
of its lowest note, and it is capable of giving discernible, but with a' no partial higher than
the natural harmonics in full sequence in the the fifth was detected. {Proceedings Mas.
'same way as Assoc.other open ' tubes. The tube 1879-80, 84.) In any case,p. it is
toleris plugged with a cork or stopper at one end, ably certain that the high partials which give
'
'and the open condition at this end is restored the peculiarly brilliant or even cutting tone to
by the cutting of the embouchure or mouth-hole some instruments are absent, or at least
indisthrough the wall of the tube, at a distance from tinguishable. The cylinder flute is more
powerthe cork of about one diameter fulthanof the tube. the cone instrument, and has a somewhat
The lower lip of the player partly covers the bolder tone-quality, ajijiroaching a little towards
embouchure and the stream of air is the reedydirected so character of the clarinet.
as to strike the opposite edge. The exact action Therepresentativecone flute is theeight-keyed
of tliis stream or air-reed has not been fully instrument, with six finger-holes, six closed keys,
investigated, it andbut is tolerably certain that it two open-standing keys, one to close the
vibrates, and so maintains the alternate conden- normally open el' hole, on which the true scale of
sations and rarefactions of the air the flutecolunm. The begins, and so give (•{', and the other
area of the mouth-hole being less tlian the cross- to close this rj' hole and give e', wdiich is the
section of the tube, causes a departure from lowest note onthe this, the usual instrument. (For
correctness of the harmonics of the theoretical the general scheme of fingering, see Fingering,
open tube (see Fife), and in the history of the ante, 5.3, fivepp. 54.) The closed keys (the
sixth or long
1 This curious instnaujent ia stiU used by Fkey being merely an alternative)the peasants abciut the
The original of the figure wasNile. brou^-'ht Iroiu Egypt by F. give the five semitones necessary to convert theGirdlestone, Esq., of the Charterhouse. See an admirable cut iu
Lane's Modern Egyptians. diatonic scale of el', in which the flute is set, intoFLUTE FLUTE 67
a chromatic scale. The flute being held to the theIn Clarinet, Oboe, Bassoon, and other
octaveright from the lips, and slightly sloping down- scaled instruments, the Br> a whole tone below
wards, the first, second, and third fingers of the C, which in a D instrument like the flute is
left hand close the three upper holes, and the represented by the Ft] below the middle G, has
similar fingers of the right hand the three lower to be produced by closing the Bt] and At] holes
The fingers being successivelyones. raised, the and lifting an intermediate B? key, thus
lowerscale ofD is produced, and by slight modification ing the pitch a minor third and raising it a
semiof the embouchure to increase the pressure of tone. The same metliod as that for the FjJ is
the lips, is repeated in its second octa^•l•. For employed Ibr the Bf? or Aj, which is produced
the third octave, cross fingerings, sometimes of by lowering the B5 a semitone through the
complicated nature, are used, the general prin-a intervention of a lever actuated by the lingers
in tliese lieing the openingciple of holes in such of the right hand, those of the left, middle, and
positions as facilitate the subdivision of the ring fingers being left open. The whole
comprimary sound-waves. The chief defects of the jiass of tlie flute is shown in the
eight-keyed cone flute are the inecpiality in the accompanying illustration.
power and in the quality of the notes. These [Although the cylinder flute is
defects are due to the necessity of placing the now usually fitted with key-work
'
holes in positions which suit the natural action nu Boehm's (D*)system, as described
of the fingers, and can only be lessened, and not above, this is not universal, ibr some players,
altogether eliminated by the addition of extra desii'ing to have the
adkey-work. Many players and makers worked cylindervantage of the
in this direction, among them being Siccama, bore and large holes
Clinton, Carte, and Pratten.] adojited by Boehm
withThe principles of the Flute originally invented out dejiarting widely
by Captain Gordon of Charles the Tenth's Swiss -from the eight key
^Guards and introduced b}' Theobald Boehm in fingering, have
intronew flute, constructed in were princi-his 1832, duced extra key - work
pally that each note should speak independ- result.(1) to secure the
ently out ofasingle hole, as though tlieremainder IbiteAlthough the is
were entirely cut ort' that all keysofthe bore (2) usually in D, it is
occa;
in their position of rest should be permanent!}' sionally made in (i, as
open. He also aimed at equalising the dilliculty Flute, and was
: the Alto
keys, some ofwhich, on the older >of the dilferent also formerly made in A
and all butflute, were notoriously inconvenient 3 as the Fli!'te u'amour
impracticable. Forthe left hand, which occupies In militarybands
i (q.v.).
tlie instrument next to thethe upper part of ; the F and Eh fiutes
by the firsthead, are four open keys to be closed i' are used, and the F
infinger, thumb (situated at the back of the instru- strument is also
somement), second, and third fingers successively. in tlie or-^ times used
an open keyFor the little finger of this hand is chestia, as by Spohr in;
producing the or A'p. On the right hand his symphony, ' TheGJJ ^
open keys, for the first, second, Power of Sound.'joint are three >.
accessory or ]iitchedand ring fingers respectively, with 1 The Piccolo is
'
' inter-shake keys (which are normally closed) one octave higher tlian^
right little finger are the closed Concert Flute, andposed. For the the
and C.key of Dj and the two ojien keys of Cj its highest notes aie the
In many flutes mechanism, still worked by the sharpest ordinarily used
to produce and music.right little finger, is added Bs in
downwards all the Theillustrations showeven But from the DjBb.
work accessory, and not directly used in the the eight - kej'ed coneIs
natural scale. For this reason and the Boehm cylinderproduction ofthe
the instrument is said to stand in the key of D. flutes.]
jiurpose of obtaining each sound by the The literature of theFor the
asomewhat newarrange- Flute is so extensive asclosure ofasingleorifice,
of illus-ment of the scale is necessary on certain notes. hardly to admit
instance, in either octave is produced tration within moderateThe G, for
the left hand. For botli as an obbligatoby closing the five holes of limits. Bach uses it freely
everwhole tone below, the forefinger of the instrument and in concerted passages, andthe F a
added. The intermediate Fj is since his time it has held a prominent place inright hand is
pad of the middle of his works it is some-obtained by depressing the tlie band. In the scores
distinguish fromfingers, that of the index being left open. times marked Trarersiire to itor ring
Fllite-a-bec.the
I pamphlet l^ber den Flotenbau und dia nein^stcn Tcr-See hie
in hisMainz. 1847. Haydn, both in his Symplionies andbesgerunffen,68 FLUTE FLUTE-WORK
Oratorios, awards it models of construc-the same prominence. The are extant afford inestimable
'Trio for three Flutes in the Creation ' may originality.be tion and
named as an illustration.
Flute Music.Handel usually 'specilies the German ' Flute,
and often indicates its importance hy the op. 76 Andantewords Mozart.—Grand duo in G, ;
' with the accompaniment of a German Flute.' in G, Hondo in D, op. 86.in C, Concerto
It is difficult to understand how the players modo di Scena Gantante,of Spohr.—Concertoin
his day were able to make themselves heard op. 47.
with the few ilutes then allotted to the Orcliestra Romanza Siciliana inG minor, withWeber.—
against the large numbers ofOboesand Bassoons. Flute, Violoncello, andOrchestra ; Trio for
In the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Pianoforte, op. 63.
Abbey in 1784, there were si.K Flutes against Serenade for Flute, Violin, andBeethoven.—
twenty-six Oboes and twenty-six Bassoons, Alto, op. 25.
besides twelve Trumpets and the same number TwoTriosfortwoFlutesandViolon-Haydn.—
ofHorns. Handel proiluces, however, a magnirt- cello.
'cent elfect in the Dead ' three Flutes,March in Saul by the Kuhlau.—Three grand Triosfor
simple employment of two Flutes moving in 13 Do. do., op. 86 One do., op. 90op. ; ; ;
thirds against the reiterated bass of the kettle- Flute and String Quartet inThree Quintets for
drum. FlutesD, E, A, op. 51 Grand <juartet for four
;
Mozart, except in some of his Symphonies, in E, op. 103 Six sets of three Duets for two
;
which were obviously written for a small band, 87 Solos, withFlutes, ops. 10, 39, 80, 81, ;
freely scores for this instrument. The opera Pianoforte, op. 57 ; Three Fantasies, Do. do.,
'
'of the Zauberfliite derives its name from it. op. 95.
There are also two Concertos Flute and for four Flutes in D, op.for solo ReichA. Quartet—
Orchestra in G and D, and one for and 12 twenty-four Quintets for wind instruments.
;
Harp among his works (Kijchel, 313, 314, Schubert.—Introduction and Variations on
'Trockne Blumen,' for Flute and Piano, op.299).
Beethoven, Mendelssohn,and all later writers, 160. w. H. s. [Additions in square brackets
give it the leading part of the wind in all their D. .1. B.]by
compositions. The solo shortlyafter thetrumpet amour (Germ. AnFLOTE D' Lielesflote).
' 3flourishes in the Overture to Leonora No. ' will old form of flute, standing in the key of A, and
not bo forgotten, or the lovely part for two flutes corresponding in pitch with the Oboe d'amore.
moveraentofthe Italian Symphony. were supposed to possess a smooth andin thesecond Both
Schumann also has introduced a prominent ca- fascinating quality of tone, whence the name
denza for it in the Finale to his B flat Symphony. is derived. \v. h. s.
accompaniment to the Ranz des thisThe difficult [The bore of variety of the flute was but
Over- 'Vaches, played by the Oboe, in Rossini's very slightly larger than that ofthe concert
in'ture to William Tell ' affords a good illustration strument,' and therefore narrow in proportion to
complexitieswhich this flexibleof themechanical its length, and to this its peculiar quality was
and agile instrument is com})etent, and conse- in some measure due. Although commonly
quently is expected, to surmount. In a dramatic said to stand in key of A, its pjitch was minora
used by Mendelssohn in the sacrificial third below the concertsense it is flute in D. The key
'0chorus be gracious' in 'St. Paul,' and by of the instrument was therefore B, and could
'Gretry in Andromaque, ' in which the part of only be said to be in A in the same sense that
always accompanied by three the concertAndromache is flute is sometimes said to be in C,
flutes. from the fact that its notes sound as written.
most voluminous writer for the Flute was Strictly speaking, the key whichThe in an
instru200 solos andprobably Quantz, who composed ment stands has no connection with notation,
300 concertos for Frederick the Great alone. or with the custom of treating it as in the
instrument had a distinguished writer, transposingBut the or non-transposing class. D. J, B.]
Kuhlau, as the special exponent of its powers FLUTE-WORK. Underthisheadaregrouped
beauty. Thiseminentcontrapuntistdevoted all the flue-stops on theand organ, of whatever kind,
his short life to Flute com-nearly the whole of shape, or tone, that are not classed
asPrincipalpositions. This singular fact has been accounted work, or Gedact-work, and it also includes
statement that an amateur flute player various modificationsfor by the of these two classes o fstops.
of positionemployed himconstantly and liberally [Flue-work.] Thus when the 'scale' of the
writing them. Kuhlau has been termed the pipes of a cylindricalin stop is reduced heJotv the
' It will be seen fromBeethoven of the Flute.' proportion essential to secure the broad and full
list given below that Solos, Duets, Trios, Diapason tone, and the sound delicatethe becomes
Quartets for Flutes, areamong his volu- inand even as a Dulciana, or crisj^ as in a Gamba or
;
for a fire whichminous works. Indeed, but when it is increased heyond the Diapason scale,
the composer's manuscripts, their and the tone becomesdestroyed thick or less resonant as
threefold.number would be at least Such as in the Block-flbte, the stop becomes a memberFLYING DUTCHMAN FORSTER 69
'of the flute-work.' Also, if the covers of the listened to with respect, though she was never a
pipes of a closed metal-stop be ' 'punctured, and warm favourite. Don Giovanni wiis brought
a narrow tube in— Germany called a reed, in out at the King's Theatre in 1817, and Zerlina
France a cliinmey—be inserted, the stop then was her best cliaracter. In July 1818 she went
becomes a member of the Hute-work under the to Italy, i-eturning to Paris early in the following
name Jiohr-fotc, ^liiU a ejtcmbiic, or 'Metal year, after Catalan! had given up the opera.
'stopped-Diapason (or Flute) with chimneys.' 'Rossini's Barbiere was then given for the first
A unison cylindrical stop will be occasionally time in Paris (Oct. 26, 1819), and she played
met with labelled as a member ofthe flute-work. Rosina, as well as Kinctta, Agnese, and other
All stops the pipes of which taper upwards, as first-rate parts. In 1822, suHering severely
Spitz-flcite andthe Gemshorn ; all three- or four- from dyspepsia, she was advised to try the
sided open wood pipes, as the Hohl-fliite, Clara- milder climate of Naples, which so completely
bella, Wald-flute, Oboc-Hute, and Suabe-flute restored her that she appeared at San
; Carlo as
and most string-toned stops, as Salicional and Desdemoiia, Semiramide, and Zelmira, creating
Viol d'Aniore,—are members of the Flute-work. in all twenty new parts. In the following year
The invention of the conical, the string-toned, she sang for a whole season in "N'ienna, but
and the other stops classified as flute-work, returned to Naples and remained there till
dates back no farther than the beginning of the 1825, when she again went to Paris. On Dec.
16th century. e. j. h. 9 .she appeared in 'Semiramide,' but her voice
FLYING DUTCHMAN, THE. See Flie- failed and she was oomjielled to leave the stage.
GENDE Hollander. This misfortune was followed by a hoarseness
FODOR, Joseph, violin player, born in 1752 which jirevented her singing again in Paris. The
at Venloo. In 1766 he studied under Franz management having declined to fulfil their
conBenda at Berlin, and having acquired great tract, she brought a succession of actions against
proficiency, travelled for a number of years them, and finally accejited a compromise in
in Germany, the Netherlands, and France, 1828. After her return to Naples her voice so
establishing his reputation as an eminent far improved that she sang again at San Carlo,
violinist. In 1794 he went to Petersljurg,St. but its })eculiar charm was gone, thougli her
and remained there up to his death, Oct. 3, style was as fine as ever, and served as a model
1828. Spohr, who heard him in 1803, con- for no less a singer than Henrietta Sontag.
sidered him wanting in feeling and taste, and Mendelssohn saw a great deal of her at Naples
objects to his unsteady manner of bowing, but in 1831, and his very favourable impression
acknowledges his great technical skill. His may be learned from his letters (April 27, 1831).
numerous compositions—nine Concertos and Her last appearance was at Bordeaux in 1833,
Solos for the Violin, Violins,Duos for and many after which she retired into jiriA'ate life.
Quartets for Strings, are well written and met "When at her jirime, Fodor's voice was not
with much success in their time. [List in the only poA\'erful but extremely sweet and round,
Qiitllen-Lexil-on.^ famous singer, with jicculiarlyThe Mme. a charming accent, and a
faultFodor-Mainvielle, w'as his daughter, and his less intonation. She was very painstaking, and
two younger brothers, Chap.les and Anton, acquired by practice a flexibility ^^ith which
were clever pianists and composers. P. D. she was not naturally gifted. Her daughter
FODOR-MAINVIELLE, Josephine, cele- Entiichetta, also a singer of merit, was very
brated singer, born 1793 in Paris, where her successful at the Kbnigstadt Theatre (not the
father, Joseph Fodor the violinist, had settled Friedrich-Wilhelmstadt Tlieatre) in Berlin,
bein 1787. In 1794 her parents removed to St. tween the years 1846 and 1849. F. a.
Petersburg, where she played both pianoforte FORSTER, Emanuel Aloys, composer of
and harp when Three years after good chamber-music, born at Niederstein,only eleven. (,41atz,
she became known as a singer, and in 1810 Silesia, Jan. 26, 1748. In his 3'outh he studied
made her first appearance at the court theatre music by himself, and composed industriously,
'in Flora villanelle, while father by attendingvanti's Cantatrici ' which obeying his the Latin
was repeated sixty times, so successful was her school, and working under him as an accountant
performance. In 1812 she married the actor at a tavern. He afterwards served in the
with resolvedMainvielle, and travelled him to Stock- Prussian army, and in 1776 to go to
holm, Copenhagen, returning to Paris, where Vienna in orcler to cultivate music thoroughly.
she engaged for the Opera Comiqiie. Her There he soon became one of the most valuedwas
was teachers thorough-bass and composition,first appearance, August 9, 1814, a com- of and
parative failure it was evident that French his works were universally respected as the
;
province, and she was trans- products of sound thought and earnest study.opera was not her
'same year published his Anleitungferred in Nov. of the to the Theatre In 1802 he zum
'
Italien, then under Mme. Catalani's manage- Generalbass (Traeg) with 146 examples, a clear
remained till the beginning of practical work still of vahie. In 1805 it wasment. Here she
Brcitkopfwhen she left for London. In London she republished by & Hartel, and a new1816,
seasons as prima donna, and was edition by Artaria in 1823. Fiirster added threesang for three' '
70 FOGGIA FOLLIA
supplementary numbers Assur and Oroeof practical examples. topheles, Sparafucile, Basilic,
His compositions consist of forty-eight violin (' (' Sonnambula '), BideSemiramide '), Rodolfo
quartets, numerous pianoforte sonatas, and Daland onpreludes the Bent ('Lucia'), Bertram,
and fugues for organ, Hollander,'Lieder, etc. [See the 'Der Fliegendethe production of
list in the QudUii-Lexilcoii.~\ He composed etc., in additionthe at Drury Lane, July 23, 1870,
'variations in A on an air from which his fineSarti's opera I to the parts previously named, in
fintiEredi,' which twowere long attributedtoMozart, powerful bass of more thanvoice—a rich
and extremely popular and which appeared line to F—was heard
; in octaves from E below the
many editions of Mozart's works. (Kochel, to full advantjige.p.
630, No, 289 ; Jahn's Mo;.art, ed. iv. 11 equally well known as an1, Signor Foli was
;
ed. 2, ii. 137.) Fcirster was the importantheld in high esti- oratorio and concert sniger at all
mation allby the composers of liisown time, par- made his first appearance in thefestivals. He
ticularlyby Beethoven ,who implies he had in 'Israel' at thelearnt former on April 25, 1866,
much trom him. He died first successat Vienna, Nov. National Choral Society, but his12,
'1823. His ' at theplace and date of birth and death, was on Feb. 1867, in The Creation22,
much disputed points, are given here new parts in this classfrom the Sacred Harmonic. His
'Transactions Macfarren'sof the Tonkiinstler-Societat, ' of included Jacol:>, on the production of
'which he was a member. [See the Sammclbunde Joseph' at the Leeds Festival, Sept. 21, 1877,
'of the Int. Mus. Ges. vi, of Berlioz's L'Enfance274.] o. F. p. and Herod, on production
F0G6I FK.4KCESCO, Manchester, Dec.A, the last Italian church- du Christ ' under Halle at 30,
composer who remained faithful to the traditions and in London, Feb. 26, 1881. He1880,
of Palestrina born Petersburg, Moscow,
; in Rome 1604, studied under played in America, at St.
a conspicuousCifra, Nanini, and Agostiui. He then entered Vienna, etc. In Russia he made
the service of the Elector of Cologne, the Elector success as Caspar, Moses (^^dlich part he sang
of Bavaria, and the Archduke Leopold Austria with success at the Sacred Harmonic), and asof
' Southjiort,in turn. After his return to Italy he was Pietro in Masaniello.' He died at
appointed maestro di cappella successively at Oct. 20, 1899. A. c.
Narni, Montetiascone, and the following FOLK-SONG SOCIETY. This society waschurches
in Rome,—Santa Maria in Aquiro, Santa Maria definitely established in London on June 16,
in Trastevere, St. John Lateran (1636-61), San 1898, for the preservation and publication of
Damaso, and Santa Maria PresidentLorenzo in Maggiore folk-songs and melodies. The first
wliich last post he retained till his death, was the late Lord Herschell, and the late Sir(1677),
Jan. 1688, when he was succeeded by his son John Stainer, with Sir Alexander C. IVIackenzie,8,
inAntonio. He is buried the church of S. Sir Hubert Parry, and Professor (now Sir C. V.)
Prassede. He published much church music for Stanford, were Vice-Presidents. The original
from two to nine voices [see the list in the committee consisted of Mrs. Frederick Beer,
QucUen-Lcjcikoii], and most of the churches in Miss Lucy E. Broadwood, Sir Ernest Clarke,
Rome possess some works by him in MS. Mr. W. H. Gill, Mrs. L. Gonnne, Messrs. A.
Martini has analysed some of his motets in the P. Graves, E. F. Jacques, Frank Kidson, J. A,
* di eontrappunto.' Liberati calls him Fuller Maitland,Saggio J. P, Rogers, W. Barclay
' il sostegno e il padre della musiea e della vera Squire, and Dr. Todhunter. Jlrs. Kate Lee
armonica ecolesiastica.' He was one of the lirst was Hon. Secretary, and Mr. A. Kalisch Hon.
write tonal fugues, while he was Treasurer.musicians to During the first year 110 members
the last Italian capiable of composing geiniine were enrolled. There have been five
publicachurch music in the polyphonic style. Hullah tions issued (up to June 1904), and much useful
'him in Vocalprinted a fine motet by his work done in attracting attention to the
necesScores.' F. G. sity of noting down our folk-songs before thej'
SiGNOR, whose real name was Ali^an are entirely lost.FOLI, In 1904 Miss Lucy E.
BroadJames Foley, was born at Cahir, Tip]ierary, wood became Hon. Secretary, and Lord
TennyAug. 1835, and in early life went to America. son, President.7, r. K.
singing at Naples byHe was taught the elder FOLLIA. Said to be an old Spanish danco
—Bisaecia, and in Dec. 1862 he made his debut for a single dancer ' ces belles chaconnes, ces
Catania as Eliniro in 'Otello. ' He played Foliesat d'Espagne,' wdiicli the son ofthe seneschal
at Turin, Jlodena, Jlilan,successively and in of Rennes danced to such perfection (Mme. de
1864 at the Italiens, Paris, On June 17, 1865, Sevigne, July 24, 1689). But really all that
made a successfulSigner Foli dc))ut at Her is known of it is that the twenty-t^vo variations,
Majesty's as St. Bris (' Huguenots ; on July or the theme of them, which') close Corelli's
the Second Priest on the revival of twelve6 as solos (op. are entitled FoUia that5) ;
and on 28 as'Zaubertliite,' Oct. the Hermit in the same bass and air, but with different
' 'Der Freischiitz. ' From that time he sang variations, are given in the Division Violin
'frequently in Italian at the three patent as ' Faronell's division on a ground ' that
;
theatres in upwards of si.xty operas, viz. as A'ivaldi's ojj. no. 12, is a set of variations1, on
Commendatore, Marcel,Caspar, ]Mephis- the same and that HawkinsSarastro, ; (chap. 141) cites it— '
FOOTE FORD 71
'as a favourite air 'known in England bythename poem, Franccsca da Rimini,' have been played
Farinelli'siof Ground,' comiiosed by Farinelli, repeatedly by the orchestras of Boston, Kew
the uncle of the singer, who was court musician York, and Chicago, under the direction of such
at Hanover in 1684. It seems to follow from men as Wilhelm Gericke, Theodore Thomas,
this that the ground, and not the treble part, Emil Paur, and Frank Van der Stucken ; wdiile
' 'was the theme, just as it is in the chaconnes of his cantatas, The Farewell of Hiawatha,' The
Bach and Handel. The ground is one on which 'Wreck of the Hesperus,' and The Skeleton in
skilful violin player anda a skilful dancer Armour ' have ibund places on the programmes
might go on iiddling and dancing ad ofinfinitum. many other concert institutions. Mr. Foote
The following is CorcUi'a theme : has also made large excursions into the fields of
chamber and church music and song. H. E. K.
FORBES, HEXiiV, born in London in 1804,
studied music under Sir George Smart, Hummel,
Moscheles, and Herz. He was an excellent
pianist and organist, and conductor of the
Societa Armonica. He for some years held the
appointment of organist of the parish chureli of
St. Luke, Chelsea. He gave concerts with his
brother George (1813-83), organist of St.
Mary's, Bayswater Square, and author of many
pianoforte pieces, etc. His published
compositions comprise several songs and a collection
'of psalm tunes for four voices called National^feE ?^E^
Psalmody' He also composed 'The(1843).
? Fairy jiroduced5t Oak,' an opera at Drury Lane
Theatre in 1845, and 'Ruth,' an oratorio,^^^^^S^^i performed at Hanover Square Rooms in 1847.
Cherubini has introduced eight bars of it in died in London, Nov.He 24, 1859. w. H. H.
*the opening of the Overture to the Hotellerie FORD, Ernest, conductor and composer,
Portugaise.' G. born at Warminster, "Wilts, Feb. 17, 1858 was
;
FOOTE, AiiTHUE, amongst American musi- son of the Vestry Clerk and organist ofthe the
cians of distinction ofeminence, enjoys the Minster there. From 1868 to 1873 he was a
being the only one whose education is wholly chorister in Salisbury Cathedral, but owing to
native. He was born in Salem, Mass., on March indifferent healtli was sent for educational
purhe studied the pianoforte, Weston-sujier-Mare. 1875 won5, 185.3. As a lad poses to In he
and at fifteen was taken to B. J. Lang, on the first Sir John Goss scholarship at the Royal
whose advice he was entered as a student of Academy of JIusic, London, where he studied
of Stephen A. Emery at Sullivan, Harold Thomas (pianoforte),harmony in the class under
theNew England Conservatory of Music. These and Dr. Steggall (organ). In tliat j'ear also he
and all other musical studies were interrupted became a F.(R. )C. 0. On quitting the Royal
Harvard University. Though Academy Ford spentsome time in Paris studyingwhen he entered
instructor and America,John K. Paine was a musical under Lalo, whence he went to where,
chapel organist at the time, music had not yet in celebration of the 250th anniversar}' of the
the dignity of an elective study, foundation of Harvard University, a motet bybeen raised to
' wasnor was there a musical chair. After gradua- him, a setting of the Psalm Domine Deus, '
tion in 1874 Foote resumed his musical studies the chief musical work performed. At one time
with Lang for lessons on the Ford was official accompanist at the Saturdayzeal, going to
pianoforte and organ, and to Paine for counter- Pojiular Concerts, and on the opening of the
point, canon, fugue, and free composition. His Royal English Opera House (now the Palace
of A.M. conferred of Varieties) Ford was selected withe.xamination for the degree Theatre
'on him by Harvard University in 1875 included F. Cellier to conduct Sullivan's Ivanhoe,' the
music. opera with which the ill-fated opera-house
profession he became conductor of theEntering upon the practice of his opened. Later
Foote became a church organist and teacher Trafalgar (now the Duke of York's) Theatre,
'in Boston, to which city his where the comic opera The Wedding Eveof the pianoforte
London with music revised andactivities in that direction have since been con- was produced in
fined. As a composer, however, his influence mainly composed (as regards the second and
the States. His orches- acts ) by Ford and ofthe Empire Theatre,has spread throughout tliird ;
'including an overture, In the music to the ballets pi'oducedtral compositions, where much of
Mountains,' two Suites, in D minor and E there between 1894 and 1897 was composed bythe
for strings, and a symjihonic him. In 1897 the Royal Amateur Orchestralmajor, a Serenade
conductor, stillSociety elected him a post he
1 name was ' FiirdineU's.' as Madame deThe common English
' Carvell.' holds For some time he was also directorQuerouaiUe waj called Madam (1905).;
72 FORD FOELANA
of the Guildhall School of Gtittingen tilloperatic class at the the post, and Forkel remained at
known as aMusic. Ford's compositions are in nearly all his death,March 1818. Heis best17,
services are in constant use Hisfirstwork, Veherstyles. His church musical criticandhistorian.
Westminster Abbey, Gcittingen,at St. Paul's Cathedral, die Theorie der Musik, etc. (Cramer,
urgingand other principal churches for the Empire he 1774, republished in a p>amphlet
; 1777),
composed 'La Froliijue,' 'Brighton the foundation music at Gottingen,the ballets oflectures on
' ' exists Masik-Pier,' Faust,' and La Danse ' ; there a was followed by many others, especially
volume of beautiful settings ofpoems by Shelley alisch kritische Bibliolhek, 3 vols. (Gotha, 1778),
' 'operettas include Daniel Iphigeniewhile liis operas and containing violent attacks on Gluck's
'O'Rourke' Nydia ' (a duologue by in Aulide ; Uber die besie Einriehtmuj bffentlicher(1884); '
Justin McCarthy, 'Joan' (Robert Konzcrtc, Bestiramung, etc.,H. 1889); 1779; Gcnuuere
by i'orMartin, 1890) ; 'Mr. Jericho' (operetta H. 1780 ; the Mas. AVmanachfiir Deiitschlaml
Greenbanlv, 1893); '.Jane Annie' (libretto by 1782, 1783, 1784, and 1789,- containing
partiSir Conan Doyle), produced culars (not to noveltiesJ. JI. Barrie and A. always trustworthy) as
at the Savoy, May 13, 1893) ; a cantata, 'The in music ; his AUgmneine Ocschichle der Musik,
Eve of the Fcsta.' On March 29, 1899, he was 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1788 and founded on1801),
Hawkins,elected a Fellow of the R.A.M. R. H. L. Burney, and Marpurg, now
superFORD, Thomas, born about 1580, was one seded, but interesting as a literary ' curiosity ;
ofthe musicians of Prince Henry, son ofJames I. Oeschichte der ItalieniscJien Oper, 2 vols. (Leipizig,
In 1607 he published a work entitled 'Musickeof 1789), a translation of Arteaga's book ; and
Sundrie Kindes. Set forth in two Bookes. The Allgemeine Literatnr der Musik (Leipzig, 1792),
[sic] four Voices to the his most important Thisfirst whereof are Aries for work. book, which
Lute, Orpharion, or Basse-Viol, with a Dialogue shows the amount of his knowledge and reading,
for two Voyces and two Basse-Viols in parts is the foundation of Becker's
S'ystematischThe Second are Pavens, chrmwlogische Darstellung dertunde the Lute way. musikalischen
Galiards, Almaines, Toies, ligges, Thumpes and LUeratur. Forkel was the first to attempt a
two Viols, the Liera way, biography ofsuch like, for Basse- Bach (Ueber J. S. B.'s Leben,
so made as the greatest number may serve to Ku'tist, und Ku'iutwerke. Leipzig, 1802),
transplay alone, very easie to be performde. ' This lated into English under the title J. S.Life of
work beautiful four- part songs Bach, with a critical review hiscontains the of compositions
' Since first I saw your face,' and 'There is a (Lonrlon, 1820). As he knew little of Bach's
ladie sweet 1611 he was one of great sacred vocal works, he treats him mainlyand kind.' [In
the musicians of Henry, Prince of Wales, at a from the p»oint of view of the organ and clavier,
salary of £30 a year, soon afterwards increased but the book will always remain as the
foundato £40. In 1626 it was doubled, on his becom- tion ofall subsequentLives ofthe great musician.
ing a member of the King's band.] Ford con- [Among his musical compositions may be
men'tributed two anthems to Leighton's Teares or tioned the oratorios 'Hiskias,' 1789, and 'Die
SorrowfuU 1614. HirtenLamentacions of a Soule,' He bey der Krippe, ' four cantatas for chorus
composed some canons and rounds printed in and orchestra, clavierconcertos, andmanysonatas
Hilton's 'Catch that Catch can,' and an anthem and variations for harpsichord. Quellen-Lexikan.]
'Let God arise,' printed in the Anthems by The royal libraryatBerlincontains an
interestMadrigal Composers of the Mus. Antiq. Society. ing spiecimen of Forkel's labours. This is a large
was Margaret's, Nov. volume churchHe buried at S. 17, of musie of the 16th century,
1648. w. H. H. : corrections and additions scored by himself, and, though printed, unique.
from Vict, Nat. Biog. It was intended to form the first volume of aof
FORKED, JoHANN NiooLAUs, a meritorious series of examples illustrating the history of
though overrated writer on the history and music, and was undertaken at the instance of
theory of music, son of a shoemaker, Feb.born Sonnleithner of Vienna. The p)lates were
en22, 1749, at Meeder near Coburg ; educated graved in Leipzig, and the j)roofs were already
himself by the study of Mattheson's Vollkom- in Forkel's hands, when Frenchthe took the
inener Gapellmeisler. Having a fine voice he city in 1806, and seized everything in tlie shape
was appointed chorister at Liineburg in 1762, ot metal to convertedbe into bullets. His plates
'and four years later Chorpriifect ' at Schwerin. having been thus destroyed Forkel had the
proofIn 1769 he entered the university of Giittingen sheets bound, and this is the copy now at Berlin.
to study law, but soon himself 'occupied exclu- The masses it contains are taken from Missae
sively with music, and became organist of the tredecim . . . Norinbergae . arte Hieronymi
. .
university church. In 1778 he was appointed 1539,' 'Graphei, and Liljer quindecim
Misdirector of music to the University and grad- sarum . . . Norimbergae apud Joh. Petreium,
uated as doctor of pjhilosophy in 1780. [He 1539.' F. G.
conducted the weekly concerts of the Akademie FORLANA. An Italian dance, a favourite
from 1779 to 181.5.] On the death of Emanuel with the Venetian gondoliers. It is 6-8in or
'Bach he hoped to have been appointed his After ForkeVa death, Schwickert, the publuher, f^fferefi the
materials for completing the third volume to Fetia and Choroii, but
successor at Hamburg, but Schwenke obtained they declined the taek.—
FORM FORM 73
possesses no special characteristics. of time, sometimes by no means insignificantG-i time, but
;
An example of tliis dance may be found in J. S. and connection has to be established for them
suite for orchestra in G major. The without the aid of words or other accessoriesBach's
opening bars of a between jiarts of the movement wdiich ajipearfollowing quotation of the at
considerableforlana of the 17th century is from ¥. L. Schu- distance from each other, and tlie
Tmizmiisik. wdiole must be so contrived that the impressionbert's Die
upon the most cultivated heai'cr shall be one of
unityand consistency. In such a case Form will^^^^^^^ inevitably [ilayan important part, becomingmore
and more complex proportionand interesting in
to thedevelopiment of readiness ofcomprehension
in the auditors. The adopition of a form which
thoseis quite beyond the intellectual standard of
FORM. The means by which unity and pro- ftir whom it is intended is a waste of valuable
portion are arrived at iu musical works are the work but a perfect adaptation of it to their
;
relative distriliution of keys and harmonic bases highest standard is both the only means of
lead'
'on the one hand, and of subjects or figures or ing them on to still higher things, and the only
melodies on the other and this distribution is
; starting-point for further progi'csa. From this
Fonii the work. The ordercalled the of of areit wdll be seen that in musical works which
distribution varies greatly witli the conditions. connected with words or progTamme— whether
'
'Music set to ])0etry with a burden to each choruses, songs, arias, or ballads, etc.—Form is
versewould naturally adopt the form ofrepeating dependent on the words and such works, as far
;
the same melody to each recurrence of the as they are reducible to any definable system,
burden and when the words implied similar
; are reducible only to the simplest, and such as
circumstances and feelingswould adopt repetition admits of infinite latitude of variation within its
of similar or allied phrases. In dramatic works instrumental nmsio there haslimits. But in
the order of distribution must vary with the been a steady and pierceptible growth of certain
development of tlie emotional crises, and in such fundamental principles by a })rocess that is
culminationscases will be rather a distribution of wonderfully like evolution, from the simplest
andgradationsofintensityofpassionandemotion, rejieated short linkcouplings of ideas by a of
than the more obvious one of key and figure
; some sort, upt to the compilex but consistent
relation between important figuresthough, if the completeness of the great instrumental works of
ofmelodyand the special circumstances to wliich Beethoven.
appended be observed, the notion ofthey are There can hardly be any doubt that the first
will still continue toform as defined by subjects attempts at Form in music were essentially
unbe perceptible. Analogously, in music which is Therefore ifanyconscious and unpremeditated.
supposed to represent some story or idea, such as conformity be observed in the forms of early
of Programme Music,is now known by the name music derived from various sources, it would
the form must be developed with the view of in- of instinct onseem to indicate a sort of consensus
terpretingthatprogrammetrulyandconsistently. the part of the composers w"hieh will be the true
iu this to the workSuch music may be com[tared starting-point of its jiosterior development. It
stirringof a painter who trusts rather to the be remarked by way of parenthesis that innuist
subject than to the perfection of itsnature of his tlie early days of modern music—apart from the
the beholders,composition to engage and delight ecclesiastical music of the Roman Church—the
interestwhile in a portrait or picture of less vivid instrumental and vocal orders were not nearly so
composition, following generallythe element of distinct as they are^ now, for the tendency to
principles, would be ofvitaland easily recognised strongly and clearly marked distinction in kind
theimportance. Similarly in ]>rogramme music notoriously a matter of slow growth. Henceis
to follow the establishedcomjioser may choose examples may be drawn with perfect safety from
can liardly beso-called classical models, but it both kinds wherever they can be found.
that a genius deeply impregnated with true Form, apart from thedoubted The first basis of
subject would seek to create a essentiallythe spirit of his balance of groups of rhythms, is
more in con-form of his own which should be repetition of some sort, and what is most vital
with the spirit of his progi-amme—even question is the manner of the repetition.sonance to the
without progTamme, expressingas Beethoven did The simplest and most elementary kind is the
emotions,some marvellous inner workings of his repetition of a phrase or bit of melody with a
movement of the Sonata in E, op. 1 09. the middle to connect the twoin the first short passage in
in the case of musicBut even with Beethoven, statements. As an early example of this form
'either programme or words to explain be taken an ancient German chorale, Jesuswithout may
'
irregularity is rare. It is here Heiland,its purpose, such Christus nnser Der den Tod iiberwand
and ea]iacity of the :especially that the nature which is as follows(1536),
part.auilitors play an importantminds of the
be retained for a spaceTheir attention has to^
74 FORM FORM
best,a very little atdesign, and no attempt, or
outlines by makingis made to soften off the
The chiefthe sections pass into one another.
distinct,subject is distinct and the episodes are
seems to dependand the number of repetitions
to putsolely on the capacity of the comjioser
that thesomething in between. Still it is clear
^-^— style and of key isvirtue of contrasts both of^ ^g^ v^---^ le modulation isi appreciated, though the range of
bracketcii are the same, and the moreover,In this the bars extremely limited. It is noticeable,
phrase which connects them is very short ; and \iew from whichas illustrating the point of
the whole presents about as simple and un- when recognisedForm at that time was regarded,
Form as could wellsophisticated a specimen of as such, that the divisions of the Rondo are
be conceived. The simple basis of which this is marked with extra emphasis by a Fcrmata or
the origin of the Rondo-form, which as we finda type is pause. From this to such a Rondo
has survived with great variety and modification in the Partita in C minor of Bach is a great
of treatment till the present day. Tlie first step. Here there are no strongly marked
divithe above example which offeradvances upon sions to stiffen the movement into formality,
whereany points of interest seem to be in cases but it flows on almost uninterruptedly from first
we find either a. contrast aimed at in the passage modulate more freely,to last. The ei)isodes
repetitionswhich forms the link, or a number of and there is not such rigid regularity in the
succeeding one another, wdth ditferences in fhe reappearance of the main subject. It appears
connecting them. Tliese two consti- principal and (whichpassages once outside of the key, is
through whichtute the two great branches yet more important) is brought in at the end
this primitive idea diverged into thousands of extremely happy variation which isin an ;
Arias, Lieder, Nocturnes, Romances, Scherzos, Beethoven's favourite practice ofprophetic of
and other lyrical pieces on the one hand, and putting identical ideas in dill'erent lights. The
movement which still retains its name of development of this form—andthe next stage of
early example ofRondo on the other. As an that probably rather a change than an
improve*the first we may take the song Roland courez ment on the above beautiful little specimen of
aux amies' from LuUy's opera 'Roland,' which — the Rondo of Haydn and Mozart.Bach is
is too long for insertion here, but wdll be found Their treatment of it is practically the same as
in the 136th chapter of Hawkins's History of Coujierin's, but inmany cases isstronglymodified
'this there are twelve bars of melody First-Music. In by the more important and elaborate
in C, concluding in that key ; followed by twelve movement-form,' which by their time hadgrown
more bars, in which there is modulation first to into clearness of sj'stera and definition. The
then the dominantthe relative minor A, and to Rondo-form, pure and simple, has remained till
keyG major, inwhich keythisportionconcludes now much as it was in Couijerin's time, gaining
;
which the first twelve bars are resumed expansion than in change of outline.after more in
'precisely as at first, and so the whole concludes. Even the great Rondo of Beethoven's
AValdHere the employment of modulation in the con- stein ' Sonata (op. consists of the repetition53)
strong element of contrast, intersjiersednecting passage is a of a subject of some length with
advanceand indicates a considerable in musical episodes with modifications in the length ofthe
;
on the obscure tonality of the preceding ex- and the repetition of one of them, andideas
ample. On the other hand, almost contemporary a great Coda founded on the principal subject to
with Lully, there are, in the works of Coujjerin, conclude with. The further consideration ofthe
'specimens of the Rondo, consisting of movementnumerous Rondo as affected by the first ' form
with differencesa number of repetitions, in the must be postponed till after the examination of
connecting passages. In these the passage with the latter.
iswhicli the movement commences repeated over By the side of the primitive Rondo above
and over again bodily and without disguise, and quoted a formmore complex in principle isfound.
short passages, of similar length butseparate In this form the relations ofharmonic roots come
between,varying character, are put in Couperin largely into play, but its most striking and
was particularly fond of the Rondo-form, and singular feature repetitionis the manner of the
may be found in profusionexamples in his by which it is characterised. And in this case
work.s. The one which is perhaps best known examples drawn I'rom various early sources which
'available for reference is theand most Passa- agree in the peculiar manner of the repetition
caille en Rondeau,' published in the complete will be of value, as above indicated. In this
edition of Brahms and Chrysander, vol. i. form the movement is divided into two halves,p.
point syiecially observable these again two152. A in them is and into sections. The first
the rigidity and absence of any attempt at half, or complete period, comprises asortofrough
sophistication in the process. The sections are balance between the amount which tends to the
andlike crude squares and circles fitted together into Tonic the amount which tends to the Domi-a
FORM 75FORM
iiant, thereby indicating the division into two feel the force of tliis as a point of musical form
beginswithpassages when it is once I'ealised it has the elfect ofsections ; andtliesecondhalf ;
distribution of completeness which is unrivalled."which have more freedom in tlie fora short tune
tlieir roots, which constitutes its firstsection, and If we turn to far other sources we shall find an
'ends with a quotation of the last bars or figures early English specimen in the well-known Since
constitutes first in wliich theof tlie first lialf, wliich its second I saw your face' (1607),
section. This will be best understood from an second and last line will again be found to be
example. The following is a very early specimen identical, and the other points of the scheme to
* ' ' Italy, whereof the dance tune called a Branle or Brawl,' conform in like manner. Even iu
'
'lioui the Orchesographie of Thoinot Arbeau the value of form does not seem to have been
(Laugres, 1589):— so readily appreciated as bj' Teutons, we find
Giacomo Peri'sa little Sinfonia for flutes in
'
' drama per-Euridice (1600)—the first musical

formed in modern Eurojie -which at least has
important feature of repeating a littlethe one
of the firstcharacteristic figure of the cadence
half to conclude the whole. It must not be
supform was by any means universalposed that this
century—so early as the middle of the 16th
time wdieii notions of harmony proper, as apart
111 this it will be observed that the first half polyphony, were but dawning, and thefrom
little tune is divided at by the strong now know themof tlie («) musical scales and keys as we
Dominant,* from which point wondeituleniiihasis on the were quite vague and unsettled. It is
it returns to the Tonic, and so closes the first that there should be any examples ofenough
half. The second half, commencing at can in such a state of musical language(6), Form at all ;
perceived have a freer harmonic gi-eatly ujioneasily be to for Form as now recognised depends
basis than either of the first sections, and so those two very elements of harmonic bases and
the mind away from the Tonic and Domi- relation of keys so that what was then done inleads ;
that they may come in have been done by in-nant centres in order those deiiartments must
freshagain for the conclusion ; and havingcarried stinct. But by the middle of the 17th century
figure on to an apparently disproportionate musical knowdedge in these respects w^as muchthe
excellent purpose of and the scope ofcomposerslength (which serves the more nearly complete,
pairs of bars), Accordingly we findbieakingthe monotony ofconstant proportionately widened.
at (c), resumes the little tailpiece of the greater freedom in the treatment of formsfinally, a ;
thereby clenches the whole into outline of the same form on a largerfirst half and but the
which tliis answers in the instrumentalcompleteness. The manner in scale is found to predominate
requirements of artistic construction is very works of the time, especially such as pass undertlie
it will be found hereafter that of dances though it is proliable thatremarkable, and the names ;
precisely similar were called 'Suites,'it does so throughout on a those sets of them which
scheme, in miniature, to that of a 19th century or 'Sonatas,' or 'Ordres,' were rather purely
movement. It would be natural to than tcrjisichorean. In the ecclesias-Symphony musical
accident if there da Chiesa) the style stillsuppose that this was pure tical Sonatas (Senate
samenot other ancient examjiles of the continues fugal and polyphonic.were
most opposite sources. be impossilile to gi"\-e even a faintform coming from the It would
dance tune if we of examjiles of this formThe above Branle is a French ; idea of the number
suites,it and take the most famous German wdiich are to be found in these dance-tuneturn from
' ' the principles well to take some typical speci-Cliorale, Ein' feste Burg (1529), but it will be
be identical. jioints in wdiich they showof its construction will be found to mens and indicate the
Chamber Sonatasknown that it is needless to quote develojinient. In Corelli'sIt is so well
sufficient to point out that the are many clear instances. Thus, in tlieit.' It will be there
'conclusion of Opera Quarta,' therefirst half of the tune ends at the Giga of Sonata IV. of the
Of theseline and of this half the first line is the usual division into two halves.the second ;
and the second on the again divided into two phrases, theends on the Dominant the first is
and it is then Tonic key, D the secondjirecisely as in the Branle ; first phrase all in the ;Tonic,
Dominantandthe third and fourth lines. The then modulating to thekey of therepeated for
sixth, seventh, and eighth The second half begins with amusic to the fifth, closing in it.
and (c) figures of the firstanswers to the ])assage betw-een (b) sort of development of thelines
andand like it presents a variety of ]iart, then modulates to nearly related keys,in the Branle,
clench it all together bade to the original key concludesharmonic bases and to after passing
;
quoted to conclude the last few bars of theofthe second line is with a quotation ofthe mu.sic
is the little tailpiece of the half. In this scheme there are two pointswith, precisely as first
It is impossible not to the previous examples the firsthalf in the Branle. of advance on ;first
we henceforwardpart concludes in wdiat will
1 It la given In vol. i. p. 771.'
76 FOEM FORM
call the descendant iscomplementary key, orkey ofthe Domin- the typical progenitor and its
ant, instead of merely passing to it and back Scarlatti's works aresufficiently clear. D.
and closing principal key— that Corelli inin the by means almost universally a great advance on
varietyestablishing more clearly the balance between it the clear definition ofthe subjects and the
and the principal key and secondly, the first him to approach
; of the rhythms, which enables
part second half of the movement presents ideas in what isof the much more nearly to modern
some attempt at a development of the features called the 'development' ofthesubjeots ; though
of the subjects of the lirst part, and real free it a mere patchwork of short subjectsis true that
and Giga serves the purposemodulation. The Corrente of the stated one alter another often
'seventh Sonata of the Opera Seconda ' are also with him of the more continuous and artistic
remarkably clear specimens of repetition of the modern development. It will also be noticed
the namesend of the lirst part as a conclusion to the wliole, that Scarlatti generally abandons of
since full six baj's in each are repeated. Both ex- the dance tunes while retaining their forms.
amples are, however, inferior to the above-quoted contemporaries of Bach andThere were other
Giga in respect of the conclusion of the first part Handel who must be noticed before them for the
being in the principal key—like the older samereasons as Scarlatti. Their worksgenerally
examples quoted though like of extensive repetition offirst as typical— present the feature the
conclusionthat Giga they are superior to tlie older examples last section of the first part as a to the
in the free modulations and reference to the whole, in a very marked manner. Thus in a
Domenicoconspicuous figures of the subjects in the first Corrente from a Suite by Zipoli (born
section of the second half of the movements. 1685) precisely the same system is observable as
Domenico Scarlatti was a con- in the example by Scarlatti. And in a Sonata(1683-1757)
Hanilel two Wagenseil in F, op,temporary of and Bach, being but by (born 1715) 1, the first
years their senior ; nevertheless he must be movement is a very extended specimen of the
considered as historically prior to them,inasmuch same kind and the last movement, a Minuetto,
;
as the very power of their genius would make is remarkable for the great length of the phrase
them rather the prophets of what was to come repeated. The first half of the movement is but
representatives of |>revalent contemporary sixteen bars, of which the latter twelve are allthan
ideas. Domenico Scarlatti left many examples in the Dominant key and the wliole of these
;
of Studies or Sonatas which are essentially twelve bars are repeated at the conclusion, the
disposed of atexpansions of the plan of the original Branle. first four having been the
comIn some the first part concludes in the principal, mencement of the preceding 'development,' as
and in some in the com|>lementary kej', either in the Study of Scarlatti.
Dominant or relative major. A very extended Bach and Handel present an extraordinary
example is found in a Study in D minor, Allegro variety of forms in their works. Some are
iden' 'jiour le Clavecin tical with the form of the Branle and Fin' teste(No. 7 of a set of Pieces
published by Cramer). In this there is first a Burg' ; others are like the p)rimitive Rondo on a
section chieHy in D minor, which modulates to very extended scale and many exhibit various
;
developmentF, the relative major, and concludes in that key stages of progressive up to the
per—altogether twenty-two bars and then another fect types of the complete modern forms as used
;
section, twenty-one bars, all in F major, and by Mozart.of
closing in that key. This concludes the first A very large number of the movements in the
half, which corresponds with the first lialf of Suites of both Bach and Handel are in the same
halfa modern Sonata movement. The second form as the previous examples. The first half
sets out with a reference to the first subject in is divided, not very strongly, into two sections,
and then modulates freely to various keys, inwhich theprincipal keyandthecomplementaryF,
original minor, key alternately predominate. The halfultimately closing in the key ofD second
and there taking up the thread of the latter sets out with development and free modulation
movement, and and concludes with quotation ol'section of the first half of tlie a the concluding
giving the whole twenty-one bars almost identi- bars or features of the first half To take Bach's
'
'cally, transposed from the original key of F into Suites Fran(;aises as examples, the following,
descent of tliis move- among otheis,theprincipalkeyofD. The will be found to conform to this
:ment from the dance type is sufficiently clear simjile scheme —Gigue of No. in D minor1,
;
without again going over the ground. Its most Courante of No. in C minor Gigue of No.2, ; 3,
conspicuous advance is in its relative extension, in B minor ; Courante of No. 4, in the AUe-Efc> ;
twenty-two bars corresponding to two in the mande and the of No. in and the5, G ;
original exampile,and other divisions being in Courante and the Bourreethe of No. 6, in E. As
proportion. The free modulation of the second examf>les of tile same from Handel's Suites tlie
:half of the movement is the strict counterpart followingmaybe taken —the Courante in No. 1,
in A the Allegroon a large scale of the clianging harmonic basis ; in No. 2, in F the Courante
;
in the Branle, and this is an advance due to the in No. 4, in E minor ; the AUemande in No. 5,
increase of musical knowledge and re- in E major ; and the Gigues in thegreat 5th, 7th, 8th,
and 1 0th Suites.sources. In other respects the similarity between In many of these there is a— '
FORM FORM 77
systematic development ofthe figures of the sub- into one another, and tlie subjects are more
ject ill the first section of the second half of the definite. These two exam})les are, however,
exmovement ; but a tendency is also observable to ceptional as regards both Bach and Handel and
commence the second half of the withmovement their innnediate successors. The tendency was
a quotation of the commencement of the whole, still for a time to adopt the form of repiroducing
which answers practically to the first subject. the first subject at the commencement of the
This was also noticed in the example quoted second half of the movement ; and in point of'
from Scarlatti. Bach not unfrequciitly begins I'act it is not difficult to see wdiy it was preferred,
the second half with an inversion of the charac- since if nothing else could be said for it, it
certeristic figure of the commencement, or treats tainly keysseemed to keep the balance of the
it in a free kind of double counter])oint, as he more equal. For by this system the subject
sometimes docs in repeating the conclusion of the wdiich appeared in the principal key in the first
half at the conclusion of the whole. (See comjilementary key in thefirst half came in in the
the last lour bars of the Allemande in the second half, and the second suliject vice versa,
Partita No. 2, in C minor.) How the subject whereas in the later system the first subject
however, a matter of subsidiary principal Moreoverreappears is, ahvays appears in the key.
theimportance. What is chielly important is the tlie still older system of merely repeating
fact that the first subject gradually begins to ending of the first half still lingers on the scene
apjiearance clearly and definitely in and Handel, for in amake its after the time of Bach
(published inthe second part as a repetition from the first Sonata by Galuppi (1706-85) in D
part and it is very interesting and curious to Bauer's AUe Clavier MusH-) there is a charming
;
that there was a long hesitation as to the little opening Adagio which seems to look bothnote
at for its formposition in the second halfwhich this repetition forwards and backwards once ;
should occupy. The balance for a long time is a clear specimen of the mere repetition of the
certainly in favour of its appearing at the concluding ]ihrase of the first j)art at the con-was
"whole, wdiile its soft melodiousbeginning of the second half, and in the comple- clusion of the
definition sectionsmentary key of the movement. A very clear manner and characteristic of
recognisable instance of this is the by cadences and semi-cadences (tending to cut itand easily
'
' little tunes) make it in sjiirit aopening ponqTOSo movement of tile Overture up into so many
of Mozart's. And one mightto Handel's 'Samson,' which differs in foini very near relation
movement of a modern Sonata or take this little movement, without much stretchfrom the first
particular only. But of imagination, as the final connecting link be-Symphony in this one
movements wdiicli look back towardsthere are specimens of form in both Bach and tween the
originalHandel which are prophetic of the complete the primitive form as disjilayed in the
Mozart. The fact is so in- Branle, and those which look on towards themodern system of
Haydn epoch. The othermovementsteresting and instructive that it will be worth Mozartand
Sonata are in the more developedgive an analysis of the shortest example of Galuppi'swdiile to
may be compared with form, in wdiich the first suliject is quoted at theof Bach, in order that it
be given commencenicnt of the second half of the move-the scheme of Mozart form, which will
little Air in the Suite Framjaise No. ment.later. A
with a clearly defined In Galuppi's contemporary, P. D. Paradies, we4, in Eb major, sets out
'first subject,' even a closer relationship to Mozart in manyfigure which may be called the find
movement of his Sonata inthe fourth bar to the key of respects. Tlie firstand modulates in
which the figure wdiich may A, for instance, is on an extended scale. Histhe Dominant, in
' second subject are clearly defined, and the growingalso be called by analogy the sulijects
movement up into sectionsthis the first half of the move- tendency to cut theappears, and with
The subjectssecond half sets out with is still clearer than in Galuppi.ment concludes. The
of the first restated, but after the earliermodulations and hints at the figures are definitely
reproduced at thebars comes to a pause on the manner, with the first subjecthalf, after ten
is, however,key and from thence beginning of the second half. ItDominant of the original
tlie latter in the lively Finale of this Sonatarecommences the first subject ; and uoticealile that
reappear at the end of thesection being deftly altered by a the subjects bothpart of the
of which Mozart madedevice of modulation— whole.
in the movement to the distinguished German com-in thesame position If we turngreat use
ourselves as it wereof the last four bars of the first posers of this epoch we findenables the whole
follow also in Ek, so immediate exemplars of Haydn. Inhalf of the movement to among the
manner and form of their gi'eatAir. them both theconcluding the
there is no longerto give a like detailed an- successors are prefigured, andThere is no need
Handel's Suite No. doubt about the basis of construction of theof the Allegro in 14, anyalysis
form first part being as it were thesuffice to point out that its movement ; thein G. It will
part theirthe preceding on a large scale thesis of the subjects, and the secondis identical with ;
easier to recognise,is clearer andand that it Beethoven's Quartet in D major, op. 18.The slow moveraent of
thi3 form.No. 'i, ia au example ofsections do not flow so closelyinasmuch as tlie