Partition Volume 3 (M - P), Dictionary of Music et Musicians, Grove, George
925 Pages
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Partition Volume 3 (M - P), Dictionary of Music et Musicians, Grove, George


Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more
925 Pages


Retrouvez les partitions de morceau Dictionary of Music et Musicians Volume 3 (M - P), Dictionaries, de Grove, George. Partition de style romantique.
La partition est constituée de plusieurs mouvements et l'on retrouve ce genre de musique classifiée dans les genres langue anglaise, écrits, Biographies, Dictionaries
Visionnez encore tout une collection de musique sur YouScribe, dans la catégorie Partitions de musique romantique.
Rédacteur: John Alexander Fuller-Maitland (1856–1936)
Edition: London: Macmillan, 1910.



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VOL. Ill
Ncto gorft
LONDON : & CO., Ltd.
All rights reservedCopyright, 1907,
Set up and electrotyped. Published February, 1907.
Norbjootr ^resfl
Cushing Co.—Berwick SmithJ. S. & & Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
The names deceased writers are printed in italicsof
E. Aldrich, Esq., 'New York Times'
Hbron-Allex,E. Esq.
E. P. Abkwright,G. Esq.
Abmbrdster,Cabl Esq.
Granville Baxtock, Esq., Principal of the Birmingliam and Midland
Institute School of Music
J. R Sterndalb-Bennett, Esq.
D. J. Blaiklet, Esq. .
Joseph C. Bridgb, Esq., M.A., Mus.D., F.S.A.
William Chappell, Esq., F.S.A.
Alexis Chittt, Esq. .
M. GnsTAVE Chocquet.
W. W. COBBETT, Esq. .
Frederick Coiwer, Esq.
Major G. A. Crawford
William H. Cumicdigs, Esq., Mus.D., r.S.A., Principal of the Guild
hall School of Music
K Dannbeuther, Esq.
Herr Paul David
E. J. Dent, Esq.
F. G. Edwards, Esq. .
Thomas Elliston, Esq.
Gdstave Ferrari, Esq.
W. H. Grattak Flood, Esq.
Rev. W. FrereH. .
H. Frederick Frost, Esq.
C. Alan Fyffb, Esq. .
Rev. F. W. GALprs- .
Nicholas Gatty, Esq., Mus.B.
Rex^ Gatty, Esq., Lector in English, Prague University
Dr. Franz Gehring
Sir Grove,George C.B., D.G.L.
W. H. Hadow, Esq. .
F. H.A.Arthue F. Hill, Esq.
J. H.A.A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq., F.S.A.
J. H.E.Edward- John Hopkins, Esq., Mus.D.
J. H.John Hullah, Esq., LL.D.
D. H.Duncan Hume, Esq. .
H^W.Hume,W. Esq.
W. H. H.William H. Husk, Esq.
B. H. J.F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, U.S.A.
A. J.M. Adolphe Jullibn .
r. K.Frank Kidson, Esq. .
H. K.Hermann Klein, Esq.
H. E.H. E. Krehbibl, York K.Esq., New
M.M. Maurice Kufperath K.
James Leckt, Esq. J. L.
Robin H. Legge, R. H.Esq. L.
H. J. Lincoln, H. J. L.Esq.
Stanley 8. L.Lucas, Esq. .
Sir G. G. A. M.A. Maofarsxn, Mus.D.
Rev. Charles C. M.Mackeson, F.B.S.
Herr A. Maczewski, Kaiserslautern A. M.
Julian Marshall, Esq. J. M.
Mrs. Julian Marshall P. A. M.
=^-Bussell Mabtineau, Esq. M.
Miss Louisa M. Middleton . L. M. M.
Rev. J. R. Milne J. R. M.
Mrs. Newmaech B. N.
Sir Herbert S. Oakeley, Mus.D. H. S. O.
Sidney H. Pardon, Esq. S. H. P.
p*-Sir Walter Parratt, Mus.D., M.V.O., Master of the King's Music W.
Sir 0. Hubert H. Parry, Bart, Mus.D., Professsor of Music in the
Oxford,University of Director of the Royal College of Music C. H. H. V.
E. J. Esq., Barrister-at-lawPayne, .... E. J. P.
Rev. Canon Hugh Pearson H. P.
Edward H. Pbmbbr, Esq., K.C. E. H. P.
Rev. Canon T. Percy Pemberton T. P. P.
Miss Phillimore C. M. P.
Herr C. Ferdinand Pohl
C. P. P.
William Pole, Esq., F.R.S., Mus.D. W. P.
Victor de Pontigny, Esq. V. DE P.
Ebenbzbr Prout, Esq., Mus.D., Professor of Music in the University of
Dublin ....
E. P.
Charles H. Purday, Esq.
C. H. P.
Miss Olqa Racster .
O. R.
LuiGi Ricci, Esq.
L. H.
P. E^
T. L. SouTHGATE, Esq. T.
W. Barclay Squire, Esq.
Miss C. Stainer
Sir John Staineb, Mus.D.
J. F. R. Stainer, Esq.
Sir Robert P. Stewart, Mus.D.
William R. Stone, Esq., M.D.
A. Streatfeild, Esq.E.
Arthur Seymour Sullivan, Mus.D.Sir
Franklin Taylor, Esq.
Esq.A. W. Thayer, .
Bertha ThomasMiss .
Walker, Mus.D.Ersest Esq.,
S. H. "Walrond, Esq. .
Henry Watson, Esq., Mus.D.
H. A. Whitehead, Esq.
F. Abdy Williams, Esq. .C.
Slade Professor of Fine Art in theH. E. WooLDRiDGE, Esq., M.A-,
University of Oxford
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozakt Frontispiece
facing page
Edward Alexander MacDowell 4
GusTAv Mahler 28
Gertrude Elizabeth Mara 44
CavaliereMario, di Candia 58
Helnrich August Marschner 62
Jules Frederic Emile Massenet 88
Etienne Henri Mehul 100
Madame Melba 104
Mendelssohn-BartholdyJakob Ludwig Felix 110
GiACOMO Meyerbeer 192
Claudio Monteverde 252
The Mozart Family 286
Christine Nilsson 380

. . . . . . 468The Metropolitan Opera House (New York)
590NiccoLO Paganini
John Knowles Paine 596
Pierluigi Da Palestrina 604Giovanni
620Euphrosyne Parb^a-Rosa
622Horatio William Parker
648GiuDiTTA Pasta
654Adelina Maria) Patti(Adele Juana
718Cristofori Pianoforte
848GiACOMO Puccini
850Henry Purcell'
TU'AAS, Joseph, born Jan. 30, 1847, at Dart- August and27, Stanford's 'ThreeHoly Children,^ ford began his career as a; chorister at 28, on the production of those works.
Bochester Cathedral, and was taught singingby At theNorwich Festival of the previous year he
J. L. Hopkins, the organist, and later by Mme. had introduced 'Apollo's Invocation,' a scena
Bodda-Pyne. He was for some time a clerk in writtenforhimbyMassenet. He diedinLondon,
Chatham dockyard, butwent Milanto in 1869, Jan. 16, 1886, from a complication of disorders,
and studied under San Griovanni. He made his rheumatic fever, bronchitis,and congestion ofthe
d^but atone of Leslie's concerts, Feb. 26, 1871, lungs,broughton froma cold takenwhile fishing.
'and sang Annabel! Lee ' in the place of Sims He was buried in West Hampstead Cemetery.
' wasEeeves, with great success, inasmuch as he Maas's 'greatest triumphs were gained in the
notonlycompelledbyunanimous desireto rppeat concert-room rather than on the stage. For
it, but there was a strongattempt to induce him several years he has stood in the very first rahk
a however, he hadto sing it third time, which, of tenor singers, not only by reason of his
magthe good sense to resist.' He played the hero nificent voice, but ofhis thoroughly finished and
'in BabUand Bijou at Covent Garden, August artistic style. . . . By his amiable personal
1872 he then went to America, and played character the deceased artist29, ; won the esteem and
Hein Miss Kellogg's English Opera Company. affection of all who had the privilege of liis
• 'reappeared in England attheAdelphiunder Carl friendship.' A Maas Memorial Prize ' wsis
Eosa, as Gontran on the production of Briill's established at theRoyalAcademy ofMusic. A. c.
' andwasengagedGolden Cross,' March 2, 1878, MAATSCHAPFIJ TOT BEVORDERING
tenorby Rosa for three years as his principal DER TOONKUNST. See Vbkeeniging Voor
both atHerMajesty'sand in the provinces. His Nookd-Nederlands Muziekgeschiedenis.
principal parts were Kienzi on its production at MABELLXNI, Teodulo, bom at Pistoia,
Raoul, Feb.Her Majesty's, Jan. 27, 1879 ; 12, April 2, 1817, was a pupil of the Istituto
in1879 ; Wilhelm Meister on the Reale Musioale in Florence, and when he was
'English of 'Mignon,' Jan. 12, 1880 Radames only nineteen years of age, his opera, Matilda
'production in English of Aida,' Feb. 19, di Toledo,' was given at Florence withonthe (1836),
etc.1880 also Faust, Thaddeus, Don C^r, the result that the Grand Duke Leopold II.;
He played at Her Majesty's in Italian in 1880, gave the composer funds to study under
MerCovent Garden (as Lohengrin) in 1883. cadante at Kovara. His second opera, 'RoUa,'and at
Lane in 1883- Turin In 1840He played under Rosa at Drury was given at with .great success.
Ravenswood,1885, hisnew parts being Edgar of Mabellini settled in Florence in 1843, becoming
and the Chevalier des Grieux conductor of the Society FilarinoTiica, andApril 19, 1884,
London ofMassenet's 'Manon,' eventually court maestro di cappella and con-on production in
the stage,May 1885. He was very popularon ductor at the Pergola (from 1848) ; from 18597,
on account of his very fine voice, which was to 1887 he was professor in his old school, and
Giuglini's in character, rather his death took place in Florence, Marchsaid to resemble 10,
'sinee he was a very 1897. His other operas were : Ginevra deglithan for his dramatic gift,
indifferent actor. He was equally popular in Almieri' (Turin, 1841), 'IlCdntedi Savagna'
concert-room, where he appeared first at the (Florence, 'I Veneziani a Constantiho-the 1843),
'Messiah,' April poli' (Rome, 'Maria di Francia'SacredHarmonic, inthe 4, 1879, 1844),
(Flor'He Giprdani,and at the Philharmonic, May 21, 1879. ence, 1846), II Ventuiiero ' (with L.
'principal concerts, and at the Leghorn, 1851V Baldassare ' (Florence, 1852),sang at all the
provincial festivals. He 'Fiammetta' (Florence, Two oratorios,various Handel and 1857).
'Aprilsang also in Paris at Pasdeloup's. concerts, Eudossia e Paolo ' and- ' L' Ultimo Giorno di
andatBrusselsattheBach aiidHandel Gerusalemine,' the cantatas, 'La Caccia,' 'll6, 1884,
1885. His last important engage- Ritomo,' 'Elegiaca,' 'Rafaele Sanzio,' 'LoFestival of
Festival of areamong importantment was at the Birmingham 1885, Spirito di Dante,' his more
IBride,' Athmaum, Jan. 23, 1886.where he sang in Dvofik's 'Spectre's
Tempest'works, as well as great Thatupon 'Thea quantity of church ofMorocco,' 4to,1674.
' andmusic. (Baker and Mock Tempest,' 4to, 1675 ;Biemann's Dictionaries.) is entitled The
Debauch'd,'MACBETH. ' ' iscalled 'Psyche1. Tragedy in three acts ; words thatupon Psyche
only written andby Rouget de I'Isle and Hix, music parodies areby Chelard. 4to, 1678. Stage
have been successful,Produced attheAcademic, works thatParis, June 29, 1827, acceptedupon
'Macbeth was illwithout success. In London, King's Theatre, and although the music in '
thatowingto its subject,July 1832. orprivateuse,4, adapted f
' long-continued and widely2. Operainfour ' had aacts ; librettobyPiave, music of Psyche
Two of the vocal pieces,by Verdi. Produced at the Pergola, Florence, spread popularity.
' 'and Alljoy to fairMarch at Paris, with alterations, The delights of the bottle '17, 1847 ; at
intopenny ballads, tothe Theatre Lyrique, April Psyche,'were lengthened21, 1865.
andseveral other ballads3. An overture be sung inthe streets,for orchestra in B minor, by
the tune of the first arewhichwere written toSpohr (op. 75).
' 'The Prodigal Son,' The4. The first act of an opera, Macbeth,' still extant—such as
' was
MatthewLocke'spublished von Collin in WineCooper's Delight,' 1809; and sketches
eqnallycharacterisedinlhese airs.byBeethoven fortheoverture(Dminor,6-8) robustvein isand
the Olden 'Hme (orig.first chorus therein, are given Nottebohm (See Popular Music ofby
in Mus. Wochenblatt, 1879, No. 10. ed.),ii. 498-501.)o.
can be assigned whyMACBETH, Music to. Three musicians, The only reason thatof
doubtedMatthewvaried eminence, have successively modernmusiciansshouldhavecomposed
'music in Macbeth ismusic for SirWilliamDavenant'sadditions to Locke's authorshipofthe '
it exists in the hand-rather than alterationsof—Shakespeare's trag- that a manuscript score of
HisautographseemsedyofMacbeth. SirWilliamdesigned toincrease writingofHenry Purcell.
well ascertained. First,its attractions forthe public bycombiningwith to have beentolerably
his judgmentit music, improved scenery, and stage-machin- Dr. Philip Hayes recorded by
manuscript Purcell's score ofery. He died before he could bring his experi- writing on the '
thescorefromwhencement intopractice ; but itwas carried outbyhis y«music inMacbeth, also
widow and son, at the new theatre in Dorset itwasprintedunderMat.Lock's name.' Itmay
score is in Purcell's hand-Garden in 1672. Downes.whowas then,and for be conceded that the
manyyears after, the prompter of the theatre, writing, and that it is the one from which Dr.
printed the music for the firsttook advantage of the Information he acquired Boyce had then
through his position, to write a book, called time, assigning its composition to Mat. Locke.
possessor of this MS. is Dr. W.SoeciusAnglicanus,oran HistoricalBeview The present H.of
the Stage (12mo, 1708). In this he says: 'The Cummings, one of the most careful of
antiquatragedy of Macbeth, altered by Sir William ries, as well as one intimately acquainted with
Davenant, beingdressed in all its finery, asnew Purcell's style, and with his numerous works.
clothes, new scenes, machines, as flying for the The means of judging equally well of Locke's
witches, with all the singing and dancing in it, music for the theatre, are not to be had, for
the first composed by Mr. Lock, the other by want of examples, especially if 'Macbeth ' is to
Mr. Channell and Mr. Priest, it being all excel- be deductedfromthem. Butthere remainsthe
lently performed, being in the nature of an inexorable logic ofdatesto prove that, although
Opera, it recompensed double the expenses; the manuscript be in Purcell's handwriting, he
still lasting play.'it proves a could not have been the composer of a work
Downes is the only contemporary authority which was produced on the stage when he was
who refers to the authorship; but the Hon. only in his fourteenth year. Henry Purcell
Boger North, an accomplished musician, re- was born in 1658, and died in Nov. 1695, aged
marks generally, ' inmusic,MatthewLockehad thirty-seven. A sufficient reason for Purcell's
robustvein,' criticism peculiarlya a applicable havingmadea transcript of it is to be found in
'music in Macbeth.' Immediatelyto the after the fact that hewas called upon to write music
'Macbeth.'MatthewLockecomposedthe instru- ofasomewhatsimilarcharacter tothatin
'Macmentalmusic forShakespeare's ' Tempest, ' pro- beth,' for the sorceress in 'Dido and ^neas,'
duced in 1673 ; also the vocal music for 'Shad- with choral responsesandwild laughter of the
well's 'Psyche' in Feb. 1673-74. These were infernal spirits.' There was certaina amount
publishedbyhim in1675 ; butmusic for vritches of conventionality, butnotamounting to
plaginot well suited for private use, and the arism,was in the treatment of demoniacal music.
Macbeth music remained in manuscript until This has beenremarked in the music
toMiddlehisdeathin 1677. These three are Locke's ton'safter play of 'The Witch,' in Eccles's music
'only known productions for the theatre, and to Macbeth
' and in Purcell's own music to
were all parodied by a contemporary, one 'Dido and .ffineas.'they Of the last, 6. Hogarth
'Thomas Duffett. Theparodyupon 'Macbeth ' is says The little duet
: in this scene, between
' Epilogue spoken by Heccate and the three two of thewitches, "ButAn erewe this perform,"
according to thefamous Mode of Mac- is remarkable for its ingenuitywitches, of contrivance
printed with a farce called 'The Empress and easy flow of melodybeth,' ; and the full chorus'
which follows, hasthe Conservatorium under F. Bichter, Jadassohn,and conclndes the scene,
hroad simplicity of Matthew Locke {Memoirs and Reinecke in 1875-76. In 1880 he was
the Musical Drama, i. 151). Sir John Haw- appointed conductor to the Glasgow Choralof
kins statesthatPurcellwrotethemnsic to ' Dido Union, but resigned the post in 1887. He has
'and iSneas ' at the age of nineteen,' and that been organist of variouschurches inEdinburgh
he composed it for the Mr. Josias Priest, who and Glasgow, being appointed to St.
George's'was concerned in the production of Macbeth in-the-Fields Established Church in 1881.
with Locke. But Sir John was mistaken as to Hewas appointed principal of the music school
Purcell'sage,andas to 'Didoand^neas 'having connected with theGlasgow Athenaeum in 1890.
been performed at Priest's house in Leicester Mr. Macbeth, in spite of much occupation of
Fields. [The latest evidence isinfavour ofsome his time in teaching (pianoforte and singing),
date between 1688 and 1690. See Fubcell.] has found leisure for composition, for which he
The study of sacred and of chp,mber musichad has a decided gift. He has written a number
sopredominated in Purcell's musical education, of pleasing pianoforte pieces, besides two or
that with all his genius, when first writing for threeorchestralmovementsplayed attheChoral
the stage, hewould naturallydesire a dramatic UnionConcerts,and sincetranscribed for piano.
model to improve upon. This was easily to he As a song-writer, Mr. Macbeth has generally
obtained through Mr. Priest, whose connection been very successful, and he has besides ably
with the theatre would enable him to borrow arranged for voices several Scots melodies, as
Locke's scoretobecopied. Dr.W.H.Cummings well as written some original part-songs. [His
submittedthe 'Macbeth'MS.toMr. Netherclift, cantata, 'The Land of Glory,' won a prize
the well-known expert, ' who came to the con- given by the Glasgow Society of Musicians,
clnsion that it hada certain boyish resemblance and was performed in 1890. Some other
to facsimilesof Purcell's after-writings, butnot cantatas, short orchestral pieces, and chamber
sufficient of itself for him to form a decided music, are among his works, as well as
in'judgment as totheidentityofauthorship.' This cidental music to a play Bruce (Lord of the
' 'boyish resemblance is precisely what might Isles).'] He has an operetta in MS., 'The
have been expected under the circumstances Duke's Doctor.' w.
H*above detailed. Everyyoungcomposerrequires MacCARTHY, Maud, violinist, was born
somemodel to startupon,justastheearlyworks on July 4, 1884, at Clonmel, Ireland. She
of Beethoven remind us of his model,Mozart. showed musicalproclivities at avery early age,
' college, herEccles's music for Macbeth ' is to be found but was not sent to a musical
direc-in score in the British Museum (Add MS. parents preferring to place her under the
No. 12,219). It was brought out at Drury tion of Senor Arbds. With him she studied
to of fifteen, andLane Theatre in 1696. As this was the year from the age of eight the age
after whichafter Purcell's death, the date disposes of the made her d^but in London in 1891,
years of further study uninter-myth ofhavinghad anyhand in after- followed two
performance. Thusimproving it. As Eccles's music is not the rupted by a single public
' must stand fall upon leisure was always allowed to her for themusic of Macbeth,' it or
maturing of her musical gifts, and a styleits own merits. It was much admired by W.
formed from which the note of feverish effortLinley, who edited 'Dramatic Songs' in, or
trust- is absent, and which therefore lends itself wellfor, Shakespeare's plays ; but inthemore
to the interpretation of classical compositions.worthyjudgment of Dr. Cummings, ' itabounds
She plays practically the whole violin reper-in wearisome and uninteresting imitative
toire, including the concertos of Beethoven,phrases ; and again the same authority says,
' Brahms, and Tchaikovsky, and has performedEccles could not have been the author of the
frequently since 1896 at the principal orchestralmusic accredited to Locke; the former is so
concerts in London, at the Saturday Concertsextremely laboured and diffuse, the latter so
its at theCrystalPalace,and (duringherAmericanmuch more dramatic and effective in
contour) with the Boston Symphony Orchestra,ciseness and simplicity' (Concordia, Nov. 27,
York Philharmonic Society, etc. Her1875). New
is so small that her violins have to be(See also Musical Times, 1882, p. 259, where hand
mounted for her, but she shows noDr.W.H.Cummings statesthe argumentswhich specially
' power or of technical mastery. She for-have brought him to the belief that the MaC' wantof
played upona Peter Guarneri violin, butbeth ' Music is by Purcell.) merly
a Nicolo Gagliano. w. w. c.Of Richard Leveridge's claim, it is sufficient at present uses
Mac-MacCUNN, Hamish, son of Jamesthat he composed new music for the 2ndto say
' shipowner, of Greenock, born there,
' in or about 1708. It has Cunn,act of Macbeth
aptitude for1868, showed an earlycompletely into oblivion,and there March 22,since passed
Collegeandon the opening of the Royalanything more about it. w. c music,is no need to say
com-Music in 1883, won a scholarship forMACBETH, Allan, born in Greenock of
of Sir HubertHe was a pupil therereceived his musical education position.March 13, 1856,
1886.and resigned his inGermany, studying at the Leipzig Parry,chiefly in— '
OVBETUBES, etc. ,Aaoverture (see OBCHESTBALbelowr)was given at the Crystal
• Palace, Oct. 27, 1885,Cior Hhor,' Cryatal e imwPalace in Oct. 1885, but it was not until 1887
orysiai1888,o' Henschel Concert., Feb. 21,Fiend,'that his name became widely known^ 'TheShip thefrom the
Palace, April 1888.21, . , ,x.i „. <w i« l™'p11188
' Crystal Palaoo, Oct.success Yarrow,' '»;of his overture, Land of the,Mountain 'The Dowle Dens o' ,,^
pieces. Crystal palace,
• ' descriptiveHtiFbUn,] Memories three
«imeMay20of the year.and Flood,' produced the same place. It Mharnionlconat 1897 a™atSeMaSfS other concertsplayed atwere frequentlyThSrivStS etcwas at once evident that the young composer stock pieces J««i?ly^"-and werebJid^tKmSioned, *»performed atthe Ghisgoworgan, waschorusandpSnVIII.7forhad a strongly individual note of his own, and
pieces, -Scotch I^nce.' for pianooriginalin quick succession other orchestral works were ^Ni™'iS^s'oS .IX
numbersand piano, extra forfor violoncellosolo tb^riSL
are also amongbroughtforward, forthemostpartat about eighty songs,the Crystal musical comedies, andvSoi
published works. M.
' MacCunn'BPalace, where his first cantata, Lord Ullin's
a Scottish composerMalcolm,Daughter,' was given on Feb. 18, 1888. In M'DONALD,
during the latterof some notethat year he was commissioned to write a of Strathspeys
knowncentury. Little is ofcantata of the 18thfor the Glasgow Choral Union > this part
that he was associatedhistory savewas 'The Lay of the Last Minstrel,' given at his personal
he lived (andfamily, and thatOlasgow, Dec. 1888, and at the Crystal with the Gow18,
' the birthplace of NielPalace, Feb. 1889. Bonny Kilmeny ' had probably died) at Inver,16,
Beauties Mel GowA footnote in The ofteen given at one of Paterson's concerts in Edin- Gow.
violoncello in Gow'splayed theburgh three days before ; and in 1888 he was states that he
His published collectionsappointed a professor at the Royal College, a band at Edinburgh.
four. The iirst inStrathspey reels numberposition which he held until 1894. A series of of
2ndin folio,folio was published in 1788 ;orchestral concertswasgiven in the same year in oblong
folio, circa 1792 a 4th folio,the studio ofJohn Pettie, R.A., whose daughter circa 1789 3rd ;
' P. K.he married in 1889. In 1894 his opera, Jeanie eirca 1797.
'DONALD, Peter, a Scottish ministerandDeans,' was produced by the Royal Carl Eosa M
born in the Manse of Durness inCompany in Edinburgh, and performed in son of one,
London by the same company, after much Sutherland, N.B., April 22, 1729.. He was
throughout provinces, Jan. educated at St. Andrews, and ordained ministersuccess the on 22,
Argyleshire, Oct. 1766.1896. He was for some years connected with of Kilmore in 12, He
this company as conductor, and has had much remained in this position for sixty-nine years,
and conducting. and died Septi 1824. He was one of. aexperience in operatic other 25,
He directed the production in English ofmany musical family, and was a skilled performer on
ofthe laterworks ofWagner, including 'Tristan the violin. He is deserving ofremembrance for
well as stock repertory. his valuable work (the first attempt at such aand 'Siegfried,' as the
After the death of Sullivan, during the last gathering),a 'Collection ofHighlandVocal Airs,'
seasons of the Savoy Theatre as a home of issued in Edinburgh in 1783. In his preface
opera, he conducted the run of he mentions that a number of the melodies wereEnglish light
' 'Merrie England ' and A Princess of Ken- noted down by his brother Joseph (born Feb.
sington.' Since the dispersal of the company, 26, 1739, died also a clever musician,1762),
various musicalhe has conducted comedies who left Scotland for India in 1760. Joseph
and similar things. His compositions show a was the author of a Treatise on the Theory of
strongly national colouring, and certain sides the Scots HighZand Bagpipe, which forms part
of Scottish music, particularly those which deal of a work, Collectiona of Bagpipe Music,
pubwith the more intimate, and tender emotions, lished in Edinburgh in 180S. f. K.
had scarcely been brought into the world of MacDOWELL,EdwakdAlexander,
Ameri'artistic or composed ' music until his time. can composer and pianist, born in New York
:The following isa list of his principalworks City, Dec. 18, 1861. He is descended from a
Quaker familyOPERAS, etc. of Scotch-Irish extraction that
'Jeania Deans' (libretto byJoseph Bennett), in four acta, Lyceum emigrated to America about the middle of the
Not.Xheatre, Edinburgh, 15, 1894.
'niarmid': Grand opera In four acta, libretto by the Duke of 18th century. As a boy he studied the
pianoArgyll (then Marqala of Lome), Covent Garden Theatre, Oct. 23,
forte withJuan18^. Thla is understood to be part of a projected trilogy, the rest Buitrago, a South American, and
ofwhich has not yet seen the light. PabloDesvernine, a Cuban, and for a space
' of War and Peace ' (libretto by Louis briefThe Masque N. Parker),
at a aingle special performance for the bene&t of the House-given with Teresa Carreho, a, native of Venezuela.
hold Troops, HerMajesty'sTheatre, Feb. 13, 1900.
musical comedy, written'The .Golden Oirl,' by Captain BaaU Thenationality ofthese earlyteachers is recorded
produced at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, Birmingham,Hood
; to enable the(not yet performed in London). curious to studyAugust 5, 1Q05 or speculate on
the influences which, withetc. (forOhoir and Orchestra). the varied trainingCANTATAS, BALLADS,
received'Lord Ullin's Daughter,' Crystal Palace, Feb. 18, 1888. in Europe, may have helped to shape
with Choral'The Lay of theI^t Minstrel,' soli, Glasgow Union,
the artisticcharacter ofPalace, Feb. 16, 1889. MacDowell,Deo. 18, 1888 } Crystal who, though
Kilmeny,' with soli, Paterson's Concerts, Edinburgh.'Bonny entitled to rank with contemporary composersand at the Crystal Palace, March 8, 1889.Deo. IB, 1888,
'The, Oameronian's Dream,' with baritone solo, Paterson's*Con- ofihehighest class irrespective ofcountry, ife yetPalace, Doc.certs, Edinburgh, Jan. 27, 1890 ; Crystal 6, 1890.
speciallywith soli,'Glasgow Choral Union, significant as a*Que^ Hynde of Caledon,' representative of the
Palace, March Bf 1892.Jan. 28, 1892 ; Crystal best that America has produced iiiParcy Eeed,' for male chorus and oroheatra, not music.'The' Death of His
performed.yat European studies were varied. Inwith pictorial iUustra- 1876 he'The Wreck of the Hesperus,' produced
August 1905. becametiona at the Coliseum Theatre, 28. » pupil of Savard in composition, andEDWAKD ALEXANDER MacDOWELL— —'
Marmontel in pianoforta at the Paris Conser- When Mr.MacDowellwent to Boston hegave
vatoire. For tliree years he remained under a healthy impulse to American composition,
French Influences, then for chiefly through the performances ofexchanged them his works
which stimulated his returnGerman, going first to Stuttgart to Lehert ; but had been by to
his attitudewearyingofthatteacher 'spedagogicmethods,in native land, but also by the which
month, hewent Wiesbaden,wherelessthana to he assumed as to the proper treatment of the
with LouisEhlertduring summerhestudied the Americancomposerby the American publicand
1882. In the autumn he joined themonths of press. Heexpressed himself as opposed totheir
Heymann at thepianoforte class of Karl Con- segregation for the purpose either of laudation
servatorium, and the class incompositionunder or condemnation. Naturally this came
somedirector of the institution.Joachim Raff, The what easier to him than to some of hisfellows.
admiration which he felt for Kaff's music, and He had grown artistically into man's estate in
whichsprangupbetweentheattachment master Germany,andhadwonquiteasmuchrecognition
and pupil were among the strongest influences there as he found waiting for him in America
shaped his creative career, andspeak out when hewhich returned thither. It deserves to be
the first suite saidof much of his music, especially that he found his position upheld by the
for orchestra, op. 42. OnHeymanu'sdeparture majority of American musicians worthy of
asthe Conservatorium MacDowell sociationwithfrom was a him. As acomposerMacDowell
him,candidate for the position vacated by but is a romanticist. He believes in poetical
sugof appolntmeijt, ostensiblybecause of his gestionandprogrammatic titles. But musicalfailed a
youthfulness, because of hisadherence cartoonist he is not. He aims at depicting theprobably
moods Of things, the awakenedtotheromantic idealsexemplified inHeymann's and moods by
playing. he went to Darmstadt things rather than the things themselves. HeThereupon as
there. The is fond of subjects and titles which, like thosechiefteacherat theConservatorium
;duties were onerous, and the compensation in- of his master Baff , smack of the woods—not
adequate. made up his mind the greenwood of the English ballads, but theMacDowell had
more congenial haunted forests of Germany, in which nymphstostay in Gfermany asacountry
his artistic nature than his native land. He and dryads hold their revelsand kobolds
returned private teacher. In The supematuralism which is an ineradicableto Frankfort as a
attheinstance of Raff,hewent toWeimar element of German romanticism, breathes1882,
to visit liszt. He played first concerto for through his firstsuite for orchestra. In his sec-his
that masterwith D'Albert at the second piano- ond suite, entitled 'Indian,' he makes use of
forte, and was invited to take part in the ap- aboriginal Americanidioms,forming his
principroachingmeetingoftheAllgemeinerDeutscher palthemesputofvariants ofIndian melodies,
Musikverein at Zurich. There he played his a, war-song, and women's dance
firstPianoforte Suite. Bj^ died shortly after^ of the Iroquois, and a love-song of the lowas.
and MacDowell set up a home in Wiesbaden, A similar device is practised in the first of his
where he devoted himself to composition for 'Woodland Sketches' for pianoforte, op. 51,
four years, that is, till ISSVt Then he went to which has a melody of the Brotherton Indians
America, settled in Boston, taught and gave as its theme. Mr. MacDowell was
contempoconcerts,producinghistwapianoforteconcertos raneous with Dvorak in thus calling attention
withtheBostonSymphonyOrchestrain Boston, to the existence of native American folk-song
and the Theodore Thomas in New elementscapable of use inacharacteristicbody
York. [The second concerto played the of artistic music, though, unlike the composerwas by
composeratthePhilharmonic Concert, London, of the symphony 'From the New World,' he
on May 1903.] In 1896 he called to never permitted himself to be influencedby the14, was
Columbia University in New York to fill the melodicidiomsofthenegroslave. His ' Indian
chair of music,—a new foundation. He re- suite, op. 48, first played by the Boston
Symmained professor at the institution until phony Orchestra in New York in Jan.
1896,January 1904, when he resigned the because of was fully sketched before Dvorak's symphonypost
tilla disagreement with the faculty appeared, though it was not performedtouching the
proper footing of music and the fine arts in the threeyearsafterwards, thecomposerwishing to
curriculum. For two years he conductor become better acquainted withwhat to him, aswas
of the Mendelssohn Glee Club, one of the oldest well as the world,was anewkind of music. As
and best male choruses in the United States. lor the rest: great concentration, refined and
Princeton University the University of highly emotionalised harmonisation, exaltedand
Pennsylvania conferred on him the degree of poetical feeling and a spirit of breezyfreshness
Mus. Doc. Mr. MacDowell'scareerended in the are the characteristics chiefly to be found in
spring of 1905, when overwork and insomnia, Mr. MacDowell's compositions for the
pianothe consequence of morbid worry over disa- forte. He withheld his first eight numbered
greeable experiences, broughtonwhateminent works from his publishers, and subsequently
asmedical specialists pronounced tobea hopeless destroyed them. His published works are
:case of cerebral collapse. follows
727-733,.ffistory,WOBES WITH OPUS MUUBEBB Hawkins's is given inof
Op. biographicalscantyA fewedition.9. Two Old SongB. Noyello's
Suite lor Planofoite. Mace10. FltitModem viz. thatfrom it,are culled.particulars11 ft 12. Album of five SongB.
that before15. Prelude and Fugue for Pianoforte. after 1636shortly ;married in or
14. SecondModem Suite for Planofoite. Yorkshire, heinPianoforte and OrcheBtra. wife resided16. Flrat Concerto, InA minor, for marriage histhe
Pianoforte.le. Serenata for Yorkhe was inthat in 1644Cambridge ;17. Two Fantastic Pieces for Concert Use, for Pianoforte. in18. Barcarolle in F and HumoreBke inA for Parliamentarycityby theoftheduring the siege
19. Wald'ldyllen, for Pianoforte.
brokenPianoforte, four hands. of having20. Three Poems for consequencethat inarmy ;
after H. Anderaen, for Pianoforte, fourhanda.21. Moon Plcturea, C. shakemake a
' compelled toHamlet and Ophelia,' Two Poems for Orcheatra. he was22. both arms
Pianoforteand Orchestra.23. Second Concerto inD minor for that hemannerlute in an irregular ;upon the24. Four Compositions for Pianoforte.
' Elaine,' Symphonic Poem for Orchestra. book,25. Lancelotand ' (described in hisorgan 'invented a table
'26. From an Old Garden' ; six Songs.
'a consort ofThree Songs for Male Chorus. accompany27. engraving) towith an
28. Six Idyls after Goethe, for Pianoforte. deafness,of partial
' Poem for Orchestra. in consequence29. Lamia ; third symplionlc viols ; that
Saracens' and 'Lovely Alda'; two Fragments from the30. 'The lute inaudible totones of the
' rendering the softSong of Boland,' for Orchestra.
31. Six Poems after Heine for the Pianoforte. of fifty strings,invented a lutein 1672him, he
S2. Four Little Poems, for Pianoforte.
LuteDyphone, or Double38. Three Songs. termed the ;which he34. Two his youngest son,family, andthat85. Bomance for Violoncello with OrcheitralAccompaniment. that hehad a
36. Etude de Concert, for Pianoforte. upon the luteto play welllearned in 1672
* Three Pieces for Pianoforte. John,37. Lee Orientales' ;
'Marionettes'; Six Little Pieces forthe Pianoforte. of his88. perusal of the MS.solely by thealmost
Twelve Studies for the Pianoforte.39.
the writing of40. Six Love Songs. Immyns, John] thatbook [see ;
41. Two Songs for Male Chorue. after Christ-commenced untilOrahestra. the workwas not42. Suite No. 1, for
Two Northern Songs forMixedOhonu.43. licensed for publicationand it wasmas, 1671,44. Barcarolle ; Song for Mixed Chorus.
45. Sonata Traglca (No. 1), for Pianoforte. owing to his in-and lastly thatMay 5, 1675 ;
Pianoforte.46. Twelve Virtuoso Studies for the
preventedSonga. whichwemaypresume47. Eight creaseddeafness,
{Second (' Indian Suite for Orchestra.48. ') profession, he was in somewhathim pursuing his49. (Some dances published ina Boston Collection.)
' for Pianoforte.60. Second Sonata, Erolca,' Hawkins assertsthatcircumstances.straitened
' Sketches' for Pianoforte.01. Woodland
Three Choruses for Male Voices. at62. bom in 1613, evidently arrivingMace was
68. Two for Male
the inscription beneath the64. for Volcea. thatconclusion from
'for Pianoforte.55. 'Sea Pieces after Cooke)portrait (engraved by FaithomeFour Songa.56.
'67. Third Sonata, Norse,' lor Pianoforte. 63. date ofbook, 'iEtat. suse. ' Theprefi;sed tohis
68. Three Songs.
' Keltic,' for69. Fourth Sonata, 1709 is conjectured.hisdeath is notknown, but
Three Songs.60.
' in the Bagford61. Fireside Tales,' for Pianoforte. See important advertisementan
62. 'New England Idyls'for Pianoforte.
(Hari. MS. 5936 [Mace wasCollection (384)).
WORKS WITHOUT OPUS NUMBBES responsible for another quaint work,further
from the Thirteenth Century, for Male Chorus.Two Songs
to the wholeSix little Pieces after Sketchesby J. S. Bach, for Pianoforte. conveniency gmd pleasureProfit,
Technical Exercises for the Pianoforte (Two Books).
Nation, being a short rational discourse lately
Columbia College Songs.
Transcriptions of old harpsichord mnsic.Many jj jj^ ^^ Majesty concerning the High-presented to His
monograph on Mac- copy is in the[A very enthusiastic ways Bingla/nd, ftc. 1675. Aof
by Lawrence Oilman, was published by British Museum. f.,k.] w. h. h.Dowell, s
in London and NewYork in 1906.] M'EWEN, JoHK Blackwood, bom atJohn Lane
at Cambridge aboutMACE, Thomas, born Hawick,April 13, 1868, educated attheGlasgow
was one of the clerks ofTrinity College, High School, the Glasgow University, and the1619,
and author of a remarkable bopk Royal Academy of Music. He has the degreeCambridge,
272 besides 18published (in small folio, pp., pp. of M.A. of Glasgow, and is a F.B.A.M. He
entitled Mustek'sprefatory matter) in 1676, was professor and lecturer at the Glasgowof
ABemembrcmcer the best Practi- Athenaeum, in 1896-98,Monument ; or, of and has been a
proDivine and Civil, that has evercal Mustek, both fessor ofharmony and composition at theEoyal
knovm to have been in the world, the first Academy of Music froju the latter year. Hisbeen
which treats of the then condition of works are numerous andpart of important, but though
cathedral music and theparochialpsalmody and many have been performed, only a few are
performance theof improving their ; published among these are a piano sonata inmeans ;
the lute, including directions for E minor, asecond of string quartet in A minor, six
repairing, performing on and Highlandchoosing, tuning, dances for violin and piano, and two
fullfor the instrument, with a ex- sets of part..songs. Hiscomposing choral works include
'the tablatureand numerous lessons a Scene fromplanation of ; Hellas ' for female chorus and
ofmusic generally, 'the third of the viol and orchestra, The Last Chantey 'and for chorus and
curious matter. Thebook is written and a settingwith other of Milton's Hymn on
style, intermingled with a thea quaint, familiar Nativity, for soprano solo, chorus andin
terms, andof strangely compounded orchestra. For orchestra he has writtenprofusion two
striking impression of the author's overtures, a suiteproduces a in E, a symphony inA minor,
devout and amiable aof his art and , his concerto for viola, and three Highland danceslove
subscriptionIt was published by for strings. Two other string quartets,disposition. in F
A lengthy epitome and E are to be12s. per copy in sheefa. minor respectively, mentioned,at'' ;'
'as well as two compositions, Graihmy Chree the mannerin which he performed the duties of
and ' Komney's Remorse,' JEor recitation with the office. In April following he accumulated
musical laidaccompaniment, the former heing the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Music.
oat piano. In 1876for string quartet, drum and hewas appointed Principal of the Boyal
M'Ewen's belongs to the ultra-modern AcademyofMusic. TheBesnrrection,'music ' oratorio,
school, of it is strongly tinged with was produced the Birminghamand much at Festival in
'Scottish characteristics. M. 1876 ; Joseph,' oratorio, at the Leeds
'MACFABBEN, SiK George Alexander, in The Lady of the Lake,' cantata,1877 ; a at
Mus. D., son of George Macfarren, dramatist, Glasgow, on Nov. the music to15, 1877 ; 'Ajax
wasborn inLondon,March 2, 1813. In early life was performed with the play at Cambridge in
'he displayed partiality for music, but did pot 1882 ; the oratorio King David ' was produced
regularly commence its study until 1827, when at the Leeds Festival of 1883, and in that year
he became a pupil of Charles Lucas. In 1829 Macfarren was knighted. Besides the
beforehe entered the Boyal Academy of Music, and mentionedworks his compositions
areverynumade composition his principal study, learning merous they include a cathedral service,
also the pianoforte and trombone ; and in 1834 thems, chants,andpsalm tunes,and ' Introitsfor
hewasappointed one of its professors. On Oct. theHolyDaysandSeasonsoftheEnglishChurch,'
' '1834, he produced at the Society of British 1866 ; Songs in a Cornfield,' 1868 ; Shakspere27,
Musicianshis firstimportantwork, aSymphony Songs for4 voices,' 1860-64 ; Songs from Lane's
inF minor, and in 1836 his fine Overture ' Chevy 'Arabian Nights,' and Kingsley's and
TennyChase.' In August 1838 his 'Devil's Opera,' son'spoems ; verymanysongs(amongwhichthe
produced at the EnglishOpera House, Lyceum, beautiful 'Pack, clouds, away,' with clarinet
atoncedrewpublicattentiontohim. In 1840 he obligate, isperhapsthebestknown) ,duets, etc.
producedatDruryLanean ' EmblematicalTrib- overtures to 'TheMerchant of Venice,' 'Borneo
'ute on the Queen's Marriage,' and also edited, and Juliet,' Hamlet,' Chevy Chase ' (already
for the Musical Antiquarian Society, Purcell's mentioned), and 'Don Carlos'; symphonies,
' concertoopera, Dido and JSneas.' In 1843 he became string quartets, and a quintet; a for
secretary of the Handel Society, for which he violinandorchestra ; andsonatas forpianoforte
edited 'Belsbazzar,' 'Judas MaccabaeuSj' and aloneandincombinationwithotherinstruments.
' Chappell's PopularJephthah.' In Jan. 1845 he directed the suc- He harmonised the airs in
arranged Moore'scessful production of Mendelssohn's'Antigone Musicofthe Olden Time,and '
opera, and Scotch Songs. Heat Covent Garden Theatre. In 1846 his Irish Melodies,' 1859,
' writer on music and musicDon Quixote,' was successfully produced at was eminent as a
' Rudiments Harmony,DruryLane, and in 1849 his opera Charles II.' critic, havingproduced of
The Six Lectures on Harmony, 1867; An-wasgiven at the Princess's. Hisserenata, ' 1860, and
the oratorios, etc., for the Sacred Har-Sleeper Awakened," was brought out at alyses of
at Theatre in monicSociety, 1853-57 ; and of orchestralworksNational Concerts Her Majesty's
fine programme-books of the Philharmonic1851, and in the same yearhe composed his for the
1869-71; also many articles in Thecantata, 'Lenora.' His beautiful cantata, 'May Society,
Festival, Musica.1 World and lives of musicians for theDay,' was written for the Bradford
Imperial Dictionary Universal Biography.1856,andhiscantata, ' Christmas, 'wascomposed of
of He lectured at the Boyal and London Institu-in 1859. He then resumed the composition
' tions. His Addresses and Lectures were pub-opera, and brought out Bobin Hood ' at Her
in 1888. Hedied Oct. 31,1887, his lastpub-Majesty's Theatre in 1860, with great success. lished
' work being an Andante and Bondo inEThis was followed by Freya's Gift,' masque,
' violinandorgan,contained in the Organist'sand 'Jessy Lea,' opera,1863 ; Shestoops tocon- for
Quarterly Journal for Oct. 1887. Acantata forquer,"The Soldier's Legacy,' and 'Helvellyn,'
voices, 'Around the Hearth,' was pub-operas, 1864. Several more operas remained in female
lished posthumously. He was buried in theMS.and Macfarren alsowrote music
foranumCemetery ; hislife,byH. C.Banister,beroffarcesandmelodramas. Macfarren'seye- Hampstead
in 1891. His industry and fertilitysighthadatacomparativelyearlyagebecomeim- appeared
greatestdrawbackswere marvellous.paired the maladyincreased yearbyyear, until under the
kindness,and hisreadiness tocommu-itterminatedin totalblindness. Butthiscalam- Hisgreat
stores of his capacious and retentiveitydid notdiminish his exertions ; andwith ex- nicate the
himwho required them, endearedtraordinary energy he continued to perform memory to allhis
of friends and admirers.duties as a professor at the Boyal Academy of to a large circle
contraltoMacfarren, his wife,Music, and to compose, dictating his composi- Natalia
able teacher, is well known by heramanuensis. On singer andtions to an Oct. 23, 1873, his
' of opera libretti and otherworks.oratorio, St. John the Baptist,' produced translationswas
Cecil Macfarren, his brother,Bristol Festival with marked Walterat the success.
1826, chorister of WestminsterOn March he was elected Professor bom August 28,16, 1875, of
James Turle from 1836 to 1841,Music Cambridge on the death of Abbey underat Sterndale
Boyal Academy of Music fromdistinguished pupil of theBennett, and greatly himself by and;; '
of Moresoccurs in the title-page1842 to 1846, studied the pianoforte under portrait of himW.
is re-Clark, whichH. Holmes, and brother, Musicae (Edin. : J. 1773),composition under his
Melodies,ScottishG. Glen's JSlarlyA. Mdcfarren, and Cipriani Potter, He was produced in
^*•a professor of the pianoforte at the Academy 1900.
an EdinburghAlexander,from 1846 of its concerts M'GLASHAN,to 1903, andconductor
andon the violoncelloperformerfrom 1873 to 1880. He was elected a director musician and
of the 18th cen-the latter halfof the Philharmonic Society in 1868, and its violin during
and dressappearancetreasurer He composed two Church tury. From his statelyin 1876.
' wasM'Glashan.' Heand hymn- he was nicknamed KingServices and a number of chants
concerts atgiving fashionabletunes a, symphony in B flat, produced at in the habit of
' issuednear the Cowgate, andBrighton, 1880 overtures, 'A Winter's Tale St. Cecilia's Hall,
Scottish national airs,'TamingoftheShrew'(1845); 'Beppo' three important books of(1844);
history of theseand Leander' value in tracing thehSif); 'Pastoral' (1878); 'Hero of great
Strathspey' Collection of(Brighton Festival, HenryV. '(Norwich melodies, viz.: 'A1879);
' ' of Scots MeasuresFestival, ; Othello' (Queen's Hall, 1896) Reels ' A1881) (1780),
Reels' alla sonatas for pianoforte and 'A Collection of (1786),pianoforte concerto ; (1781),
and published by Stewart.ofaloneandincombinationwith otherinstruments in oblong folio,
May and wassongs both sacred and secular many madrigals Edinburgh. He died 1797,
F. K.and part-songs and numerous pieces of all buried in Greyfriars' Churchyard.
kinds for pianoforte. He has edited Mozart's M'GUCKIN, Baeton, born July 28, 1852,
career as a chorister atpianoforte works, Beethoven's sonatas, and the at Dublin, began his
received instructionextensive series of pianoforte pieces known as Armagh Cathedral. He
'Popular Classics.' [He died Sept, from Turle, then organist there, in singing,2, 1905, R.
and was Pancras Cemetery, East violin, and pianoforte. He became firstburied at St. organ,
Cathedral, Dublin, inFinchley, on Sept. 7. A biographical article tenor at St. Patrick's
appeared in the Musical Times for Jan. 1898, 1871, and was for a time a pupil of Joseph
and volume Reminiscences was published Robinson, He sang at one of the Philharmonica of
w. H. H. Dublin in and in the follow-in 1905.] concerts in 1874,
M'GIBBON, WllLiAM, a, musician residing ing year made his d^but at the Crystal Palace
in Edinburgh in the earlier half of the 18th Concerts, July 1875, after which he went to5,
of his biography save Milan and under Trevulsi.century. Little is known studied He
reapwhat is related of him and of other Scottish peared with success at the same concerts, Oct.
musicians by William Tytler of Woodhouselee, 23, 1876, where he first appeared as an oratorio
Transactions the singer in the Nov.who contributed to the of 'Lobgesang,' 3, 1877. He
Society Antiquaries Scotland, vol. i. 1792, made his debut on the stageas Thaddeus underof of
some personal remembrances of them. He was Carl Rosa at Birmingham, Sept. 188010, ; at
born near the end of the 17th century, and Dublin as Wilhelm Meister, May 9, 1881 ; in
was the son of MatthewM'Gibbon, who was a the same part at Her Majesty's, Jan. 20, 1882,
hautboy player in Edinburgh. William was and as Moro on the production in England of
'early sent to London, and studied the violin The Painter of Antwerp,' an English version
On his returnunder William Corbett. to of Balfe's Italian opera 'Pittore e Duca,' Jan.
Ediubu;-gh he was appointed leader of the 28, 1882. He remained in Rosa's company
orchestra in the Gentlemen's Concerts, and held both in London and provincesthe until the
post for wasthe a long period. He considered summer of 1887, and became a great favourite
an excellent performer. In 1740, M'Gibbonpub- both as a singerand actor. His most important
'lished Six Senates \sic\ or Solos for a German parts are Lohengrin, Faust, and Don Jos4 in;
Flute or Violin. Edin. : R. Cooper for the author, new operas he created at Drury Lane the parts
1740,' ob. folio. A copy of this now very rare of Phoebus (' Esmeralda March 26, 1883'), ;
publication was sold at the Taphouse Sale, July Orso ('Colomba'), April 9, 1883 Waldemar
'1905. Another of his compositions is Six ('Nadeshda April 16, 1885; Guillem'), de
for twoSonatas German Flutes, compos'd by Cabestanh ('Troubadour'), June 8, 1886 ; Oscar
Mr. Wm. M'Gibbon of Edinburgh.' Lond. : ('Nordisa'), May 4, 1887; at Edinburgh,
J, Simpson, royal 8vo. His most important Renzo on the production in English of
Ponwork, however, was avaluable collection of Scots chielli's ' Promessi Sposi,' and at Liverpool, Des
oblongTunes, in three folio volumes, of great Grieux ('Manon Jan. 17, 1885. He sang in'),
value in the study of Scots music. These were opera in America in 1887-88, and rejoined the
issued in Edinburgh, and originally published in Carl Rosa Company from 1889 to 1896, adding
though there are several1742, 1746, and 1765, to his repertory the part of Eleazar in 'La
later reprints. He died in Edinburgh, Oct. Juive,' and that of Thorgrim3, in Cowen's opera
and wasburied in Greyfriars' Churchyard, of that name, April1756, 22, 1890. In 1889 he
bequeathed the whole of his effects to sang Lohengrin in Italianhaving atCoventGardenwith
inthe Royal Infirmary. He is mentioned a success. Mr. M'Guckin is extremely popular
Robert Ferguson, the poet, and a in the concert-room, and has sungverse by at the Phil-MACKENZIEMACICOTATICUM 9
harmonic, the Oyatal Palaoe, the Popular and' bom August 22, 1847, in Edinburgh, was "the
Oratorio Conoerts, and at the Handel and pro- fourth musician of his family in direct descent.
vincial festivals; [After a successful tour in Hisgreatgrandfatherbelonged tothe Forfarshire
Ireland in was1903, he appointed (in Sept. Militia Band ; his grandfather, John Mackenzie
musical dii-ector1905) of the Dublin Amateur (1797-1852), was a violinist in Aberdeen and
Operatic and Choral Society, w. H. G. A. o. Edinburgh and his father,Alexanderp.] ;
MACICOTATICUM, or MACHICOTAGE. was also a violinist, pupil of Sainton
, (1819-57),
'species of ornamentation appliedA to Plain- and Lipinski. He edited the National Dance
song melodies, by means of extraneous notes Music of Scotland,' and was leader of the band
inserted between those of the true Canto fermo, at the Theatre Royal in Edinburgh. A. C.
the manner of what, inafter modern music, Mackenzie was educated at Hunter's School,
would be cailledfioritura. Totheonceprevalent and when only ten years old, was sent to study
custom of Machicotage in France are to be attri- musicatSchwarzburg-SondershauseninGermany
buted many of the corruptions observable in on therecommendation of a member of Gnng'l's
Galilean Office Books before the modern careful band named Bartel. Here he was a pupil of
revisions. The Processionale Farisiense (Paris, K. W. Uhlrich for the violin, and for theory,
directs that the melodies shall be machi- of Eduard Stein, the conductor of the Sonders-1787)
coUe by the Clergy, and continued by the Choir hausen Ducal orchestra. Theboy played second
' sine macicotatico ' ; and in former times the violin in the orchestra, and took part in many
Ecclesiastics entrusted with the duty of so performances of themostadvanced music, Liszt^
singing them were called Maceconid or Berlioz, and the then extant works ofWagner
Machicots. w. s. B. being his daily bread. In 1862 he returned to
MACIRONE, Glaka Angela, born Jan. 21, Edinburgh, and soon afterwardscame toLondon
in London, of an ancient Eoman family. intending to take lessons from Sainton buton1821, ;
From 1839 to 1844 she studied at the Royal his advice Mackenzie entered for the King's
Academy of Music—the pianoforte under Cip- Scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music,,
riani Potter and W. H. Holmes, composition and won it in December of the same year,
under Lucas, and singing under Negri. On remaining at the Academy till 1866. Besides
presented who taughthim the violin, his mastersleaving the Academy the Council her Sainton,
with a special testimonial, and appointed her were Charles Lucas for harmony and
countera Professor of the Pianoforte and an Associate. point, and F. N. Jewson for piano. While at
concert at the Academy, MackenzieplayedinvarioustheatreOn June 26, 1846, she gave a the
Queen'sConcertRooms,HanoverSquare,whenin orchestras, and thereby acquired experience of
addition to a creditable debut as a pianist, she orchestral work at first hand. On the
concluappeared as composer of a Benedictus, sung sion of his course at the Academy, Mackenziethe
April returned to Edinburgh, wherehe quickly becameby Pischek, for which, in a letter dated 3,
gave1847, she received the congratulations of Men- known as an excellent violinist ; he also
delssohn. From 1872 to 1878 she was head chamber concerts, at which Schumann's
pianoAske's School for Girls, forte quartet and quintet were given for themusic-mistress at
time in Scotland. He was appointed con-Hateham, and later at the High School for first
Girls, Baker Street. In addition she conducted ductor of the Scottish Vocal Music Association
'vocal society, the Village Minstrels,' at her in 1873, andmeanwhile fulfilled many teachinga
She engagements, and oflioiated as precentor in St.then residence. Park West, N.W.
is now living in retirement. . Among her works George's Church. He found time to compose
a Te Deum, an anthem, several somechambermusic, a PF. trioandstringquartetmay be named
minor (asyetunpublished), besides a pianofortepart-songs, a suite for pf.' and violin in E
flat, published Kahnt of Leipzig as(played at the Musical Artists' Society, Nov. 16, in E by
and Mile. Gabrielle Vaillant), op. 11.1889, by herself
from the English, Hans von Billow had seen the proof-sheets atpianoforte pieces, and songs
German publishers', and had made inquiriesGerman, and Italian poets, etc. (Brown and the
Stratton, Baker, and personal information to aboutthe composer. When he came toGlasgow
A. c. and Edinburghin 1877-78, hemade Mackenzie'sthe writer.)
personal acquaintance, and accepted his over-MACKAY, Angus, a famous Highland piper,
' 'published some interesting ture, Cervantes (performed at Sondershausenwho collected and
down from traditional in for performance at Glasgow, where itpipe melodies taken 1877),
was Dec. 1879. As Mackenziesources. The book is now rare, and its title given on 17,
' labours playing in the
: Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd added to his other byruns A
folio, 1838. Another orchestra of the Birmingham Festivals of 1864,or Highland pipe music,'
Assistant.' He and 1873, it is not surprising thatof his works is 'The Piper's 1867, 1870,
afi'ected by the strain of his work.Queen Victoria, and was acci- his health waswas piper to
in the Nith, near Dumfries, He wisely went abroad, and settled in Florencedentally drowned
F. K. in order to devotehimself to composition. ForMarch 1859.21,
fact until his appointmentMACKENZIE, Sib Alexander Campbell, about ten years, in' , —
aothers byto surpass some of histhe Boyal Academy of Muaic, Florence was best things
He is athard to estimate.his residence for that isat least part of the year ; but distance
stronglywith subjects of aas time went dealingon, his importance in regard to his best in
naturally .kind, andromanticmusic in London steadily increased, and at imaginative orlast
northern themes,extraction makeshe was obliged to Scottishlive altogether in England. his
thoroughly con-poetical,musical orFrom the commencement of his residence in whether
Scottish Rhapsodies,In thetwoFlorence dates the first of his more important genial tohim.
the 'Pibroch'Saturday Night,'choral Cottar'sworks, the cantata, 'The Bride,' per- 'The
'Marmion and Ravens-suite,some ofthe ' 'formed at the Worcester Festival of 1881. violin
'From the North,'the violinpieces,Each year after this saw some work of large wood'music,
op.pianoforte concerto, 55, acalibre, and many festival and the Scottishand other
comis reached in thepoetical standard ;missions followed rapidly. In 1885-86 Mac- very high
Dame sans Merci,'of ' La Bellekenzie was appointed conductor of Novello's orchestral ballad
the operaand throughoutOratorio Concerts, and many the 'Story of Sayid,'introduced
imhimselfamasterofpower-'he showsportant works to London audiences. It was of 'Colomba,
effort and in a' imaginative ;primarily in order to hear his Saint Elizabeth ful and sustained
' Britannia ' overture, the comicunder Mackenzie's his vein, thedirection that Liszt paid lighter
the orchestral suite,'His Majesty,' andfinal visit to England in 1886, and Mackenzie opera,
' genuine giftDay,' tell of arenewed his old friendship with the composer. London Day by
musical humour, which in the caseBy this time, his second Scottish Ehapsody of distinctly
' ' ' was just a littlesecond of these works,called Bums,' the opera, Colomba,' and The of the
wasfor the audience for which itRose of Sharon,' an oratorio composed for the too subtle
larger sacred compositions,Norwich Festival of had raised Mackenzie intended. Of his1884,
be claimed forto a high position among English composers, highest place may possiblythe
'Veni Creator.' A complete list ofand on the death of Sir George Maefarren he his fine
:appendedwas appointed to succeed him as principal of Mackenzie's works is
theRoyalAcademy ofMusic. He undertook the WrTHOUT OPUS NT7MBEE8UNPUBLISHED WOEKS.
He con-duties of the post on Feb. 22, 1888. (With places and cUktes of flrat performance.)
Trio, pf. and Btrlnge. InD (Olusical ChamberConcerts, Edinburgh,ducted the Royal Choral Society occasionally
during the lifetime of Sir Josejdi Barnby, on String Quartet InQ (Do. IffTS).
at DUeaeldorf,Overture to a Comedr (played under Jnllue Tauech
he directed the concerts for thewhose death 1876).
Overture, 'Cervantes '(played underMax ErdmannsdSrfer,Sonden-was ap-remainder of the ,season. In 1892 ho
hausen, 1877, and under BUloir, OlasgoTr, 1879).
Scherzo for orchestra (Glasgow, 187S).pointed conductor of the Philharmonic Society,
tenure of the post, which heand during his WITH OPUS NUMBEKS
Op.introduced Tchaikovsky'sresigned in 1899,
1-7. pieces.Songsand plouaforte
as 8. Seven Part-Songs.Pathetic Symphony to London, as well
9, Bustle Scenes for pf.
Borodin's in B minor. In 1903 he 10. lArghettoand Allegretto for Violoncello.
Quartet for and in flat (Classlcttl Chamber Con*11. pf. strings Ein Canada, in the course ofundertook a tour certs, Edinburgh).
12. Songs.which he conducted concerts of British music in
13. Five pieces for pianoforte.
all the most important towns of the Dominion. 14. Dr«i Lledervon H. Heine.
15. Trois Morceaux pour piano.
the Mus.D. degree from St. Andrews,He received 16. Three Bongs.
17. Three Songs, by Christina 1888 Edinburgh inin 1886 ; Cambridge ^
18. Bongs.
19. Three Anthems.1890 that ofD.C.L. from Glasgow, 1901, and
20. Six Pieces pf.for
M'Gill University in 1903 and that of 21. Bhapsodie Ecoesaise, for orchestra, No, 1 (Olasgow, underthe ;
Maims, Jan. 18S0).
1904. He received theLL.D. from Leeds in 22. Three Vocal Trios.
'23. In the Scottish Highlands,' for pf.from thegold medal for art and science Grand
24. 'Bums,' second Scottish (Olasgow, Manns,Bhapsody under
1881).of Hesse in 1884, and the Saxe-CoburgDuke
2fi. Cantata, 'The Bride' (Worcester Festival. 1881).
Order for Arts and Science in 1893. 'and Gotha 26. Cantata, Jason ' (Bristol Festival, 1882).
27. Three Organ Pieces.
He is a corresponding member of the Istituto 28. Opera. April'Colomba' (Drury lAne, Carl Bosa Company, 9,
1683).Reale Musioale of Florence, and amember ofthe
'29. Orchestral Ballad, La Belle Dame sans Merci ' (Philharmonic,
Swedish Academy. In 1895 he was 1883).Royal
30. Oratorio, 'The Rose of Sharon ' (Norwich Festival. 1884).
knighted. He has lectured repeatedly at the 31. Five Songs.
32. Concerto for violin (Birmingham Festival, played by1886,Institution and elsewhere.Royal Sarssate).
33. Opera, 'The Troubadour' (Drury lAne, Carl Bosa Company,difficult in a few wordsIt is peculiarly to
June 8, 1886).
'34. Cantata, The Story ofattempt the appreciation of Mackenzie's music. Sayid ' (Leeds Festival, 1886).
35. Three Bongs by Shakespeare.
of many other admirable composers,Like that 36. Jubilee Ode (Crystal Palace, 18S7).
*37. Six Pieces for violin (including Benedlctos'), (MondayPopular
'the epithet academic fromhas earned 'it Concerts, played by Lady Halld, 1888).
38. Ode. 'The New Covenant' (Glasgow Exhibition, 1888).critics who are fond of employing thatcertain
'39. The Cottar's Saturday Night,' for chorusand orchestra,
term of indefinite abuse. But the 40. OvertTire, 'Twelfth Night' (Rlohter Concerts, 1888).word as a
41. Cautata, 'The Dream of Jubal' (Liverpool Phllhurmonlc, 1889),
' musician would surelyof an academic ' 42. Suite for violin, ' 'work Pibroch (Leeds Festival, played by Sansate,
1889).never surpass, onereach, yet seldom oralways 43. Prelude, Entr'actes, and Songs for 'Harmion* (Glasgow, 1889;
songs only published),merit ; but with Mackenzie, aslevel ofdead 44. Spring Songs.
'ardent temperament, his 46. Music to Baveoswood ' (Lyceum Theatre,men of an 1890).with all— ' ;
'father's profession. He published Thirty new48. 'Venl Creator.' for cfaoruB, Bolo qturtet. ftnd orcheitn
(Blrmingbam Featlval, 1891). Strathspey Eeels,' Edinburgh, folio (1792), and
47. (a) Highland (WMtmloaterBallad lor violin and orch.
Orcbeitral Society, 1893). (6) Barcarolle and Vlllanelle for Tioltn. some other works. He removed about the
48. Two Choral ' *Odea for BuchanaD'a Bride of Love (1893).
beginning of the 19th century to Newcastle-48. Oratorio, -Bethlehem' Choial Soolety,(Boyal 1894).
Sa Three Sonneta of 8hakeBpeat«. on-Tyne, where he was established in 1807 as
' Phcebe,'
fil. comic opera by B. C. Stephenaon (not performed).
62, Overture, 'Britannia' (Boyal Academy of Music Commemora. musiciana and a teacher of dancing. For
tlon Concert, May 17, 1894).
'65. From the North,' nine pieces for Tiolln and pf. (three of them many interesting details of the Mackintosh
were scoredand played at the Philharmonic, 1896).
'family, see the late Mr. John Glen's work,64. Three Songs. The
66. Scottish Concerto for pf. and orch. (Philharmoulo, played by Glen Collection of Scottish Dance Music,' book
Paderewskl. 1897).
66. Comic Opera, 'His Majesty' (Sayoy Theatre, Feb. 20, 1897). i., 1891. F. K.
Overture, Entr'actes, and Incidental
6'r. Music to 'The Little
Minister* (Haymarket Theatre, Nov. 8, 18^). MACKLEAN, Charles, aviolinist and
com'68. Three Preludes and Vocal Music to Manfred ' (written for the poser who, living in Edinburgh
' in 1737, pub-Lyceum Theatre, but not performed). (Nos. 2and 3, Pastoral'
'and Flight of Spirits,' performed at the London Musical lished in that year 'Twelve Solos or Sonatas
Festival, 1899. No. 'Aatarte,' performed1, at Arthur New.
stead's Concert, Dec 12, 1904.) for a Violin and Violoncello,' op. prima. E.
59. Five Recitations with pf. accompaniment.
Cooper, for the author,60. Six Bustle Songs. 1737. It is doubtful
61. Preludes, Entr'actes, and Incidental Music to 'Coriolanus' whether he is the same Charles M'Lean men-(Lyceum Theatre, April 16, 1901).
62. Opera, 'The Cricket on the Hearth,' In three acts (Julian tioned on the title-page of 'A Collection of
Sturgis, not yet produced; the overture was played at the
Philharmonic, July 2, 1902). Favourite Scots Tunes ... by the late Mr.
Coronatloa63. March.
' Chs. M'Lean and64. Suite for orchestra, London Day other eminent Masters,' Day ' (Norwich Festival,
1902). drcafolio, 1772. This last-named collection
66. 'The Knights of the Boad,' operetta (Palace Theatre, Feb. 27,
1906). is ofsome antiquarian interest. F. E.
66. Cantata, 'The Witch's Daughter' (Leeds Festival, Oct. 1904).
67. Canadian Rhapsody for orchestra (Philharmonic, 1906). M'LEOD, Peter, according to Srit. Mus.
Biog., was born atIn addition to these there are many West Calder, Midlothian,songs
without opus numbers also : May 8, 1797, and died at Bennington, near
; the following
Edinburgh, Feb. 10, 1859. He publishedMorris Danceand Processional March for orchestra.
*Firm in her native strength,' for chorus and orchestra. several collections of original airs to the words
'With wisdom, goodness, grace,'
' 'To Singers,' ofScottish poets, as Original National Melodies
The 'Willow Song,' from ' Othello.'
' Indian Bfiverle,' song (published in Punch, ofScotland'(1838), 'Original Scottish Melodies,'Jan. 7, 1903).
M. 'New National Songs, the melodies never before
MACKINTOSH, John, bom in London, published,' etc., and was the composer ofmany
1767, an eminent performer on the bassoon, 'now favourite Soots songs, Oh ! why left I my
who from 1821 to 1835 held the first place in hame?' being among the most famous of these.
'all the principal London and prorincial or- His collection of Original Scottish Melodies
chestras. He produced a full, rich, and power- was published with a view to the completion of
ful, but somewhat coarse tone. [He died in the Bums Monument in Edinburgh, and the
London, March His son23, 1844.] Alfhonso profits of it enabled this to be eftected. F. K.
was a yiolinist. w. H. H. M'MUEDIE, Joseph, Mus.B., born in 1792
MACKINTOSH, Eobert, a Scottish musi- parishin the of St. Bride, London, graduated
composer of Strathspeycian and famous reels, at Oxford in 1814. He was a pupil of Crotch,
etc., nicknamed 'Bed Kob.' He was from the and composed many glees (principally for the
Highlands (probably from the Vale of Athole), Concentores Sodales) and songs, and made
was established as a musician in Skinner'sand nyimerous arrangements for the pianoforte. He
Close, Edinburgh, in 1773. At various ad- was for some time a director of the
Philhardresses in the northern capital he advertised monic Society. He died at Merton, Surrey,
teacher ofthe violin, andheorganisedhimself as Dec. 23, 1878. w. H. H.
concerts ; ultimately conducting the orchestra MAQON, LE. Opera-comique in three acts
at the Theatre Koyal. He removed to London words by Scribe and Delavigne, music byAuber.
died there in Feb. 1807. Hein 1803, and Produced at theOp&a Comique,May 3, 1826 ; in
and Scottishwas a clever violinist, his dance England at the St. James's Theatre, March 13,
music is of considerable merit. He published 1850. G.
of compositions and arrangements MACPHEESON,four books Charles, born in Edin-—
:asunder 'Airs,Minuets, Gavottes, andEeels burgh, May 10, 1870, the son of the burgh
'Sixty-eight new Eeels' » engineer and city architect. He entered the(1783); (1792);
Third Book of choir Paul'ssecond book (1793) ; 'A Sixty- of St. Cathedral in 1879, and
re'eight new Eeels ' and A Fourth Book mained there till 1887, when he was appointed(1796) ;
Strathspey Eeels,' circa 1804-5 all, choirmaster under Dr. Eearce at St. Clement's,of new ;
published in London, Eastoheap. Sir George Martin organ-exoeptihe last, which was gave him
issued in Edinburgh, in folio. It is said lessons during his residence in London. Afterbeing
gave the first professorial holding the post of private organist to the latethat Mackintosh
lessons on the violin to Nathaniel Gow, on the Sir Eobert Menzies, at Weem, Perthshire, and
latter's first coming to Edinburgh. Mme. de Falbe, LutonHoo, Bedfordshire, in
sucMackiktosh, his son, was born cession, hewas appointed in 1895 sub-organist ofAbeaham
June and followed his St. Paul's. He had entered the EoyalAcademyin Edinburgh, 15, 1769,12 MACPHEESON MADRIGAL
from 1576extendof publicationsMusic m 1890, and had won the Charles in Naples. His
madrigals,ofentirelyLucas prize in 1892, becoming A.E.A.M. in and consistalmostto 1613,
o5,twoo4,as six1896, twoBooks 6,He is now teacher of harmony and ofwhich therewere
'Madri-entitledtwo Bookscounterpoint in the same institution. His one a 4, five, six, and
areof these6. Somecompositions include a setting of Psalm cxxxvii. galetti e Napolitane," a
missing. Ahave partsfor choirand orchestra nine lost, and several
; anthems and other now
and a fewmadrigalsnumber of hischurch music ; three Gaelic melodies, accom- considerable
collectionsthe variousreceived intopaniedon stringsand harp ; an overture, 'Cridhe motets were
to Englishwordswereadaptedan Ghaidhil,' played at the Crystal Palace in ofthe time. Two
of 1588, andTransalpina'in Yonge's 'Musica1895; a Highland suite for orchestra ; another
J. E. M..
' Madrigals' of 1598.
' Italiansuite, Hallowe'en ; a quartet for piano and Morley's
Henri, born at{recte Madden),strings in E ilat ; and two movements of a, MADIN
(from Eyrecourt, Co.
' Irish parentssextet wind There "Verdun, offor instruments. His glee,
musicdeveloped a taste for.Galway), in 1698,sits a bird,' gained the prize given in 1893 by
uncle. Rev. Dr. Ambroseat an early age. Histhe Bristol Orpheus Glee Society. M.
advanced to theof Loughrea, wasMAOPHEKSON', Ohakles Stewakt, born Madden,
on theof. Kilmacduagh (Ireland)Liverpool, March educated at bishopricat 29, 1865, was
Pretender, James III., in
' Sterndale nomination of thethe City of London School, won the
Henri Madden a cleric,1705. In 1730 we findBennett' open scholarship atthe RoyalAcademy
de musique in the Cathedral ofof Music, entering that institution in 1880. and maitre
which he vacated in 1737 forHe was a pupil of Sir G. A. Macfarren for com- Tours, a position
deputychapel-masterpiano- the more important one ofposition, and ofWalter Macfarren for the
the King. He published a treatise on counter-forte. He gained the Balfe scholarship in 1882, to
in 1744 was nominatedthe Charles Lucas medal for composition in point in 1742, and
in succession toand the Potter exhibition in 1885. At mattre de chapelle to the King,1884,
Campra (see Campra, Andb]6). Not only wasthe conclusion of his studentship in 1887 he
he was also a successfulwas appointed Professor of Harmony and Com- he a good theorist, but
many popularposition, and an Associate of the institution, choir'trainer} and composed
was appointed motets. His death occurred at Versailles inbecoining a Fellow in 1892. He
w. H. G. F.organist of Immanuel Church, Stresttham Com- 1748, aged fifty.
Madriale,mon, in 1885, and in the same year became MADRIGAL (Ital. Madrigale,
conductor oftheWestminsterOrchestral Society, Mdndriale). The derivation of the word has
1902. He also perplexed all who have attempteda post which he held until so hopelessfy
that, until some newconducted the Streatham Choral Society from to trace it to its source
1886 to 1904. In 1898 he was appointed light shall be thrown upon the subject, further
the Associated Board ofthe R.A.M. discussion would seem to be useless. We must,examiner to
andR.C. ,andinthatcapacity visited Canada, therefore, leave our readers to form their ownM.
Australia, New Zealand, and Ceylon in 1900. judgment upon the four theories which have
Mr. Corder as Professor been most generally accepted namely, thatIn 1903 he succeeded ; (1)
of Composition at the Royal Normal College the word is derived from the Italian, madre
for the Blind, and was appointed a member of (mother), and signifies a poem addressed—as is
have the case with first madri-the Board of Musical Studies in the University said to been the
of London, He has lectured at the Royal gals—to Our Lady that it comes from the; (2)
Academy, the Normal College, and elsewhere. Greek word, fiivSpa (Lat. and Ital. mandra, a
symphony sheepfold), and was suggested by the generallyHis works include a in C, 1888 ;
two overtures, and short pieces for orchestra, pastoraloharaoter of the composition ^that
; (3)
mostly written for the Westminster Orchestral it is STcorruption of the Spanish word,^
vi'tdruSociety. More important than these is a re- gada (the dawn); and ia used in Italian
markably beautiful Mass in D for solo, choir, as the equivalent of Mattinaia (a Morning
and orchestra, produced at St. James's Hall, Song) that itowes name of(4) its origin to the
songs, pianoforte pieces, and a town situated inMay 1898. Many Old Castile. On one point,
' however,services have been published ; and Concerto all authorities are agreed : viz. that
alia fantasia ' for violin and orchestra, was the name was first given to a certain ofkind
Hall Promenade Concert, poem, and afterwardsplayed at the Queen's transferred to the music
—Practical to which itin 1904. His theoretical works are : was sung ^which music was always,
duringHarmony 350 Exercises in Mamumy, etc. the best periods of art, written; ; for tliree
Design ProKticaX Counter- or more voices, in theEvolution ofMusical ; ancient Ecclesfestical
Music. M. Modes, and withoutpoint, and Rudimenis of instrumental
accompaniFkmish musician, ment.MACQUE, Jean be, a
settled in Italy, Our actual knowledgeof Philip de Monte, who of the condition ofpupU the
from Madrigal before1582 in Rome, and the invention of printingliving from 1576 to is
in 1610 is he definitely sadly imperfect ; but, in the absence of1586 in Naples. Only positive
Royal Chapel evidence, analogy leaves us little causenamed as being choirmaster to the to doubt—
that its earlier phases must have corresponded, with the laws of the old Church Modes. These
as closely as weknow its later ones to have done, characteristics—which it retained to the last in
with those of the Motet— the applicationfor of allcountriesandthroughall scholastic changes
Discant to secular-melody must have suggested are unmistakable signs of its close relationship
the one no less surely than its association with to the Motet, ofwhich we have alsoample proof,
Plain -song gave birth to the other. The in the certainty that it originated in
counteroriginatorsofthis processwere, in all probability, point,on a Canto fermo. Asageneral rule, this
the Troubadours and Minnesingers, who so Canto fermowasnaturallysuppliedbythemelody
strongly influenced the progressofpopularmusic ofsome popularChanson but, just aswe
in the Middle Ages and there is reason to be- times
; finda popularmelody intruding itselfinto
lieve that the rarity of early MS. records is due the Mass, so in these early Madrigals we are
the fact thatto they were accustomed to sing occasionally startled by the apparition of some
their Discant extempore—or, as it was formerly well-known fragment of severe Ecclesiastical
called, alia merUe. But long before this first Plain-song; as in Agricola's Belle sur toutes,
glimmering of science resulted in the invention in which the lighter theme is almost profanely
Counterpoint ageof the of chivalry had passed contrasted with that of tola pulchra es, Maria
away, and the minstrels, as a corporate body, —a combination which Ambros naively
comhad ceased to exist. Hence, the fartherdevelop- pares to the song of a pair of lovers, who
ment of the Madrigal devolved upon the eccle- quietly carry on their discourse in the two
siastical musicians, who cherished it tenderly upper parts, while a holy monk lectures them
and brought all the resources of their art to in- the bass.
hearupon it treating it, technically, exactly as For the earliest published copies these
; of
intreate4they their compositions for the Church, teresting works we are indebted to Ottaviano
though, in the aesthetic character of the two dei Petrucci—the inventor of the process by
styles^founded on an instinctive perception of which music was first printed from movable
the contrast between sacred and profane poetry types—whose three collections, entitled
Har•: they observed a marked— difference. This we monice musices Odhecaion. A. (Venice, 1601),
may readily understand from the description left Oanli B, numero Cinquanta B, (ih.' 1501), and
us by Thomas Morley, who, writing in 1597, Canti G. n" cento ciriquanta, G, (ii. were1503),
'tells us, that, As for Musicke, it next long supposed andthe is to be lost, now only exist in
unto the Motet, the most artifioiall and to men the form of unique copies ofthe first and second,
ofVnderstanding themost delightfuU. Ifthere- preserved intheLibrary of the Liceo Filarmonico
fore you will compose in this Kind you must at Bologna, and a splendidlybound exemplar of
possesse your selfe with an amorus humor (for in the third in the Hofbibliothek In
coposition shall you proue admirable except preciousno these volumes we find a copious
selecyou put on, and possesse your selfe wholy with tion from the secular works of Busnois,
Okethat vaine wherein you compose) so that you ghem, Johannes Tinctor,Hobrecht, Regis, Caron,
must in your Musicke be waiiering like thewind, Josquin des Pr^s, Alexander Brumel,Agricola,
sometime wanton, sometime drooping, sometime Pierre do la Eue, andtwenty-nineother writei-s,
graile and staide, otherwhile eifeminat, you may whose Chansons illustrate the first period in the
maintaine points and reuert them, vse triplaes, history of the Flemish Madrigal period no—a
shew uttermost ofyour varietie, and the less interesting than instructive to criticaland the the
more varietie you show the better shall you student, for it is here that we first find science
please.' In the 16th century these directions and popular melody working together for a
to the letter so closely, that common end.were observed —
more graphicit would be difficult to give a The second period, though its printed records
sketch of polyphonic music in its secular dress date only thirty-five years later, shows an
imthan that conveyed by Morley's quaint expres- ipense advance in art. Its leading spirits,
^ons. Jacques Arcadelt, Philipp Verdelot, Giaches
The most ancient specimen of secular poly- de Wert, Huberto Waelrant, and some other
phonic music now known to exist is the famous writers of their school, were not only
accomcanon, 'Sumer is icnmen in,' preserved, among plished contrapuntists, but had all learned the
the HarleianMSS. , in the BritishMuseum. Its difficult art of restraining their ingenuitywithin
extreme antiquity is, indeed, indisputable but due bounds, when simplicity of treatment was
called a Madrigal, notwith- deinanded by the character' of the words theyit can scarcely be
standing the rustic character of its words. The selected for their theme. Hence, they have left
trueJiladrigal is unquestionably the offspring of us works, which for purity of style and graceful
school. We hear of it, in the flow of melody can scarcely be exceeded. Arca-the great JFlemish
as the middle delt, though a true Fleming by tasteand educa-Low Countries, as early at least
of the, 15th century, when it was already well tion as well as by birth, spent much of his time
the Netherlandera in the form of a, in Italy, and published his First Book of Madri-known to
often of very elaborate con- gals Venice in 1538, with such success,polyphonic song, at that
within years it ^anstruction,and alwayswrittenin strictconformity; eighty thraugh.QPlesSith^n;— —
Hisold Flemish school.sixteen editions. the goodFive other books followed disciple of
inprinted Antwerpcontaining, Angelica atbesides hisown works, a number by Symphonia
thesome ofcompositions byother celebrated writers, containsamongwhom, however, 1594
none morecontemporaries ; buthestands hishisgroundnobly. From acopy ofthe best of
nuirire—wellown Forreithan hisfourth edition ofthe First Book, preserved in the beautiful
asfrequently sung,England andBritish Museum, known inwe transcribe a few bars ofone
though the Englishfountain,'by aof the loveliest Hadrigals he ever wrote 11 'Hard
the meaningto conveyno attemptbianco e doles cigno—which, weshould imagine, words make
Verdelot's numerousItalian. Ofneeds ofthe originalonly publication in an attainable form in
been handedunhappily, havevery few,order to become a favourite with every Madrigal works,
the parts complete ; weus with allSociety in England.^ down to
of his writingsquite enoughpossess, however,
contemporary,his greatprove that, liketo
deeply imbued withWert, he wasGiaohes de
first to last,style ; which, fromthe national
in itsconstruction, smoothclear in itswas
in its harmonicof melody, euphoniousflow
rich in contra-and, though lesscombinations,
than the later Italian schools,puntalembroidery
interest or in anima-wanting ,either innever
whom thisgreat composer bytion. The last
was cultivated, in northernpeculiar style
Laaso, who, though hiswas Orlando diEurope,
ecclesiastical music,chiefly upon hisfame rests
books of splendid madrigals,has left us many
said to form, of them-which may almost be
the schoola third period. With him,selves,
Netherlands came to an end. But longof the
Madrigal had been trans-before his death the
planted to other countries ; and in Italy
took firm root, and bore abundantespecially, it
The first really great Italian Madrigal-writer
Festa, whose delicious Quandowas Costanzo
- > • ~ ginn ga al fln del Ti ver mi o. Arcadelt'sritrovo la mia pastorella, printed in
Third Book, has enjoyed a greater degree of
popularity, in England, under its familiar title,
'Down in a flowery vale,' than any other work
of the kind that ever was imported hither.*concluding bars of this contain someThe few
fine composition bears evident traces ofThissmoothness of which is perfectlyimitations, the
the Flemish manner ; as do, more or less, all
- le the works belonging to what may be called theDi mil
first Roman Period. In the second period
this foreign influence was entirely destroyed,
and the true Roman style inaugurated by the
ImmU le, etc. , ' . 'appearance of Palestrina's Primo libro di Mad-J
-J rigali a quattro voci,' in 1655, followed by aJ. J.
\J-^-^'Idbro secondo,' in and books1686, two of
'Madrigali spirituali,' in 1581, and 1594—the
year of the great composer's death. It may be
well said, that in these four volumes Palestoina
has shown his command over all styles. The
' 'character of the Madrigali spirituali—more
serious than that of the Chanson, but less so
of the difference which should always subsist
between ordinary sacred music and' music
- nlu intended to actually used inbe the services of
Aroa-a far less prolific writer thanThough the church. The spirit of the secular madrigals
was a true genius and a truedelt, Waelrant changes every moment with the sense of the
words. The second volume (that of 1586)with whichwe are acquainted le trani-1 onlymodemeditionThe
3to Englieh wordain whichnotranahttlon Tn the Engllah edition—admirably trnnilateda third, and adapted by ThomaaDOsed
OHphant haaia attempted | coniaquently, the Hnilcand —the time of the nioyement been veryiJ the original lUllan unluatlflablT
end. duuiged from fourminima to four crotchet* In acroai purpoiee (rom beginning to ueaeure.Poetry are atthe—
contains a more than usually beautiful example The style of this 'Sweetest Swan' was, by
—Alia riva del Tebro—in which grief a nature, a little less grave than that of Pales-the of
despairing lover is described in discords as trina ; but, like that great master, he possessed
harsh as any that we are accustomed to hear the happy faculty of accommodating it to all
in the works of the most modern composers. possible circumstances, and did so with such
Yet every one of these discords prepared and unvarying success,is that he may be justly
rein accordanceresolved, with the strictest laws garded as the most satisfactory representetive
of counterpoint ; and these,very laws are used ofthe third Romfin period. His little madrigal,
as vehicles for the expression of all that music Vesaosi augelli, scored by P. Martini, in the
can ever be made to express. For instance, second volume of his Saggio di Contrappitnto, is
the lovely cadence at the word morte, when a miracle of prettiness, and contrasts strangely
sung with the necessary ritardando, tells, more enough with the deep sadness displayed in the
plainly than any verbal explanation could opening bars of hisAM J dispielata morte 1
possibly have done, how all such woes as those
:aUuded to are healed for ever by death
Such works as these naturally excited the
contemporary composers, and ledemulation of
each one to do his best for the advancement of
a style so new and captivating. Palestrina's But it was not in Rome alone that the
imitated successorexample was worthily by his Madrigal was cultivated with success. It found
in office, Felice Anerio, whose three volumes of an equally congenial home in Venice, where it
' Madrigali spiritual!,' printed atRome in 1585, was first introduced by Adrian Willaert, who,
were succeeded by two books'of secular madri- though by birth and education a Fleming, did
gals of exquisite beauty, and a charming set of so much for the city of his adoption that he is
Canzonette for three and four voices issued in universally represented as the founder theof
the brothers,1603. Francesco Anerio, and great Venetian school. His influence, and that
Giovanni Maria and Bernardino Kanini, con- of his countryman and faithful disciple, Ciprian
tributed a large store of volumes of equal de Rore, may be traced throughout its entire
merit. Ruggiero Giovanelli turned his genius course, &om beginning to end. Even in the
to good account ; and the Roman school, now works ofGiovanni CSroce it is clearly perceptible,
in its highest state of perfection, boasted many notwithstandingthemarked individualitywhich
other madrigalists of superlative excellence. places the stamp of independent genius on
Foremost among these stood Luca Marenzio, everything he wrote. Andrea Gabrieli, and
who devoted his best energies to the advance- his nephew, Giovanni, Fra Costanzo Porta, and
ment of secular art, producing nine books of Orazio Vecchi, were all deeply imbued with
madrigals for five voices between the years the same spirit ; Hans Leo Hasler carried it to
six, for six voices, within a Nuremberg, where it wrought good last-1580 and 1589, a and
very few years afterwards, andmany later ones, ing work ; and Gastoldi—believed by Morley
' 'all of whichwere so well appreciated that, even to have been the inventor of the Fa la—was
lifetime, he was honoured with the really no more than the exponentduring his of an idea
Italia. whichhad alreadywell-earned title ofHpii dolce Cigno d! been freely used by Willaert,'
Flemishaiid of the bestmore than one of his immediate followers. Marenzio, and several more
In theday.It may, in truth, be said that Flemish art and Italian . composers of the
'Madrigal iswordfailed to attain full maturity, until it was preface to this volume theits
firstfor thebelief)transplanted from the Netherlands to Venice. Tised (to the best of our
selectedcompositionsAll honour to the great republic for develop- time in England. The
toall .adapteding resources. was a glorious by the merehant areits rich It worthy
diction isthS^ght^letrust committed to her ; and she fulfilled it English verses, in which,
rhythm andthenobly. sometimes sufficiently uncouth,
carefally"are oftenIn Florence the Madrigal attained a .high sense of the original Italian
entliusiasticzeal of theirdegree of popularity—at first in the form of imitated ; and to the
hisconstantly sung atthe Frottola, which, Cerone tells us, is to be collector, who had them
for the favourdistinguished from the true madrigal by the house, we are mainly indebted
Madrigalpoverty ofits contrapuntal artifices—afterwards, with from that time forth, thewhich,
Ninethis the more fully developed productions of was universally received in
a second col-Francesco Corteceia, Matteo BampoUini, Pietro years later Yonge ventured upon
publishedMasacconi, and Baccio Moschini. Butits course lection. had alreadyMeanwhile, Byrd
compositions, underhere was brought to an untimely close by a another volume of original
' natures/ in 1589growing passion for instrumental accompani- the titleof Songs of sundrie ;
' Sett ofment which entirely destroyed the old Floren- in Watson had edited a1590, Thomas
for pure music. Italian Englished, not to the sensetine love vocal In Naples it Madrigalls
after the affectionflourished brilliantly ; though rather in the of the briginall dittie, but
and 1595shape the Villanella—the Neapolitan equiva- of the Noate'; and between 1593of
Fa la—than in a more serious Thomas Morley had produced two books oflent of Gfistpldi's
was slightly prized, 'Madrigals to foure Voyces,'guise. In France it but not- Canzonets, one of
publications,withstanding the number of Ohansons adapted, and one of Ballets. Thenumberof
-by the early Netherlanders, to well known therefore,, was increasing rapidly.
French popular poetry and in By this time the Madrigal had fairly estab-specimens of ;
supplant national institution ; andGermany it failed to the national lished itself as a
taste for thci Volkslied, with which it had very English composers did all that in them lay to
little in common, and which, before the middle bring it to perfection. The most noted among
century, was itself pressed into the them seemed never of/producing newof the 16th tired
service of the all-absorbing Chorale. But in works. Simultaneously with Yonge's second
—England it took root as firmly as ever it had collection that is, in 1597—appeared two
done, either in Rome or in Venice, and gave original sets of great importance, one by
school which is well Thomasrise to a national able to Weelkes, the other by George Kirbye.
hold itsown against any rival. The old canon, In the same year Morley issued a third and
' Sumer is icumen in, ' has been cited as a proof fourth volume of Canzonets ; and John Dowland
'that polyphonic music originated in England. delighted all Europe with his First Booke of
be maintained. The SongesThis position cannot be- or Ayres of foure parts.' Wilbye's first
ginnings of Counterpoint have, hitherto, eluded book appeared in 1598, and Bennet's in 1599.
all inquiry. But we have already shown that In 1601 Morley edited a famous volume
'Madrigal was invented in the Netherlands entitledthe The Triumphes of Oriana,' containing
and that the first published fruits of its dis- Madrigals for five and six voices, by Michael
covery were issued at Venice in 1501. The Este, Weelkes, Bennet, Hilton, Wilbye, and
polyphonic songs that appeared in England sixteen otherfirst composers besides himself. [See
printed' Wynkyn de Worde in Oriana.]were by 1630, Michael Este published a volume of
in a volume of the existence of which neither his own in 1604, another in 1606, and a third
Burney.nor Hawkins seems to have been aware, in 1610. Bateson's two books were issued in
containsa highly interestingcollectionthough'it 1604 and 1618. Dowland's second book
apof works, both sacred and secular, by Taverner peared in 1600, his third in 1603, and his
and other English composers. No second col- 'Pilgrimes Solace' in 1612. Thomas Ford
lection appeared till 1571, when a volume of 'printed two books of Musioke of sundrie
much inferior merit was printed for Thomas Kindes' in and1607, Wilbye his second book
Whythorne by John Daye. In 1588, William in 1609 Orlando
; Gibbons produced his first
'issued his first book of Psalmes, Sonets, (and 'Byrd only) volume of Madrigals and Motets
and Songs of sadnes and pietie ' : and, in the in 1612 and even
; as late as 1630—exactly a
same year, Nicholas Yonge—a merchant, who century after the publication of Wynkyn de
'a store of madrigals from hisobtained rich Worde's curious volume— 'a book of Motteots
underItalian correspondents published, the (all really Madrigals, though with— instrumental
'of Musioa Transalpina,' a volume contain- accompanimentstitle ud Ziditom) was ;given to the
than fifty pieces, selected from the worlding more by Martin Pierson.
workaofNoaPaigneant, Rinaldo del MeljGiaohes Rich collections of these rare old editions>v.
CdmeUus Yeidoack, Falestrina, Luca includingde. Wert^ many volumes which we have not— :
particularise— must part,' are gems of art perfect inspace to are preserved in the needs —
Libraries of the_3ritish Museum, the Sacred their simplicity, yet no less masterly in design
Harnionio Society,andtheUniversitiesofOxford than tender in expression. OrlandoGibbonsand
Cambridge and many of the most popular oliarming composer of earlier date—Richardand ; a
have been reprinted in modern form Edwards Netherlanders.madrigals a —wrote like born A
over and over again.' It is difficult to decide more interesting comparison than that between
upon the comparative merits ofparticularworks, the two following examples, and the extracts
the general standard of excellence is so already from e dolcewhere given Arcadelt's Bianco
number so great. endlessIjigh, and the An Cigno can scarcely be imagined.
variety of styles is observable, even to themost
The Silver Swam.inquirer but careful analysis provessuperficial ;
ObLAITDO GrIBBOHS.result ofindividual feeling,this to be rather the
than an index to the prevailing taste at any
given epoch. The history of the schbol,
therelikefore, must be comprised, our notice of the
Venetian Madrigal, within the limits of a single
; and we shall beat illustrate it byperiod
few typical works for separateselecting a
-criticism. Leaningher breast a-gainst the leed y
Byrds madrigals are sometimes constructed
elaborate plan, and abound in pointsupon a very ^^^^^^
ofingeniousand delightful imitation, asdo those
Weelkes, Cobbold, and Wilbye, and their con-of
temporaries, Kirbye and Bateson—witness the
last-named mifollowing beautiful passage from the ft^ig
'composer's contribution to The Triumphes of first and last, andThus sang her
'Oriana ^E^
naked bed.In going to mylives,In Heaven etc.
KiCHARD Edwardes (1560).
r^isL^u^rr ' i
' The lallingf t»-r rrrr
'fall-ingThe out
miir-^r^ff-^r-rr f^^^^
InHeaven lives, etc. The falling out of faithful friends
ReInHeaven Uvea, etc.
love.newing ia of \
ofthe 17th-century,After the second decade
of any lasting reputation was produced,preferred a no workMorley, Hilton, and Michael Este
soon fell into neglect. Under theand the styleand produced some of the mostlighter vein,
song lost much ofStuart dynasty polyphonicremain to us. Amongdelicious Fa la? which
crushed outits popularity, and the civil war
' Johnthosewho affected Ayres ' and Canzonets,
feeling ; but art lived on, and inall artisticincontestablyholdsthe firstplace. HisDowland
forgotten in Flanders,
' ' due time the Madrigal,oh now, IAwake, sweet Love ' and Now, !
of chamberreplaced in Italy by a new kindand
editors think It' to he regretted tha-t so few modernIt is much musicwithinStrumentalaccompaniment,mergedreprintsarederivedworthwhile tomentlonthesourcewhencetheir
of Flemish or Italian Madrigals.or even to give the original names the Glee— kind ofgradually in England into a
deplored isthe mischievous system of trans-Still moredeeply to he
thewhich frequently destroys all trace of andpoaition, now socommon, composition cultivated in no other country,
tyro from ascertain-composer's intention, and always prevents the
is written. As MadriCT-ls higher aesthetic value than its Germaningthe Mode in which a given Madrigal of far
accompaniment, tranflpoaitlon in themust always be sung without Part-song. The writer whorepresentative, theand helps no one.bOolt is wholly unmeaning,
VOL. Ill'
eitherin—no doubt unconsciously—helped, more though it move but a hair's-breadththan
s. B.way for w.any other, to prepare the this great direction.
1741inchange was Thomas Ford, whose lovely can- MADEIGAL SOCIETY. Founded
' ' Academyzonets, Since iirst I saw your face,' and There by John Immyns, member of thea
theenjoysSocietyis a Ladie sweete and kind,' hold a position Ancient Music, the Madrigal
associa-musicalas nearly as possible midway between the distinction of being the oldest
heldwereGlee, breathing all the spirit tion meetingsMadrigal and the in Europe. Its first
whence itprogressions Bride Lane,of the one, while introducing only at the Twelve Bells in
Whitefriars,permissible in the other. It is,,however, worthy removed and Crown,to theAnchor
minute-book in theof remark—though the fact seems, hitherto, asto proved by the earliest
theIn 1745have escaped notice—that intervals, forbidden Society's library, dated 1744.
Arms, Loth-by the strictlawsofCounterpoint, were tolerated Society removed to the Founders'
limiting thein England at an earlier period than adoptedon the bury, where rules were
admis-continent. Wilbye sixteen, with anused the diminished triad number ofmembers to
of 3s. perwitha boldness whichwould havemadeAnerio's sion fee a subscriptionof 8s. and
to thehair stand on end. Such licenses as these returned for a timeonce quarter. Having
Societyhome, thepermitted, the substitution ofmodem tonalities Twelve Bells, ite original
Arms, New-for the EcclesiasticalModes followed as a matter afterwards Queen'smigratedJaJhe
wer^evised.of course—and this accomplished, the change whenthemlesgate Street, inl748,
from musical performancesthe Madrigal to the Glee was complete. One rule enacted "That all
after ten o'clock,[The art of madrigal-writing, in abeyance since shall cease at half an hour
cheerfullythe death of Pearsall, has revived in modern members shall beunless some of the
case theytimes ; the collection printed in catehes, in whichcelebration incited to sing
and no longer."of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, nnder shall be indulged half an hour,
' such offencesthe title of Choral Songs in Honour of Her Numerous fines were imposed for
Majesty Queen Victoria' contains thir- as of books from the Society's(1899), the retention
teen examples by various English composers, member eating his supper, orlibrary ; and any
time wsis tomany of which are excellent specimens of the a part thereof, during practice
form.] forfeit sixpence, to be applied to buying ruled
Having traced the history of the Madrigal paper. performance on each night was toIThe
' an interval ofthus far, it remains only to say a few words as be divided into two acts,' with
madrigalsto the manner of its performance. half an hour, and in each act four
It is absolutely indispensable that it should were to be sung. Between 1750 and 1757
sung without any instrumental accompani- additional were adopted, by one ofwhichbe rules
serve asment whatever and, unlike the Glee (which is each member, to whose turn it came to;
always performed by solo voices), it is most President, was bound to present a score and
effective when entrusted to a moderately ftdl, parts of a madrigal ready for performance, or
'numerous chorus. Changes of tone, to extraordinary the platebut not too forfeit a penny to
embracing every shade of difference between every night until he did so. By another ruleff
and and introduced, sometimes by the any gentleman who had been educated in, orppp,
delicate possiblegradations, and sometimes themost at time belonged to, any cathedral or choir
in strongly marked contrast, will be continually was to be admitted to visit the Society at his
demanded, both by the character of the music pleasure and a similar privilege was accorded;
sense of the words and remembering any 'theand the ; to of gentlemen of the Academy of
insists 'varietie,'how earnestly Morley upon Ancient Music' Membership was confined to
the student will be prepared to learn that persons belonging to cathedral choirs, or those
'rUardandi and accelerandi will be scarcely less vouched for by two or more members of the
into requisition. Neverthe- Societyfrequently brought as being capable of singing their part
less, strict mechanical precision must be secured in concert both in time and in tune' ; and others
at any cost. The slightest uncertainty, either proposed for election were required, by way of
intonation or of rhythm, will suffice to ruin probation,of to sing between the acts their proper
everything and to draw the line fairlybetween parts in an ancient madrigal
; for three or four
intensity of expression and technical perfection voices, or some two-part song to be sung with
alwaysan easy matter. There is, indeed, doubleis not voices. TheSocietyat this time(1749-50)
only one way of overcoming the difficulty. To met every Wednesday evening, and consisted
imagine Damon regulating his love-lorn ditty of twenty-one members, who subscribed 4s. 6d.
would be the tick of a metronome a quarter. According to Sir John Hawkins
The place of the metronome, therefore, must be (who was himself 'a. member) most of them
by a conductor capable of fully sympa- weresupplied mechanics, some weavers from Spitalfields,
Damon's woes or Daphne's othersthising either with of various trades and occupations, who
delights, but wholly incapable of showing were wellfond versed in the practice of Psalmody,
indulgence to his singers, who must and who,the least with a little pains and the help of
learn to obey the rise and fall of his baton, the ordinary manysolmisation, which of themMADRIGAL SOCIETY MADRIGAL SOCIETY 19
were very expert in, became soon able to sing Chapel Royal and amanuensis to Dr. Pepusch ;
almost at sight a part in an English or even Dr. John Worgan, organist and composer ; Sir
an Italian madrigal. They also sang catches, John Hawkins, the musical historian (elected
rounds, and canons, though not elegantly, yet Rev.1752) ; C. Torriano and Jonathan
Battiswith a degree of correctness that did justice to hill, thecomposer (elected E.1757); T. Warren,
the hai-mony and, to vary the entertainment,; editor of the Glee Collection Dr. Ame(1762) ;
Immyns would sometimes read, by way of and his son Michael, and Luffman Atterbury,
lecture, a chapter from Zarlino, translated by composer of the glee 'Come, let us all a-Maying
himself. They were men not less distinguished go' (1765); Theodore Aylward, one of the
by their love of vocal harmony than by the assistant directors at the Handel
Commemoraharmless simplicity of their tempers and by tion of 1784 (1769) ; Joah Bates, the conductor
their friendly disposition towards each other.' of the Handel Commemoration (1774) ; Dr. B.
At times they took country excursions, and the Cooke, organist of Westminster Abbey (1778) ;
minutes record that on Whit-Monday, 1751, JamesBartleman (1793); J. P. Street, Librarian
'the party proceeded up the river, breakfasting and many years Father of the Society
; R. J. S.
at"Wandsor(Wandsworth), diningatBichmond, Stevens, theGresham Professor, andW. Horsley,
besides stopping towhet their whistles at Mort- the glee -writer (1798); Reg. Spofi'orth, the
lack (Mortlake).' In 1764 Mr. Immyns died. glee-writer, and Robert Cooke, master of the
In l768 the subscription was raised to 8s. a Westminsterchoristers(1802) ; W. Beale(1805)';
quarter, the number of members being about Dr. Callcott W. Hawes(1806); and W. Linley
thirty, and it was agreed to hold an entertain- G.E.(1809); Williams, organist ofWestminster
ment for their friends once at least every year. Abbey (1814); Sir J. L. Rogers, Bart., and
In 1769 the Society removed to the Feathers T. Greatorex, organist of Westminster Abbey
Tavern, Cheapside
; in 1775 to the King's Arms, J. T. Cooper(1819) ; (1825) ; Jonathan Nield,
Cornhill in; 1778 they were at the Half Moon, Rev. W. J. Hall P. J. Salomons,(1828) ;
Cheapside, and the London Tavern
; in April ; Vincent Novelloand Thomas Oliphant,(1829)
1792, at the King's Head in the Poultry ; in afterwards secretary (1830) ; J. W. Hobbs, J.
May at1792, the Globe, Fleet Street ; and in Calkin (1831) ; 6. Cooper, deputy organist of
1795 removed to the Crown and Anchor, when St. Paul's, James Turle, organist ofWestminster
the charge for supper, 'on account of the Abbey(1832). Upto 1820 themembers presided
advance in wine,' was raised to 2s. 6d. for in rotation, but in that year it was resolved to
mSiibers, 4s. for visitors, and Ss. for professors. appoint Sir J. L. Rogers as permanent president.
Festival dinners were held in 1798, 1802, 1803, The office has since been filled by Lord Saltoun,
and and1809, were continued at intervals, and 1842-53; Sir George Clerk, Bt., 1853-66;
in 1876 ladies dined at the festival for the first Prince Dhuleep Singh, 1867-71
; Thomas
Olitime. In 1814 the subscription was raised to phant, 1871-73
; Hon. and Rev. H. Legge,
£3, and in 1816 the charge for supper, includ- 1874-77. [The Earl Beauohamp was appointed
ing a pint of wine, was fixed at 6s. On Sept. in 1878, and succeeded in 1892 by the Duke
27, 1821, the supper meeting, after being held of Beaufort, on whose retirement in 1896 Mr.
for eightyyears, gave place to a monthly dinner, Otto Goldschmidtwasappointed. SirA. Sullivan
held, successively, at the Freemasons' Tavern, was president for the lastyear of his life,
1899Willis's Rooms, and the Holbom Restaurant 1900. Lord Alverstone succeeded him in 1901,
during the season, which lasted and was succeededthen from by Sir Frederick Bridge in
October to July, but nowndmbers six meetings, 1904. In Nov. 1905 Mr. J. Edward Street,
commencing in November. In 1811 was offered the Hon. Secretary (see below), was appointed
time a Librarians havefor the first prize of a silver cup, value President.] The been : J. P.
'ten guineas, for the best madrigal in not less Street, 1792-1848; John Bishop, 1849-70;
than four nor more than six parts, the upper 0. D. Budd, 1871-78 J. C. Meek', 1879-88,
part or parts be for one or two treble voices. E. Ernest Cooper, 1888. The conductors orto
The character of the composition to be after musical directors permanently appointed since
themanner of the madrigals by Bennet, Wilbye, W. Hawes, 1809-46, have been : James Turle,
Ward, Marenzio, and 1846-49 James King, 1849-54 Cipriani Potter,Morley, Weelkes, others, ; ;
Goldschmidt,and each part to contain a certain melody either 1855-70; Otto 1871-77; Sir
in figure or imitation ; therefore, a melody John Stainer, 1878-87 Sir J. F. Bridge, 1887;
harmonised inadmissible.' W. Scale's to the present time. Dr. John HuUah, Sirwill be
'Awake, sweet muse,' and W. Hawes's 'Philo- J. F. Bridge, and Mr. Eaton Faning, were
mela' were selected for a final ballot from assistant conductors since 1878. Under the
present rules the Society consists of fortyfourteen compositions sent in, which included
'S. Wesley's sing unto my roundelay,' and members, elected by ballot, the subscription
W. me, quoth Venus.' The (including dinner fees) being five guineas, andLinley's 'Ah
The earlier members for professional members three guineas, o. M.prize was given to Beale.
profession [From 1881 two prizes,included Immyns, the founder, by Mr. T. Molineux's of
an attorney, afterwards appointed lutenist to the £10 and the Society's of £6, were awarded;
hkwithannually until 1889, and departed to Munichtriennially from matters, Maelzel
and1891. Mr. Kellow the Battle-piece,J. Pye was treasurer until includingFanharmonicon,
whichscore ofthe same,1893, being succeeded by Mr. Chas. orchestralT. D. alsowitha full
concurrenceCrews, who still holds Beethoven'sthe office. The office hehad obtained without
Beet-of hon. sec, performed at Munich.held from July 1871 by Mr. J. and caused to be
him inaction againstEdward Street, is now filled entered anby his son, Mr. hoven on this
ofmemorandumOscar W. Street.] and it is histhe Vienna courts,
prepared for hisaction, asMAELZEL, JoHANN Nepomuk, bom Aug. the grounds of the
his 'de-entitled15, 1772, at Batisbon, son of an organ-builder. which is usuallyadvocate,
3a statementIn 1792 he settled further addressedin Vienna, and devoted him- position.'2 He
them notentreatingself to teaching music, and to constructing an to the musicians of Loudon,
The actionMaelzel.automatoninstrumeutof flutes,trumpets,drums, or supportto countenance
appeardoes notcymbals, Maelzeltriangle, and strings stru(& by ham- came to nothing, and
stopped atmers, London. Hewhich played music by Haydn, Mozart, to have gone to
DutchWinkel, aand Gresoentini, and was sold for 3000 florins. and theregot fromAmsterdam,
a new form ofHis next machine was the Fanharmonicon, idea of employinglike mechanic, the
perfectedthe He soonformer, butwith clarinets, violins,andviolon- pendulum as a metronome.
and inpatent for it,cellos added. It was worked by weights acting the instrument, obtained a
established as aoncylinders,andwasexhibited inYiennain1804. him in Paris1816 we find
the styleMaelzel then metronome, underbought Kempelen's Chessplayer manufacturer ofthis
as hisclaimed itand took it with the Fanharmonicon to Paris. of <Malzl et Cie.' "Winkel
confirmed, afterThe Chessplayer he afterwards sold to Eugene invention, and the claim was
of Sciences.Beauharnais. DutchAcademyHe next constructed aTrumpeter, examination, by the
Kempelen's Chessplayerwhich played the Austrian and French cavalry A wish to repurchase
took him back tomarches and signals, with marches and allegros and to push his Metronome
goodWeigl, Pleyel. 1808 was Vienna in 1817. Beethoven'sby Dussek, and In he Munich and
oneconsequence than anyappointed court mechanician, and about that word was of more
cleverness, Beet-time made some ear trumpets, one of which else's, and knowing Maelzel's
companion,andtheBeethoven used for years. In 1812 he opened hoven'samenabilitytoagood
attractions of performance on which the lawsuitthe 'Art Cabinet,' among the fact that the
taken place out of Austria,which were the Trumpeter and a new and en- was grounded having
surprise uslarged Fanharmonicon ; and soon afterwards the action could not lie, it need not
made public a musical chronometer, an improve- to find that the suit was given up, and the costs
this Maelzel travelledment of a machine by Stbckel, for which he divided equally. After
whereobtained certificates from Beethoven and other much, andevenreached theUnited States,
leadingmusicians. Maelzeland Beethovenwere he passed the rest of his life, except a voyage or
They had exhibiting the Chess-at this time on very friendly terms. two to the West Indies,
Moscow, and hisarranged to visit London together, and Maelzel player, the Conflagration of
had meantime aided the great master in his other curious inventions.* He was found dead
impecuniosity by urging on him a loan of 50 berth on board the American brig Otis,in his
ducats in gold. In order to add to the July 21, 1838. Maelzel was evidently a sharp,
attractions of the Fanharmonicon, which they shrewd, clever man of business, with a strong
proposed to take with them, Maelzel conceived others for his ownpropensity to use the ideas of
in detail the design^ of a piece toand sketched beneiit.
commemorate the battle of Vittoria (June 21, For the details of his Metronome see the
which Beethoven composed for the articleunder thathead. was entirely different1813), It
'While it was being arranged oninstrument. from the Stockel-Malzel Chronometer,' and it
the barrel, llaelzel further induced him to score was upon the latter and not upon the
Metroit for the orchestra, with the view to obtain which isnome, that Beethoven wrote the catch
journey and it was accordinglyfunds for the ; connected with the Allegretto of his Symphony
scored, and performed at a concert on Dec. 8, No. 8. A. w. T.
the programme of which consisted of the1813, MANNERGESANGVEREIN, an association
No. the marches of Dussek andSymphony 7 ; ofmen formed for the cultivation of singing in
Pleyel, by the automaton, and the Battle-piece. Theyfour parts—two tenors and two basses.
The concert was repeated on the 12th, and the sprang from the Liedertafeln, and the most
imoftwo yielded a net profit over 4000 florins. At portant were founded by Dr. A. Schmid, in
this point Beethoven took offence at Maelzel's Franz Weber in Cologne,Vienna (1845), andby
having announced the Battle-piece as his The latter visited Englandin the springof1860.
property, broke completely with him, rejected and sang before the Queen at Windsor. The
the Trumpeter and his marches, andheld a third Union also gave a setCologne Choral of ten
concert (Jan. 1814) for his own sole benefit.2,
" 465.Sdilndlor. Thayop, ill.
After several weeks of endeavour to arrange 9 Thayer, Itl. 467.
4 Prot AUen. of Philadelphia. U.S.A., In the BookSee O. o< the
1 Uoachelea, noteto his Schindl^r, firat American Cheaa GODgresfl.1. 1E4.' :
oonoerts in St. James's Hall taking his place. His duties consist ofin June 1883. sionally
(See LlEDERTAEEL.) F. G. superintending the rehearsals of the music, and
'MASSI6. Inmoderate time ' theGerman accompanying at them. This post was held by
equivalentofModerato, usedmuchbySchumann, Handel at Hamburg, when he was quite young
as in the sixth of the fugues ou the name Bach, [see Handel, vol. ii. and afterwardsp. 280],
'and constantly throughout the Album. byIm Mattheson. M.
massigen Tempo,' occurs in the fourth figure of MA6ADA, or MAGAS (Greek), the
semi'op. 72, Sehr massig ' in the Lager-scene, No. 3 circular wooden bridge fixed at one or both ends
of op. 76. He uses 'Massig durchaus energisch' of the monochord. The name was also applied
'as the translation of Moderato con energia ' in to the movable bridge inserted below the string
the second movement of the Fantasia in C, op. of the monochord to mark the harmonic
inter17. M. vals (Boethius, iv. and generally to the18),
'MAESTOSO. Withmajesty,
' or in a digni- bridge in stringed instruments (PMlostratus,
fied way. It isused either alone, as a direction 778). [See Monoohoed.] j. f. b. s.
of time, ia which case it indicates a pace rather MAGADIS, an ancient Greek instrument,
slower than andante, or, combined with other our knowledge of which is almost wholly
deindications oftempo, as aguide to the expression. rived from a passage in the fourteenth book of
Beethoven uses it frequently in both these ways. Athenaeus, in which the scattered references
It occurs alone in (ie Pianoforte Sonata, op. to it in Greek literature are brought together.
Ill, first movemant, in the Namensfeier over- Athenaeus died in a.d. 194. The instrument
ture, op. 115, Quartet in Eb, op. 127, etc.; also had then long been obsolete, and the doubts
in Pizarro'ssongatthe end ofAct I. of ' Fidelio,' which existed as to its exact form and structure
'Auf euch, auf euch, nur will ich bauen. ' In are no nearer solution at the present day. From
' the conflictingthe final chorus of that opera, Wer ein holdes statements of the authorities
Weib errungen,' the direction originally stood quoted, some of whom identify it with the
Maestoso vivace, but was afterwards changed to Pectis, others with the Sambuca and others
Allegroma non troppo. The first movement of again with the Psaltery, it would seem that the
the OhoralSymphony is marked Allegroma non magadis was an instrument of the diilcimer
troppo, un poco maestoso the passage in the type, provided with a bridge (magas) or bridges
'last movement to the words Seid umschlungen so placed that octaves could be played on
Millionen ' maestoso and adjoining strings. It was introduced from theis Andante ; the four
3-4bars of time immediately before the final East through the Lydians, and was in use in
Prestissimo are marked Maestoso simply. Men- Greece as early as the 6th century B.C., when
uses Allegro maestoso frequently, as Anacreon speaks of playing on a magadis ofdelssohn in
' ' comforteth,'and ' twenty strings. According to Aristoxenus itElijah ' Iam he that Benot
'afraid,' and in St. Paul ' very often. He uses was played without a plectrum. The
character'Moderato maestoso in Then did Elijah the istic of the instrument was the production of
brio occurs as the sounds in octaves, and consequentlywe find theprophet.' Maestoso con
equi' name a species of doublevalent of the German Rauschendund festlich also applied to flute,
in Schumann's Novelette, No. 5. M. also said to be of Lydian origin, on which
word octaves could be played, and a verb magadizeinMAESTRO, master. This is almost
signifying to play in octaves on any instrumentexclusively appliSd to the great classical
composers, but occasionally it is used of the very (Pseudo-Aristotle, 18). j. F. K. s.
class ofexecutivemusicians,though even MAGGINI, Gig. Paolo, a celebrated Italianhighest
violin-maker, bom in Brescia in 1581 diedin this case it may be taken as implying an ;
in the same place about 1628. According toappreciation of their compositions rather than
is seldom applied information culled from the Brescian State Ar-of their,performances. It to
almost always chives, Maggini's family came originally fromteachers as such, but refers to
Botticino, a village in the neighbouring hills ofcomposers of note.
di cappella is the exact Italian equi- Brescia. His grandfather,Bartolommeode Mag-Maestro
Capellmeister, or gini, lived and died at Botticino, but after hisvalent to the German term
his son Zovan or Giovanni, migrated withconductor. death
to Brescia, where Paolo, their(master of the boys) is an his wife Giulia,Maestro dei putti
as is second son, was born. The Brescian IncomeTaxoifice which was founded in 1538 (not,
papers for 1568 state that Gio. Paolo's eldersupposed, in the Papacy of Julius II.generally
shoemaker,butnomention ismadeand which was first brotherwasawhich was much earlier),
profession trade.are teach sing- of his father following any orheld by Arcadelt. Its duties to
In all probability he was a retired farmer withof St. Peter's, in Rome, anding to the boys
private means. Nothing isknownofGio. Paolo'ssuperintend the choir arrange-more or less to
'Choirmaster,' childhood, or what caused him to adopt the pro-ments. It thus represents our
fession of violin-making, but a legal document,vol. i. 101.][See Akcadblt, p.
signedbyhimin provestwothings clearlyan ofiBcer at the Opera, 1602,Maestro al cembalo is
that a person ofconductor, and occa- fii^t, that his signature is ofimportance to the Inext in22 MAGQINI MAGGINl
Ime.scanty education, and, the singlesecondly, that at the age bearingare some violins of his
exist.of twenty-one known tohe wasworking in Brescia viola areas an Three of these, and one
paintedorapprentice under Gasparo purfledda Sal6. On Jan. vioUns bear a20, Many of his
as hishe back, but1615, married Maddalena Anna, daughter of upon theconventional design
per-Messer andFaust Forrestio, after originalityand his marriagehe violin model advanced in
customaryand his wife settled thein a house in the Contrada gradually discardedfection, so he
viol-makers,del Palazzo ancientVeoohio del Podesta. In this home, theornamentationso dearto
practicethiswith the assistance of his apprentice, thatJaoopo de probably having discovered
his instru-Lanfranohini, Maggini tone ofhuiltup a very successful muflie theonly served to
and are.size,business in the manufacture of citharas, violon- large inments. His violins are
model is quitecellos, violas, and violins. In 1626 he Theprospered made of the best materials.
Amatistill to themore, and acquired a second house and shop no resemblanceoriginal, and bears
instruments isin the Contrada delle Bombasaire, whither he on his bestpattern the varnish
cut, theremoved with his wife and are clearlyfamily. He also orange-yellow, thejjf holes
ofpurchased to thoseproperty in the hills and plains contradistinctionlower circles, in
than thesurroundingBrescia,and a residential farm-house smallerStradivarius, being always
Theand land, which abutted upon the grandfather's to Maggini.upper ones, a feature peculiar
otherthat ofold home nearthe village of Bottioino. The date shorter thanscroll is well cut, but
be vriderof his death is conjectural. After 1626 the reason appears tomakers, and for this
close toBrescian IncomeTax papers cease are placedtomention his than it really is. The labels
are in blackname, and in 1632 he was undoubtedly dead, the centre of his instruments ; they
master daas, in a schedule presented in that year by his those of hisroman type, and, like
'son uses FiUusCarlo, he the formula quondam Sal6, are undated,.
the result ofJohannis Pauli.' Although documentary evi- Maggini was not a prolific maker,
instru-dence proves that Maggini's wife died on represented by extanthis life's work, as
Nov. and was buried in the church violins and under24, 1651, ments, numbering about fifty
For thisof St. Agatha, all research for the certificate two dozen tenors and violoncellos.
work areof her husband's death and burial has been in authentic specimens of hisreason
only reasonable inference is that as fiddles have been invain. The scarce. Some of his finest
ravaged excess- Vieuxtemps, andthe town of Brescia was by an thehands ofOle Bull, Ltenard,
oneively severe plague in 1632, Maggini was one of who possessed two fine examples,de B6riot,
victims, and being taken to one of the 'pest- up in an old curiosity shopits of which he picked
' for the sick, at the instrument nowhouses which were organised in Paris for 15 francs. This
public expense, died away from home, without belongs to the Prince Caraman de Chimay, and
note of his death or burial being made. high value. An excellentany is considered of
name is associatedwith theAs a maker, Maggini's summary of Maggini's contributions to
theconstructionmany progressiveinnovations in development of violins, violas, and violoncellos
violin, and especially in the method of Huggins's Gio. Paolo Maggmi,of the is given in Lady
wood. In his earliest work thesecutting the published by the firm of Hill & Sons.
as he was stillalterations are not discernible, No authentic pupils of Maggini have come to
whoseunder the influence of Gasparo da Sal6, light. None of his seven children followed their
of modelling, rough workmanship,inaccuracy father's profession ; his onlysurviving son, Carlo
varnish he at first copied. Butand dark brown Francesco, became a silk merchant, but the
of hiswhen he once cast aside the methods Maggini influence can clearly tracedbe both in
master, and of the old school of viol 'veteran the Guarnerius and the Long Strad ' models.
created an era in the history ofmakers, Maggini In modem times few makers have been more
immortal-,violin-making, which has deservedly copied, both honestly and dishonestly. Fine
makersname. He was among the first wereised his copies made by Bernard Simon Fendt and
then customary method ofwho discarded the Remy (two French makers who settled in
Lonused for the bellies ofthe soft pine-wood don); by Darches, andcutting N. F. Vuillaume in
what is termed 'slab fashion,' i.e.violins in Belgium ; byGaud (p^re), Bemadel, Chanot,and
upward growth of the tree, andparallel with the VuiUaume in Paris, and at Mirecourt, where it
using the woodadopted the practice of oneinstead, is of the favourite models.
about byway of the grain, broughtthe straight _ _ _ -Oio. PfKlo Maggini, hit Life and Wvrk, compiled
ftnd edited from material collected and contributed by Wllliiunout of the tree from thecutting it wedge-ways Ebaworth mil and bis aons, William, Arthur, and Alfred Hill, by
Margaret L. Huggins (London, 1892), Th« YioUn(see Violin-making). and ita Fammi*inwards to the corebark Malvm and Imitaton, by Oeorge Hart (London, 1876). History Gf
if not quite the earliest maker th* FfoKn, by William Sandysand Simon Andrev FoiaterHe was almost, (London,
1864). Old TifAintand fhetr ifakart, James M. Fleming (London,
and linings such as areuse corner blocks 1883). la LtaherieatUilMihien,to A.. Vld&HraxiB, ISSS). LeViolon,
A. Boyer (Paris, 1888). Hagini [Jean Paul), Biog. Fnio. delhis thick-and he modulatednow employed, Muatetent, F. J. Fdtls. ZtuthomonagrajAia Bistorique et Raimnnie,
Le PrinceN. Yousonpoff (Paris,far more intention and accuracy ISM). / lAMaiamicM emodtml,nesses with
G. de Plcolellis (Florence, 1885). / mfei violini. M. Villa
(SayiMaggini's purfling gnano, 1888). Diof his predecessors. Sitmmni Paolo Maggini celebroLhaaio Bretciano,thanany
D. Angelo Berenzi (Breaoia, 1890). La Patria di Oiovanni Paoloareexecuted. His instrumentsis beautifully Maggini. D. Angelo Berensi (Cremona, 1891). 2He riolineundihn
Meittor, Ton J. V. WsaielewBlcl Leipsig, 188S).or double purfled,but thereornamentally E H A.mostly; —
MAGGIORE. This word, the Italian
equivalent of our 'major,' is used as a
supplementary guide in passages of music where a
change is made from the minor to the major
mode, generally to the tonic, not the relative
major, since in that change a careless reader
' Use ' which haslong been traditional in French
might disregard the correction of the minor
Such achange as that from Csignature.
Sometimes the Plain-song was contrasted
when the three naturalsto C major, even
with an original Faux Bourdon, written in the
are used to annul the previous three flats,
required Mode, but not, like the formerexample,
might conceivably be overlooked,were it not for
on the actual melody of the psalm-tone. Dr.
' externalthe warning maggiore.' But such
Bumey, during his visit to Rome, met with an
aids to the readingofmusic are of rather
doubtexceedingly collection of Fauxinteresting MS.
utility. M.ful
Bourdons of this description, by some of the
greatest masters of the 16th centuiy. From
MAGNARD, Lucien Denis Gabriel
Alhis autograph transcription of this volume
in Paris, June was edu-bIirio, bom 9, 1865,
now preserved under the name of Studij di
cated at the Lycee Condorcet for a legal career.
PaZestrina, in the Library ofthe BritishMuseum
After passing the grade of 'licenci^,' he dis- —we extract the following beautiful example
covered that his musical faculty was too strong
by Giovanni Maria Nanini.'
to be resisted, and entered the Conservatoire,
Ton. IV.under Dubois and Massenet, gaining the first
prize for harmony in 1888. On leaving the
he pursued his studies withConservatoire
Vincent d'Indy, and has since become one of
the most remarkable of modem French
comboldness andposers, distinguished for his
sincerity. He has written the following for
orchestra: three symphonies, opp. 4, 6, 11;
' fimebre,'a suite in ancient style, op. 2 ; a chant
op. 9; an overture, op. 10; 'Hymne k la
Justice,' op. 'Hymne k V^nus,' op. 17.14;
Among his works for chamber music are a
quintet for piano and wind, op. 8 ; a violin
sonata, op. 13 a string quartet, op. 16 and a; ;
piano 18. His dramatictrio for and strings, op.
Tliese two methods of singing Magnificat ate
' Brussels,works are : Yolande, ' op. 5, one-act,
so wonderfully effective that it is difficult to
1892; 'Guercoeur,' op. 12, in three acts, not
choose between them and, happily, are; theyyet given. The libretti of both are by the
both easyso that no choir need fear to attempt
composer himself. G. F.
them. But the development of the idea did
'MAGNIFICAT. The Song of the Blessed
not rest here. It is scarcely possible to name
Virgin Mary' has used as the Vesperbeen
any great church composer who has not
illusCanticle of the Church from time immemorial
trated the text of the canticle with original
and the Evening Office has always been so
conmusic over and over again. Palestrina
pubchief point ofstructed as to lead up to it as its
lished a volume, in 1591, containing two
tings in each of the first eight Modes, and has
In Plain-song services it is sung to the same
left nearly as manymore in MS. His favourite
different form,Tones as the Psalms, but to a
plan was to treat the alternate verses, only, in
with more elaborate intonations and mediations
complex imitation and closely-interwoven fngal
(see Psaxmodt).
points, leaving sometimes the even and
somecustomAfter the invention of Discant a
times the odd verses to be sung in unisonous
arose of singing Magnificat in alternate verses
Plain-song, in the manner already described.
Sometimesof Plain-song and Faux Bourdon.
following extract from one ofThe the finestharmonisedthe Fartx Bourdon was simply a
compositions in the series will serve to
exempaalm-tone, with the melody in the tenor, as
plify his usual mode of treatment.
very beautifidin the following example of a
1 wjU that Ifsnlni bu ended hie Cbant with theIt be Been
Magnificat, Frimi TonL harmony of the Dominant, instead of that proper to the Final of
the Hode. A simitar pecnllarity is otwerrable inmany otherFaux
BmxrdoTUadapted by the oldmasters toalternateverses of Canticles
reason of this is self-evident. One or other ofand Psalms. The
the subsidiary cadences of the Mode is employed, in order that its
true Final <^ence may be reserred for the conclnslon of the
Antiphon vhich is to follov. The Bistine Miaerere may be cited
which proves withaa the exception the mle. It Qnds the proper
Cadence, because, in the office of Tenebrae, it la alTraya sungFinal
vitbont anAntiphon [see AHTIPHOV].'
' Servicesare to be found in the 'Oetavi Schools,Magnificat, ' Toni.
Batten,Bevin,Farrant, Tomkins,Tallis, Byrd,
com-isGibbons. Their numberOrlandoand
feared thatit is to berrT'r'f small ; butparatively
rrrrA - - nl • rname - a, etc. Eliza-compositions of themany invaluableA ni -ma me - a, eto.
to us, through thebeen lostera havebethanAA.A during theCathedral libraries,ofspoliation
the styleRestorationAfter thecivil wars.
notwithstanding theand,deteriorated ;rapidly
especiallycomposers—few talentedeflbrts of a
who conscientiously fol-Croft—Creyghton and
school, it sank,the earlierprecepts oflowed the
even the platitudes ofso low thateventually,
represent its latestfail toand JacksonKent
number ofHappily theof degradation.stages
is quite sufficientThis method was also adopted by Francesco still remainingfine examples
are now pub-many purposes, and allSuriano, Orlando di Lasso, and other for all practical
forms.easily accessiblewriters but Felice Anerio, Luca Marenzio, in cheap and
; lished
"also been grandlyGiovanni Gabrieli, and some of the most noted text of Magnificat hasThe
and otherBach, Mendelssohn,of theii- contemporaries, treated the canticle illustrated by
school in the Oratorioin polyphony throughout, frequently disposing composers of the modern
accompaniments. Fortheir voices in two or more antiphonal choirs. with full orchestralstyle,
history of apreserved rfespeoting theA fine example of this later style ia some particulars
description, which has givenin Gabrieli's eight-part Magnificat in the First of thisMagnificat
than ordinary in-Mode. discussions of morerise to
Handel(vol.Erba (vol. i.Mcignificat, Primi Toni. terest, see p. 787) ;
Primus,Chorus in Egypt (vol. ii.ii. ; and Israelp. 286)
w. s. R.
p. 514).
Mr. (now Sir) Alfred ScottIn 1885 and 1886
chorusesGatty collected a small choir to sing
and glees at the concerts which the then
(now Helen Countess ofViscountess Folkestone
Radnor) was giving for charitable purposes.
These practices proved so popular that in
society was founded underNovember 1886 a
the name of 'The Magpie Minstrels,' its object—
being, to quote the Society's minutes ' to
Concerts for charitable purposes, the naturegive
of which shall be left to the discretion and
selection of the Committee.'
Lionel Benson was andMr. then still is
conductor, and the numbers which in the first
instance were limited to rose by rapid80,
degrees to nearly 200. In 1889 H.R.H.
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (then
Marchioness ofLome) honoured the Society by
becoming its President, attending the practices,
and taking part in the Concerts. In 1889 the
first Invitation Concert was given, and since
then one Charity and one Invitation
Concert have been given annually. Upwards
of £3500 has been handed over to various
Charitable Institutions. At first 'The
Mag'. De^pos-u - itsu , i -di's pies' were associated at their concerts With
'fathers ofEnglishCathedralMusic treated The WanderingThe Minstrels' Amateur Orchestral
their own^in a. manner peculiarly .Society' also conductedMagnificat by Mr. Lionel Benson.
richly har-in design, pure, solemn, and The name of the 'clear society was altered from The
in no wise from theirmonious, but . differing Magpie Miiistrels' to 'The Magpie Madrigal
canticles, and demand-rendering of the other Society' in 1896. In order to encourage good
pace than the rest. The finest of vocal part- 'ing no slower writing a cappella '. the society hag,
well bear comparison with fromthese, which i^ay time to time, given prizes for competition
Italianof the great Flemish and among the students Royalthe works of the College of; — —
as the privilegedMusic, and Boyal Academy, with, on the whole, and the Gipsies, musicians of
satisfactory results, and the prize works have the country, are in the main to be regarded as
always been performed Invitation Con- the joint originators of the national style."at the
certs. Many The union of these two latter racesof the best known Madrigals have resulted
been included in the programmes, but a special inthecombinationoftheirmusicalcharacteristics.
feature has been the introduction, for the first That of the Magyar music is the peculiarity of
time, ofmany fine works of all schools, hitherto its rhythms, and that ofthe Gipsy music is the
inunknown this country, which have probably presence of turns, embellishments, and
'grace'restedin oblivion, as far as England isconcerned, notes added to and built upon the melody, and
since the 16th and 17th centuries, the period in eventually becoming a most important feature
which they were written. Most of them have in it. [See an essay by Carl Engel, on The
been unearthed and edited specially for the use Music the Gipsies in the Musical Times forof
ofthe choirby its conductor. Amongthemmay 219,1880, pp. 274, 332, 389.]
numerousMadrigals, Motets,bementioned Chan- This latter peculiarity, together withthe scale
sons, Villanelle, etc , by Orlando di Lasso, J. P. which is characteristic of the music of Hungary
Sweelinok, Josquin des Pr^, Claude Lejeune, in common with many other nations of Eastern
Francis Kegnart, Orazio Veoehi, Luca Marenzio, Europe—a scale with two superfluous seconds,
Quintiani, Vittoria, Arcadelt, Verdelot, Wil- or the harmonicminor with a sharp fourth
laert, Clemens, Claudin, Certon, Franck,
Hassler, Jannequin, Ciprian de Bore, CrequiUon,
Goudimel, Giovanelli, Gamier, Hesdin,
Costeseem to indicate an Asiatic origin. (The or-ley, Tessier ;—nearly all of which were sung
dinary European scales are also in use.) Thesewith the original French, Gennan, Italian, and
two chiefcharacteristics examined order.willbe inLatin words to which they were written.
I. Therhythms, ofMagyar origin.—The greatAmong modem composers prominence has been
distinctive feature ofthe bar-rhythms is syncopci-given to the unaccompanied choral works of
tion, generally consisting of the accentuation ofBrahms, very nearly aU of which have been
2-4the second quaver in the bar of time (theperformed by the society at one time oranother
rhythmknown asaliazoppa, ' in alimping way'),and some of the unaccompanied choral works
butsometimes extendingover larger spaces, as inof Peter Cornelius were introduced to the
EngNo. 2 ofthe 'Ungarisohe Tanze' ofBrahms, bars
lish public for the first time by this choir.
1-2, 5-6, etc., where the syncopation extendsMany compositions of great merit have been
over two bars. Even where themelody is with-specially written for the society by Sir Hubert
out syncopation, the accompaniment almostParry (who was elected Presidentof the Society
alwayshas it. . The phrase-rhythms are not con-in Sir Charles Stanford, Dr. 0. H. Lloyd,1906),
fined to strains of 4 and 8 bars, but phrases ofDr. Alan Gray, Mr. Henschel, Mr. R.
Vaughan3, 6, 6, 7, and 8 tars are not unfrequently to beWilliams, Dr. Eaton Faning, Miss Maude
met with. As examples of 3- and 6-barrhythmsWhite, Dr. Arthur Somervell, and Mr. J.
may be cited the third and first of Brahms'ss. H. w.Blumenth^.
' Ungarische Tanze, ' and of 7-bar rhythm, theMAGYAR (Hungarian) MUSIC. The most
:first part of the following melodyimportant part ofthe national music ofHungary
the Magyaris so called because it proceeds from
'portion ofthe inhabitants. The
so-calledHungarian style of music,' says the writer of two
Monthly «vKn«.excellent articles on this subject in the „
Musical Secord for February and March 1877,
' be recognised, cannotby anyas it has come to
maymostmeans be regarded as indigenous, but
properly be briefly defined as the product of a
of several rsioes. More than one-commixtore
fourth" ofthe population ofHungaryproper (i.e.
Transleithan Hungary, as it has come to be
Austrian empirecalled since its union with the
ofin 1869) consists of Magyars, the descendants
the Scythians of the Tartar-Mongolianancient
from the Uralstock, who, after wandering
mountains to the Caspian Sea, and thence to
themselves in Hungary in theKiev, established
population9th century. The remainder of the
is up of Slavs, Germans, Wallachians,made
mixed population,Jews, and Gipsies. Of this
of the soil,the Magyars, as the dominant lords
1 like one half than » quarter.The proportion appears to be more— — ' — ''
In the minor'Lassd' the actual the Avalue of the note3 Symphony (No. for instance,9)
major,depends far more upon in Cthe accentuation of the quartet, and the Fantasiastring
words sung, and char-than is the case in feelingthe quicker op, 15, are full of Hungarian
of themovements. A very beautiful peculiaritiesrhythm of seven acter, while almost all the
splendidin a bar (written, thefor greater clearness, as a are present inbar Hungarian style
of 3-4 'followed by a bar of hongroise ' (op. 54).common time) Divertissement h, la
' to twooccurs in the belongingHungarian Song ' on which In the work of three men,
Brahms has characteristicswritten variations, op. No. 2. very different schools, Hungarian21,
used. ItII. Theturnsand embellishments most skilfullyaddedtothe are most commonly and
Brahms,melody, of Gipsy, of Liszt,and hence Oriental, origin. is enough to cite the names
This mind of everypeculiarity has been observed by travellers bring to theand Joachim, to
Himga-in India, who say that in the performance each of them ofof reader the usemade by
onlythe natives ' may think itany embellishments and fioriture rian forms and themes. We
these should,are permitted to be introduced at the will of naturalthat the firstand the lastof
natural lovethe performer, provided only have athat the time of being natives of Hungary,
'Legendthe melody intheremains intact. The following is a for theirnationalmusic, aswe see
' Hungaria,list of the most characteristic turns and grace- ofSt. Elizabeth, 'thesymphonicpoem '
' Liszt,notes used in Hungarian music, Hongroises,' bygiven by the the fourteen 'Rhapsodies
: ofwriter above mentioned violin concertoand the noble Hungarian
instance of theJoachim, which is a splendid
with thenational characteristicscombination of
Brahms, however,classical forms. Inthe case of
which thethere is no national prejudice to
Hungarian element might bepartiality for the
forwhich are nothing more than transcriptions
performance of the Hun-the piano of the wild
best authoritiesgarian bands (according to the
onthissubject),butalsointheSextets for strings,
minor quartet for pianoforte andthe G
the pianoforte variations, etc.
The following are some of themostimportantthe double cadenceand
Magyar compositions.
Dances.—The Csardas (the name derived
from Csarda, an inn on the Puszta (plain), where
this dance was first performed). It was
introduced into Hungaryfrom Bohemia by Csermak,
and was very quickly adopted as a national
dance. Every Csardas consists of two
movements,—a 'Lass<i,' or slow movement, andante
But the importance of Hungarian music lies maestoso, and a 'Friss,' or 'quickstep,' allegro
beauty or interest, vivace. These two alternatenot so much in its intrinsic at the will of the
classical signas in the use made of it by the great dancers, a being ^ven to the musicians
masters, and the influence which it exercises on when a change is wished.
'works. The first composer of note who The Kbr-tancz, ' or Society-Dance,their of which
peculiarities Haydn.—embodies the Hungarian is a part consists of a Tdborzd, or Recruiting
The most obvious instance of course is the well- dance. A great number of these were arranged
'Hondo air Ongarese,' or 'Gipsy Rondo,' or composed by Lavotta.known
'in the Trio No. 1 in G major ; but besides this The KanAsz-tdncz,' or Swineherd's Dance, is
avowedlyHungarian compositionthere aremany danced by the lower classes only.
works whichshow that the years Operas.passages in his —Among national Magyar operas
conductor ofduring which he held the post of i.e. operas of which the libretti are founded on
Esterhazy's private (and almost entirely national historic events,Prince and the music is
charband, were not without their effect. acterisedHungarian) by Magyar rhythms, etc.—may be
ofInstances of this may be found in many the mentioned 'Hunyady Laszl6,' 'Bathori Maria,'
' Salomon symphonies ' (the Symphony in Bb, 'Bank Ban,"and 'Brankovios,' byFranz Erkel,
further, A Croatian Composer, and the 'No. etc. (see comic opera Ilka,' by9), Doppler. Besides
The composer theseW. H. Hadow, 1897). two composers,by the names of Mocsonyi,
the greatest use of Hungarian Csaszar, F4y,who has made and Bartha, may be given as
Schubert. Constantly through- examplescharacteristics is of operatic writers.
whichworks we come upon a peculiarity Songs.—Manyout his collections ofN^pdal, or
popuof its nationality. The major lar songs, haveat once tells us been published. The best col-MAHLERMAHILLON 27
lection is that of Gyula KaUy, containing songs too much occupied to attend to its direction.
of the first part of the 19th century the seven In 1876 he became the honorary curator
; of the
volumes of Bartalus, and the collection made museum of the Conservatoire, whicli, begun
the with Fetis'sin middle of the 18th century by Adam collection of 78 instruments, was,
Horvath, are of value. Panua Czinka's collec- through his special knowledge and untiring
tion of gipsy melodies may also be mentioned. energy, increased to upwards(1888) of 1500 !
One tune, 'Bepiilj Fecskem,' has been made An important contribution to it, of Indian
known Eemenyi's adaptation of instruments,widely by it has been a division of the fine
for the violin. collection of the Rajah Sir Sourindro Mohun
'The famous national tune, the Bakoczy Tagore, between the Brussels Conservatoire and
was, original form, lament theMarch,' in its a for Eoyal College ofMusic, London. M. Victor
the hero Rakoczy, played on the tarogat<5—an Mahillon has published two very important
instrument resembling a cor anglais—about the works, besides three synoptical tables of
harend of the 18th century. It was arranged as mony, voices and instruments. The first is Zes
a march early in the 19th century by SchoU, iUments d'Acoustique musicale et instrwnentale,
the conductor of a military band at Kagyvarad, an octavo volume published in which1874,
and was heard in this form by Berlioz, who gained for him at Paris in 1878 the distinction
introduced it into his 'Damnation de Faust,' of a silver medal. The other is the catalogue
with the result that it made a furore all over ofthe Conservatoire, which appeared in volumes
Emope. annually from 1877, and is of the highest
interest.The National Hymn of Hungary is called As well as these noteworthy works he
'Szozat,' or 'Appeal.' contributed to the ninth edition of the
EncycloMany of the best of the national songs of paedia Britannicaseveralhistorical and technical
widely articles great valueHungary havebecome popularinEngland of upon wind instruments,
since the publication of Mr. F. Korbay's admir- both wood and brass. As soon as M. Victor
able arrangement ofthem with English words. Mahillon could introduce a workshop into the
That the Magyars know how to value their Conservatoire he did so, and he had
reproown national musicmay be shown by the exist- ductions made ofmany rare instruments which,
ence at Budapest of a National Conservatorium, through their antiquity, or the neglect offormer
and of the Boyal Academy of Music, of jnhich owners, had become too much deteriorated for
Director there are two purposes of study. Among these reproductionsInszt was the first ;
Komannational theatres, one for opera and the other the Lituus and Buccina in the Music
for drama, besides the 'Nepszinhaz,' or People's Loan Collection at Kensington, in 1885, will
folk-song has borne be remembered as prominent objects of interestTheatre. The interest in
fine selection contributed under M.excellent fruit in Hungary, where phonographic in the
bytheBrussels Conservatoire.records have been made of many thousands of Mahillon'sauspices
in the National He has reproduced from authentic sources thetraditional tunes, and preserved
complete families of wind instruments thatwereMuseum at Budapest.
in in the 16th and 17th centuries.The chief musical periodical of Hungary is use
Mahillon's services to the Inven-and carried on by Pongrac M. Victorthe ZenevOdg, edited
Messrs. Arthur tions Exhibition of 1885, in the above-namedKacsoh. (Information from
contribution of instruments to the Loan Collec-Diosy, B^la Bartok, etc.) M.
the historical concerts under hisCharles, & Co., wind-instru- tion, andMAHILLON,
firm was founded at direction performed by professors and studentsment makers. This
of the Brussels Conservatoire, at which severalBrussels by C. Mahillon(bom 1813, died 1887),
were actually played upon in1836. Three of his sons entered the busi- rare instrumentsin
compositions, were so highlyJoseph, who conducts contemporaryness, Victor (see below),
appreciated by the Executive Council of thatthe Brussels business, and Femand, manager
Exhibition that a gold medal was awarded toLondon branch established in 1884, inof the
A. J. H.removed in 1887 to him.Leicester Square, and
atMAHLER, Gtjstav, born July 7, 1860,Oxford Street.
Kalischt in Bohemia, was educated at theVictoe, of the firm of wind-Mahillon,
at Iglau, at Prague, and at theabove mentioned, a writer Gymnasiuminstrument makers,
musical in- University of Vienna, where hewas also a pupilof importantworks on acoustics and
ofthe Conservatorium, from 1877. From 1880and the honorary and zealous custo-struments,
various theatres in differentBrusselsConservatoire, he conducted indianoftheMuseum ofthe
1841. After towns df Austria, and in 1883 was appointedwas bom in that city, March 10,
second capellmeister at Cassel, becoming firstunder some ofthe best professorsstudying music
Prague as Seidl's successor twohimself to the practical study capellmeister atthere, he applied
latter capacitywas taken years afterwards. It was in thewind-instrument manufacture, andof
that he became intimately acquainted with thefather's business in 1865. He startedinto his
classical masterpieces and with the advancedMusical in 1869, anda musical journal L'&ho
1886 he went tobecame modem compositions. Incontinued it until 1886, when his time''
andLeipzig as sacredcoadjutor to Nikisch, songs,in whose stead settingsa 4 and 5 ofGerman
he collections.conducted the opera Foster'sfor six months. In in Ehaw, andsecular, Ott,
Ambros1888 he well asundertook the direction Eitner asof the opera His secular songs,
describesat Pesth, formerand raised the Thestandard of the per- judges very favourably.
und sehnliohformances to a, Leidhigh level. In 1891 he was a 'Ach hilf michsetting of
andappointed first in techniquecapellmeister in the Stadttheater excellent bothKlag,' a 5, as
MusikgeschvMe,of Hamburg, and remained there until in May expression (see Monatsheftefur
notes a1897 he was appointed shortenedHofcapellmeister, and xxvi. He also gives in57).
in triplein TanzliedOctoberwas called to succeed Wilhelm jahns ofan oldcharacteristic setting
' Knecht.'as director of the Hofoper in Vienna, wolbezognerand time, Es ging ein
contamsElchteras director in 1872,ofthe Philharmonic Concerts. Liederbuch of 1544 reprinted
and oneFrom sacred1898 to 1900 he also conducted the Mahu, threefour songs by
sacred- of theGesellschafts Conoerte. He conducted text of onethe secular. From the
' being a fierceGerman opera at all,'Covent Garden in 1892. He songs, Lobt Gottihr Christen
well as fromis one of asthe most distinguished of living con- diatribe against Roman abuses,
a settingductors, excelling especially in the having contributedmusic of the fact of Mahu
to Rhaw'sWagner. The possessor of feste Burg'a strong will and a 5 of Luther's 'Ein'
concludewonderful we mayenergy, he imposes his own will upon Geistliche Gesange, 1544,
the in his sympathiesperformers under him, and obtains very thatMahu was more Lutheran
J- M.remarkable results. As a composer *•he is highly than Roman.
bomesteemed, although both Franz Anton, washis operatic experi- MAICHELBECK,
wasConstance, andments, 'Die Argonauten,' and 'Riibezahl,' in 1702 at Eeichenau near
Rome tobelong to his earlier period, and have not made sent some generous patrons toby
afterwardstheir mark. His six symphonies training. He isare in D, complete his musical
of the Italian1891 ; C, 1895 ; V, 1896 ; the fourth, 1901 described as being Professor;
the Minster atthe fifth, in D minor, called the 'Riesensym- language and Praesentiarius of
phonie,' 1904 and a sixth, 1906. first Freiburg-im-Breisgau. By Praesentiariuswould; The
symphony was played prebendary or beneficedat the Promenade Con- appear to be meant a
or cathedralcert of Oct. 21, 1903 and the fourth, a curious priest on the staff of a collegiate
' andamalgam of extreme simplicity of theme with church. F^tis took it to mean a beadle,'
'elaborate workmanship, ending with a soprano described Maichelbeok as bedeaumistakenly
finale, Freyberg' ; and unfortunatelysolo in the at the Promenade Concert de laoath^drale de
'of Oct. 25, 1905. A set of Humoresken,' for Eitner, in his Quellen-Lexikon, has adopted
'orchestra, and a cantata, Das klagende Lied, Fetis's mistake, though it was corrected, and
among Mahler's most important composi- itself sufficiently explained, in anare the word
tions ; they are published under the auspices article by E. von Werra in Haberl's
Kirchen'of the Gesollschaft zur Forderung deutscher musikalischesJahrbuch, 1897, 28-30. Thepp.
Wissenschaft, Litteraturund Kunst inBbhmen. whole staff of a collegiate church was
denomin'fragment, Die ated Praesentia. Maichelbeck's works are ofHe also finished Weber's operatic
drei Pintos' (produced in 1888 at Leipzig). some importance in the history of clavier-music.
Mahler's career is the subject of a pamphlet He cultivated the lighter If^lian homophonic
Schiedermair (Leipzig, Seemann's style, which influenced the earlier developmentby Ludwig
the above of the clavier sonata.Naohfolger), from which much of His opus 1 is entitled
'information is taken. M. Die aufdem Clavier spielende und das Gehbr
MAHOON, Joseph (orMOHOON), a London vergniigende Cacilia, das ist viii Sonaten, so
spinet-maker near the middle nach der jetzigen welsohenharpsichord and Art, Regel- und
ofthe 18th century. Hisname is present on the Gehbr-massig ausgearbeitet ' . . . Augsburg figured in Hogarth'siiiofe's Progress, 1736. These eight sonatas are partly suites,
Eider's Court Register for having dance movementsPlate II. 1735. In intermingled with
' Mohoon, harpsi- adagios, allegros,1759 he is entered as, Joseph capriccios, and toccatas. The
chord maker to the king.' F. K. whole work shows the study of Italian models.
Stbphan, a German composer, who For some illustrativeMAHU, quotations see Seiffert,
16th Gesckichte derflourished in the earlier part of the Claviermitsik, Bd. i. 332-34.pp.
The onlycentury, is said to have been a singer in the other known published work of
the Archduke Ferdinand at Vienna, Maichelbeck is his opuschapel of 2 entitled 'Die auf
a conjecture from the fact dem Clavier lehrendethough this is only Cacilia ' . . . Augsburg,
some of his compositions being received into 1737. The first two partsof of this work are
Thesanrus of 1568. His works theoretical, but theJoanelli's third part consists of
collections. Ambros and preludes,appeared only in fugues, and versetts on the eight
others speak highly of a set of lamentations church tones, which, however, are treated not in
appeared in Joanelli, and have any proper organa 4-6, which style, but in the lighter and
by Commer. Mahu's more floridsince been republished clavier style. Maichelbeck died
contrapuntal Juneconsist chiefly of a few 14, 1750. j. e.otherworks m.' '
MAID opera French School. A chanson by Maillard whichOF AETOIS, THE. A grand
characteristic of melodious elegance,in three acts words by Bonn, music by Balfe. has all this
Produced at Drury Lane, May 1836. li. may be seen in Eitner's Selection of Chansons,27,
MAID OF HONOUR, A comic opera No. 39. J. K. M.THE.
inthree acts words by musicby Balfe. MAILLART, Louis (called AiMfi), born at; Fitzball,
Produced at Drury Lane, Dec. 20, 1847. o. Paris, March 24, 1817, was a pupU of the
MAILLARD, Jean, a French composer ofthe Conservatoire, where he studied composition
earlier part of the sixteenth century, is said to with HaUvy and Lebome, and the violin with
been a pupil of Josquin des Prfe. Several inhave Guerin. He won the (Srand Prix de Rome
'Masses by him were published separately by Le 1841, with his Lionel Foscari,' and the first of
'and Ballard of Paris from 1557 to 1559, Gastibelza ' (three acts), wjisBoy his six operas,
'entitled Je suis desheritee,' hasone of which, successfully produced in 1847. His 'Moulin
a peculiar history, and is of interest because of des Tilleuls ' was given at the Op^ra-Comique
'its connection with a work of Palestrina. It in and La Croix de Marie ' in 1852, but1849,
same French firm, andwas republished by the the work which has kept his name before the
almost about the same time, as being the work public ofthose coiintries in which opera-comique
'another French composer, Nicholas de Marie, ilourishes Les Dragons de Villars,' pro-of still is
might thus have been considerable Paris in 1856.and there duced at the Op^ra Comique in
'doubt as to its authorship, but it was also His later operas, Les PScheurs de Catane
'copied, probably at some earlier date, into the and Lara ' were less successful.(1860), (1864),
'the Sistine Chapel at Rome, and cantatas, such as LaChoir-books of Maillart also wrote some
It thus becamethere ascribed to Maylard. Voie sacree" 'Le 15 aoilt' (1860),(1859),
known to Palestrina, who adopted the themes etc. ; he died at Moulins in the department of
Maillard's Mass for a Mass of his own, which AUiers, May 1871. G. F.of 26,
' nomine,'was afterwards published as No. 3 sine MAINZER, Joseph, LL.D., was born in
of the sixth book of his Masses 1692 (see 1801 1 at Treves, where his father was a butcher.
Preface to vol. xv. of Palestrina's was educated in the Mattrise of TrevesHaberl's He
Hartel, instruments,Works, complete edition of Breitkopf tc Cathedral, learnt to play several
also his Catalogue of the Music of the Sistine and developed considerable musical gifts, then
' Je suis desheritee ' was in fact some time in the coal mines near Saar-Chapel, p. 28). spent
whichmanymusicians, the view of being an engineer, anda popularFrench song, on bruck, with
especially ecclesiastical profession,including Lassus and Gombert, but at length embraced the
afterwardswriters, composed Masses, and this may was ordained priest in 1826, andFrench
between Marie and His first practical introductionaccount for the confusion became Abb^.
have composed a singing-master to the seminaryMaillard, as Marie may also to music was as
Singschulewhich was confused with that of at Treves, for which he published »Mass on it
itself, as set for four voices or Method (Treves, 1831). His political ten-Maillard. The song
seen in Eitner's him to leave Germany, and weby Pierre Cad^ac, may be dencies obliged
a writing an operaSelection of Chansons, 1899, No. 11 ; and find him in 1833 at Brussels
editing thewith Palestrina's Msiss will ('Triomphe de la Pologne andcomparison of this ')
Cad^ac partly in portion ofL'Artiste. His next destina-show that the tune, as given by musical
in the was Paris, where heTenor, but even more completely tion, at the end of 1834,the
and singing,in all the leading themes of opened workmen's classes for musicDescant, reappears
wrotegiven complete to start the staffofthe Gazette MuHcale andPalestrina's work, and is joined
the Kyrie. feuilletons for the National. Be-the three divisions of the musicalwith, in
that he published severalshould thus, equallywith tween 1835 and 1841 Mass
' veryJe suisdesheritee, educational works on music, chiefiy forof Maillard, bedenominated
without a beginners, as well as other works, andPalestrina himself left it youngthough
'later which wasdamned ondeference, no doubt, to the an opera, La Jacquerie,'name, out of
Juneagainst the use of secular October 1839. He came to England inecclesiastical scruples 10,
for the for the musical professorship attunes for works intended 1841, competednames and
Edinburgh in 1 842-there is nothing really secular Edinburgh in 1844, lived inChurch. But
himself at Man-worth notice that and finally establishedthe tune, and it is just 1847,about
mass is February of that year HuUah hadstrain of both song and chester. Inthe opening
Wilhem's system, andopening strain of the oldest started his classes onidentical with the
' north,Christ ist erstan- attempted to follow suit in theGerman Choral tune, Mainzerknown
the three success. His Singingfor
' works by Maillard besides and with considerableden. Other
timewellknown,for eight voices, are Million^ was atthatMasses, a 4-5, and a Patrem the (1842),
He over-whichappeared through many editions.motets,andchansons and wentmagnificats,
Ambros this cause, and died, muchcollections of the time. worked himself inin the various
nobleas characterised by a 1 established by the epitaph at Manchester. Dr.describes his motets This data Is
May 1807, as the date of birth.Blemann gives 7,elegance, and reckonsmelodiousand expressive 3 F^tis amusinglyiniers from this titlethatMainzer expectedM.
a million pupils.masters of th6 to nmnbaras one of the betterhim generally, —
30 maItre de chapelle, le MAJESTATISCH
allesteemed and regretted, at Manchester, Nov. numbered in10, throughout the country
choristers.1851. He was buried at Rusholme Boad pupils orCeme- ofwhom 4000 were10,000,
theamongtery, Manchester. A periodical started by him much rivakyThere was naturaUy
greatofwasin July 1842, and entitled Mamzer'a Musical whichdifferent establishments,
anagreathowTimes, was the predecessor and basis showof the benefit to music. To
namewe maypresent influenceMuHccU Times. See the MusicalHeraM widely spread was their
composersandmusiciansforJune 1895, and an extended notice in Ckwm- principala few of the
very variedand theirbers's Journal, Feb. 14, 1862. educationG. who owed their
before thesource,CHAPELLE, one capaciousMAITRE DE LE. Opera- styles to this
:—EustacheFranceopera incomique in two acts, by Ferdinando Paer. establishment of
Claudin (Claude deandProduced at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris, Intermet,March du Caurroy,
Henri IV.underwas afterwards flourished ;29, 1821. It reduced to one Sermisy), who
Dame Hautconsteau,of Notre ;act, and has enjoyed great success in France and Veillot, mattre
Pechon, mattreChapelleGermany in this form. An English version the Sainte ;mattre of
Gobert;Fremart, Cosset,was given at the Prince ofWales's GermainTheatre, Feb. of St. ;
Michel Lambert, alland16, 1897. Boesset, Moulinier,
Annibal Gantez,OhanoineMAITKISE, a term formerly applied in contemporaries of
miisieiens (A.uxerre, 1643,France both to the quarters assigned Mitretien desin cathe- whose
curious anddrals and collegiate churches very scarce) containsto the choristers small 12mo,
lives of thedetails of theand their master, and to the institution itself, not very edifying
day. Then, withwhich originally included a complete education, mattres de chapelle of his
Cambert, Campra, andlay aiid ecclesiastical. These schools out opera, cameturned the use of
composer ofPoitevin, and amany great men, several rising to be bishops Gilles, a pupil of
' 'morts performed at theand popes ; among the latter Pope Urban IV. celebrated messe des
learned contra-a cobbler's son, whose early years were passed funeral Rameau, Bemier, aof
' Gauzargues, andin the Psallette at Troyes. Some centuries Raineau himself,
' puntist,
Among organists—Mar-later, when the Mattrises had undergone great others of less note.
who threatenedchanges, they were still the only establishments chand, the Couperins, Daquin,
which even secular musicians could obtain to be a formidable rival to Handel and Rameau,in
From the Mattrises the Church S^jan, and Boely.their training. Balb^tre, Charpentier,
Montfolair, Blan-obtained choristers, organists, and mattres de Among composers—Lalande,
chapelle, and the world its favourite composers. chard, Mondonville, Floquet, Philidor, Gosseo,
instrumental music was Champein, Mehul, Lesueur, Gaveaux^Here also, although Gr^try,
neglected, and dramatic music positively for- Boieldieu,and F^licien David. Among singers
the regimental bands found their J^lyotte, Legros, Larriv^e, Lays, and Rousseau,bidden,
in the service ofbassoon players, and the lyric theatres their whose voices were first heard
' -clavecinistes accompagnateurs, ' violoncellists, the Church, afterwards delighted the habitues
singers. of the opera.and
of Mattrises would inA complete account the The Mattrises, though suppressed 1791,
involve a review of the whole history of music were afterwards reconstituted, on a different
anterior to the French Revolution, so we must footing. The Conservatoire nationaldemusique
with specifying abe content fewof the masters, is now the great nursery of French musicians,
composers, choristers, and organists who have but many a church has still its Mattrise, where
reflected honour on these ancient institutions. the choristers—boys and men trained by—are
They were real schools of music, the pupils a mattre chapellede in everything necessary
being maintained at the cost of the chapters. to ensure a good execution of plain-song and
Indeed theymuch resembled the Conservatorios sacred music. We have already spoken of
of Italy, both in their mode of administration, Choron's school of music (Chokon), still in
the course of instruction existence 'and in given. They as the Ecole Niedermeyer.'
Niederhowever,were not, all organised alike, but meyer and D'Ortigue also founded a periodical
varied with local circumstances. Thus in some called La Mattrise, specially devoted to sacred
boys, the master, and the priests, lived in music. It survivedthe only four years, to itbut
others separately somecommon, in ; in the we refer the reader for further details. Besides
maintenance of the children was in the hands Gantez's work already mentioned, another
master, in others there was a regular book, also publishedof the in 1643 by Jean de
BorBut in all, the main end was the denave, a Canonpurveyor. of B^arn, L'Estat des iglises
the Revolution there colligiales etof music. Before catMdrales, containsstudy much
informaand choirs, with tion, thoughFrance 400 Mattrises impaired by itswere in want of method
de chapelle, maintained either and arrangement.many mattresas q q
cathedrals and collegiate MAJESTATISCH. 'the chapters of Majesticby ; in a
monasteries. Each fied manner. Thiscur&, or the is used as thechurches, the equivalent of
on an average, from 25 to Maestoso by Beethoven in No. 5 ofcontained, the 6Maitrise Lieder
'musioiiins thus difliised von Gellert, Die Ehre Gottesand the in derpersons, Natur.'SO' — '
'The whole direction is Majestatisch und Josquiu des Pr^s up to Mozart. [SeeHarmony,
erhaben' (majestic and wordsublime). The vol. ii. p. 307 Tierce de Pioardie.]
also occurs as a direction in a song of Schu- The most important and best defined scale of
'bert's called Liedesend.' M. modern music is called major,' because it has a
MAJO, GiAN Francesco di, born at Naples majorthirdfromthe tonic intheascending series;
about 1740, was the son of Giuseppe de Majo whence in former times it was common to
diswho was maestro cappella '(1698-1772), di to tinguish the scale ormodeby the terms greater
' 'the King of the Two Sicilies in the early part or lesser
' third, as, in the key ofG with the
of the 18th century, and wrote various church greater 'third, ' where one would now say G
and chamber compositions
; the sonwas a pupil major. ' This major scale is the natural diatonic
of Padre Martini, and first appeared as an opera series of modern music, represented bythe series
'composer in 1759, with Riccimero at Naples starting trom 0. It is fundamentally the most
this was followed at short intervals by many perfect for harmonic purposes, as it presents
others, written either by himself alone or in the greatest number of concords, and the larger
collaboration. 'Cajo Fabricio' was given at proportion of these in their most harmonious
Naples in 1760, and the same year saw the form ; and it also provides most perfectly and
' 'production of Astrea placata ' in 1761 L'Al- simply the means of
; making the tonal
relation'meria' was given at Leghorn in 1762 Arta- ship intelligible; ; since, as Helmholtz points
serse'; 'Ipermestra' in and in '1763; 1764 out, the tones (of the scale) are constituents of
' 'Alcide negli Orti Esperidi ' in Vienna ; Ad- the compound tone of the tonic, or the fifth
riano in Siria ' was given in Kome about 1766 above or the fifth below it. By which means
' Ifigenia in Tauride ' is of uncertain date and
; all the relations of tones are reduced to the
'his last, Eumene," of which he only finished simplest and closest relationship existing in any
one act, was completed by Insanguine, and musical system—that of the fifth.' This scale
produced at Naples in 1771. Among the corresponds to the Greek Lydianandthe
Ecclesioperas that have music by di Majo in them astical Ionian Mode.
'Agamemnon,' 'are 'Cleofide,' ' Demofoonte, The term major ' is also used in a theoretical
and 'Ezio.' Two arias by him are quoted in sense of tones, to distinguish the interval of a
Marx's Gliuik und die Oper. Many cantatas tone which has the ratio 9 : 8 from that which
music areand church mentioned in the Quellen- has the ratio 10 : which is called aminor tone.9,
LexUcon. The composer died at Bome, Jan, 18, For example, in the key of C, C-D is a major
1771. M. tone and D-E a minor tone, and the difl'erence
MAJOR. When intervals have two forms between them is a comma. c. H. H. p.
which are alike consonant or alike dissonant, MAJORANO. See Cafparelli.
these are distinguished as major and minor, the MALBROUGH, or MALBROOK. The date
former beingalways a semitone greaterthan the of this celebrated French song, and the names
latter. Thus thirds and sixths have two forms, of the authors of both words and music, are
which are both consonant, and are respectively doubtful ; but there is reason to believe that
'calledmajorand minor. Seconds, sevenths, and the couplets called Mort et convoi de
I'invineachtwo forms,which are dissonant, oible Malbroughninthshave ' were improvised on the night
and are similarly distinguished as major and after the battle of Malplaquet (Sept. 11, 1709),
minor. The major, however, is not always the in the bivouac of Marichal de Villars, at
interval, for, under certain Quesnoy, three miles fromgreatest form of an the field of battle.
circumstances, some intervals are capable of The name of the soldier, who perhaps satirised
further extension, and are then described as the English general as a relief to his hunger,
or 'superfluous,' as augmented has not been preserved, but in all probability he'augmented'
seconds or augmented or superfluous sixths. was well acquainted with the lament on the
The major forms of concords are such as con- death of the Duke of Guise, published in 1566.
third from the root note, and these In fact, the idea, the construction, and manytain a major
are both more harmonious and better defined details in thetwo songs are very similar, though
than the minor concords for, in the first place, the rhythm and position of the rhymes are;
fourth harmonic different, and they cannot be sung to the samethemajor third agrees with the
following air, admirablyof the fundamental tone, and, in the second, the music. The is the
:combinational tones of the chord for the most adapted to the words
already existing in thepart only double notes
chord. Whereas in theminprconcordstheminor
third does not correspond with any of the really
Ual-brovghi'eiiTa-t-eliBuer-rB, MlrQatoii,liilTOnton,mlT(m'
root note, and theperceptible harmonics of the
triad cannot in any position be free from false
tones. It is mainly for thesecombinational *^ - l[albroiiKh«'enT&-t-8arii«Te,«'enT&-t-8arncirre, IfesiitqiundreTien-tai ne; Malbrough I7(
chord is so often foundreasons that the major FvM. B.C.
at the conclusion of a piece of music in a minor
works of the earlier masters, frommode in the
dm, NeuitquandreTlencIiB, NeaaltqnaQdreTiendra.— '
wasChateanbriand^ century. Ithearing the close of the 18thtune sung by before the
Arabs lesson within Palestine, as a harpsichordsuggested that it had been also frequent
Musicalcarried there by Charles Dibdin, in histhe Crusaders, either in the variations and
'hammeringtime of young ladiesGodfrey de Bouillon, or in spealcs ofthat of Tow, 1788,
EnglishAbout 1790 anLouis IX. and Joinville tune.'
; but no musician can Malbrouk out of
' was adaptedentertain this of Primrose Hill,'idea, fora moment. The breadth song, The Maid
numerous othersof the timephrasing, the major mode, and and after thisthe close to the air,
'We won't goon the dominant, are as About 1830,characteristic of the now forgotten.
verse of whichpopular the secondtunes of the time of Louis XIV. as home till morning,'
' fellow,' turnedthey are unlike the unrhythmical melodies For he's a jolly goodof is
intoFrench airthe Middle Ages. raiiieT melancholydelicate and
it is nowIt is and with this songnot surprising that neither words nor a convivial channel,
withEngland.] a. are to be found in the many always associated in ;collections
of both nowadays
; the merest triiles appear in additions by F. K.
Edinburgh,print, but AiBXANDBR, bom informerly ali songs were sung from MALCOLM,
Treatise Musidc,memory. It would probably have had was author of A ofdied out 1687,
Historical, 8vo,not Madame Poitriue used Speeulatim, Practical andit as a lullaby for
London,the infant second edition, 8vo,dauphin in 1781. Marie Antoinette Edinburgh, 1721 ;
work. An iU-madetook a fancy to her baby's cradle-song, and 1730; a well-executed
' ' musician, appearedsang it herself, and Malbrough abridgementbyan eminent 's'en va-t-en
guerre was soon London, 1776. In 1721 one Mitchell
pub' heard in Versailles, Paris, and in
' Power of Musick,' dedi-at length throughout France. Beaumarchais lished An Ode on the
of whichintroduced it into his Miwiagi de cated to Malcolm, the greater partFigaro (1784),
which still further contributed to the two editions of the Treatise,to its popularity. is prefixed
the first importantIt then became a favourite air for couplets in w. H. H. His work is
music issued inFrench vaudevilles and Beethoven brings it treatise on the theory of
into his 'Battle Scotland. Prior to it are, the few leaves ofSymphony' (1813) as the
the Aberdeen Cantussymbol of the French army. The air is now general instructions in
volumeequally popular on both sides of the Channel. 1666, 1682), and a thin folio(1662,
Many an Englishman, who would be puzzled entitled An Introditction to the Krwwledge andto
recognise Marlborough 1717. The copy,under the guise of Mal- Practice of MuiSick, by A. B.,
Taphousebrook, is familiar with the tune to the convivial probably unique, was sold at the
'words, We won't go home till morning ' and sale in 1905, and had bound up with it a
' For he's a jolly good fellow. contemporary manuscript essay on The
InstituwasThe piece made the subject of an op^ra- tions ofMusick wherein are settforth the
praetibouffe in four acts, words by Siraudin and Bus- callprinciples Musicall Composition. Anotherof
nach, music by Bizet, Jonas, Legouix, and manuscript treatise is of the 16th century, and
Delibes, brought out at the Ath^n^e, Dec. 13, written in the Scottish dialect. It ismentioned
1867. [The first English use of the air which by Hawkins and belonged to him it is now in;
the present writer can trace is a setting of it to the British Museum.
a satirical song relative to the siege of Gibraltar, Malcolm's work is in octavo, and the first
mentioning the incidents of the defeat of the edition contains 608 with engraved musicalpp.
combined Spanish and French forces on Sept. examples ; it was issued at ' Edinburgh, printed
1782. The song was undoubtedly written for the author, 1721.'13,
date, and the tune selected in aabout that Hawkins and later writers speak in the
spirit of derision. Its title runs, 'D'Artois' highest terms of its merits. Thebookwas
dedireturn fromGibraltar, translated fromtheFrench cated to the ' directors of the Royal Academy
the Malbro' air.' firstand adapted to The of musick ' (i.e. the manager of the Italian
:verse, out of many, is Opera), who are named individually.
It is advertised asjust issued, intheJEdinburghD'Artois returns from Spain,
O wh^t a rare camx)ajgn (bis). Evening Cowamt of Nov. 6, 1721, and from
We thought that with a look
this advertisement we learn that the authorHe would the place have took,
then livedBut the thunder of his wrath 'in the Cowgate, opposite Burnet's
cracker wprth,Was not a etc., etc. Close.' p. K.
published first as a half sheetby Preston, MALEKItwas ADEL. An opera seria in three
included in folio work issued actsand afterwards a words by Count Pepoli,; music by Michael
that publisher, The Beauties Music and Costa. Producedby of at the Theatre Italien, Paris,
circa 1790. Jan.Poetry, 14, 1837, and in London atHer Majesty's,
gained MayFrom this period the air quickly 18, 1837. g.
popularity in England, mostly, however, as an MALHEEBE, Charles Th^omkb, bom in,
flute or violin. It Paris,instrumental piece for the April 21, 1863, on the completion of his
and literaryis found in Aird's Selection, vol. iii. [1788], and legal studies (having reached the
'and flute collections of shortly grade ofin most violin lioenoie took up music and') studiedMALIBRAN MALIBEAN 33
variousbranchesofcomposition,with Danhauser, Maria was continued, if not completed. F^tis
Wormser, and Massenet. From 1881 he con- says that it was in consequence of a sudden
tnbuted to various musical publications, and indisposition of Mme. Pasta, that the first
'1896 was public appearancein appointed arohiviste-adjoint ' to of Maria was unexpectedly
the Paris Op^ra, and in 1899 succeeded Nuitter made ; but this account is not the same as that
as archiviste. His private collection of musical given by Ebers or by Lord Mount-Edgcumbe.
autographs is one of the richest in the world, The latter relates that, shortly after the repair
'publicafter those of the libraries of Berlin, of the King's Theatre, the great favourite
Vienna, Loudon, and Paris. The following Pasta arrived for a limited number of nights.
be mentioned among Malherbe's works on About the same tihie neces-may ... it became
Notices of ' Esclarmonde ' and sary to engagemusic: (1889) a young singer, the daughter
'Ascanio'(1890); the Oatalogtie bibliograpliiqiie of the tenor Garcia, who had sung here for
ceuvres de Donizelti (1897). In colla- several seasons. She was as yet a mere girl,des
A. Soubies L'CEuvre and hadboration with M. : drama- never appeared on any public stage
tique de R. Wagner (1886) ; Pricis d'histaire but from the first moment of her appearance
Opera-Comique Milanges sur R. she showed evident talents for it both as singerde V (1887) ;
la secondeWagner (1891) ; Histoire de Salle and actress. Her extreme youth, her prettiness,
Favart (two vols., 1892 and 1893, crowned by her pleasing voice, and sprightly easy action,
Institut), etc. He has composed several as Rosina in "II Barbiere di Siviglia," in whichthe
'and incidental music for Les part she made her dAbut, gainedoperas-comiques her general
yeuxclos '(Odeon, 1896), orchestralandchamber favour but she was too highly extolled, and
music, £is well as numerous transcriptions. G. F. injudiciously put forward as a prima donna,
one of when she was only a very promising debutante,MALIBRAN, Makia Fblicita, the
who inmost distinguished singers the world has ever time, by study and practice, would in all
was born March 24, 1808, at Paris, where probability, under the tuition of her father, aseen,
Garcia, had arrived only good musician, but (to my ears at least) a mosther father, Manuel
disagreeable her pro-two months before. When three years old she singer, rise to eminence in
'was taken to Italy, and at the age of five played fession. Ebers says, her voicewas a oonti'alto,
'Agnese,' atthe 'Fioren- and managed with great taste.' Her debut tooka child's part in Paer's
that, after place June 1825. She was immediatelytini,' Naples. So precocious was she 7,
of thefew nights of this opera, she actually began afterwards engaged for the remaindera
'of Agnese ' in the duet of the season (about six weeks) at £500. On July 23,to sing the part
which was ap- she sang Felicia in the first performance ofsecond Act, a piece of audacity
'Crooiato.' At the end of theplauded by the public. Two years later, she Meyerbeer's
Panseron, at Naples and season, Garcia went, with his daughter, to thestudied solfeggi with ;
same provincial festivals, and then embarked forHerold, happening to arrive about the
New York. In this new sphere Maria rapidlygave her her first instruction on the piano.time,
experience,to Paris with the rest improved, and acquired confidence,In 1816 Garcia took her
London in the and the habit of the stage. She appeared inof his family, and thence to
' ' ' 'Otello,' Romeo,' Don Giovanni," Tanoredi,'1817. Already speaking fluentlyautumn of
' Generentola, ' and in two operas written forFrench, Maria picked upSpanish, Italian, and
' 'the two and her by her father, L' amante astuto, ' and Laa tolerable knowledge of English in
long Figlia deir aria.' She had scarcely made hershe spent in London. Notn. half years
when the enthusiasm of the public knewwith the same facility. debutafter, she learnedGerman
on the piano, no bounds ; and, in the midst of her popularity,Here, too, she had good teaching
Garcia gave her in marriage to M. Malibran, anrapid progress that, on herand made such
seemingly wealthy French merchant,she was able to play elderlyandreturn to Paris in 1819,
repugnance to the union. Thiswere great in spite of herBach's clavier-works, whichJ. S.
marriage, celebrated March 25, 1826, was asher father. In this way shefavourites with
unhappy as itwas ill-assorted ; ayearhad hardlyacquired sound taste in music.
found herself, onmade by elapsed before the young wifeearly age of fifteen she wasAt the
Malibran's bankruptcy, free to leave him, andsinging under his own direc-her father to learn
seized the opportunity. In Septemberwhich his violent she at oncetion and, in spite of the fear
returned to France. Precededindividu- 1827 she hadshe soon showed thetemper inspired,
by a bright reputation, she began by reaping aher genius. Two yearsality and originality of
hai-vest of applause in private concerts, followedGarcia allowedelapsed when (1824)had barely
genuine success,musical in January 1828 by a greatandthe first time before aher to appear for
at Gain's benefit, in 'Semiramide.' Her geniusjust esta,blished. Thereclub which he had
singing was at once recognised,and her future for dramatica great sensation,she produced
Two months though her style was marred by a questionableconfidently predicted.success was
taste in her choice of ornament. This she had,London, where he wasGarcia returned tolater,
the best opportunity of correcting,and here he set on in Paris,as principal tenor ;eiigaged
advice of kindly critics and theeducation of both by thesinging-class, in which theafoot
DVOL. Ill; ;
and1836-37,example seventy-five inof accomplished singers. Engaged five in 1835-36,for
autumn of 1838.the season at the Italian in theopera, she made her thirty-five
versions ofEnglishdebut, April played here in8. The public, at first doubting, Having
' ' Malibran returnedsoon and Fidelio,'welcomed her as a really great Sonnambula'singer, and
May 1834,remained untilwere particularlystruck where shewithwonder and delight to Naples,
thenceBologna, and toat the novelty then toand originality of her style. In proceeding
however, toLondoncameback,the season of 1829 Malibranmade She soonher reappear- Milan.
Sinigagliaand was singing atance in Loudon, visit ;where she shared the applause for a flying
the next month sheof the the 11th ofpublic with Sontag, and the same result in July. On
were takenwhere her horsesfollowed her singing with that artist at Paris went to Lucca,in
her hotelwhich was drawn tothe autumn. carriage,She was principal soprano at the from her
her last appear-Gloucester admirers afterFestiral of 1829, and when engaged by enthusiastic
where shewent to Milan,again at the Italian Opera ance. She nextin Paris in January
contract,and thence1830, she was paid frs. the above-mentioned1075 for each representa- signed
Fondo in 'Otello,'tion. shesangattheThis was less than she had received from to Napleswhere
Dec. 1834, in Rossi'sLaporte in London, for he had given her frs. and at the San Carlo, 4,
' '' de Castro was pro-13,333 '33 amonth, an Persiani's Inesodd sum, unless itmeant Amelia.'
her in the samefrs. San Carlo for40,000 for threemonths ; and she stipulated duced at the
met with an accident, heronly to appear twice a week, making each of winter. Here she
comer of a streetthose appearances 1666 carnage being upset at thecost frs. '66, or about
prevented her£66. Though suffered injuries whichshe certainly continued to draw and she
for a fortnight. Evenno higher salary at the Paris Opera in 1830 from appearing in public
appearance with herand 1831, and her charge for singing at private then, she made her first
interestconcerts sling, which added to the ofin London, 1829, was only twenty-five arm in a
From Naples she went, in theguineas, yet Alfred Bunn engaged her, soon the occasion.
Venice, her arrivalafter, for nineteen nights at £125 per night, same triumphant manner, to
payable in advance. being announcedby fanfares oftrumpets. There
with fresh enthusiasm, whichSontag, marrying and retiring fromthe stage she was besieged
early in 1830, leftMalibran mistress ofthe field, followed her in her return to Paris and London.
and henceforth she had no rival, but continued She returned in August to Lucca.
marriage was annulledto sing each season in London and Paris with At this juncture her
Marchever-increased ^olat. In 1830 an attachment by the Courts at Paris, and on 26, 1836,
sprang up between her and Charles de B^riot she married de Bdriot, with whom she returned
the violinist and this ended only immediately to Brussels.
; with her
life. They built in 1831 a handsome villa at In the following April, oncemore in London,
Ixelles, a suburb of Brussels, to which they Mme. Malibran de Biriot had a fall from her
returned after every operatic campaign. horse. She was dragged some distance alongIn the
the receivedsummer of 1832 a sudden inspiration took this road, and serious injuries to her
impulsive artist to Italy in the company of head, from which she never entirely recovered
Lablache,whohappenedtopassthroughBrussels but her wonderful energy enabled her for a
tour improvised, which timeand an Italian was was to disregard the consequences of this
accia sort of triumphal progress. Milan, Rome, dent. She returned to Brussels, from whence
Kaples, and Bologna were visited with equal she went to Aix-la-Chapelle, and gave two
concertssuccess. there with de Biriot. In September she
Malibran retired to Brussels in Deo. 1832, had come to England again, for the Manchester
and her son, Charles Wilfrid, was born Feb. Festival,—at which her short, brilliant life
1833. In the following spring she came to came to an12, end. She had arrived, with her
London, and sang at Drury Lane, in English husband, after a rapid journey from Paris, on
Opera, receiving frs. 80,000 for forty representa- Sunday, Sept. 11, 1836. On the following
with two benefits which produced not eveningtions, she sang inno less than fourteen pieces.
offeredless than frs. 50,000. The prices to her On theTuesday,thoughweakandill,she insisted
increased each year to an unprecedented extent. on singing both morning and evening. On
She received at the Opera in London, during Wednesday, the 14th, her state was stiU more
May and June 1835, £2775 for twenty- four critical, but she contrived to sing the last sacred
appearances. Sums, the like of which had not music in which 'she ever took part, Sing ye to
heard of before in such cases, were paid to the Lord,'been with thrilling effect ; but that same
her at the provincial festivals in England, and evening her last notes in public were heard, in
her last engagement at I^aples was for frs. the duet, with 'Mme. Caradori Allan, Vanne se
nights, with benefits, while alberghi '80,000 for forty in petto,' from Andronico.' This was2J
Milan fromthat which she had accepted at received with immense enthusiasm, the last
Visoonti, the director ofLa Scala, was, movementtheDuke was encored, and Malibran actually
some other profitable conditions,exclusively of accomplished the task repeatingof it. It was
for 185 performances, viz. seventy- her last effort.frs. 150,000 While the concert-room stillMALIBKAN MALLINGER 35
rang with applause, she was fainting in the arms her audience without that mental
; originality
of her friends and, a few her defective vocal,
; moments later, she organ would have failed to
was conveyed to her hotel [the Morley Arms, please where, in fact, it jirovoked raptures.
Matlock.] Here she died, after nine days of Many portraits of Malibran have appeared,
nervous fever, in the prostration which naturally none very good. A large one, after Hayter,
refollowed upon the serious injuries her brain had presenting her with a harji, as 'Desdemona, ' is
received from the accident which had befallen usually accounted the best
; but it is only
indifher in the midst of a life of perpetual excitement. ferent. Another,by R. J. Lane, A. R.A. , showing
She died on Friday, Sept. 23, 1836, about twenty 'her made up as Fidalma,' and then, afterwards,
minutes before midnight, under the care of her in a stage-box, in her usual dress, ismuch better.
own doctor, a homceojiath, Belluomini, who had It is this latter portrait whichwe have engraved.
declined to act with the two regular physicians Several biographies have appeared of this
who had at first attended her. Two hours after extraordinary person, with anecdotes of whom
her death de Beriot was, with Belluomini, in a it would be easy to fill avolume ; that which was
carriage on his way to Brussels, to secure the written by the Comtesse Merlin is little better
property of his late wife. She was buried on than a romance. Malibran composed and
publishedmany nocturnes, songs,andchansonnettes
some of the unpublished pieces were collected
and published by Troupenas at Paris under the
'name of Dernieres Pensees musicales de
MarieFelicite Garcia de Beriot,' in 4to. j. m. with
corrections from E. Heron-Allen's ContributioTis
towards an accurate biography ofDe Biriot and
Malibran {De Fidic. Opuscida, op. vi.)
MALINGONIA, LA. The name attached by
Beethoven to a very romantic intermezzo or
introduction, of forty-four bars' length, between
the Scherzo and the Finale of his String Quartet
in Bl7, op. 18, No. 6. The time is Adagio, and
'the direction given is Questo pezzo si deve
trattare colla piii gran delicatezza. ' The theme
of the Malinconia appears twice in the Finale,
much in the same way that the Andante does in
that of the Quintet, op. 29. g.
MALLINGER, Mathilpb, born Feb. 17,
1847, at Agram, Croatia, was first taught
singing there by her father, a professor ofmusic, and
Professor Lichtenegger, later by Gordigiani and
Oct. 1, in the south aisle ofthe collegiate church, Vogl at the Prague Gonservatorium from 1863
Manchester. She was but twenty-eight years to 1866, and finally by Richard Lewy at Vienna.
of age when she died. On the recommendationHer remains were, soon of Franz Lachner
afterwards,removed to Brussels, where they were she was engaged at Munich, where she made
reinterred in the cemetery of Laeken, where a her debut as Norma, Oct. 1866. She was the4,
'mausoleum was original Evaerected by de Beriot, contain- in the Meistersinger, ' June 21,
ing a bust of the great singer by the celebrated 1868. She made her debuts at Berlin as Elsa,
sculptor Geefs. April and Norma, April 1869. She was6, 9,
It is difficult to appreciate charm of an excellent actress and a great favourite, mar-the a
singer whom one has never heard. In the case ried the Baron Schimmelpfennig von der Oye at
of Maria Malibran it is exceptionally difficult, Berlin, and remained there during her whole
for in musical career until 1882. On leave of absencethe charm seems to have consisted chiefly
Vienna,the peculiarity of timbre and unusual extent of she played with success at Munich, etc.,
her voice, in her excitable temperament which and in Italian opera at St. Petersburg and
prompted of strange Moscow, but with indifferent success. Her partsher to improvise passages
audacity upon the stage, and on her strong included Donna Anna, Fidelio, Jessonda,
Valenmusical feeling which kept those improvisations tine, Leonora (' Trovatore Iphigenia, Eury-'),
anthe, Susanna, Zerlina, Mrs. Ford, etc. Aboutnearly, but not quite, always within the bounds
of good taste. That her voice was not faultless, 1871a certain section of the Berlin public tried
either seems certain. to establish her claim as leading singer as againstin quality or uniformity,
soprano Pauline Lucca, the then reigning favourite.It was a contralto, having much of the
register superadded, and with an interval of Endless quarrels ensued on their account, which
'dead conceal which she culminated at a performance of the Nozze, ' Jan.notes intervening, to
where they were bothused great ingenuity, with almost perfect success. 27, 1872, playing. On
It was, after all, her mind that helped to enslave Lucca's entry as Cherubino she was hissed—in36 MANCHESTERMALTEN
music byeonaequenee of » proper dramaticwhich she broke her contract creation ofin the
monody with instrumentalthe followingautumn and vocalleft for America. In means of
foreshadowing,1890 Mme. Mallinger It is only abecame professor of sing- accompaniment.
in a simpleing pieces are all writtenin the Conaervatorium of Prague, as theand in however,
8 voices with1895 returned to Berlin to style for 3, 4, 5, 6,teach in the Eiohel- madrigal
voices. The instrumentsberg 6 to 15Conaervatorium. A. dialoghi forc.
viols of differentlutes andMALTEN (properly MULLEE), employed are chieflyTh^rJsse,
and organ. Only in theborn at Insterburg, trombonesEastern Pruasia, June kinds with21,
instruments employedall the1855, was taught singing by Gustav Engel of larger piecea are
editor himaelfBeaides theBerlin. She made her debut aa Paniina voices.and with the
are Luca Marenzio,Agatha representedat Dresden in 1873, where she remained the oompoaers
and GiovanniEmilio de' Cavalieri,for thirty years aa principal soprano, retiring Jacopo Peri,
becoming afterwards theat last on a pension. the three latterHer parts include Ar- Bardi,
Monodic style. The piecemida, Iphigenia, the laterFidelio, Jeasonda, Genoveva, creators of
'Marenzio is entitled II Com-Leonora ('Trovatore'), Margaret; composed by Lucathe heroines
col Serpente.' From thisofWagner the Queen of Sheba battimento d'Apolline
; in Goldmark's
'voices, O valorosoopera chorus for fourof that name ; the Princeaa Marie in a madrigal
' Kiesewetter inhis SchicksaleKretsohmer's Folkunger ' on its production Dio,'is reprintedbyin
weltlichen Gesangea, 1841,1874 Fulvia on the des
; production of Hofmann's undBesehaffenheit
'Arminius' gives three other pieces by Peri,in 1877, etc. On leave of absence who also
which, though written inshe has played in London, Berlin, Vienna, Cavalieri,and Archilei,etc.
counterpoint, were sungIn August 1882 ahe appeared at the simplest four-partBayreuth as
Kundry, with one or two instruments play-at the inatance of Wagner, who had a by one voice
Other works by Malvezzivery high opinion of her ability, again in ing the other parts.1884,
Venice,and at Munich, where she played the same are a book of madrigals a 5, 1583, andpart
in also a book of Ricercariprivate before King Ludwig, from whom she one a 6, Venice, 1584,
by him transcribed fromreceived the gold medal of Arts and Science. a 4, 1577. A canzona
She made a great impression on her d^but Schmid's organ-tablaturebook, 1607, isgiven inat
Drury Lane under Kichter aa Fidelio, Geschichte des Orgelspiels, No. 9. SeeMay 24, Ritter's
J.1882, and during the season as Elaa, May 27 also Ritter, p. 27. K. M.
Elizabeth, June and Eva, June 7. She re- MANCHESTER. Ofthe musical associations3,
appeared in England at the Albert Hall in Manchester, by far the oldest, and, for itson the
ofmusicproductionof Parsifal,' Nov. 10 and 15, 1884 past influence upon the progress in the
at a Richter Concert in 1886 and at the city, by far the most important, is that of the
Bristol Festival of 1896. Gentlemen'a Concerts. 'The date of the
formaShe possessea a voice of extraordinary com- tion of theae concerta is uncertain ; but the
pass, with deep and powerful notes in the lower overture to Handel's 'Julius Cseaar,' taken from
register. She is an admirable actress, being a programme of the year held1745, a
comsuccessfulespecially in Wagner's operas. She memorative place at the opening concert given
was appointed chamber singer to the King of in 1903. [The concerts, in their early days,
Saxony in 1880, and was also chosenby Wagner were a meeting-place of Jacobites ; see the
at Bayreuth in though the Monthlyto play Isolde 1883, Memew for Dec. 1905, art.
'Underperformance did not take place owing to the ground Jacobitism,' by R. E. Francillon, p.
death of the composer. She has practically The orchestra21.] appears to have had an
the exercise of her art for some amateurretired from origin; and it maintained partiallya
years. A. c. constitution till the conductorship of
MALVEZZI, Cristofamo, bom at Lucca it fell to Sir (then Mr.) Charles Halle, in
according to Riemann), was in February(June 27, 1547, 1850. Previous to this appointment
1371 a canon at the church of San Lorenzo in the first violin filled the double position ofleader
Florence, and on the death of Francesco Cor- and conductor. For special performances of
him as maestro di cappellateccia succeeded to choral and other larger works, the services of
the Grand Duke of Tuscany. He is chiefly special conductors were secured and in that
as the editor of a collection of dramatic positionknown the names of Mazas, Sohira, Julius
were onintermezzi which performed the occasion Benedict, and,morefrequently. Sir GeorgeSmart
the marriage of the Grand Duke Ferdinand preceded thatof of Mr. Halle.
of Lorraine in 1589. The workwith Christina For quite a century the concerts were the
part-books for voiceswas published in fourteen means of introducing the bestcontemporary art
instruments under the title, Intermedii et andand artists to the town. Theywere also chiefly
la, commedia rappresentata inamcerti, fatti per concerned in initiating and carrying theout
nelle nozze del . . . Ferdinando Medici .greatFirenze Musical Festival of the year 1828 and
Cristiana di Lorena . . . Venice, the stille Madama more memorable Festival of the year
foreshadowing of 1836It is remarkable as a —the1591. last of its kind ever held in
Manmade, a few yeara later, towards chester,the attempts and the one upon which the death ofMANCHESTER MANCHESTER 37
Malibran conferred a pathetic interest. When himself—failed of sustained support. The
the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition of the BkodskyQuartet, however, established by Dr.
year 1857 was inaugurated, its found Brodsky in haswon appreciation,directors 1896, and the
Mr. Charles Halle, and the orchestrain of the annual concerts, six in number, and exclusively
Gentlemen's Concerts, a ready means of con- instrumental, are amongst the most artistically
stituting a band worthy of its fine surroundings. and popularly successful given during the
Local zeal saved this band from dispersal when musical season. The balance of the receipts
the Exhibition closed. A permanent organisa- is devoted to the assistance of the students of
tion was created a series of winter concerts the Royal Manchester College of Music, of
was arranged and the Halle orchestra and the
; which institution Dr. Brodsky is the Principal,
concerts are thus accounted for.Hstll^ In the in succession to Sir Charles Halle. The college
year 1830 the subscribers took possession of was founded in 1893 by an equal display of
their new building, known as the Gentlemen's generosity and energy part wealthyon the of
Hall. Here theConcert society's concerts were citizens. HerMajesty the Queen isthepatroness
continuously held till the site was absorbed in of the institution, which possesses a charter.
that of the Midland Hotel. Under the terms Manchester neighbouring towns contributeand
the sale a large hall, capable ofof seating 900 to its funds, both directly, and by means of
persons, was constructed—with a separate en- scholarships. The college is in close affiliation
trance—within the hotel. In this hall the with the Manchester University. Several of
concerts were resumed in the season 1903-4, the teachers of the former hold lectureships in
having been held in the interval ofthe building, the latter ; and the college students pass to the
in the Manchester Town Hall. Eight concerts Bachelor's and Doctor's degrees in music, at the
givenduring fees are annum,are the season. Since the establish- University. The £30 per in
ment of the Halle orchestra, the band has been three terms ; and a full course of study is
obliconstituted from that source, with the same gatory upon each student.
conductor, and the same leader. Dr. Hans The place once occupied by the Hargreaves
Kichter consequently succeeded Sir Charles Choral Society, and the Manchester Choral
Hall^ in the former position. The concerts are Society, both founded in 1840, may be said to
strenuous and exploring than those of the be filled, now, by the Manchester Philhar-less
not per- monic Choral Society, established by Mr. G.HalM concerts, and choral works are
formed but the assemblies have a socially Brand Lane in 1880, and trained and conducted
intimate character from the limitations of the by him. The society has a singing membership
of 600. From these, a chorus is selected whichsubscription list.
Lane's subscription concerts.The Hall:^ Concerts, it has been said, were takes part in Mr.
established the year 1857. From that date Six of these concerts are given each season. Onin
energy choral evenings the band is furnished from thethey were conducted with remarkable
HaU^ orchestra.and worthiness of aim by Sir Charles Halle,
VocalSocietywas formedone break in the sequence TheManchestertill his death in 1895,
1860 (no concerts were in 1867, largely on the initiative of the lateoccurring in the year
J. St. J. B. Joule, and the late Henry Wilsongiven from April 18, 1860, to October 17, 1861).
first director—for conductor in the ordinaryOn the death of Sir Charles, the concerts for the its
neverSir Arthur Sullivan, sense of the term, the society has had.season were,conducted by
Barnby, Dr. Mr. Wilson was succeeded in 1885 by Dr. HenrySir C. Villiers Stanford, Sir Joseph
Watson, who still directs. The choir consistMackenzie, Dr. Brodsky,F. H. Cowen, Sir A. C.
someand Mr. E. H. Wilson of some fifty selected voices, and includesMr. George Henschel,
conducted ofthe best vocal talent,amateurand professional,the chorus-master. Dr. Cowen
the district. It gives four public concertsthrough following season of 1896-97. Since inthe
season, and in its accumulated reper-beenpermanently during thethatdatetheconductorshiphas
meantime tory are a large number of important works,in the hands of Dr. Richter. In the
old and new, which through its concerts haveguarantors had been formed toa society of
time in Manchester.this adminis- been heard for the firstcontinue the concerts ; and under
workconcerts A special feature of the society's is itstration, Dr. Richter's direction, theand
unaccompanied part-singing.enhanced their own famehave sustained and
Gentlemen's Glee Club, an offshootThe orchestra Theand the city's musical reputation.
establishedfrom the Concerts, wasperformers. The chorus numbersconsists of 100
in 1830. Its constitution was modelled onare given each season400. Twenty concerts
London Glee Club. Six meetingsthe band that of thein the large Free Trade Hall ; and
MarchBradford, are held during the session, in October toalso engagements in Leeds,fulfils
inclusive. To commemorate the seventy-fifthNewcastle, Burnley,Sheffield, Huddersfield,
existence, a brief history of theyear of itsand other towns in the North.
Club has been published.from time to time beenMany efforts have
The series of public concerts at the Schillermusic in Manchester,made in behalfof chamber
four in number, are often madeCharles Halle Anstalt,including those of Sirbut all—; '
Jacovaooi,specially impresarioimportant by the new chamber music Thewithoutaconductor.
order notthey inintroduce, and by the manager,representative char- a popular and energetic
of tryingacter of the artists thoughtand composers who appear to stop the performances,
of whomat them. violoncellist,firstthe ability of his
Manci-and soManchester reports ;possesses two specially fine organs he had heard favourable
the ranks to—one fromby Cavaille-Col, in the Town Hall, and suddenly raisednelli was
the firstwasone by Messrs. Henry 'Aida'Willis & Son, at the appear as a conductor.
everythingasWhitworth Hall and,of the Manchester University. opera conducted by him,
performancethatDr. J. Kendrick Pyne, the city organist, gives satisfactorily, fromwent off
Italy.occasional recitals on the latter, conductor inand regular there was a new
attempt, in theSaturday successfulevening recitals on the former. For Thanks to his first
to bethe was engagedHenryWatsonMusic Library, seeLlBKARiES, year Mancinellifollowing
during the f^tes ofvol. ii. 708. at Jesip. H. w. the musical director
occasion he re-MANCHICOURT, On thisPibem be, French- Spontini's centenary.
' and theFlemish composer of the earlier part of the Spontini's La Vestale,'vived
reflected on the16th century, was bom grand workat B^thune in Artois. execution of this
the directionre-engaged forIn 1539 he is described as Phonascus or choir- conductor, who was
In 1876 Manci-master of Tournai Cathedral, and some time of the orchestra of the Apollo.
composer withbefore 1556 received success as aa canonry at Arras. He is nelU had his first
' Pietroadramabysaid to have lived afterwards at Antwerp. His his Intermezzi to Messalina,'
he wrote Intermezzicompositions, fairly numerous, chiefly motets Cossa. The following year
author.and ' of the samechansonswith a few masses,'mostlyappeared to the Cleopatra
Bologna,in 1881 forin the miscellaneous collections of the time. Mancinelli left Rome
the Principal ofSome volumes, however, contain works ex- where was engaged to behe
same time theclusively almost exclusively, Manohicoiirt Musicale, and at theor by the Lioeo
Comunale, and thea book of motets, nineteen in all, a 4-6, was conductor of the Teatro
Petronio, the oldpublished by Attaignant in 1539, another book Maestro di Cappella of San
Duringcontaining published famous university town.of motets 14 a 5-6, was basilica of the
composed two Masses andby Phalese at Louvain in 1554. This latter his stay there he
introduced several im-volume was dedicated by Manohicourt to many other sacred pieces,
symphonyAntoine Perrenot, Bishop of Arras, known provements in the Liceo, organised a
and was the first to acquaintafterwards as Cardinal Granvelle, and prob- andquartet society,
instrumentalmusicably it was to him that the composer owed the Bolognesewithvocal and
his canonry at Arras. In 1545 Tylman Susato by foreign composers. In 1884 he gave the
Antwerp published a book of twenty-nine firstperformanceofhis opera, 'Isoradi Provenza,of
chansons by Manchicourt. One of these which was received with great applause.
chansons, 'Sortez mes pleurs,' has beenreprinted After five years he left Bologna, attracted,
Oollectio, xii. Eitner, in the perhaps, to other countries by the prospect ofin Commer's torn.
Quellen-Lexikcm, speaks in the highest terms of pecuniaryimprovement in his position. During
'a motet, Vidi Speciosam,' a 8, taken from the the season of 1886 he visited London, and gave
ofMontannsand Neuber, but a concert, in which he conducted worksThesaurus 1564; classical
motets have yet beennone of Manchicourt's and some of hisown compositions. The success
reprinted in modern score. j. R. M. of this concert brought him an invitation to
MANCINELLI, Luigi, born at Orvieto, write an oratorio for the next Norwich Festival,
when heFeb. 5, 1848. He was six years old and the engagement to conduct the Italian
began to study the piano under the direction Opera during the Jubilee season at Dniry Lane.
his father, a distinguished amateur. At the His powers as a conductorof received full
recognitwelve he went to Florence to be a tion and 'age of ; his oratorio Isaias,' executed at
pupil ofProfessor Sbolci, oneofthemosttalented Norwich in October was1887, unanimously
Italian violoncellists. The boy showed great praised. He was re-engaged by Harris as
violoncello, and his progressaptitude for the conductor for the season of 1888 at Covent
was very rapid. While studying with Sbolci, Garden, and has revisited London annually
short course in harmony and counter- almost everhe had a since. His opera, 'Ero e Leandro,'
were the onlypoint from Mabellini. These first performed in concert-form at the Norwich
lessons he ever had he has acquired his Festival of
; 1896, was presented on the stage
atcomposition from the study of the Madrid,knowledge of Nov. 30, 1897, and at Covent Garden
without any of the great masters on July 11, 1898. From 1888 to 1895
ManManoinelli's professional career began in cinelli held the place of musical director and
he was for a time one of the conductorFlorence, where at the Theatre Royal of Madrid. He
orchestra Lavioloncello players in the of was conductorfirst of the operatic enterprises carried
He was engaged in the same capacity on by HarrisPergola. at the Metropolitan Opera, New
when this 'the Apollo in Rome in 1874, York. His oratorio, Agnes,at Saint ' was given,
by unexpected circumstances, was left at the Norwichtheatre, Festival of 1905. f. kz. \MANDOLINE 39MANCINI
next ofsteel also spun overMANCINI, Fkanoesco, an Italian composer, ; the second and first
pairs are of steelborn at Naples in 1674. first a pupil only. Mahillon, in the Cata-At
at the Conservatorio in logue ofthe Musical Instruments in the Brusselsdi San Loreto he, 1728,
became principal least Conservatoire, 245, says that themaster. He wrote at p. lowest pair
is of gut, thetwenty operas for performance in Naples, but third pair of steel, the second
'1'hisopera, 'Hydaspes' {g.v.) or Idaspe Fedele,' pair ofcopper, and the first pair of gut. Berlioz
produced in London, May makes recommends that theG strings23, 1710, his should be of gut
spun with wire,name best known to English musicians. He theD of brass, the A, of
alsocomposed some oratorios, and his reputation steel, and the E, ofthin gut. The Mandoline is
was very high. Hein Italy died at Naples in
1739. The Dictionary Musicians, 1827,of
gives the date of his birth as but1691, this is
probably incorrect. v. K.
in Mecklenburg, was cantor at the Dom-Schule
(Cathedral School) at Schwerin from 1572 to
1578 ; in 1584 became a member of the chapel
of the Duke of Brunswick at Wolfenbiittel, and
was appointedin 1587 capelhneister. He was
afterwards employed as librarian to the Duke,
and died at Wolfenbiittel about 1620 (Kade
gives the date 1612). He is the author of two
simple settings of the Passion according to St.
Matthew and St. John, first published in 1620,
and since reprinted in Schoberlein's Schatz des
liturgischen Gesanges. With the exception of
a book of German secular songs a 4 and his5,
works are occasionalother mostly compositions
played with a plectrum of tortoiseshell,
whalefor weddings and funerals, inthe form of motets
bone, horn, or ostrich-quiU, more or less flexible,
and madrigals, with Latin or German texts.
which is held in the right hand, the left being
See Quellen-Lexikon. j. B. M.
employed to stop the strings, for which purposeMANDOLINE (Ital. Mandolino) is a small
there are seventeen frets across the finger-board.
and very beautifully formed stringed instrument
The scale of the instrument is three octaves and
ofof the lute kind, with deeper convexity back
one note, from the G below the treble stave to
than the lute. It is, as its name implies, less
the octave of A above it. The Serenade in
in size than theMandola orMand6ea, a much
Mozart's 'Don Giovanni,' 'Deh vieni,' was
Mandorla, sig-scarcer instrument. Mandola, or
written to be accompanied by the Mandoline,
nifies 'almond,' and it has been supposed that
and Gr^try wrote a charming accompaniment
the shape of the Instrument has given it the
for it in the serenade in 'L'amant jaloux.'
name. But this cannot be accepted, since the
There is a song with mandoline
'almost universal use of the syllable Man '
un'in Michael Ame's Almena' (1764).
changed by phonetic variation tochanged, or
In the former song the pizzicato of the violins
the first syllable'Ban,' 'Pan,' 'Tan,' etc., for
is of a different colour of tone, and offers but a
ofnames of lute instruments from East to West,
poor substitute.
wider etymological field.removes it to a
The Mandoline is however, the correctnot,
theThere are two varieties of Mandoline,
instrument. Don Juan would have played a
Neapolitanand theMilanese ; the former having
'Bandurria, a kind of half guitar and truly
latter usually five.four pairs of strings, the
national Spanish instrument, sometimes
incor'The Milanese Mandurina ' is tuned
rectly called a Mandoline. The back of the
bandurria is flat ; it has only in common with
with a plectrumthe Mandoline that it is played
of tortoiseshell, called in Spanish 'pua,' and
Kensington with sixThere is one at South that it is the practice to insert a plate of the
pairs, tuned same substance in the belly belowthe sound-hole
to prevent the plectrum scratching. The
bandurria has twelve strings tuned in pairs, the
three notes of catgut, the lower of silkhigher
much moreoverspun with metg.1. It is tuned
is rare inThe Milanese variety, however,
deeply than the MandoUne. The compass is intuning ofcomparison with the Neapolitan, the
all three octaves.
the violin, in fifths. Thewhich is like that of
spun over withlowest pair of strings is of gut,
thelike a guitar first string ;silver or copper,40 MANDOLINE MANDOLINE
Our movement,illustrationisfroman instrument Beethoven,' it is only in oneformerly L. V.
in timemthe possession of Carl Engel. probably printed for the firstand was
TogetherBeethoven's friend Krumpholz was a virtuoso edition of this Dictionary.the first
andon mandolinethe Mandoline, and this probably adagio in E flat forexplains with an
supplementarythe fact of Beethoven's contained in thehaving written a piece harpsichord, it is
&for the works in Breitkopj^instrument (Thayer, ii. The auto- volume of Beethoven's49).
It will be observedgraph is to be found in the complete edition.volume of MS. Hartel's
Trio major)sketches and with which the (0fragments preserved in the British that the phrase
Museum, Beethoven afterwardsAdd. MS. 29,801. Though entitled the same whichbegins is
' No. 1.Sonatina per il Mandolina (sic). Allegretto of op. 14,Composta da used in the
Mandolino. ^mM^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Cembalo. .
V 1
• • • • ^
[«•-•-V i • I I ^1 1^1Mill
i^ppss— :;
MANERIA. A term applied in the early In the following he was elected organistyear
MiddleAges to certain systematic arrangements and director of the choir at King's College,
of the scale, analogous to the Mixed Modes of Cambridge. Here his work as a choir-trainer
a somewhat later period. The roots of the has borne good fruit. His more ambitious
'several systems comprised in the series corre- compositions include an oratorio, Ecee Homo,'
'sponded with the finals of the Modes ; each 1882 and a Te Deum,' 1887, besides services,
system comprehending one Authentic and one anthems, etc. He has writtennumerous
hymnPlagal Mode consequently, the number of the tunes, which have become widely known, and
wasManeria only half that of the Modes them- has edited several successful hymn-books, as
selves. They were named and numbered in a well as bringing out an edition of Tallis's famous
barbarous mixture of Greek and Latin, thus : 'Forty-part Song' He is an earnest(1888).
Modes I. and II. were called Authentus- et student of the work of Handel, and made a
Plaga, Proti; III. and IV., Authentus et Plaga, minute study of the sketches, etc., in the
Deuteri ; V. and VI. , Authentus et Plaga, Triti Fitzwilliam Museum, contributing an important
VII. andVIII. ,Authentus et Plaga, Tetarti section on them to the Catalogue Music,and of
i.e. the Authentic and Plagal of the First, published in 1893. In 1894 the discovery of
'Second, Third, and Fourth Maneria. When the original wind parts of the Messiah ' in the
number of Modes was increased pedantic Foundling Hospital—in which he was partlythe the
Maneria followed by a performance offaction affected to regard the ofA and concerned—was
as duplicates of the First and Second at a differ- the oratorio with a reconstructed score, in
ent pitch and hence originated the confusion King's College Chapel. He was appointed
choirmaster of the Norwich Festival in 1902.mentioned in Dodecachordon. Afterwards,
M.the necessary existence of six Maneria for the (Brit. Mus. Biog.)
TwelveModes was freelyacknowledged, w. s. K. MANNERS, Charles (real name Southcote
'manner' ; derived, like Mansergh), was born Dec. 27, 1857, in London,MANIER (Ger.), lit.
of Colonel Mansergh, R.H.A. and J.P.our word 'manner,'through the French inaniere., the son
'a manner,' and manier, 'to handle,' from the forCork and Tipperary. He was taught singing
' has two entirely dis- at the AcademiesofMusicin DublinandLondon,Latin manus, a hand. ' It
latter for a short time by Shakespeare,tinct meanings, one dealing with the aesthetics at the
In 1881 he began histhe other with its technicalities. In and later in Italy.ofmusic,
word signifies career as a chorus-singer, and joined Carte'sthe first of these connections the
some travelling company. On Nov. 25, 1882, he'mannerism,' or the faulty adherence to
debut as Private Willis onstyle, bringing such peculiarity made a successfulpeculiarity in
' SavoyIt is the abuse of indi- the production of lolanthe ' at theinto undue prominence.
Theatre. Henext sangin the provinces with theviduality, without which quality no great thing
Rosa Company, and appeared in 1890 atcan be accomplished in any art. Carl
'in Onthe same Covent Garden as Bertram Roberto. 'The second meaning of the word is
introduced Oct. 17, 1892, he sang the part of Princeas the French ogr&meTis, ornaments
the production in England ofupon, the melody, whether Gremin oninto, and built
' atmarks, or added at Tchaikovsky's Eugene Oniegin ' under Lagoindicated by small notes, or
the Olympic Theatre, and later as the King inthe will ofthe performer. [SeeAgrSmbns, vol. i.
In 1893 he sang in America.subject is fully treated.] J. M. 'Lohengrin.'p. 52, where the
was engaged by Harriswas born From 1894 to 1896 heMANN, Arthur Henry, Mus.D.,
for English and Italian opera, also byat Norwich, May 16, 1850, and was a chorister both
the autumn of 1895, notably asDr. Buck. He was a Hedmondt inin the cathedral under
Mephistopheles, etc.and the King in 'Maritana,'Fellow of the College of Organists in 1871,
His voice is a hasso cantante of remarkably fineMus.B. degree at Oxford in 1874 andtook the
1896-97 he undertook a successfulHe held the post of quality. Inthat of Mus.D. in 1882.
South Africa. On hisfrom English opera tour inorganist at St. Peter's, Wolverhampton,
return he established the Moody-Manners OperaatTettenhall Parish Church from 18711870 ; ;
Company, and has made extensive tours in theBeverley Minster in 1875.and was appointed to
arrangetoprovinces, with three separate Henowbegancompanies, the violins at the theatre.
to takeprincipal company and generallybeing 115 in number, with and compose for the band,
Inplace.a of therepertory ofthirty operas. In 1902 and a prominent part in the music1903,
Posen,transferred tohe gave two seasons at wasCovent Garden, and in 1848 the regiment
andWieprecht,1904 a noticed bylonger one at Drury Lane. In the latter and here Manns was
fromhimselfyear transferredand in 1906, with characteristic generosity, through his assistance
Berlin,inorchestrahe gave an operatic festival, personal band to Gung'l'swithout themilitary
post of con-to theprofit, at advancedSheffield, in aid of funds for the and was at length
Gardenat Kroll'sviolin playerfoundation of a university in that town. By ductor and
soloHere, underof prizes for the best operas produced by —the Crystal Palace
and composi-harmonyBritish composers, and by giving opportunities Oyer, he worked hard at
music and otherto provincial seeing great operas, tion, produced much danceamateurs of and
popular. After theverythe Moody-Manners Company has already had pieces which were
fireestablishment by ina good influence on contemporary music. destruction of Kroll's
chosen by Herr vonHis wife, nie Fanny Moody, was bom Nov. 1851, Mr. Manns was
then inwell-known war-minister),23, 1866, at Kedruth, Cornwall. She was Roon (the
regimentinfantry attaught singing by Mme. Sainton-Dolby at her command of a crack
bandmaster. Colonelprivate Academy. On April 25, 1885, she Konigsberg, to be his
a musician, wassangthe principalsoprano music in hermistress's von Roon, though not himself
cantata female very anxious the band of his regimentlast composition, 'Florimel, ' a for that
service. He accordinglyvoices, at a Memorial Concert at Prince's Hall, should shine in the
under Sainton. In February 1887 she made gave his bandmaster every opportunity of
dis'her debut as Arline in the Bohemian Girl ' at play. At his instance Beethoven's Symphonies
so universally known as theyLiverpool with the Carl Bosa Company, and on (not at that time
April 30 appeared very successfully as Micaela are now) were arranged for the band, and in
at Drury Lane. After singing in the provinces other ways the music of the regiment was made
afterwards movedwith that company for three years she re- very prominent. Itwas soon
appeared at Drury Lane in 1890 as Mignon, from Konigsberg to Cologne, and there enjoyed
Margaret, etc. She was married to Mr. Manners a still greater reputation. Manns, however,
on July 5, 1890, and in October sangin Italian longed for a wider field, and wisely leaving to
as Margaret and Alice. In 1892 she was the others the department of composition, in which
original English Tatiana in Tchaikovsky's opera his abilities were quite sufficient to have ensured
above mentioned. She has accompanied her himconsiderable success,hefortunatelyaccepted,
husband on all his tours, and has sung in his in the spring of an engagement as sub-1854,
London seasons, in addition to parts mentioned, conductor in the band of the Crystal Palace,
Elizabeth, Elsa, BrUnnhildein 'Siegfried, 'Juliet then a wind band only, under Herr Sohallehn.
Sept. 26, 1902, the heroine on the production This position gavehe up in October, and after
'ofPizzi's Rosalba ' at CoventGarden Sept. following
; 22, his profession at Leamington and
1903, Militza on the production at Covent Edinburgh (in Mr. Wood's opera band) he
'Garden of M'Alpin's Crescent and the Cross,' became conductor of the summer concerts at
'founded on Coppee's Pour la Couronne,' which Amsterdam in 1855, and finally, in the autumn
won the £250 prize offered by the artists ; on of that year, was engaged as conductor of the
June 17, 1904, she sang the part of Senta in Crystal Palace band, a post upon which he
'the revival of The Flying Dutchman, ' atDrury entered on Oct. 14, 1855. The music at the
Lane, etc. The possessor of a, pleasant light Crystal Palacewas atthattimeina veryinchoate
soprano voice, an actress and singer of great condition, the band was still a wind band, and
charm, Madame Fanny Moody excels in the the open Centre Transept was the only place
poetic and pathetic parts associated with for its performances. Under the efforts of the
Christine Nilsson. A. c. new conductor things soon began to mend.
MANNS, SiK August, born of poor parents He conducted a 'Saturday Concert' in the
at Stolzenburg, near Stettin, inNorthGermany, 'Bohemian Glass Court' the week after his
1825. HisMarch 12, first teacher was the arrival through
; the enlightened liberality of
atvillage-musician the neighbouring village of the directors the band was changed to a full
Torgelow, from whom he learnt the violin, orchestra, a better spot was found for the
clarinet, and flute. His next instruction was music, adjoining the Queen's rooms (since
received from Urban, the town-musician of burnt) at the north-east end, and at length,
Elbing, near which his parents had removed, through the exertions of Robert Bowley, then
to whom he was apprenticed. Here he Generaland Manager, the concert-room was
enhad regular practice in an orchestra, especially closed and roofed in, and the famous Saturday
that of the Dantzig opera company during its Concerts began, and were continued with a
Elbing and this led to his constantannual visits to ; advance, both in the value and variety
Dantzigentering one of the regimental bands of of the selections and the delicacy and spirit of
while he played among the first the performances,as first clarinet, until 1901. Manns's dutiesMANTUA 43MANON LESOAUT
as conductor, at the Op4ra-Oomique, Paris, Jan. 19,both of the daily music and of 1884,
the Saturday and in English by the Carl Rosa Company, atconcerts, as well as ofthenumerous
fUes and extra performances, where music had Liverpool, Jan. 17, 1886, and at Drury Lane
to be arranged for large combined masses of Theatre, May 7, 1885. In French at Covent
wind and string, were arduous. Garden, May 19, 18«1.naturally very
Mendelssohn (in a letter from Leipzig dated 5. Manon Lescaut. Opera in four acts,
liFeb. 27, 1841) says, 'I have conducted fifteen bretto anonymous, music by Giacomo Puccini.
public performances since Jan. 1 enough to Produced at Turin, Feb. and atCovent
; 1, 1893,
knock up any man.' What would he have Garden, May 1894.14,
said if he had had to do this with all the MANTIUS, Edtjaed, a tenor singer of great
added difficulties caused by the calls of the reputation in Northern Germany, was born
atLondon season on his musicians, and with two Sohwerin, Jan. 18, 1806. He studied law,
band-performances to arrangeand conduct every first in 1825, at the university of Eostock, and
day as well ? Manns has therefore only rarely afterwards at Leipzig. It was at the latter
taken engagements outside the Crystal place that his fine voice attracted generalPalace.
In 1859 he conducted the Promenade Concerts attention and that he began to study singing
at Drury Lane, andtheWinter Series atGlasgow under Pohlenz. After having sung with great
and following success at festival at Halle, conducted byin 1879 years. In 1883 he re- a
placed Sir Michael Costa as conductor of the Spontini, he went to Berlin, and by his
interHandel Festival, and conducted the subsequent pretation ofthe tenor parts in Handel's oratorios
(Samson, Judas, etc.), soon became the declaredfestivals until 1900. He the Sheffield
of the Berlin public. How much hisFestivals of 1896 and 1899. [He was knighted favourite
in talent was appreciated in the house of the1903.]
a remarkable article the Times of Mendelssohn family may be gathered fromIn in
many passages in the published letters andApril 28, 1847, it is said that 'the German
to Mendelssohn. wasconductor makes the orchestra express all the other books relating It
that an imaginative Mantius who sang the principal tenor part inmodifications of feeling
single instru- the Liederspiel, 'Die Heimkehr aus der Fremde'soloist would give voice to on a
(' Stranger at the celebration ofment.' It is to this power of wielding his band Son and '),
that Manns accustomed his audience during the silver wedding of the elder Mendelssohns
addition (Devrient, 89). In 1830 he made his firstthe years of his conductorship. In p.
appearance on the stage at Berlin as Tamino into the many qualities necessary to produce
' Zauberflbte. ' In 1857 he gave his farewellgifted with an industry which thethis result he is
'devotion performance as Florestan in Fidelio.' Duringfinds no pains too great, and with a
twenty-seven years he had appeared in no lesswhich not only makes him strictly loyal to the
characters. After quitting the stage hecomposer, but has enabled than 152indications of the
much success to teaching,of a mere conductor, devoted himself withhim to transcend the limits
which, and he died at Ibnenau, in Thuringia, July 4,urge on his audience musicand to
1874. Mantius not only had an exceptionallyreceived with enthusiasm onlythough at first
he knew how to use in a trulyjustified his fore- fine voice, whichby a few, has in time amply
necessity. It is artistic and musical manner, but was also asight by becoming a public
remarkablygoodactor. Hisrepresentationsofthesay that his persistent perform-not toomuch to
Mozart's and Gluck's operas wereSchumann—to name but tenor parts inance of the works of
models of their kind. p. D.early part justly regarded asone composer out of several—in the
MANTUA. The earliestAcademy inMantuaat Sydenham, hasmade the Londonofhis career
'poetryandmusicwas that ofthe Invaghiti,'years before they forpublic acquainted with them
Cesare Gonzaga, Duke ofyounger founded in 1568 bywould otherwise havebecome so. [The
Guastalla. alwaysdownwards, Mantua, and Signor di Itfrom SullivanEnglish composers,
remained under royal patronage, and was onegrateful to Manns, whohad good reason to be
and most flourishing in Italy.a time when of the largestforward English works atbrought
founding of thisIn previous to theconductors were too timid 1494,the regular English
inAcademy, there was a magnificent venture on them.]
was represented one of thePrevost's Mantua, in whichLESOAUT. The Abb^MANON
'the Orfeo of Angeloopera- earliest Italian dramas— 'has attracted manyfamous romance
Poliziano. This pastorale was composed incomposers.
at the instance of Francesco Gonzaga,Halevy. Pro- two daysin three acts, by1. Ballet
17th century, saysDuke Of Mantua. In theParis, May 1830.duced at the Op^ra, 3,
Muratori, music, and more especially theatricalProduced in Paris, 1836.2. Opera, by Balfe.
in high esteem the attentionAuber, music, was held ;in three acts, by3. Op^ra-comique,
gorgeous musicalOp&a of every one was directed toProduced at thelibretto by Scribe.
courtsentertainments, and more especially theParis, Feb. 23, 1866.Comique,
and Mantua tried to outshine eachlibretto by of ModenaOpera in three acts,4. Manon.
Their respective Dukes,Produced other in by Massenet.& Gille,Meilhao' ''
' includedFerdinando Gonzaga and Francesco us ; and he isd'Este, vied Manzuoli often visits '
in theirin obtaining the ' only celebratedbest musiciansand most highly among singers, notthe
people.and sensibleprized singers for their court. was butgood-heartedIt the profession,
composed by thecustom to pay a 'Serenata'sum of not less than 300 soudi He took part in the
nuptials of theto thethe best actors, and there was no stint of young Mozart in honour of
Oct. 17, 1771,expenditure on orchestra, costumes, at Milan,or scenery Archduke Ferdinand,
Mozartand lighting of his songs.{Annali d'Italia, 1690). c. M. p. and was encored in one
' Manzuoli,
' HerrMANUAL (from manus, ahand a clavier, writes again, Nov. 24, 1771 :'),
considered andor set of keys, to be played alwaysbeenby the hands. the musico, who has
has in his oldThe term his class,is used chiefly in reference to the esteemed as the best of
folly and arrogance.organ, where the keyboards for the hands and age given proof of hisa
for the sum ofthe keyboard for the feet have, for convenience, at the OperaHe was engaged
mention wasto be but as nodistinguished by some brief and suggestive 500 gigliati (ducats),
name. contract,hedemandedClavier (from clavis, a key) simply madeofthe jSerejurfainthe
making 1000.means a keyboard, without reference for singing in it,to the 500 ducatsmore
members of the with him 700 and a gold boxbody which it is to be The court only sent
but he returned theplayed. E. j. H. (and enough too, I think),
away withoutMANUALITER. Adirectionoffairlyfrequent 700 ducats and the box, andwent
thisoccurrence in the organ knowwhat the result ofworks of Bach and his anything. I don't
!fear A goodcontemporaries, indicating that the passage or history will be,—a bad one, I '
by G. B.piece so inscribed is to be played upon the portrait of Manzuoli was engraved
manuals alone, by L. Betti. Among histhe direction 'pedaliter' being Betti, after a design
Coltellini. j. M.used at the entry of the pedal. pupils was the celebrated
Kossini.MANZUOLI,Giovanni,was born at Florence MAOMETTOSECONDO. Operaby
about 1725. Having acquired a reputation Produced at San Carlo, Naples, during thein
and extended asItaly, he repaired, in 1753, to Madrid, where Carnaval of 1820 ; adapted
he was engaged at a high salary by Farinelli. Lb Slt;GE DB COIUNTHE. G.
In 1764 and 1765 he came to London, and, MAPLESON, James Henky, a well-knownby
'his performance, the serious opera acquired London impresario. He was a student at thea
degree offavour to which it had seldom mounted Royal Academy, appeared in public as a singer,
since its first establishment in this country and for some time played among the violas in
(Burney). His voice was the most the orchestra. Later he was assistant to Mr.powerful
soprano Majesty's Theatre,that had been heard on our stage since E. T. Smith atHer and when
the time of Farinelli, and his style was full of Mr. announced, in 1861, his intention
taste and dignity. The applause he earned was ofabandoning Italian Opera, Mr. Mapleson took
'hearty was the Lyceum,and unequivocal ; it a universal and commenced his career as a
thunder.' Other singers had more artand feel- manager. He opened there on June 18615,
'ing none possessed a sweeter or fuller organ. and on the 15th produced Verdi's; Ballo in
As to execution, he had none was Maschera for
; but he a ' the first time in England. His
good actor, though unwieldy in figure, and ill- first season at Her Majesty's was 1862, when
made. Kor was he young but the sensation TrebelU made her debut in England
; ; the
burnhe excited seems to have been irresistible. ing of Her Majesty's drove him to Drury
LaneAll the composers struggled to have the honour in 1868. He joined Mr. Gye in 1869 ;
of writing for him ; even Dr. Ame composed the coalition lasted two seasons, and in 1871 he
'his unsuccessful Olimpiade ' for the popular returned to Drury Lane. On April 28, 1877,
Manzuoli, however, left England atthe he reopenedsinger. Her Majesty's Theatre, and had a
'end of the season, and did not return. In the fewseasons therewithvarying success. Colonel
same year he was at Vienna, and he shortly Mapleson, as he was called, was in the habit of
to his native place, with the takingafterwards retired his company to the United States in the
'title of Singer to the Court of the Grand Duke intervals of the London season. The Mapleson
of Tuscany.' Memoirs, an ainusing volume of reminiscences,
appearedIn a letter of Mozart's,' his first afterstarting in 1888, an^ Mapleson died Nov. 14,
on his Italian tour, Jan. 7, 1770, he says of a 1901, in London.
'whom he heard, canta un poco Manzuo- MARA,singer Gertkudb Elisabeth, one of the
una bellissima voce greatestlisoh ed a forte ed h gik singers of the 18thcentury, was bornat
veochio,' etc. Burney heard him again, in Cassel, Feb. 23, 1749. Her mother died soon
September of that year, taking part in a service after the birth of this child, and her father, a
poorin a convent near Florence, and was delighted, musician, named Schmeling, is said to have
though the voice seemed less powerful, even in adopted the plan of securing his little daughter
than when he was in England. in ana small church, arm-chair, while he attended to his affairs.
in one ofthe FromHis name occurs once more, elder this cause, it appears, she fell into arickety
letters,written inthe followingAugust, state, fromMozart's which it was long ere she recovered,
I In the ooUection of the present writer. ifindeed she ever recovered entirely. SchmelingMARAGERTRUDE ELIZABErH''
contrived to increase his income mending though strongly prejudiced againstby her on
musical instruments, and the little Gertrude one account of her nationality, he was immediately
day got hold ofa violin, and began to drawmusi- converted by her singing an air of Graun's at
soundscal from it, being then only four years sight, and finally engaged her for life to sing at
old. For this she was punished by her father Court, with a salary of fr. 11,250. Here she
but the temptation was too strong be resisted,to profitedby the hintsofConcialiniandPorporino,
and she seized every opportunity of practising and perfected her singing of slow and legato
on such instruments as she could find, whenever airs.
Schmeling's back was turned. He found her, In was at this juncture that, in spite of all
however, before long, to his astonishment, play- advice, and although the King twice refused
ing on a violin, on which she had mastered a his consent, she man-ied the violoncellist, Mara.
scale. Struck with her genius, he gave her a She soon discovered her folly, and regretted it
and foundfew lessons, her so apt a pupil that, when too late. This part of her life was
exnot long afterwards, he was able to play duets tremely unhappy she was made miserable on
with her before a few amateurs. But even now, the one hand by the excesses of a debauched and
in her fifth year, the poor child could not stand dissipated husband, and on the other by the
without support, and her father was obliged to tyranny of a kingwho allowed her orno liberty
carry her to the place where she was to play. indulgence. On one occasion, she was actually
By favour of an amateur, Schmeling and his brought from her bed, by his orders, transmitted
were enabledchild to visitthe fair at Frankfort, through an oflScer and guard of soldiers, and
where the little girl's performance excited great forced to sing at the Opera, though
complainwonder. A subscription was set on foot, a ing, truly or untruly, of indisposition. She at
better education was given to her, andwhen she length succeeded in escaping to Dresden, where
had reached the age of nine her health had im- she was detained by the Prussian ambassador.
proved, and she was able to proceed Vienna Frederick, however,to who had lost some front
with her father, and there give some concerts. teeth, and could no longer play the flute, cared
The English ambassador advised Schmeling to now but little for music, and gave her a tardy
take the child to England, advice on which the permission to annul her engagement. Mme.
poor musician, furnished with letters of intro- Mara, free at last, arrived in 1780 at Vienna,
duction by the ambassador, gladly acted. He where Storace was playing in oiiera buffa, for
soon obtained the patronage ofmany noble and which the Emperor had a great liking. This
influential persons, including his Mara's line, and she received.the Queen, for was not was coldly
wonderful child. The little girl, petted and Provided, however, with a letter to
Marieadmired by all the great ladies, was, however, Antoinette from theEmpress, she passed through
persuaded by them to give up the violin, which Germany, Holland, and Belgium, singing at
they thought an unfeminine instrument, and various places on her way. At Munich Mozart
was encouraged to sing. Her voice was aheady heard her, but was not favourably impressed.
resonant and clear, but she had, of course, had He wrote, Nov. 13, 1780, 'Mara has not the
Schmeling, by the help of her good fortune to please me. She does too littleno instruction.
protectresses, placed the young Gertrude under to be compared to a Bastardella (yet this is her
the tuition of the musico Faradies. She made peculiar style), and too much to touch the heart
necessary to like a Weber [Aloysia], or any judicious singer.rapid progress, but it soon became
fewremove her from the power of her profligate He tells a story of her and her husband a
instructor. days later (letter of Nov. 24), which shows both
found it im- of them in a very unpleasant light, as behavingReturning to Cassel, Schmeling
daughter, foolish effrontery and pretension. Shepossible to get an engagement for his with
the Court ; for the King was again at Vienna in March 1781, and Mozartas he had hoped, at
singers. Hiller mentions her as giving a concert there. Shewould nothear ofany but Italian
Paris in 1782. Here she found thenow received her into his music-school, at Leip- reached
rivalry immediatelyzig, where she remained for five years. In 1771 celebrated Todi, and a
with a voice sprang up between these two singers, whichshe came out from this academy,
divided society into factions, as when Handelremarkable for its extent and beauty, a great
and a brilliant style of and Buononcini, or Gluck and Picoinni, wereknowledge of music,
great singer that opposed to each other by amateurs incapable ofsinging. She was the first
admiring both. Many anecdotes are told of theGermany had produced. Her education had
the music of Hasse, Graun, Mara and Todi dispute, among which one hasbeen ,formed on
Porpora, and Sac- become famous. At a concert where bothBenda, Jommelli, Fergolesi,
appeared, an amateur asked his neigh-chini ; but Hasse, with his vocal passages and singers
' which thefavourite master. Her bour, Quelle etait la meilleure ' : tofacile style, was her
' 'g" other replied, C'est Mara.' C'est bien Todivoice extended from the to e'". She made
(bient6t dit) was the punning opera of Hasse's at Dresden, andher d^but in
Maradifficulty, the King, Two years later, in the spring of 1784,was successful. With
to hear her and, made her first appearance in London, where herFrederick II., was persuaded ;— ;;
numeroushusband, and hergreatest successes awaited her. Her worthlessShewas engaged
playerflutewhom the lastwas ato sing six nights —amongat the Pantheon. Owing to lovers
thespendhelped her to.hadthe general election, she sang to small audiences, named Florio,—
until shehad earned,which sheand her merits were immense sumsnot recognised until she
toand compelledmeans,herself withoutsang at Westminster Abbey, in the Handel found
following thisteaching. By byCommemoration, when she was heard supportwith
competence,smallacquired adelight sheby nearly 3000 people. She sang in occupation,
in the firelost to her (1812)againthe repeated Commemoration in 1785, and in which was
merchantsdestroyed thewhich1786 made her iirst Moscow,appearance on the London of
toit. Forcedshe had placedin whichstage in a serious pasticcio, 'Didone Abban- house
of subsistence,a meansmore to seekdonata,' the success of which was entirely begin oncedue
travelledold, Marasixty-four yearsto her singing. In March when almost1787 Handel's opera
andreceived,she was kindly
' Livonia, whereof Giulio Cesare ' was revived for a benefit, and in
herselfnow supportedBevel. SheMara played in it the part of Cleopatra, which settled in
andby teaching,four yearsCuzzoni sung again for abouthad in 1724. It was so
successrevisitLondon,desire tothenformed the strangeful that it was constantly repeated during the
she arrivedglory. Hereher formerseason. Mara again took a leading the the scene ofpart in
though Lordto Fetis),Festival in Westminster in 1819 (accordingAbbey in 1787, and
before theputs her visitMount-Edgcumbeshe remained connected with the opera in
poor oldcase, theMoscow. In anyLondon till 1791, after which, though she sang burning of
mysterious manner byannounced in aoccasionally stage, woman,on the and even in English
' singermost celebratedMessrs. Knyvett as aballad operas, she was more frequently heard in
liberty to name,' ap-they were not atconcerts and oratorios. For these shewas better whom
when it wasKing's Theatre,peared at thesuited, as her figure was not good enough for
re-a shred of her voicediscovered that notthe theatre, nor was she a good actress. It is,
appeared again. Shemained,—and neverindeed, not impossible that her stage-presence
Kevel, Jan.Livonia, and died atsome extent disease returned towas still to spoiled by the
advanced age of eighty-four,1833, at thewhich crippled her as a child and there is a 20,
Goethe a poem forsoon after receiving fromcaricature in which she is shown, singing at a
' birthday, 'Sangreich war deinherWapping Concert' seated (Feb. 28, 1786), with
: (Weimar, 1831).the following apology below
Grosheim, was pub-A life of Mara, by G. C.
Mada%[ Mary . . begs her Polite Audience will
Cassel in 1823, and a more interestinglished atexcuse her sitting during the Performance, as she
contracted in her infancy a Disorder called Le Oenoue his Filr Freunde der Ton-one by Eochlitz in
Inflexible, or (Stiff Knee) which prevents her standing, her waskunst, vol. i. The best portrait of
even in the most Sacred Pieces of Music—her Knemies
engraved (oval) by J. Collyer, after P. Jean,call it Pride, but it must appear only malice, 'when she
could not rise before their Majesties ; or at the Sacred J. M.1794.
Name of Jehovah.
born atMARAIS, Maein (1656-1728), was
^There is, again, a letter of Mara's extant, in Paris, March 1656. At an early age he31,
which she apologises for not being able even to choir the Sainte-Chapelle, whereentered the of
thingsit on a platform throughout a concert, a he was a pupil ofChaperon. He learnt the bass
she had never been able to do, owing to the heat viol from Hottemann (or Hautmann) and his
fatigue, which she could not bear. Her Sainte- sixand pupil Colombo. After studying
had,health was, in fact, never strong. She monthswith the latterhismasterdismissedhim,
however, the advantage of knowing our lan- saying that he could teach him nothing further.
which she had learnt in childhood,guage, In 1685 he entered the RoyalBand as a soloist
visit England and she isduring her first to ; he was also a member of the orchestra of the
said to have gained large sums here by her Academic Royale de Musique, where he studied
oratorio-singing. composition under LuUy, sharing with Colasse
In 1788 she was singing in the Carnival at the direction of the orchestra. 1686 heIn
Turin, and the following year at Venice. She published his firstbook of ' Pieces de Viole ; he
London in andwent to Venicereturned to 1790, was then living in the Rue du Jour, near St.
more Londonagain in 1791. Coming once to Eustache. In the same atyear he produced
next season, she remained here for ten court, before 'in the the Dauphiness, an Idylle
DraAfter this time, she found her voice matique.'years. In April 1693, he brought atout
losing strength, and she quitted England in the Academicde Musique a setting ofA.Houdart
after enjoying a splendid benefit of over de la Motto's '1802, Alcide,' in which he collaborated
concert. She sang with-£1000 at her farewell with Louis de Lully. The work was revived in
effect at Paris, where she had the misfortune 1705, andout 1716, 1744. With the same
collaGrassini and then, after passing borator 'to come after ; he wrote a Pantomime des Pages,' part
through Germany, Mara retired to Moscow, of the score ofwhich is preserved at Berlin. His
bought a house, otherwhere she writings for the stage were 'Ariane et
1 In the collection of the preient vriter. Bacchus'(wordsbySaint-Jean),producedin1696' '
'Aloione' (words by Houdart de la Motte),1706 heresy, i.e. favouring the principles of the
and 'S^m^le' (words by 1709. Reformation. Their papers were seized, andthe same poet),
most successful of 'Alcione,' notes on the Bible and an English ConcordanceThe his operas was
a representation of a storm in which was long in Marbeck's handwriting were found, and he
much admired. In 1692 he published a set of was, moreover, charged with having copied an
' Pieces en Trio pour les Flutes, Violon et Dessus epistle of Calvin against the Mass. He and
'second book Pitees de Violede Viole. ' A of his three fellows were tried [on July 26, 1544]
appeared in 1701 a, third in 1711 (when he and condemned to the stake, but, whilst the
was living in the Rue de la Harpe) a fourth in sentence was immediately carried into execution
1725. Reprints of some1717 and a iifth in of against the others, Marbeck, owing to the favour
these exist. In 1723 he published a set of of Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, and the
' Sinfonies ' for violin, viol, and harpsichord, interposition of Sir Humphrey Foster, one of
Maraisentitled 'La Gamme.' About 1725 the Commissioners, obtained apardon. [Owing
retired to his house in the Rue de Lourcine, to a curious mistake, the fact of his pardon
wherehe occupiedhimselfwith horticulture. He was omitted in Foxe's Acts and Monuments.']
however, gave lessons two or three times a He indulged his opinions in secret until thestill,
week at a room in the Rue du Battoir. He died death of Henry VIII., but afterwards avowed
Aug. 15, 1728, and was buried in the Church them, and in 1550 published his Concordance,
Hippolyte in the Quartier Saint-Marcel. and also the work by which he is best known.of St.
shortly Common Prater noted, being anThe parish was suppressed in 1791, and The BoTce of
afterwards the church was destroyed. No trace adaptation of the plain chant of the earlier
it now remains, but the name is preserved in rituals to the first liturgy of Edward VI. Inof
Marais same year he took the degree of Mus.D.the Rue Saint-Hippolyte. At his death the
' was still organist in 1565.left in MS. a TeDeum ' (writtenand performed at Oxford. He
convalescence of the Dauphiness) and Marbeck escaped the Marian persecution, andon the
Concertos for violin and bass viol, written afterwards published The Lives Holy Saincts,some of
Marais The Holie Historie King Dauid,forthe electorofBavaria. Atan early age etc., 1574 ; of
married Catherine Damicourt, who survived etc., 1579 ; The Ripping up ofthe Pope's Fardel,
had nineteen children, four of 1581 A JBooke Notesand Oomm,onplaces, etc.,him. By her he ; of
also Examples drawn out Holy Scriptures,whom (three sons and a daughter) were 1581 ; of
Dialogue between Youth and Oldeviolists. On one occasion he presented his three etc., 1582 ; A
XIV., before whom the Age, 1584. He died at Windsor about 1585,musician sons to Louis
a concert, while His Soke Common Praier noted, was reprintedchildren and their father gave of
Whittingham for Pickering infourth boy turned over the leaves ofthe music. in facsimile bya
Rimbault was issued indaughters married a musiciannamed 1844 an edition byOne of his ;
bass viol by 1845, and a reprint was included in vol. ii. ofBemier. Marais improved the
the Jebb's Choral Jtesponsesand lAtanies, 1857.adding a seventh string, and by increasing Dr.
voices by Marbeck is giventhree lower strings by covering A hymn for threesonority of the
'a painting of M. in Hawkins's History, and portions of a massor twisting them. There is
'and for five voices by him, Per arma justitiae, ' areMarais, musioien,' in the museum at Blois,
vol. vi. ofBurney's Musical Extractsalso exists a mezzotint of Marin Marais, contained inthere
Additions fromand published (Brit Mus. Add. MS. 11,586.)paintedand engravedby A. Bouys
full Diet, Nat. Biog. West's Cccth. Org. C. F. 1704. In this he is represented seated, of ; ;
Williams's Degrees in Music, etc. w. H. H.bass viol across his knees. Thelength, with his
'In a marked, decisiveof the lower MARCATO (Ital.).seven strings and the covering
direction isevidently been manner.' The principal use of thisstrings of the instrument have
attention to the melody or subjectOf his musician sons, to draw theemphasised by the artist.
such a position that it might beMarais occurs in the when it is inthe name of Jean Louis
' ben mar-Pitees de overlooked, as for instance, II bassoimprintofthe fourthand fifth booksof '
cato,' in Chopin's Krakowiak, op. 11 ; or whenwith that ofRoland Marais, theVioles,' together
subjects both of which are to bedistinction. He pub- there are twoonly onewho attainedany
de Musique, brought prominently forward, as in the Ninthlished (in a Nouvelle Mithode1711)
Symphony of Beethoven (last movement)wherea solo violist in the Royaland in 1725 became
together in 6-4 time, theto his father's post. the two subjects comeBand, probably succeeding
Gbtterfunken,'as a words being 'Freude, schbnerhim in 1726, and praises himQuantz heard
'Seid umsohlungen,' etc.; and in thepublished (in 1735 and andgreat performer. He
Symphoniques of Schumann, No.Viole,'butnothing Etudes 2,two books of 'Piecesde1738)
tema.''Maroato il canto' and 'Marcato ilhis biography. w. B. known as to
'Beethoven also uses Queste note ben marcatoMERBECKE, John, bornMARBECK, or
quartet, op. No. slow(from (sic) in the string 18, 6,clerk, and afterwards 1541)1523, lay
' marcata, the Trio,Windsor was movement, and Melodia ' inGeorge's Chapel, ;organist of St.
No. 2.togetherwith three op. 9,arrested [inMarch 1542-43],
'Mareatissimo ' is used by Chopin, Etude,on a charge ofof the town,other inhabitants48 MAKCHMAKCELLO
Londcmpublished inop. No. was25, 11, at the end, by SohumaTin in the by Avison and Garth,
soonin Italianlast movement a secondof the Sonata in Fj minor, op. in 1757 in 8 vols. ;
Valle (1803-8).third by11, and in No. 8 of the Etudes and aSymphoniques. after (Venice) ;
concertosinstrumentalThe latter composer composedis the only one of notewho MaroeUo also
' madrigalesohi 'uses this direction at the beginning of a move- and Canzoni(1701),
Orsa,' pastoral
' inment, to deiiote the character virhole. besides Calistaof the 1717);
unpub.) 'Lamusic ;1725,This he does frequently, as 'Allegro marcato,' (libretto printed in
(Vicenza, 1702)opera ;in the third of the Intermezzi, op. 4 and Fede riconosoiuta,'
'Giuditta,' oratorio,
' Ben marcato,' cantata; andin Nos. 1 and 3 of the 'Arianna,'
was abovepoet heRomances, words. As aop. 28. As a rule Marcato is coupled all to his own
forthe Ubrettofurnishedwith a certain degree of force, as in Schumann's the average, and
(Venice, 1709).
' Sparta'first Novelette, Marcato con 'Arato inforza (Markirt Ruggieri's
pamphlet, IIsatiricalpublished aund kraftig) ' but in the Sonata, op. 14 (last In 1720 he
1733, 1738reprinted in 1727,movement), we find 'Leggiero marcato,' and Tmtro allaModa,
The Library of
' (Florence).near the end, Leggierissimo and 1741marcando. ' The (Venice),
a MS. TemiaVenice containssign which is equivalent to Marcato is < St. Mark in
ofDresden ancientLibraryover the separate notes, but this refers to Musicale the Royalthe ;
' his ownTimotheus,' tonotes two cantatas,themselves, and Marcato to the whole copies of
Dryden's poem, andtranslation ofItalian
' ViennamanyCourt Library ofMARCELLO, Benedetto, eminent Cassandra' ;
thecomworks, including theposer, a Venetian ofnoble autographs and otherbirth, son ofAgostino
'' Clori e Daliso,'La Morte d' Adone,'Maroello and Paola Capello, born July 31, or cantatas
' ' LibraryStravaganza ; and the RoyalAugust 1, 1686. He was highly educated, and and La
della musica nel cele-had great natural gifts for of Brussels 'II Tribnfomusic, and was a
an oratoriopupil of and brarsi la morte di Maria Vergine,'Lotti Gasparini. The violin was
was oncechorus. This scorehis first instrument, but he soon gave his whole for six voices and
who speaks highlyattention to singing and composition. His in the possession of F^tis,
effective instru-father, objecting of its expression, pathos, andto the time thus occupied, sent
Rossini has borrowed one of thehim from home to study law, but on his death mentation.
in his overture to theBenedetto returned to Venice, and contrived to most prominent themes
' Marcello'scombine the of with Siege of Corinth ' note for note frompractice music his
profesPsalm. For Marcello's Lettera Famigliare,sional avocations. He held important govern- 21st
of his works is inment posts, was a member of the Council of see Lotti. [A full catalogue
Forty in 1711, and afterwards Provveditore of the MonaishtfUfur Musikgesch. vol. 23 (1891),
187-197, supplemented in the Quellen-Pola (1730). Here he remained eight years, pp.
F. G.when his health having been ruined by the Lexikon.'\
climate he became Camerlengo at Brescia, and MARCH (Ger. Marsch Fr. Marche Ital.
; ;
died July 1739. His monument Marda), a form originally associated with mili-there 24, in
the church of S. Giuseppe states his age to have tary movements, and afterwards imported into
been fifty-two years, eleven months, and the music of the stage, the orchestra, the
dajrs.* He was elected Cavaliere chamber, and the oratorio. In ancient timestwenty-three
of the Filarmonici of Bologna in 1812, and was the sound of instruments was used as a means
also a member of the Pastori Arcadi of Rome. of stimulating the action of large numbers of
was wUd, but sobered people, whether inIn his youth he down in processes of labour requiring
middle life. His great work, in eight volumes, consentaneous effort, or as a means of exciting
folio, 'Estro poetico-armonico, Parafrasi sopra ardour in armies advancing theto battle by
primi 50 Psalmi, Poesia di Girolamo tones of 'thei Gius- shrill trump, the spirit-stirring
'tiniani,' appeared in two parts of twenty-five drum, the ear-piercing fife—equally familiar
Psalms each (Venice, 1724-27). They are being Milton's reference theto the effect of
'for one, two, three, and four soundcomposed voices, of trumpets loud and clarions, ' and the
'with figured basses, and occasionally with two influence on a mighty host of Sonorous metal
violins and violoncello obbligati and for blowing martial
; sounds.' Like most forms,
expression far surpass any other work however,of the in instrumental music, thedevelopment
kind. Dr. Burney, in his notice of Maroello of the March followed Wethat of vocal music.
{Hist. iv. 543), considers that they have been find Marches in the early operas, in the stage
overpraised, and that even in the composer's works of LuUy, and later Handelin those of
day his airs and themes were neither new nor and Rameau. In harpsichord music, too, it
original. In spite, however, of this judgment appears at a comparatively early date^ the
say 'it is not too much to that, as a whole, they Suites des Pieces ' theof French composer
constitute one of the finest productions Couperinof offering examples.
literature. An English edition,musical edited Of the Military March as now understood,
as a strictly rhythmical and harmonised
com1 Rieraann overlook thisBoth Eltnerand definitestatemeat,and
like thai ot death, as Julygive the date of birth, 24. ofwindposition, written for aband instruments.— — —
and intended not only to stimulate courage but able atchievements and glorious warres of this
to ensure the orderly advance it our kingdom in forraigne parts (being by thealso of troops,
does not appear that any examples are extant approbation of strangers themselves confest and
earlier than about the middle of the 17th acknowledged the best of all marches) was
century, and these seem to have originated through the negligence and carelessness of
the Thirty Years' War, and are to be drummers, andby long discontinuance so alteredduring
traced to the form of the VolksUed ; war-songs, and changed from the ancient gravity and
in which patriotic and military ardour was majestie thereof, as it was in danger utterly to
expressed lyrically, having long preceded the have bene lost and forgotten. It pleased our
use of instruments for that purpose. late deare to revive andexclusive brother prince Henry
A good specimen of the old German military rectifie the same by ordayning an establishment
march is that which Meyerbeer introduced in of one certaine measure, which was beaten in
' Feldlager in Schlesien,' and afterwards, 1610. Inhis Ein his presence at Greenwich, anno
'withotherportions ofthatwork, in his L'l^toile confirmation whereof wee are graciously pleased,
du Nord,' in the camp scene of which the fine at the instance and humble sute of our right
' Dessauer March stands prominently out and coun-old ' trusty and right well-beloved cousin
elaborationsfrom the with which the composer sellor Edward Viscount Wimbledon, to set down
has surrounded it. and ordaine this present establishment
hereThe earliest instance of the march form in under expressed. Willing and commanding all
rhythmical phrasing England andregular seems to be the drummers within our kingdoms of
well-known and beautiful Welsh tune, the principalitie of Wales exactly and precisely to
national Cambrian war-song, 'The March of observe the same, as well in this our kingdome,
ofHarlech. ' Thismelody [which seems as abroad in the service of any forraigne princetheMen
alterationto have appeared first in print in Jones's Eelicks or state, without any addition or
the Welsh Bards, 1794, and bears many whatsoever. To theend that so ancient, famous,of
of dating from no earlier than the 18th and commendable a. custome may be preservedmarks
' and to all posteritie,'century] is stated by Llwyd, the Bard of as a patterne precedent
Snowdon,' to have originated during the siege etc. etc.—This document also contains the
'Harlech Castle in 1468. If this be so. following notationof
justified saying (in hisDr. Crotch was in
the March.Voluntary before
'Specimens Different Kinds Music) theof of
miUtary music of the Welsh is superior to that
pou ton poll pou tou pou BPOUDKPou tou poutou pouRnation' reading the remarkof any other i.e.
with reference to the war-songs of the period. The March.
In England the Military March would seem
to have been of later development. Sir John m^^E^:
tou poungFou tou pou
Hawkins, however, in his History of Music,
'says : It seems that the old English march 1^=^^^
pou B poungPou tou
of the foot was formerly in high estimation, as
characteristic iswell abroad as with us ; its
dignity and gravity, in which respect it differs
greatly from the French, which, as it is given
and alert.' On thisby Mersennus, is brisk
subject Sir John quotes a bon mot of Sir Roger
Williams, a soldier of Queen Elizabeth's time,
Marshal Biron's remarkin answer to the French
thethat 'the English march being beaten by B poung
drum was slow, heavy, and sluggish ; the
reply 'That may be true, but, slow asbeing, poung potan^poll R Bpou tou pou R tou pouRR E R
it is, it has traversed your master's country
subscribed 'Arundell and Surrey. This is afrom one end to the other. ' Hawkins (writing
the original, signed by his Majestie.
' true copy ofin many late alterations1776) speaks of the
Ed. Norgate, Windsor.'
in the discipline and exercise of our troops,
The primary (indeed absolute) importance ofand the introduction of fifes and other
instrudrum the early form of the March isthe inreferencements into our martial music ' ; and, in
his JXctionnaire devery evident. Rousseau, into an earlier condition thereof, quotes, from
Musigue, in his article on that subject, thusWalpole's Catalogue RoyalandNobleAuthors,of —
:defines it ' Marche : Air militaire qui se joue
:a following effectwarrant ofCharles I. to the
marque le metrepar des instrumens de guerre, et
' Whereas the ancient custome of nations hath
et la cadence des Tambours, laquelle est propre-ever use one certaine and constantbene to
ment la Marche.' The same author, writing
forme of March in the warres, whereby to be
century, speakstowards the close of the 18thdistinguished onefromanother. And theMarch
1 The notes are lozenge-shaped in the original.famous in all the honour-of this our nation, so
VOL. Ill— — —
reader'severyof latter will occur tothe superiority of theGerman etc., of themilitary music,
andsays thattheFrench troopshadfewmilitary memory.]
crotchetbegins with ainstruments March usuallyfor the infantry excepting fifes The
Handel'sphrase, as incommencingand drums and before the; very few marches, most of
'Soipio,' theinwhich ' Marches in 'Einaldo' (1711),were tr^s malfaites.' Rousseau gives
are, however,etc. ThereOverture,as follows—the first part of the March of Occasionalthe
contrary, as in Gluck'stotheMusketeers King numerous instancesofthe ofFrance, as illustrating
' Mozart's Die 2au-that in' in Alceste,'L'accord de I'air et de la Marche.' March
Wedding March,Mendelssohn'sberflote,' and
Eautbms. tr. unusual example ofpresents thewhich latter
key ofremote from the theon a chordbeginning
equal beauty is thatMarch of almostpiece. A
der Tone, and
'Die Weihe 'Spohr'sSymphony,in
March just referred to) wealso in thehere (as
found in some ofof a featurehave an example
flourish—the preliminary ofthe older Marches
vol. ii.or Fanfakb [see pp. 5, 6].trumpets,
descriptionas already said, a ofThere is also,
2-4 (two crotchets in amarch in half time—
March Pas re-called with us the Quickbar),
specimensMarsch. Good ofdoubU, Geschwind
Marches (Pianofortethis rhythm are the twoIn its earlier instrumental form the German
and No.Schubert, No. 3, op. 40, 1,twelve, duets) byMarch had two reprises, each of eight,
ofwhich we have also theop. 51, in the latteror even sixteen bars, and its melodic origin
march form in piano-preliminary fanfare. Thewould seem to have been influenced by the
severalforte music has indeed been used bynational dance called the 'AUemande,' in 2-4
composers by Beethoven in his threemodem ;time. The modern March is now usually in
(op. and the— Marches for two performers 45) ;common time -four crotchets in a
bar—consistFuneral March in his Sonata, op. 26 ; and, to aof four, eight, or even sixteening of reprises
greater extent, by Franz Schubert in hismuchbars, with » subsidiary movement entitled a
the kind for four hands,many exquisite pieces of'Trio' (generally in the dominant or
subamongthembeingtwo(op. 121) inatempowhich occupies a similar place (6-8),dominant key),
sometimes, but not often, employedinthemarchthe Minuetto that of the Trio associated with
'being Eogues'style ; anothersuchspecimen theor Scherzo of a symphony ; that is, following
March,' associated for more than a centuryMarch, which is repeated after it. Withthe
(probably much longer) with army desertion.about seventy-fivethe ordinary (Parade) March,
This is also in the style of the Quick March, theQuick Marchsteps go to the minute with the
tune being identical with that of a song onceGesehwimd Marsch ; Fr. Pas redoubU)(Germ. —popular, entitled 'The tight little Island' ^itwhile the Storming March (Germ.about 108 ;
having, indeed, similarlyimplies about been employed in otherSturmMarsch Fr. Pas de charge)
instances. The following is the first part ofthis120 steps per minute, these being measured by
March, whose name is better known itsthe drum. thanrapid beats of
:melodyMilitary Marches, intended of course to
stimulate hopeful enthusiasm, are generally
Quick Ma/rch.
major key, trumpets, drums,written in a bright
of percussion beingand other instruments
prominently used ; and Funeral Marches in a
minor one—a remarkable exception tosolemn
by the Dead Marchthe latter rule being offered
'Saul,' the key of which is C major. 'Thein
the drum ' is still an important Besidesstormy music of the March forms already referred to,
used at the parade orelement in all the pieces there is the Torch-dance [see Fackeltanz, vol.
battle-field as it exercises a command- ii. 3a],which, however,on the ; p. is only associatedwith
rhythmical precision, as already pageants anding influence on festivities. These and military
indicated. Formerly, as above indicated, that marches being intended for use in the open air,
was the all-essential feature in the are of course writteninstrument entirely for wind
instruafterwards, sub- ments,March, instead of being, as and those of percussion and the
; in
in a musical seiise. [Want of space performance of these piecessidiary many regimental
discussion of the later develop- bands, Britishprevents the full and foreign, have arrived at a
later composers, highment of the march-form by degree of excellence. modern[Among
'to Wagner ; the Maroia English marches,from Beethoven that in Parry's music to
'former's Eroica Symphony, TheFunebre' in the Birds ' of Aristophanes (sometimes used
'Kaisennarsch,' 'Huldigungsmarsch,' as it weddingand the -march), and the two entitled' ;
' one'Pomp and Ciromnstanoe ' by Elgar, deserve says that no could compare to Marchand
mention.] H. j. L. in his manner of handling a fugue ; but, as
MARCHAND, Louis, a personage whose Fetis shows, this may be explained by the fact
claim thatEameauchief to our notice is his encounter with had never heard any great German
Bach, and, as might be imagined, his signal or Italian organist. m.
defeat. He was born at Lyons, Feb. 1669.^ MARCHAND, Makgtjeeite.2, See Danzi,
He went to Paris at an early age, became vol. i. 662.p.
renowned there for his organ-playing, and ulti- MAECHESI, LuiGi, or Lodovico, sometimes
mately became court organist at Versailles. A called Marohbsini, was born at Milan, 1755.
confusionbetweenhimandJean LouisMarchand His father, who played thehorn in the orchestra
of Auxerre (b. 1679) has led to much un- at Modena, was his first teacher but his
certainty as to the tenure of various posts as wonderful aptitude for music and his beautiful
voiceorganist (see the Quellen-Lexikon). By his soon attracted the attention of some
recklessness and dissipated habits he got into amateurs, who persuaded the elder Marohesi to
trouble andwas exiled in 1717 . The story goes, have the boy prepared for the career of a
that the king, taking pity on Marchand's sopranist. This was done atun- Bergamo, and
fortunate wife, caused half his salary to be with- young Marchesi was placed under the evirato,
held from him, and devoted to her sustenance. Caironi, and Albujo, the tenor, for singing
after this arrangement, Marchand while his musical education wasSoon coolly completed by
the Maestro Cappella,got up and went away in the middle of a mass di Fioroni, at Milan.
which he was playing, and when remonstrated Marchesi made his d^but on the stage at
'with by the king, replied, Sire, ifmy wife Rome in 1774, in a female character, the usualgets
introduction of a young andhalfmy salary, she may play half the service. promising singer
On account of this he was exiled, on which he with a soprano voice and beautiful person.
to Dresden, and there managed to get Towards the close of 1775 the Elector ofwent
Bavaria engaged Marchesi for hisagain into royal favour. The King of Poland chapel, but
death, yearsoffered him the place of court organist, and his sudden two after, put an end
enraged Volumier, his capellmeister, to this engagement, and the young singer wentthereby
to Milan, where he performed the part ofwho was also at Dresden, and who, in order
' second man,' with Pacchierotti asto crush his rival, secretly invited Bach to come first, and to
playedover from Weimar. At a royal concert, Bach Venice, where he second to Millico. He
was advanced in thatsame year to first honoursbeing incognito among the audience, Marchand
at Treviso. In the next and following yearsplayed a French air with brilliant variations of
' manown, and with much applause, after which he sang as first ' at Munich, Padua, andhis
to take his seat at the Florence, where he created a furore by hisVolumier invited Bach
'exquisite singing of Mia speranza, io purharpsichord. Bachrepeated allMarchand'sshowy
in Sarti's 'Achille in Scire'variations, and improvised twelve new ones of vorrei,' a rondo
He then, having In 1778 he had worked his way to the greatgreat beauty and difficulty.
theatre of San Carlo, and continued therewrittenatheme in pencil,handed it toMarchand,
during two seasons. He was now looked uponchallenging him to an organ competition on the
waschallenge, as the first singer in Italy, and fought forgiven subject. Marchand acceptedthe
by rival impresarj. Once more in Milanbut when the day came it was found that he (1780),
'he sang in Mysliweczek's Armida,' in whichfled from Dresden, and, thehad precipitately
introduced the famous rondo of Sarti,having been withdrawn, heorder ofhis banishment
all Italy had been humming and whistlinghad returned to Paris, where his talents met
since he sang it at Florence, and also an air bywith appreciation, and where he becamemore
almost as successful, 'Sepiangi epeni.'as a, Bianchi,organist of St. Honore. He now set up
His portrait was engraved at Pisa, and theteacher of music, and soon became the fashion,
impressions were quickly bought up. He nowunheard-of sum of a louischarging the then
turn at Turin, Rome, Lucca, Vienna,this, however, his sang ind'or a lesson. In spite of
renewed andand Berlin, always with &lat ; heexpensive habits brought him at last to extreme
went in 1785 to St. Petersburg with Sarti anddied in great misery, Feb. 1poverty, and he 7,
Mme. Todi. The rigorous climate of Russia,pieces for1732. Hisworks comprise 2 vols, of the
however, filled him with alarm for his voice,harpsichord, and one forthe organ, andan opera,
' and he fled rapidly back to Vienna, where he
'whichwas neverperformed.Pyramus etThisbe,
'Giulio Sabino.'sang in Sarti'sHis ideas, says F^tis, are trivial, and his
harLondon, singingWe next find him (1788) inand incorrect. There is a curiousmonies poor
in the same opera by Sarti, having just com-in La Borde,criticism ofhim byEameau, quoted
an engagement at Turin. His style ofpletedEssai sur la musique (vol. iii.), in which he
singing now seemed (to Burney) 'not only
1 Bach, gives the date Iffa, asan inferenceSpitta, in hia Life of elegant and refined to an uncommon degree,
engraving:, Bnt flee F^tis (h.v.) wlio quotes an articlefrom an old
where thisin Magaxtn Fncydopidique, 1812, torn, iv, p. 341, often grand and full ofdignity, particularlythe but
andaregisterof Marchand's birthpoint isthoroughly investigated,
recitatives and occasional low thegiven.52 MAECHESI MARCHESI
Fricoi,lima Murska,Many of his graces were new, were Miles. deelegant, and of this period
famous.his own invention otherswho have sincebecome
; and he must have studied Kraus,and
andwith her appointment in 1861,intense application to enable himself to resignedShe
wherehusband to Paris,execute the divisions and running with hershakes from removed
far and wide. At thisthe bottom to her fr9mof his compass to the top, even in pupils came
Chant.' Rossini,'Ecole dea rapid series of semitones. But beside his time appeared her
volume ofdedication of avocal powers, hia performance acknowledging theon the stage was in
' as an expositionextols her methodextremely embellished by the beauty of his Vocalizzi,'
school of singing,the Italianperson and the grace and propriety of his of the true art of
element and speci-gestures. till the dramatic ;From this time 1790 he continued inclusive of
complains, the tendencyto delight when, hethe English, appearingmeanwhile at ally valuable
were aart as though itshort intervals in the various capitals and chief is to treat the vocal
barricades ! In 1865cities of Europe. In 1794 he sang at Milan in question of the capture of
' Cologne Con-professorship at thethe Demofobnte ' of Portogallo, and was de- she accepted a
resigned it in 1868 to return toscribed in the cast as 'all' attual servizio di servatoire, but
as teacher of singingS. M. il Re dl Sardegna.' This memorable Vienna to resume her post
for tenoccision was thatof thed^butof Conservatoire, which she heldMme. Grassini. at the
famous scholars there, wereHe continued to sing at Milan down to the years. Among her
Mme. Schuch-spring of 1806, when he left the stage, and Miles. d'Angeri and Smerosohi,
resigned herpassed the remainder of life native Etelka Gerster. Shehis in his Proska, and
Conservatoire in 1878, butplace, honoured and loved. He composed some appointment at the
reside and teach insongs, published in London (Clementi), at continued for some time to
Vienna (Oappi), and at Bonn (Simrock). where her services to art have met withAn Vienna,
' pupil ofhershavingcreatedair, written by him, In seno quest' alma,' was full recognition. A
applaud-also printed. a, at a concert, the public, afterfurore
A beautiful portrait of Marchesi was engraved ing the singer, raised a call for Mme. Marchesi,
share the honours.(June 1790) by L. Schiavonetti, after R. Cos- who had to appear and
receivedway and a curious caricature (now rare) was From the Emperor of Austria she the
'publishedunder thename of A Bravura at the of Merit of the first class, a distinctionCross
Concert,' ladies and she holds decora-Hanover Square by J. Npxon], 1789, rarely accorded to ;
in which he is represented as a conceited cox- tions and medals from the King of Saxony, the
comb, bedizened with jewels, singing to the Grand Duke of Saxe Weimar, the Emperor of
Wales, courtiers. Italy. She isKing, Prince of and Germany, and the King of a
Marchesi died at Milan, his native place, member of the St. Cecilia Society in Rome, and
Dec. 1829. J. M. of the Academy of Florence. In 1881 she18,
MARCHESI, Mathilde db Casteonb, ndB returned to Paris, where she has prepared many
Geaumann, bornMarch 26, 1826, atFrankfort- of the greatest singers of the younger generation
on-the-Main. The daughter of a wealthy mer- for the public career, notably Mme. Melba.
chant, shewas veryhighlyeducated, but in grand1843, She has published a practical Method of
her father having lost his fortune, she adopted singing, and twenty-four books of vocal
exerthe musical profession. She studied singing at cises. Her reminiscences were published in
Vienna with Nicolai ; but in 1845 went to Paris 1897, as Marchesi avd Music. B. T. [Her
from Hereto learn Garcia. she took lessons in daughter, Blanche, to whom the book is
dedideclamation from Samson, Rachel's master, and cated, was at tirst trained a& a violinist, but
had the advantage of hearing all the first singers 1881from devoted herself to singing, and,
of the age—Persiani, Grisi, Alboni, Duprez, until her marriage with Baron Caccamisi,A.
Tamburini, Lablache. Her own aptitude for assisted her mother in teaching. In,1895 she
teachingwas already so remarkable that Garcia, appeared at Berlin and Brussels, and on June
whilst prevented effects ofby the an accident 19, 1896, gave a vocal recital in the small
from giving his lessons, handed over his whole Queen's Hall, London. Since then she has
clientMe for the time to his young pupil. In lived in England and has enjoyed great success
1849 Mile. Graumann removed to London, as a concert-singer. Shemade an operatic debut
where she obtained a high standing as a concert at Prague in 1900 as Briinnhilde in 'Die
Walsinger. Her voicewas a mezzo-soprano, and her kiire, ' and hasoccasionally appeai"edon the stage
excellent style never failed to please. She has with the Moody-Manners Company. A. c]
sung successfully inGermany, Belgium, Holland, MARCHESI, Salvatore, Cavalibre de
Switzerland, France and the United Kingdom. Castronb, Marohese della Rajata, husband
married SignerShe Salvatore Marchesi (see of Mme. M. Marchesi, a baritone singer and
below), in 1852, and in 1854 accepted the post teacher,wasbom at Palermo, Jan. 15, 1822. His
professor of singing at the Viennaof Conserva- family belonged to the nobility, and his father
toire, the vocal department of which was then was four Governor-General ofyears Sicily. In
its infancy. But she soon won high distinc- the Neapolitanin 1838 he entered Guard, but,
tion for it and herself. Among her pupils at for political reasons, resigned his commission in'
1840. Whilst studying law philosophy at fact has never been performed orand published.
Palermo, took Marchetti fell backhe lessons in singing and com- upon the composition of
position from Baimondi ; and he continued his ballads and romances, of which he wrote many
musical studies at Milan, under Lamperti and at this period of his career, though even these
Fontana. Having participated in the revolu- he found much difficulty in recommending to
tionary movement of was forced to1848, he the good graces of publishers. Several years
seek shelter in America, where he made his passed in fruitless struggles to obtain a hearing,
debut, as an operatic singer, in 'Ernani,' He and the composerbegan to despair ofever
attainreturned to Europe to take instruction from ing the wished-for success. In the year 1862
Garcia, and settled in London, where, for he was recommended by his brother to move his
several seasons, he was favourably known as a quarters from Rome to Milan, which was the
concert-singer. He married Mile. Graumann in real centre of musical life in Italy, and where
1852, and with her made numerous concert opportunities for distinction were more
fretours in England, Germany, and Belgium, ap- quently presented to struggling genius. In
pearing also in opera with success, both in Eng- Milan Marchetti made the acquaintance of a
land and on the continent. He has held posts young poet named Marcelliano Marcello, who
as teacher of singing at the Conservatoires of persuaded him to undertake the composition of
Viennaand Cologne, andwas appointedchamber a new version of'Romeoand Juliet,' the libretto
to thecourt ofSaxeWeimar,singer 1862. From ofwhich he had himself arranged from
Shakethe King of Italy he has received the orders of speare's tragedy. Marchetti hesitated to attack
the Knights of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. a subject which had already been treated by
Marohesi known also asSigner is the composer Bellini and many other composers, and his
of several German and Italian songs, and as the diffidence would probably have been augmented
Italian translator of many French and German had he known that Gounod was at the same—
libretti 'Medea,' 'La Vestale,' 'Iphigenia,' time hard at work upon an opera founded upon
'Tannhauser,' 'Lohengrin,' etc. He has pub- the same subject. Marcello, however, succeeded
lished various writings on music, and some in overcoming Marchetti's scruples, and the new
'books of vocal exercises. B. T. Romeo e Giulietta was
' produced at Trieste on
MARCHESINI. [SeeLucchbsinaandMar- Oct. 24, 1865. Its success at first was only
ches!, LuiGi.] moderate, but when it was revived two years
MARCHETTI, Filippo, was born at Bolog- later at the Teatro Oarcano at Milan it was very
Macerata on Feb. favourably received,nola in the province of 26, in spite of the
formid1831. Thedate ofhisbirthhasbeen incorrectly able rivalry of Gounod's 'Eom6o et Juliette,'
stated in several books of reference, but the which was being given at La Scala at the same
publication of his birth certificate in the time. With'Ruy his nextwork,whichwasBlfl.s,'
hasGazzetta Musicale of Feb. 6, 1902, set the produced at La Scala, Milan, on April 3, 1869,
question finally at rest. He showed no special Marchetti reached the zenith ofhisachievement.
devotion to the art ofmusic in his earliest years, 'Ruy Bias,' written to a libretto taken by
with D'Ormeville from Victorbut at the age of twelve he began to study Hugo's drama, speedily
a master named Bindi, and in his fifteenth year became popular in Italy, and in process of time
determined to make music his profession. carried the composer's fame across the Alps.he
sent him to Naples, where It was performed with no little success atIn 1850 his parents
he was admitted as a paying student at the Keal Her Majesty's Theatre, under the management
Collegio di San Pietro a Majella. His principal of Mapleson, on Nov. 24, 1877, Mile. Salla
Conti, with whom appearing as the Queen, Mile, de Belocca asinstructor there was Carlo
Casilda, Mme! Lablache as Donnahe studied counterpoint and composition. In de la Cueva,
Marchetti left Naples and returned home, Signer Fanoelli as Ruy Bias, and Signer Galassi1854
'himself to the composition of as Don Sallustio. After Ruy Bias ' Marchettiwhere he devoted
neversucceeded inwinningthe popular opera, 'Gentile da Verano,' the libretto of
'which was written by his brother Eaffaele. His two remaining works, Gustavo Wasa
'theTeatro Nazionale, (Scala, Milan, Feb. and Don GiovanniThisworkwas produced at 7, 1875),
d' Austria' (Teatro Regie, Turin, MarchTurin, in February 1856, with so much success 11,
impresario of the theatre hastened to 1880), made little impression. After 1880that the
second opera, Marchetti wrote no more for the stage, butsecure the performing rights of a
' then devoted his energies entirely to teaching. InLa Demente,' upon which Marchetti was
' Demente ' was produced at the 1881 he was appointed President of the Realeengaged. La
on Nov. 1856, Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome, and inTeatro Carignano, Turin, 27,
undertook the onerous duties offollowing year it was revived at Rome 1886 heand in the
was well received at both places, Director of the Liceo Musicale in the same city,and at Jesi. It
from having estab- a post which he held until his death on Jan.but Marchetti was still far 18,
music, and 1901. Marchetti's fame as a composer waslished his position in the world of
impossible to persuadeanyimpresario short-lived. Changes in musical taste soonhe found it
' 'opera, II Paria,' which in made Ruy Bias' seem old-fashioned, and in histo produce his next;
tolater works the composer attemptshowed no power Marchettus deserves credit for hisof
adapting his butstyle to the requirements means of musical expression,ofmodern amplify the
toaudiences. He may be a notation was too complex
. described as typical his system of
dis-Italian composer utility, and was soonof the second rank. In his become of practical
simpler methods ofmusic the influence of Verdi is bolder andnot unnaturally placed by the
penalty ofsupreme, but unfortunately He suffered theit is the Verdi of the 'ars nova.'
handsearlier much abuse at thedays, not the composer of 'Aida' and and met withthe failure,
141 ProsdocimusManzoni Kequiem, who served successors. Inas Marchetti's ofsomeofhis
contramodel. wrote an OpusculumMarchetti's capacity for sheer musical de Beldemandis
speculativam Lueidariiinvention was limited but in 'Euy Bias,' his theoricam partem sive
is amanuscriptmost careful and most meritorious ofwhich therework, the MoA-chetiPatamni,
musicianship In it he asserts thatis often admirable, the orchestra- copy at Bologna.
ignorant of theory,tion effective without vulgarity, while the com- Marchettus was altogether
posing as aposer displays a presumption incommendable feeling for and scoffs at his
characterisation, Joannes Carthusiensiswrotenotablyexemplifiedin themusic scientificmusician.
schoolboy's whip-allotted to the three female characters, Marchettus deserved ab. a. s. that
NicolausMARCHETTUS of Padua, a Musices Opusculwm ofmusical theorist ping and in the
the worst that theof the early part of the 14th century. Of his Burtius (Bologna, 1487)
Ramis de Pareia,life nothing isknown except that he was in the author cansay ofhis opponent,
service of Rainier, Prince 'imitated the crass stupidity andof Monaco, and that is that he
J. F. E. s.some of his works were written at Cesena and fatuity of Marchettus.'
born atVerona. He was the author of two treatises, MARGHISIO, The Sistees, both
the Lucidarium in arte musicaeplwnae Barbara, Dec. 12, 1834, Carlotta, Dec.and the Turin—
singing there by LuigiPomerium artis musicae mensurabilis, both of 6, 1836—were taught
which are printed in the third volume of Fabbrica, and both made their debuts as
AdalGerbert's Scriptores. The dedications (who afterwards became a con-of these gisa, the elder
younger attwo books point to their having been completed tralto) at Vienna in 1856, the
later than 1309, though the Milan manuscript Madrid. They played at Turin in 1857-58,
Laddarivm, said to great success there as Arsace andof the is be dated 1274 and and made
through Italy, andthe Vatican manuscript of the Pomeriwm, 1283. Semiramide ; also on a tour
'The Lucidarium is remarkable for the chromati- at the Paris Opera on the production of
Semicism employed and for the division of the whole ramis,' July 1860. They first appeared in9,
tone either into three-fifths and two-fifths England with great success at Mr. Land's
(diatonic and enharmonic semitones) or into concerts, St. James's Hall, Jan. 2 and 4, 1862,
and one-fifth (phromatic semitone in duets of Rossini and Gabussi, and made afour-fifths
and diesis). The Pomerium, is of great interest concert tour through the provinces with Mr.
as marking the transition from the Franconian Willert Beale. They also made a success in
'system ofnotation, inwhichthe shortestmusical Semiramide ' at Her Majesty's, May 1, 1860,
note admitted was the semibreve, equal to one- on account of their excellent duet singing,
'third of a breve, to the ars nova ' of Philip de though separately their voices were coarse and
and his successors, in which the minim harsh, their appearance insignificant,Vitry and they
and semiminim were differentiated and brought were indifferent actresses. Carlotta played the
into the scheme of perfection and imperfection. same season Isabella in 'Robert,' June and14,
Marchettus meets the growing need for notes Donna Anna, July 9. They sang also at the
value by reckoning any number Crystalof smaller of Palace, twice at the New Philharmonic,
semibreves from two to twelve to the breve, at theMonday Popular, etc. Theysangtogether
distinguishes their values by the addition for some time abroad.and Carlotta married a
tails above or belowor omission of : see Wolf, Viennese singer, Eugeu Kuhn who(1835-75),
Geschichte der Mensural-Nbtation, 1904, 30. sang with her in concerts, and at Her Majesty'sp.
points outthe differencesbetween Italian in 1862He also under the name of Coselli, and who
French notation. An epitomeand of the afterwards became a pianoforte manufacturer at
Pomerium entitled Brevis Compilatio Magistri Venice. She died at Turin, June 28, 1872.
Ma/rchetti Musiei de Padua in arte musice Barbara, we believe, retired from public life on
pro rudibus et m^odernis•mensarate is printed in her marriage. a. o.
the third volume of Coussemaker's Scriptores MARECHAL,CharlesHenri,bornin Paris,
14th-century manuscript at St. Di^from a Jan. 22, 1842, worked at first at solfjge with
thewhich also contains Luddariv/m, the Ars A. Chev^ and E. Batiste, studied the piano
Mensu/rabilisMusice ofFranco,and othermusical with ChoUet, and harmony with B. Laurent
F^tis's manuscript containingtreatises. the finally, at the Conservatoire, studied the organ
Pomerimm,Luddwri/u/m, the and the Brevis with Benoist, counterpoint with Chauvet, and
is now in the Royal Library atCompilaiio, composition with Victor Masse. In 1870 he
Other manuscripts are at Florence,Brussels. obtained the Grand Prix de Rome with the
and in the monastery of Einsiedeln. cantata, de Dien.'at Pisa, 'Le jugement He was: —
chorus-master and Leonardoat the Th6S,tre Lyrique in 1867, claim, Cozzando* asserts that
and was appointed in 1896 inspector of musical Marenzio was born at Cocaglio, that his parents
education. His firstimportantcompositionwas were poor, and that the whole expense of his
sacred piece, 'La Nativity,' but he living and educationa in 1875, was defrayed by Andrea
afterwards devoted himself entirely to the Masetto, the v01age priest. To Cozzando we
theatre, for which he wrote the following are also indebted for a special article on
Amours de Catherine' (one act, Op4ra- Marenzio's'Las great merits as a singer, and after
'La Taverne des Trahans'Comique, 1876); reading of him under the head of Bresoian
com(three acts, gained the Prix Monbinne in 1876, posers, we find him further mentioned under
produced Opera-Oomique, 1881); 'L'Etoile' 'Cantori.'"
' D^idamie' (two acts, Op^ra,(one act, 1881) ; A fourth account, quite independent of these,
'Calendal'' (four acts, Rouen, 1894); and one of the earliest of all, is that given1893); by
'Ping-Sin' 'Daphnis et Chios' (three 1622.^(1895); Henry Peacham, published in Of the
TheSitre Lyrique, incidental musicacts, 1899) ; composers of his time, Byrd is his favourite,
for 'L'Ami Fritz' (Oom^die Fran9aise, 1876), Victoria and Lassus coming next. Then of
''Les Kantzau,' Smilis,' 'Crime et ChMiment,' Marenzio he says :
'the concert-room he has written Lesetc. For
For delicious Aire and sweete Invention in
MadriViTants et les Morts,' for vocal quartet with gals, lAica, Marertzio excelleth all other whosoever,
' having published more Sets thananyAuthour else who-orchestra Le Miracle de Naim,' sacred(1886) ;
soever: and to say truth, hath not an ill Song, though
' Esquisses venitiennes'drama (1887) ; (1894), sometime an oversight (which might be •the Printer's
both for orchestra. Heand 'Antar' (l897), fault) oftwo eights ovfifis escape him ; as betweene the
Tenor Base inthe last of,and close, Imust de-part all hap-has also published many choral and
instrulesse ending according to the nature of the Dittie
; most
mental compositions. G. p. artificially, with a Minim rest. His first, second, and
third parts of ThyrslSy Veggo dolce mio ien che hoggifieMARENZIO, LtrcA. The oldest accountwe
mio Sole Cantava, or sweete singmg Amaryllis,'! are Songs,
can find of this great Italian composer is given
the Muses themselves might not have beene ashamed
Rossi,! j^ 1620. It tells us of Marenzio's to have had composed. Of stature and complexion, beeby 0.
was a little and blacke man : he was Organist in theGocoaglia, a small town on the roadbirth at
Popes Chappell at Borne a good while, afterward hee
between Brescia and Bergamo, of the pastoral went into Poland, being in displeasurewith the Pope for
overmuch familiaritie with a kinswoman of his (whombeauty of his early surroundings, and the effect
the Queene of Poland, sent for by Luca Marenzio
afterhave had in forming the taste of thethey may ward, she being one of the rarest women in Europe, for
future madrigal composer, of the patronage her voyce and the Lute :) but returning, he found the
him,aifection of the Pope so estranged fTom that here-accorded him by great princes, of his valuable
upon hee tooke a conceipt and died.
Poland, worth 1000 scudipost at the court of
The above accounts agree in all importanthealth which made hisa year, of the delicate
even thedescent from a noble Berga-points, andreturn to a more genial climate necessary, of the
mese family is notinconsistent with the parents'kind treatmenthe received from Cardinal Cintio
povertyand theirresidence at Coccaglia. Maren-his early death inAldobrandino at Rome, of
diedatacomparatively early age, inin Lucina. zio certainlythat city, and burial at S. Lorenzo
placehis birth about1599,andwemay, therefore,author gives an account of GiovanniThe same
thoughnot later, forhe began to publish in' of the cathedral at Brescia, 1560,Contini, organist
1581. On the 10th of April in that year heMantua,and later in the service of theDuke of
dedicating his firstbook ofmadri-was in Venice,under whose direction Marenzio completed his
of Ferrara.gals (a to Alfonso d'Este, Dukefellow-pupil Lelio Ber- 6)studies, having for his
was in Rome, Dec. 1582,^ on April 24,'Duke of He 1,tani,2 who afterwards served the
15,'" was chapel-master to theand Dec. 1584,Ferrara for 1500 scudi a year, and was even
year,'' andwas stillCardinal d'Este in the sameEmperor's chapel-master.asked to become the
1585.^2in the same city on July 15,1664,' anxious toDonate Calvi, writing in
think hewent to Poland just yet,We do notMarenzio as a native of Bergamo, tracesclaim
publications forsome years.butwe haveno morenoble family of Marenzi,his descent from the
Marenzio probably received his appointmentMarenzo. Heand finds in their pedigree a Luca
accession the soon afterthe (1587),details to Rossi's account,adds further
Blzzardi,the composer on his * Libreria Breseiana. Leonardo Cozzando. (Brescia,King of Poland knighted
welcomed by thedeparture, how warmly he was G etc., deW BiHoria Bretciana. Leo-7ago e eurioso rittretto,
(Brescia, Blzzardl, 1694)nardo Cozzando.his return, how Cardinal C.court of Rome on 6 The Compleat OentUman, by Henry Peacliant, M^* of Arts.
(London, 1622.)like aservant ratherthanAldobrandinobehaved
7 given In theaboveconfusedThe proper titlesof tbese, wliichare
'that he died are—' Tiral morir volea (a 5) ; Veggoa patron to him. We also learn manner in Peaobam's book, '
' 6) ' Cantava(a 4) ; Cbe fa bogg' 11mio sole (o ; anddolcemiobene ' '
being then a singer in the Singing Amaryllis'August 22, 1599, plu vaga (a 5),' «ie English words 'Sweetela
last.being adapted to the music of thethere was a grandPapal chapel, and that B Academicians of Verona ofSee dedication to the Philharmonic
(a (Venice. Gardane, 1682.)Srd Book of Madrigals 6).musical service at his funeral.
's Madrigali spiritual! a 5 di L. M,' (Borne, Oardano, 15S4.)Bee
10 ' a 5.' (Vinegia,account Brescia again puts in a Dedication of n quinto lib. da MadrigaliIn the next
Sootto, 1685.) „ „ ^" 'Primo lib. de Madr. a 6.' (Venice, Gardano,(Brescia. "ritie-pags ofi JSlog{BUtorieidiBreKiani&tuatri6iOtt3,vioSMaL
3 works see the tiutUen-LextJutn. 1684.)FontanA, 1620.) For liat of
(Venetia. Gar.19 Dedication of 'Madr. a 4 diL. M.* Lib. primo.8 terittorl BergamatcM, Donato Calvi.acena ZAOtraria de gU
dano, 1592.)
(Bergamo, 1664.)56 MARBNZIO MAEIANI
ma^rs; ofgreatand is said to have kept reverence theit for two years, either things, and to
Engluhthefrom 1588 part ofto 1590, or from 1591 to 1593. olden times, is quite a
its mostHe was back in Rome in writing to character, and one of1595,
J. K. S.-B.13,iDowland, July and to Don Diego de traits.''
Tournay,born atGampo, ^ Samuel,Oct. 20, and in the same year is said MARESCHALL,
organistuniversityandtohave been appointed to the Papal chapel.' It in May 1654, was town
some time afterdeathwas now that he lived on such familiar terms at Basle from 1577 to his
Basle a choral-atwith nephew, 1640. In 1606 he publishedCardinal Aldobrandino, the Pope's
containing Lobwasser'sand taking this into account Peacham's talemay buch for four voices,
the Psalter withtranslation ofhave some truth in it, and Marenzio may have German versified
Goudimel,as in thefallen in love with a lady belonging to his the original French tunes
soprano, also somepatron's family. If, however, he died of a melody, however, in the
and tunes. Somemust have additional German hymnsbroken heart, as is suggested, it
given in Winterfeld andbeen caused simply by the Pope's refusal to of his settings are
there exist a largeallow a marriage. Schoberlein. In MS.
Marenzio's principal works are :—9 books of number of his organ arrangements of some of
books each book con- these French psalm tunes, and other French andmadrigals (a 5), 6 (a 6),
QuelUn-Lexikon.taining from 13 to 20 nos., and 1 book (a 4) con- German songs. See s. R. M. 21 nos. 5 books of 'Villanelle e Arie MAR6HERITA. [See Epinb, vol. i. p. 784.]
Napolitana,' containing 113 nos. (a and MARIAANTONIAWALPURGA (orWAL-alia 3)
2 PUR6IS), electress of Saxony, daughter1 (a ; 'books of four-part motets, many of of the4)
which have been pi-inted in modern notation by elector of Bavaria, afterwards the Emperor
*Proske 1 mass (a and many other pieces Charles VII. bom July 18, 1724, at Munich,
; 8),
for church use. [See the list in the Quellen- learnt musicfromGiovanni Ferrandini, Porpora,
Lexikon.^ The iirst iive books of madrigals and finally Hasse. She was a member of the
'5 were printed in uno corpo ridotto,' in Arcadian Academy in Rome, anda 1593, the initials
'edition ofand a similar those as 6 in 1594. of her academical name, Ernelinda Talia
These books, containing 78 and 76 pieces Pastorella Arcada' were used by her to sign
respectively, are both in the British Museum. her compositions. The most important ofthese
'Marenzio's works were introduced into England were two operas, II trionfo della fedelta,'
in 1588, in the collection entitled 'Musica performed at Potsdam in 1753 before Frederick
Transalpina' and two years and(1588); after- the Great, furnishedwithadditionalnumbers
wards a similar book was printed, to which he by him, Hasse, Graun, and Benda ; and 'Talestri
contributed 23 out of 28 numbers.' His Regina dell' Amazone,' performed in 1763.
reputation here was soon established, for werein Both published by Breitkopf & Hartel,
1595 John Dowland, the lutenist, 'not being the former in 1756 being one of the first
able to dissemble the great content he had printed with their newly invented types, and
in the profered amity of famousfound the most the latter appearing in 1765. The electress
Lnca Marenzio,' thought the mere advertise- died at Dresden, April 1780. {Qiielleih-23,
ment of their correspondence would add to the Lexikon.) See also the Monatsheftefiir
Mvsikchance of his own works being well received. gesch. vol. xi. 167. M.p.
hesitateBurney does not to say that the MARIA DI ROHAN. Opera in three acts
madrigal style was brought to the highest music by Donizetti. Produced at Vienna,
degree of perfection by Marenzio's superior June 5, 1843 at the Theatre Paris,
; Italien,
'the publicationgenius, and that of the Musica Nov. 20, 1843, and in London, Covent Garden,
Transalpina' gave birth to that passion for May 1847.8, g.
madrigals which became so prevalent among us MARIANI, Angelo, born at Ravenna, Oct.
when our own composers so happily contributed 11, 1822, began to study the violin when quite
to gratify it.' young, under Pietro Casolini had
; later on he
Thus it came to pass that Luca Marenzio be- instruction in harmony and composition from
bound up in our own musical history,came and a monk named Levrini, of Rimini, was awho
few foreign musicians of the 16th century have celebrated contrapuntist. He was still in his
beenkept soconstantlybeforethe Englishpublic. teens when he left home to see the world, and
Madrigal Society became a homeThe for his for a certain time he continued ato appear, as
150works more than years ago, and they are soloist in concerts and as a first violin player in
continually sung by much younger societies. orchestras. He was at the Liceo Filarmonico
' guard faithfully and lovingly the beautiful atTo Bologna, where he had instruction from
' It was in1 Ist booke of Songa or Arres of 4 parte by Jabn Dowland.' 1844, at Messina, that he
(Short, Bred St. Hill, 1S97.] assumed the baton,—which
' Madr. 6.' (Venetia, after all was only2 Di L. M. il 7mo lib. di a Gardano, 1595.)
3 old authority for the date of appointment, theWe cannot And any bow of his violin, for at that time the
{QueU^n-Lexikon) doubts it.and Eitner
' conductor of4 Husica Divina,' etc. Carl Proeke, vol. il. (Batiabon, 18511.) an Italian orchestra was named
B Madrigals'lat part of Italian Eugliahed,' etc. Publiahed by Prima rioHrw direttore deW orchestra.ThomasWatson (1590).
vol. ill. 201, 119.Oen. Bist. ofMuaic, pp. 7 Ambros, OgKhiOaa der Mtutk, iii, 4ao.MARIANI MARIMON 57
After severalengagements in different theatres literary men of the day to be preserved in the
in Italy, Mariani was appointed, in 1847, con- town library the portrait
; sent by Wagner
ductor of the Court Theatre at Copenhagen. hung in one of the rooms of the Palazzo Civico
While there he wrote a Requiem Mass for the and his last baton placedbythe side ofPaganini's
funeral of Christian VIII. At the beginning violin in the civic museum.
1848 heof left Denmark and went to Italy to Besides the works already named, and other
fight in the ranks of the volunteers for the orchestral pieces, he published several collections
freedom of his country. At the end of the ofsongs, all ofwhich are charmingly melodious :
war he waa called to Constantinople, —where his 'Rimembranze del '11Bosforo,' Trovatore
ability won him the admiration of the Sultan, nella Liguria,' 'Liete e tristi rimembranze,'
who made him many valuable presents and 'Otto pezzi
; vocali,' 'Nnovo Album vocale.'
Mariani, as a mark of gratitude, composed a Mariani was the prince of Italian conductors
hymn which he dedicated to him. In Con- out of Italy he might have found his equal,
stantinople also he wrote two grand cantatas, but not his superior. f. kz.
'La Fidanzata del guerriero ' and 'Gli Esuli,' MARIMBA, THE, a curious instrument (said
bothworksreflectingtheaspirationsandattempts to possess great musical capabilities) in use in
of the Italian movement. Hereturned to Italy the southern parts of Mexico. In type it is of
in 1852, landing at Genoa, where he was at once the wooden harmonica species, but is much
invited to be the conductor of the Carlo Felice. larger, of more extended range, and has a
In a short time he reorganised that orchestra sound-box to each note. Its compass is five
so as to make it the first in Italy. His fame octaves extending upwards from A. A large
soon filled the country and spread abroad he table-like
; frame, five or six feet in length, on
had offers of engagements from London, St. legs supports a graduated series of strips of
Petersburg, and Paris, but hewouldneveraccept hard and well-seasoned wood. Below each of
them he had fixed; his headquarters in Genoa, these is fixed an oblong cedar box equally
and only absented himself for short periods at graduated in size. The box, which serves as a
a time, to conduct at Bologna, at Venice, and resonator, is entirely closed except at the top,
other important Italian towns. Mariani exer- but has a small hole covered with thin bladder
cised an extraordinary personal fascination on at the lower end. The wooden note being
all those who were under his direction. He struck with a drumstick has its vibrations
inwas esteemed and loved by all who knew him. creased by the resonator with the addition of a
For him, no matter the name of the composer, peculiar buzzing sound. The instrument, which
the music he conducted at the moment was also 'bears another name, Zapotecano, ' is to be
always the most beautiful, and he threw him- played by four performers, each armed with a
self into it with all his soul. Great masters as pair of drumsticks varying in size and weight,
well as young composers were happy to receive the heads generally of soft crude indiarubber.
his advice, and he gave it in the interest of A description, with illustrations from
photoart and for improvementthe of the work. At graphs, is to be seen in the Musical Times for
rehearsal nothing escaped him in the orchestra May 1901.
or on the stage. The marimba is also known in Africa, where
In 1864 Mariani was the director of the it is formed in a similar, but rather more
grand ffites celebrated at Pesaro in honour of primitive fashion, gourds taking the place of
Rossini, andwashimselfgreeted enthusiastically the wooden sound-boxes. F. K.
by the public, which was in great part composed MARIMON, Makie, born about 1835 in
of the most eminent musicians of the world. Paris (Grande Encyclopidie), was taught singing
On Nov. 1871, he introduced 'Lohengrin' at by Duprez, and made her d^but at the Lyrique1,
'the Comunale Bologna, and, thanks to his as Helene onof the production of Semet's
Dewasefforts, the opera was such a success that it moiselle d'Honneur, ' Deo. 30, 1857 as Zora in;
' 'performed through the season several times a La Perle du Br&il,' and Fatima in Abu
week—andhehad onlynine orchestral rehearsals Hassan,' May 1859. She next played11, at
for it ! On this occasion Richard Wagner sent the Op^ra-Comique, Catarina in Les Diamans
him a large photograph of himself, under which de la Couronne,' July 30, 1860 Maima in
he wrote Mariani. Offenbach's unsuccessful 'Barkouf,' Dec.Ewiva 24,
'great Zerline in La Sirene ' with Nov.A cruel illness terminated the life of this 1860 ; Roger,
musician on Oct. 13, 1873, at Genoa, the town 4, 1861, and Giralda in 1862. She returned to
which had seen the first dawn of his world-wide the Lyrique, and afterwards played at Brussels.
Paris 1869 she a verycelebrity. The day of Mariani's funeral was a On her return to in made
day of mourning for the whole of Genoa. His great success at the Athfefe in French versions
' 'to Ravenna at the request of Ricoi's Follia a Roma ' and Crispino, ' andbody was transported
'Masnadieri,'of the latter city. The Genoese municipality Verdi's Feb. 3, 1870. She played
ordered a bust of him to be placed in the at Drury Lane in Italian in 1871-72, and at
Felice all the letters Covent Garden, in the autumn of the first year,vestibule of the Carlo ;
composers and Amina, wherein she made her debut ; Maywritten to him by the leading 4,— ;
theCANDIA,1871, Maria ('LaFiglia'), Rosina, Cavalibee diNorina, and MARIO,
was ofAstrifiammante. his generation,She made at first a great greatest operatic tenor of
asdiffersuccess solely [Authoritieson account of her beautiful voice, an old and noble family.
Caglianbut whileher brilliant execution and certainty the place and date of birth,of in- to
againstformer (astonation. She generally accepted for thedid not maintain the hopes is
consideredbeexcited latter mustat her debut, since it was discovered Genoa and Turin), the
date, 1808, isearliestthat she was a very mechanical actress, and unsettled as yet. The
the latest,Lexikon ;totally devoid of charm. The only part she supported in Riemann's
edition of thisthe originalreally played well was Maria. Nevertheless 1812, appeared in
o/Musicicms isBiog. Diet.she became a very useful singer at Covent work ; and as Baker's
the day, Oct. 17, theGarden, 1874-77, in all the above parts, Donna the only book that gives
likelytobecorrect.]Elvira, Margaret of Valois, etc. at Her year there given, 1810,seems
in the Piedmon-Dinorah, etc. His father had been a generalMajesty's in 1878 and 1880, in
tese army and he himself [after ten years inat the Lyceum in 1881. She sang with success ;
was an officer inin the English provinces, Holland, Russia, the Turin Military Academy]
he first cameAmerica, and elsewhere. She reappeared in the Piedmontese Guard, when to
1876 Paris in 1836, and immediately became a greatParis at the Lyriqueas Giralda, Oct. 21, ;
' in society. Never was youth moreas Suzanne in Gautier's unsuccessful La Cl^ favourite
operatic stage beautyd'Or,' Sept. 14, 1877, and Martha, and at the richly gifted for the ; of
Italian in the part Jan. 1884. Soon voice, face, and figure, with the most winningOpera last 3,
grace of Italian manner, were all his. Butafterwards she retired and settled in Paris as a he
teacher of singing, where shenow resides. A. c. was then only an amateur, and as yet all unfitted
MARINI, BiAGlo, born at Brescia, was for public singing, which his friends constantly
suggested to him, even if he couldemployed as a violinist in Venice in 1617, was reconcile his
director ofthe music at Sant' Eufemia in Brescia pride with the taking of such a step. Tempted
1620 1622 entered service of as he was by the offers made to him by Du-in ; in he the
ponchel, the director of theFerdinand Gonzaga at Parma, and in 1626 was Opera,—which are
maestro della musica to the Duke of Bavaria. said to have reached the sum of frs. 1500 a
He was at Diisseldorf about and in 1653 month, a large sum for a beginning, and1640, —
was maestro to the Accademia della Morte at pressed by the embarrassments created by
exFerrara, and in the following year to Santa pensive tastes, he still hesitated to sign his
Maria Scala at father's name to such a contractdella Milan. He is said by ; but was
Fttis to have died at Padua, where he was a finally persuaded to do so at the house of the
member of the Academy of the Occulti ; the Gomtesse de Merlin, where he was dining one
date of his death given in Cozzando's I/ibreria evening with Prince Belgiojoso andis other
wellBresciana as 1660. He was the earliest of known amateurs ; and he compromised the
those Italian violinists who wrote music, and matter «'ith his family pride by signing only the
considered as being among Christianhis works are the name, under which he became
afterearliest concerted instrumental compositions in wards so famous,—Mario.
existence. The following is a list of the most He is said to have spent some time in study,
: directedimportant by the advice of Miohelet, Ponchard,
Op. and the great singing-master, Bordogni but it
1. Affettl muBicaU. . . . Symfonle, Canzon, Sonate, Balletti, Arte,
cannot have beenBrandi, Oag^liarde e Corenti,a 1, 2, 3 (for Tioliiu, cornets, and very long nor the study very
other sorts of Instruments). Venice, 1617.
deep, for there is no doubt that he was a very3, Madrigale et Symfonie, a 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. Venice, 1618.
3. Arie, Madrigali et Corenti, a 1, 2, 3. 1620. (These two incomplete singerwhen hemade his first appear-vocal as well as instrumental pieces.)books contain
6, Scherzi e Canzonette a 1 e 2 voci, Parma, 1622, ance. This was on Nov. 30, 1838, in the r81e
6. Le Lagrime d' Ermlnia in stile recltativo. Parma, 1623.
of7. Canto per le musiche di camera concerti, a 4-6 Toci, ed instro- 'Robert le Diable." Notwithstanding his
menti. Venice, 1634. lack of preparation and wantSymphonicCanzoni Pass' emezzi, Ealetti, Corenti, Oagli- of habit of the8. Sonate
arde, e Bltornelli a 1-6 TOCi, per ogni sorte d' instrument! . . . stage, his success was assured from the first
con altre ouriose emodeme inventioni. Venice, 1626.
9. Madrigaletti, a 1-4 voci. Venice, 16Sfi. (The only known copies moment when his delicious voice and graceful
in ChristChurch Library, Oxford.)of thisand of 7 are the
figureCompositioni varie per musica di camera, a 2-5 voci. Venice, were first presented13. to the French public
Mario remained at the Academic during that15. (Corona melodica ex diversls sacrae muslces floribns concinnata,
2-6 instrumentis. Antwerp, 1644.voc. ao year, but in 1840 he passed to the Italiandelle musiche dacamera a 3-6 e piiivoci. Milan,16. Concerto terzo
Opera,1649. for which his native tongue and manner
18. Salmi per tuttl le solennitideU' anno ... ad. 1-3 voci. Venice,
better fitted him.1663.
tntte festivity deU' anno, a 4 voci. Venice, 1654,SO. Vespri per le In the meantime,hehadLacrime dl Bavlde sparse nel Miserere concertato in divers! made his first appear-21.
1656.'modi a^ e p!ik voci. Venice, ance in London, where he continued to singPer ogni sorts d' Istromento mnsicale divers! generl d! Senate22.
1655.da chiesa e da camem,a 2-4. Venice, throughmanyyears ofalongand brilliant career.
(^Quellen-Lexikon, etc.) M. His d^but here 'was in Lucrezia 'Borgia, June 6,
Opera seria, in two 1839 but,MARINO FALIERO. : as a critic 'ofthe time observed, the
Produced at the vocal; music by Donizetti. command whichacts he afterwards gained was
1835 in London, King's unthoughtof hisTheitre Italien, in ; ; actingdidnotthengetbeyond
o. that ofaTheatre, May 14, 1835. southernman with a strong feeling forCAVALIEEE DI CANDIAMAKIO,'
the stage. But physical beauty and geniality, before the public of Paris, London, and St.
such as have been bestowed on certain Petersburg, constantly associatedfew, a with Mme.
artistic taste, a certain distinction,—not ex- Grisi. In the earlier years (1843-46) of that
belonging toclusively gentle birth, but some- brilliant quarter of a century, he took the place
times associated with it,—made it clear, from of Rubini in the famous quartet, with
TamSigner Mario's first hour of stage-life, that a burini and Lablache ; this, however, did not
of no common order of fascination wascourse last long and hesoon remained
; alone with the
begun.' sole remaining star of the original constellation,
Kario sang, after this, in each season at Paris Mme. Grisi. To this gifted prima donna Mario
London, improving steadilyboth in actingand in was united, after the dissolution of her former
'and singing, though it fell to his lot to create marriage and by; her he had three daughters.
butfewnew characters,—scarcelyanotherbeside He left the stage in 1867, and retired to Paris,
of the 'walking lover' in 'Don Pasquale,'that and then toRome, where he died, Dec. 11, 1883.
a part which consisted of little more than the About 1880 it became known that he was in
'singing ofthe serenade Com' kgentil. ' In other reduced circumstances, and his friends got up a
he only followed his predecessors, thoughparts concert in London for his benefit. j, M.
grace and charm which werewith a peculiar to MAEIONETTE-THEATRE, a small stage
him, and which may possibly remain for ever on which puppets, moved by wires and strings,
'unequalled. It was not,' says the same critic act operas, plays, and ballets, the songs or
dia'above (Mr. Chorley),quoted till the season of logue being sung or spoken behind the scenes.
1846 that he took the place of which no wear The repertoires included both serious and comic
and tear of time had been able to deprive him.' pieces, but mock-heroic and satiric dramas were
iHe had then played Almaviva, Gennaro, Raoul, the most effective. Puppet-plays, in England
and had shown himself undoubtedly the most and Italy called 'fantoccini,' once popular with
perfect stage-loyer ever seen, whatevermay have all classes, go back as far as the 15th century.
other qualities or defects. His singingbeen his From that period to the end of the 17th century
in the duet of the fourth Act of the Ugonotti,' Punch was so popular as to inspire Addison
'raised him again above this ; and in La with a Latin poem, 'Machinae gesticulantes.'
perhaps, hishighestpointFavorita ' heachieved, In 1713 a certain Powell erected aPunch theatre
of attainment as a dramatic singer. under the arcade ofCovent Garden, where pieces
'Like Garcia and Nourrit, Mario attempted founded on nursery rhymes, such as the Babes
Giovanni,'andwithsimilarlysmallsucoess.'Don in the Wood,' 'Robin Hood,' and 'Mother
partlyThe violence done to Mozart's music Goose,' were performed later on they even
accounts for the failure of tenors to appropriate reached Shakespeareand opera. Aboutthesame
character Mario was unfitted for itthis great ; period Marionette-theatres were erected in the
noby nature. The reckless profligate found open spaces atVienna,and these havereappeared
counterpart in the easy grace of his love- from time to time ever since.^ Prince Esterhazy,
was too amiable in the eyes of the residence, Esterhaz, had a fantas-making ; he at hissummer
'the Disso-public to realise for them the idea of tically decorated grotto for his puppet-plays,
lute Punito.' with a staffofskilled machinists, scene-painters,
'singer romances ' Mario has never play-Wrights, and above all a composer, hisAs a of
elegance of his ofbeen surpassed. The native capellmeiater Haydn, whose love humour
his vocaldemeanour contributed not a little to found ample scope in these performances. His
'drawing-room ; for refinements opera Philemon und Baucis ' so delighted thesuccess in the
create effects there Maria Teresa, that by her desire Princeof accent and pronunciation Empress
space towhich wouldbeinappreciable in the larger Esterhazy had the whole apparatus sent
Mario was not often heard in Vienna for the amusement of the Court. Inof a theatre.
' righteous,' fantoccini were playing between theoratorio, buthe sang Then shall the London,
'in Elijah,' at theBirmingham Festival of1849, years 1770 and 1780 at Hickford's largeRooms
hearts,' inthesameoratorio, Panton Street, Haymarket, Maryleboneand 'Ifwith allyour in
wasbom, Piccadilly. In Nov. 1791atHereford, in 1855. Forthe stagehe Gardens, and in
his ofthese performances'and he remained faithful during Haydnwas presentatoneto thestage
brilliance of his success in elegant little theatre called Varidt&artistic life. To the in the
quality, the belonging to Lord Barrymore, inopera he brought one great helping Amusantes,
interested, andallthe important details of Savile Row. He was mucheye for colour and
well-stage looked as if it wrote in his diary, 'The puppets werecostume. His figure on the
Veronese, singers bad, but the orchestrahadstepped ofthe canvas ofTitian, managed, theout
har- playbill may be quotedNever was an actor more tolerably good.' Theor Tintoretto.
dressed for the specimen.moniously and beautifully as a
mean advan-impersonated,—nocharacters he
1 See Strutt'e Sports and Pattimu of t\o People of
indication of the completetage, and no slight London. 1880.
B UutUr und lei'fl Kind, and the Ring do*In 1877 Baupaoh's
artistic temperament. Nibitnmgten vera performed thereand elsewhere by puppets.
9 See Fohl's Bagdn in London, p. 162.remained-twenty years MarioFor five-and;
Fahtoccihi renounce theirworshipwho,ratherthanGraslitz,
Dancing and music. manner, leftreformed LutheranGod in theof
Overture, Haydn. Spanish Fandango. sectarianthe perplexities ofhomes andtheir
A comedy in one act, Goncertante, Fleyel.
' Fundatores,' or Pioneers,and asbigotry,'Arlequin valet.' comedy inA one act,
'underthe directionMarkneukirchen,
' settled inOverture, Piccini. Les Fetits Biens,'
opensthe music by Sacchini God.' The list withand inspiration ofThe favouriteopera(5tl» and
time) Reichel, whose familyof Christianthe name
'La buona Figliuola,' To conclude with a Pas de
' in the space ofMaster-workers 'boasted more
the music by Piccini, Gior- deux i-la-mode
other. In the present daydan! and Sarti. de Vestris and Hillisberg. years than any100
prominently thanIjeader of the band : Mr. Mountain. appears lessthis name
First'hautboy : Sgr. Fatria. the greatcircumstance due to fireformerly, a
To begin at 8 ; the doors open at 7 o'clock. the principal branches ofwhich droveof 1840,
The theatre is well aired and illuminated with wax. themselves and theirremovethe family to
Refreshments to be had at the Booms
lauds. But though far fromcapital to otherof the theatre. Boxes, 5/. Fit, 3/.
— a faithful
attach: they still preservedA critic in The Gasetteer says '9o welldidthemotion home,
of the puppets agree with the voice and tone of the and weretheir fellow-countrymen,ment to
prompters, that, after the eye had been accustomed to
enlarging the trade connectioninstrumental inthem for a few minutes, it was difficult to remember
with foreign countries.that they were puppets.' of their native town
won thethe brothers Reichel goldFantoccini are by no means to be despised In 1851
for their gut stringsmanufacturedeven in these days. They give opportunity medal in Tilsit
' London at the firstfor many a true word to be spoken in jest there, and exhibited in
show the bad habits of actors, and International Exhibition. Besides Christianthey up
'Fundatores' were his brotherform a mirror in which adultsmay see a picture Reichel the
Caspar Schonfelder,of life none the less true for a little distortion. Johann Caspar Reichel, and
Bopel, Johann[The vogue of the marionette-theatre lasted Hopf, Johann GottfriedCaspar
David Rudest, Johann Georglonger in Italy (where it was generally managed Adam Bopel,
Schonfelder, Adamby English performers) than elsewhere ; they Poller, Johann
are occasionally still to be seen there and else- Kurzendorffer, Johann Georg Schonfeld, and
performances of regular plays Schonfeld. The two Reichels, H. G.where, but the is David
Hopf acted asnow rarer than exhibitions of single dancing Poller, C. Schonfelder, and C.
'dolls. At the Th^&tre Guignol ' the same Head Masters of the Guild.
entertainment maintained its popu- After follow records of admissions downkind of this
' Masters belonging tolarity for many years in the Champs Elysees, to 1772 of some seventy '
Paijs.] c. F. p. some thirty-one families, among whom one
MARITANA. Opera in three acts, founded notices Adam Voigt in 1699, Christoph Adam
by Fitzball, Schonfelderson Don Cesar de Bazan ; words Richterin 1708, ten Reichels, eight
music by W. V. Wallace. Produced at Drury and so on. A Master was bound to own a
Lane by Bnnn, Nov. 15, 1845. G. house, in which his banquet, given on his
A small townMARKNEUKIRCHEN. in admission to the Guild, took place at which all
the kingdom of Saxony, which like Mittenwald existing Masters and their wives were present.
in Bavaria, and Mirecourt in Lorraine, is one The records are often quaint. On the
admisprincipal centres for the manufacture of sion of Johann isof the Adam Nurnberger in 1761, it
cheap modern bowand other instruments. The recorded that 'he had half a mind to marry
corner-stone of the present flourishing trade the youngest daughter ofMasterJohann Reichel
by the foi-mation of a Guild, or Incor- the elder.was laid On this consideration the fees on
Society ofViolin-makers in whichporated 1677, admission to mastership were reduced to 10
was on a par, in its exclusivenessand discipline, thalers, 16 groschen. In histhe event of
'with the ancient Meistersingers ' and their neither marrying the lady under consideration,
'Minnesingers.' Just asprototypes the the nor any other Master's daughter, the sum of 31
foundation of the Mittenwald industrywas laid thalers was assessed upon deferredhim as a
Mathias Klotz in 1684, so the renown and payment.'by Vested interests were uppermost in
which characterise the Markneu-prosperity the considerations of this patriarchal Guild.
sprungkirohen ofto-dayhave undoubtedly from The earliest instruments Guildmade by the
Guild. A record of the names of the werethis old constructed according to the fundamentary
' Masters ' of the art together withoriginal rules which had been laid Tieffen-down by
to be foundthose subsequently admitted, is in brugger, or DuifTopmgoar, who flourished in
Arts and Crafts book the Worshipful the yearThe of 1510. But later, as the Society grew
Violinmakers MarkneuhirchenwhichGuild of in wealth and power, couldof and the apprentices
and hasextends from 1677 to 1772, been travel and see the chief centres of instrument
into English. It opens with thetranslated manufacture in Italy, new methods ideasand
: the name of the Holy Trinity,words In were brought to the whohome workmen,
' to give theAmen ! and then proceeds twelve gathered them up and used them to strengthen
the religious exiles, principally from eachnames of his own individuality. becameThey; :
possessed ofvaluable Italian instruments which, Rameau's system parts, 1765-62, Berlin)(3 ;
once recognised and used as models, became Der critische Musicusander /Spree(Berlin, 1750),
accessible to all the Arts and the containing, on 129, a lucid explanation oftheCraftsmen in p.
and beyond this, Church Modes ; the AnteUvrng zur Singe-town, by reason of their rule old
of exacting a diploma work from every new composition (Berlin, 1758), and the Anleitung
candidate for membership, a certain standard of zur Musik 1763), both still popular
excellence was maintained by the Guild. the Kunst das Clavier zu spielen theartistic (1750) ;
This traditional spirit of original art makes Kersuch iiber die miisikalische Temperatur
itself felt to this day in the studios of Mark- (Breslau, a controversial pamphlet in-1776),
neukirchen, where violins of genuine German tended to prove so-calledthat Kimberger's
at highmake are constructed, and sold prices, fundamental bass was merely an interpolated
while in the other factories are turned out mere bass ; and the Ahhandlung von tier Fuge, 62
imitations of the most celebrated Italian plates (Berlin, 1753-54 2nd edition, 1806
masters. French, Berlin, 1756), a masterly summary of
vber die FachachuZe Ijutrumenteii' the whole science ofcounterpoint at that period,B. BachDiann: Bericht fvir
bauer in Markjtaukirchen (Markneukirchen, 18tj3). The Arts and
with the solitary defect that it is illustrated by
iyafu Book of the Worthipful tjwtd of Violin-mdkert of
Ma/rleneukirchen, Frum the year 16#7 to the year 1772. Extracted and a few short examples, of being treatedinstead
analysed by Dr. Bicfaajd Fetong. Tranalatedand edited byEdward
Marianna Herou-Allen. (London, Old Violint, Rev,and 1894.) in connection with composition. This Marpurg
Haweia. (London, 1898.)H. B. j;_ H-A intended to remedy by publishing a collection
MARKULL, Friedrich Wilhelm, bom of fugues by well-known authors, with analyses,
Feb. 17, 1816, at Reichenbach near Elbing, but he only issued the first part (Berlin, 1758).
Prussia. He studied composition and organ- Of his critical works the most important is the
under Friedrich Schneider, at Dessau Historisch-kritiscJie Beytrage, 5 vols. (Berlin,playing ;
in 1836 principal organist atthe Marieu- Among the historicalmaybespecifiedbecame 1754-78).
kirche at Danzig, and conductor of the 'Ge- a MS. Eniwurf einer Geschichte der Orgel, of
sangverein' there. MarkuU enjoyed a high which Gerber gives the table of contents and;
and gave excellent Kritische Einleitung in die Geschichte derreputation as a pianist, the
acting A (^esprit,concerts of chamber music, besides as . . . Musik (Berlin, 1759). jeu
critic for the Danziger Zeitung. [His composi- Legende einiger Musikheiligen von Simeon
include three operas, 'Maja und Alpino,' Meiaphrastes dem Jiingeren (Cologne, 1786),tions
' Konig appeared a pseudonym. Of compositionsor 'Die bezauberte Rose' (1843); Der under
' collections ofcontemporaryvon Zion ' ; Das Walpurgisfest ' (1855) hepublished, besides(1848)
' ' '6Johannes der Taufer ' and Das music, Sonaten fiir dasCembalo '(Nuremberg,two oratorios,
'Entschlafenen," produced by Fugheecapricci' (Berlin, andGedachtniss der 1756); 1777) ;
' figurirten Choralen,' vols. 1 and 2Spohr at Cassel in 1856, the 86th Psalm, Versuch in
'several symphonies, numerous works for organ, Musikalisches Archiv,' an elucidation of the
'Ghoralbuch' and HistoriscA-kritische Beytrage, was announced,voice, and piano, a (1845),
but did not appear. [Otherworks and editionsarrangements.] h. s. o.
Quellen-Lexikon.^MARPUR6, Friedrich Wilhelm, eminent are given in the
at Mar- Marpurg died May 22, 1795, in Berlin, wherewriter on music, born Nov. 21, 1718,
Brandenburg. [The he had been director of the government lotterypurgshof,nearSeehausen, in
f. g.was discovered in the registers of from of birth
FIGARO. See NozzeWendemark by Dr. W. Thamhayn MARRIAGE OFSeehof in
known of Di Figaro.(see the Quellen-Lexikon).] Little is
MARSOHALL, Samuel. See Mareschall.hismusical education, as Gerbergives no details,
Heinrich August, cele-furnished him with the MARSCHNER,although Marpurg
{Leipzig musik. brated German opera-composer, born Augusthistory of his life. Spazier
at Zittau in Saxony. He began tosays that in 1746 he was 16, 1795,Zeitung, ii. 553)
dances, and evenRothenburg [or Bodenberg] compose sonatas, Lieder,secretary to General
Voltaire, orchestral music, with no further help than ain Paris, and there associated with
hints from various musicians with whomD'Alembert, and Rameau ; and fewMaupertuis,
soprano voice and his pianoforte-his acquaintance with his beautifulEberhard remarks that
refined playing brought him into contact. As he grewgood society would account for his
up he obtained more systematic instruction fromtact in criticism. The absencemannersand his
whither he went in 1813 toand of fine writing, Schicht of Leipzig,in his works of personality
acquaintanceauthors, is the study law. Here also hemade thecommon with musicalthen so
Rochlitz, who induced him to adopt musichad great command of ofmore striking as he
profession. In 1816 he travelled withenjoyed discussion. as alanguage and thoroughly
a Hungarian, toalmost all Count Thaddaus von Amadee,pen was exercised inHis active
criti- Pressburg and Vienna, where he made the—composition, theory,branches of music
acquaintance of Kozeluch and of Beethoven,theoretical workscism, and history. Of his
advised him to composeHandbuch ley dem who is said to havecelebrated are—thethe most
Infounded on sonatas, symphonies, etc., for practice.der Composition,Oeneralbasse und62 LAMARSCHNER MARSEILLAISE,
kindsof all andPressburg he composed 'Der Kyffhauserberg,' published over 180 worksand
' ' Lieder for one andSaidor," Heinrioh IV. but principallyund Aubign^' Weber descriptions ;
choruses forstill popular andproduced the last at Dresden, July 19, 1820, more voices, ;
excellentof which are andand Marsohner was in consequence appointed men's many
overture, embodyingin 1823 favourites. Anjoint-capellmeister with "Weber and great
mentioned asKing,' is beingMorlacchi of the German and Italian Opera 'God save the
London at a concert on thethere. He was appointed musikdirector in performed in
the Prince of Walesthe baptism of1824, but resigned on Weber's death in 1826, occasion of
1842.Edward VII.), Jan. 25,and after travelling for some time, settled (now King
composer of the Romanticin 1827 at Leipzig as capellmeister of the As a dramatic
next to Weberproduced 'Der Vampyr.' Marschner ranks andtheatre. Here he school,
with the former that his name(March 28, 1828), his first romantic opera, to a Spohr, but it is
connected, though he waslibretto by his brother-in-law Wohlbriiok, the is most intimately
strong similaritywhich was enormous in spite of its never a pupil ofWeber's. Thesuccess of
London was produced, dispositions and gifts, the harmo-repulsive subject. In it between their
worked together, andAugust 25, 1829, in English, at the Lyceum, nious wayin which they
and ran for sixty nights, and Marschner had the cordial affection they felt for each other,
invitation compose an English are interesting facts in the history of music.accepted an to
subjects were ghostsopera, when Covent Garden Theatre was burnt Marschner's favourite and
down. His success here doubtless led to his demons, whose uncanny revels he delineated
Falkner's Braut' to with extraordinary power, but this gloomy sidededicating his opera 'Des
re- was relieved by a real love ofKing William IV., in return for which he of his character
ceived a gracious letter and a golden box in nature and out-door life, especially in its lighter
attention having been turned to andmore humorous characteristics. Heworked1833. His
' whichEnglish literature, his next opera, DerTempler with extreme rapidity, is the more
und die Jiidin ' (produced at Leipzig, Dec. 1829), remarkable as his scores abound in enharmonic
libretto constructed him- modulations, and his orchestration is unusuallywas composed to a by
'Ivanhoe.' facilityself and Wohlbriick from The brilliant and elaborate. Such argues
freshness and melody of the music ensured its an inexhaustible store of melody, arid a perfect
time, but the libretto, disjointed mastery of the technical part of composi-success at the
and overloaded with purely epic passages which tion. A. M.
merely serve to hinder the action, killed the MARSEILLAISE, LA. Thewords andmusic
Marschner was appointed French compositionmusic. In 1831 ofthis popular hymn are the
Court Capellmeister at Hanover, where he pro- of Claude Joseph Rougbt db Lisle, a captain
'Hans Heiling' (May 24, 1833) to a of engineers, who was quartered at Strasburgduced
receivedlibretto by Eduard Devrient, which had been when the volunteers of the Bas Rhin
urged upon Mendelssohn in 1827 (Devrient's orders to join Luckner's army. Dietrich, the
This opera is Marschner's Strasburg, having, in the course of aRecollections, p. 40). Mayor of
instantaneous and youngmasterpiece. Its success was discussion on the war, regretted that the
universal, and it retains to this day an honour- soldiers had no patriotic song to ging as they
place at all the principal theatres of marched out, Rouget de Lisle, who was of theable
Germany. In 1836 it was performed under his party, returned to his lodgings,' and in a fit of
own direction at Copenhagen with marked enthusiasm composed, during the night of April
and was offered the post of General- songwhichsuccess, he 24, 1792, the words and music ofthe
Denmark, an honour which violinmusikdireotor in has Immortalised his name. With his
the warmth of his reception on his return to he picked out the first strains ofthis inspiriting
'Hanover induced him to decline. After Hans only anand truly martial melody ; but being
' differences withHeiling—owing chiefly to the amateur, he unfortunately added a symphony
management of the theatre—Marschner com- which jars strangelywith the vigorous character
little for the stage, and that little has theposed of the hymn itself. The following copy of
not survived. Hewas pensioned, with the title original edition, printed by Dannbach of
Stras'of Generalmusikdirector, in 1859, and died at pourburg under the title Chant de guerre
Dec. 1861. monument wasHanover, 14, A I'armte du Rhin, dMi^ au Marshal Lukner'
aterected to him Hanover in 1877. Besides (de), will be interesting from containing theits
operas already mentioned he composedthe symphony, which has been since suppressed,
(incidental music) 'Der'Sohbn Eir (1822) ; and from an obvious typographical error, the
'Holzdieb ' (Dresden, 1826) ; Lucretia ' (Danzig, crotchet * formarked being evidently intended
'Des Falkner's Braut' (Leipzig, 18321826); a quaver.
'Der Babu' (Hanover, 'Berlin, 1838); 1837); The Diet-Chant de Guerre ' was sung in
'Das Schloss am Aetna' (Berlin, 1838); rich's house on April 25, copied and arranged
Nassau '(Hanover, 'Austin''AdolfTon 1843); for a military band on andthe following day,
composed incidental musicHe also performed by the(1851). band of the Garde Nationale
Kleist's play 'Die Hermannsschlaoht,' 1 In theMalBou Biickel,for von Ko. 12, Oiaude Bae.HEINRICH AUGUST MARSCHXEK— — ;
Temps de mOA'che am4mi. were distributed. Rouget de Lisle had been
cashiered forexpressingdisapproval ofthe^"^^ eventst^ ^ggfejE^EE
of August 10, and wtis then in prison, from
AI-loQB en-faQtBde]apa-trl---e Le jour de
which he was only released after the fall of
Robespierre, on the ninth Thermidor (July 28),
1794. The following fine stanza for the child
gloixe est ar-rl - vi. -Con-tre noui de la ty-ran-nl e
L'tStenwas accordingly supplied by Dubois, editor of
the Journal :de IMUrature
Nous entrerons dans la carri&re,
Quand nos atn^s n'y seront plus
Nous trouveronsy leur poussi^re
Et la trace de leurs vertus.
Bien moinsjaloux de leur survlvre
Que de partager leur cercueil.
Nous aurons le sublime oi^ueil
De les venger ou de les suivre.
Dubois also proposed to altertheconcluding lines
of the sixth stanza :
Qtie tes ennemis expirants
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire
Dans tes ennemis expirants
Vols ton triomphe et notre gloire.
areThese minute details, but no fact connected
with this most celebrated of French national
airs is uninteresting.
That Rouget de Lisle was the author of the
words of the 'Marseillaise' has never been
doubted—indeed Louis Philippe conferred a
pension upon him but it has been denied
; over
and over again that he composed the music.
Strange to say, Castil-Blaze(seeJfoZi^re musicien,
vol. ii. 452-454),whoshouldhave recognisedpp.
the vigour and dash so characteristic of the
French, declared it to have been taken from a
German hymn.
In F. K. Meyer's Versailler (Berlin,Briefe^t^^bjg^^fe^^
there is an article upon the origin1872) of the
'Marseillaise,' inwhich it is stated that the tune
is the same as that to which the Volksliedg^g^g^g^g^
' Stand ich auf hohen Bergen ' is sung in Upper
at a review on Sunday, the 29th. On June Bavaria. The author of the article heard it
25 a singer named Mireur sang it at a civic sung in 1842 by an old woman of seventy, who
banquet at Marseilles with somuch effect that it informed him that it was a very old tune, and
was immediately printed, and distributed to the that she had learnt it from her mother and
volunteers of the battalion just starting for grandmother. The tune is also said to exist in
Paris. They entered Paris on July 30, sing- the Credo of a MS. Mass composed by
Holtzing their new hymn and with it on their mann in which is preserved in the parish
; 1776,
attack on the Tuileries church of Meersburg. (See the Gartenlaube forlips they marched to the
on August 10, 1792. From that day the 1861, 256.) Subsequent inquiry (Augustp.
'Chant de guerre pour I'armee du Ehin' was 1879) on the spot from the curate of Meersburg
no truth in this story.called 'Chanson ' or 'Chantdes Marseillais,'and, has proved that there is
finally, 'La Marseillaise.' The people, shouting F^tis, in 1863, asserted that the music was
altered a note or two the work of a composer named Navoigille, andit in the streets, probably
the second edition ofthemusicians, Edelmann, Gr^try, andmost ofall reinforces his statement in
accompaniments for pianoforte his BiograpMe Universelle. Georges KastnerGossec, in their
{Bevue et Gazette Musicale, Paris, 1848) andand orchestra, greatly enriched the harmonies,
' includingthe author ofthisMarseillaise, ' in the form we have several otherwriters,and soon the
hardly be quoted), was article (see Chouquet's L'Art Musical, Sept. 8,it now (which need
1864-March have clearly disprovedknown from one end of France to the other. 9, 1865),
point was finallycontained only six coup- these allegations ; and theThe original edition
lapaiemU6when it was drama- settled by a pamphlet, La Viritisurlets the seventh wasadded
de la Marseillaise (Paris, 1865), written by A.the Fete of the F^d^ration, in order totised for
Rouget de Lisle, nephew of the composer, whichcharacters—an old man, a soldier,complete the
and documentaryverses contains precise informationwife, and a child—among whom thea64 MARSH MARSICK
evidence, establishing Kouget de Lisle's wind can blaw.' He married in 1773,claim airts the
beyond a doubt. The controversy dying in his 85th year atis examined and had a family,
at length by Loquin in A number of hisLes miladies populaires Dandaleith, May 29, 1833.
de la France, publications,Paris, 1879. The appear in the Gow'Marseillaise' compositions
has been often made use of by Edinburgh issued a couple ofcomposers. Of but Stewart of
these, two may be cited Strathspeys in 1781. A—Salieri, in the opening small collections of his
chorus of his was publishedopera, 'Palmira' much fuller collection(1795), and third and
Grison, in the introduction one, after hisdeath, in the oratorio in 1822 and a later
'Esther' (still in MS.), Marshall is extant, en-both evidently inten- An excellent portrait of
tional. Schumann slyly alludes to Turner it is reproduced in The Glenit in the graved by ;
' Faschingssohwank aus Wien,' DanceMusic, bookii., 1895,uses it in his GolleUion Scottishof
song of the Two informationGrenadiers with magnificent where there is alsomuch interesting
effect, and also introduces it in his Overture concerning him. r. K.
'to Hermann und Dorothea.' William, Mus.D., son ofMARSHALL,
A pictureby Pils,representingRougetde Lisle William Marshall of Oxford, music-seller, born
'singing the Marseillaise,' is well known from was a chorister of the Chapel Royalthere 1806,
the engraving. [The best and William Hawes.account of the song under John Stafford Smith
is to be found in ChristTiersot's Chanson Populaire, He was appointed organist of Church
281-286.] Cathedral and St. John's College, Oxford, inpp. G. o.
MARSH, Alphonso, son of organist of All Saints'Robert Marsh, 1825, and was also
one of the musicians in ordinary to Charles I., Church from 1839. He graduated as Mus.B.
was baptized at St. Margaret's, Westminster, Dec. 1826, and Mus.D. Jan. 14, 1840. He7,
Jan. 28, 1627. He was appointed appointments in andaGentleman resigned his Oxford 1846,
of the Chapel Royal in Mary's Church,1660. Songs composed afterwardsbecame organist ofSt.
by him appear in 'The Treasury of Musiok' Kidderminster. He was author of The Art of
' Choice Ayres and Dialogues' Reading Church Music the composer of(1669), (1676), (1842),
and other publications theof time. He died somechurch musicand songs, and editorQointly
April 9, ] 681. His sonAlphonsowas admitted with Alfred Bennett) of a collection of chants,
aGentleman oftheChapelRoyal, April 1676. and also editor of a book of words of25, 1829,
'Songs by him are contained in The Theater of anthems, 1840, fourth edition, 1862. He died
Music' (1685-87), 'The Banquet of Musick' at Handsworth, August 17, 1875.
and other publications. He died His younger brother, Charles Ward(1688-92),
MarApril 1692, and was buried April in the shall, born5, 9, 1808, about 1835 appeared, under
west cloister ofWestminster Abbey, w. H. H. the assumed name of Manvers, on the London
MARSH, John, born at Dorking, 1752, a stage as a tenor singer, with success. In 1842
distinguished amateur composer and performer he quitted the theatre for concert and oratorio
[was articled to a solicitor at Romsey in 1768], singing, in which he met with greater success.
resided at Salisbury (1776-81), Canterbury After 1847 he withdrew from public life. He
and Chichester (1787-1828), in each died at Islington, Feb.(1781-86), 22, 1874. w. h. h.
at the subscrip-of which places he led the band MARSICK, Martin Pierre Joseph,
violintion concerts and occasionally officiated for the ist, was born on March at Jupille,9, 1848,
cathedral and church organists. He composed near Liige. At the age of eight he entered
andtwo services, many anthems, chants, psalm the Li^ge Conservatoire, studying under Desir^
tunes, glees, songs, symphonies, overtures, Heynberg, and gaining, two years later, the first
etc., and organ and pianoforte music, prize in thequartets, preparatory class. In 1864 he
on harmony, thorough-bass, securedbesides treatises the gold medal of the institution for
'etc. He died in 1828. A fiilly detailed account exceptional merit.' In the following year and
his career is given in the Dictionary until 1867 he wasof of pupil of Leonard (violin) and
itdoes notpossess sufficient KufferathMusicians, 1824, but (composition), and in 1868-69 of
interest to be repeated here. w. H. H. Massart at the Paris Conservatoire, the expense
MARSHALL, William, a Scottishmusician, of his musical training being defrayed by a
Fochabers in Banffshire, Dec. 1748. music-lovingbom at 27, lady of distinction. In 1870-71
a boy he entered the service of the Duke of he was the recipientAs of a stipend from the
rising, during a thirty years' residence Belgian government,Gordon, andwas enabled to proceed
the of butler, house- to Berlinin the family, to posts to study under Joachim. Thus
exsteward, and factor. He taught himself the ceptionally equipped, he made a successful
became the best amateur performer debut, inviolin, and 1873, at the 'Concerts populaires' in
compositions,which are Strath- Paris, travelledof hisday. His a good deal in various European
a similar class of Scottish violin countries, foundedspeys and a Quartet at Paris in 1877
been held in much favour, the best with R^my, Vonmusic, have Waefelghem, and Delsart, and
of Huntley's,' and inbeing 'The Marquis 1892 was appointed violinknown professor at the
Gordon's ' Strathspeys ; the latter Conservatoire in succession'MissAdmiral to Massart. In
'Burns wrote Of a' the 1895-96the air to which he toured in the Unitedbeing States, and,;
has occasionally visited Martele will become uneven.England, but without C. Schroeder's
achieving in either country a great popular Catechism Violin Playing (Leipzig, 1889of ;
success. The possessor of a faultless technique, London, 1895) Carl Courvoisier's Technique
; of
a good all-round musician, and by no means Violin Playing (Cologne, ; London,1878 1880)
lacking in fire, his playing does not indicate a H. W. and G. Gresswell'sHow to Play the Fiddle
aspassion for beauty such one marks in a great (London, 1886). o. R.
genius of the violin. His compositions include MARTHA. Opera in three acts music by
three concertos and a number of smaller pieces Flotow. Produced at Vienna, Nov. 25, 1847.
for the violin. w. w. c. It was an extension of Lady Henkiette, in
MARSON, Georoe, called Mus.B. (although which Flotow had only a third share. The
no trace of his degree is to be found), con- alterations in the book are said to have been
Triumphes of Oriana,'tributed to 'The 1601, madeby St. Georges,and translated into German
'the five-part madrigal The niraplies and shep- by Friedrich. It was produced in Italian at
heards.' He composed services and anthems, Covent Garden, as 'Marta,' July 1858 in1, ;
ofwhich are still extan in w.some t MS. H. H. English at Drury Lane, Oct. 11, 1858, and in
MARTEAU, Henri, Professor of the Violin French at the Theatre Lyrique, Dec. 16, 1865.
at the Geneva Conservatoire, born at Rhcims, The air of 'The Last Rose of Summer' is a
March 1874. His father was an amateur prominent motif in this opera.31, G.
violinist and President of the Philharmonic MARTIN, Sir George Clement, born Sept.
Society ofRheims ; his mother, an accomplished 11, 1844, atLambourne, Berks, received
instrucpianist, a pupil of Madame Schumann. Sivori tion in organ-playing from Mr. Pearson andJ.
first discovered Henri Marteau's talent, and pre- Sir John (then Dr. ) Stainer, also in composition
sented him with a violin, at the same time from the latter during the time he was organist
persuading his parents to allow him to study there at the parish church. He was appointed
His master was private organist theit as a profession. first Bunzl, to Duke of Buccleuch, at
a pupil of Molique, his second, Leonard. In Dalkeith, in 1871 Master ofthe Choristers, St.
1884, when only ten years of age, he appeared Paul's Cathedral, in 1874, deputy organist at
Philharmonic same on the death George Cooper inunder Richter at the Vienna the of 1876,
Society, and elsewherein Germany and Switzer- and organist on the resignation of Stainer in
land in the year following he was chosen by 1888. He received the degrees ofMus.B. ,Oxon
play violin obbligato of « piece in 1868, Fellow of the College of Organists inGounod to the
conferredcomposed for the Joan of Arc Centenary cele- 1875, and Mus.D. (degree by the
bration at Rheims. In July 1888 he appeared Archbishop of Canterbury) in 1883, and was
London. In 1892 he appointed the same year teacher of the organat a Richter concert in
of Music, whichgained the first prize at the Paris Conservatoire, at the Royal College post he
andMassenetwrote a concerto expressly forhim. has since resigned. His compositions include
with success in 1893 Morningand EveningCommunion and EveningHe toured in America
1897-99. Service in C for voices and orchestra Com-and 1898, and in Russia in Having ;
studied composition with Theodore Dubois, he munion Service in A, Magnificat and Nunc
'cantata, La voix de Jeanne Dimittis in A, for the same the same in Bl>brought out a ;
for voices, organ, and military band the samed'Are,' for soprano, chorus, and orchestra, in ;
for voices and orchestra anthems ; also a1896. Baker's Biog. Diet, Musicians; Henry inG ; 7of
Violinists To-day and variety ofcompositions for parochialuse ; songs,0. Lahee's Famous of
" E. h-a. part-songs, etc. His most importantwork is theYesterday, Boston, U.S.A., 1899.
' sung on the steps of St. Paul's at theMARTELE, and MARTELLATO (Ital.), Te Deura
andmarieKare, to 'hammer'; said Diamond Jubilee ofQueenVictoria,1897, shortlyfrommarte&r
force, and after which event he received the honour ofof notes struck or sung with especial
(See Musical Times for Julyleft before the expiration ofthetime due tothem. knighthood.
A. c.or emphasisedby > or/z., 1897, p. 441.)Notes dashed, dotted,
MARTIN, George "William, born March 8,are MarteMes or Martellate in execution. The
received his earlymusical education in theterm Martellenient is sometimes employed for 1828,
under WilliamJ. H. choir of St. Paul's Cathedralacciaccatura.
this Hawes. He was professor of music at theIn violin, violoncello, and viola music
College forArmy Schoolmasters musicindicate a detached hammered Normal ;sign is used to
Training College, Batterseaeffect is usually produced master at St. John'sstyle of bowing. The
strokes and organist of Christ Church,by a series of short quick up and down (1845-53),
Battersea, in 1849. He composed many glees,at of the bow, without allowing thethe point
some of whichThe stick is held madrigals, and part-songs, forbow to leave the strings.
direction he was awarded prizes, and edited and pub-firmly, and the thumb pressed in the
cheap arrangements of the popularas each note is played. lishedof the index finger,
Handel, Haydn,quite loose, and care oratorios and other works ofThe arm should remain
directed per-pressure to and others. For some years heshould taken to give a strongerbe
given under the name of the Nationalthan the down bow, or else the formancesthe up bow
VOL. Illa'
May 1810.1Choral Society, whioli He died inwas begun in 1860. He of his life in teaching.
had an aptitude salvum fac,' and anotherfor training choirs of school A mass, a 'Domine
mentioned in thechildren, and conducted many 'L'lle de I'amour,' arepublic perform- opera
stated to haveances by them. He edited and the latter isthe Journal Part Quellen-Lexikon,of
Music Florence about 1784. 1861-62, and did much to'make good been produced in
MARTINEZ, Makiannb,music popular. He died in great poverty at MARTINES, or
ceremonies to theBolingbrokeHouse Hospital,Wandsworth, the master of theApril daughter of
May 1744, at Vienna.16, 1881. w. H. H. Pope's Nuncio, born 4,
friend of her father's, livedMARTIN, Jonathan, born 1715, was a Metastasio, a great
family,chorister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. half a century with the andCroft. for nearly
Onquittingthe choir hewas placedunder education. Haydn, then young,Thomas undertook her
occupied a wretched garretRoseingrave for instruction on the organ, and poor, and unknown,
her thesoon attained such proficiency as to be able to act in the same house, and taught
harpsias deputy for his master at St. George's, Hanover while Porpora gave her lessons in singingchord,
Square, and for Weldon at the general cultivation beingChapel Royal. and composition, her
On June 21, 1736, he was admitted organist of under Metastasio's own care. Of these
advanthe Chapel Royal on the death of "Weldon, and tages she made good use. Burney, who knew
'promised to compose anthems or services 1772,^ her in the highestfor her in speaks of terms,
the use of His Majesty's Chapel, whenever re- specially praising her singing ; and she also
quired by the Subdean for the time being.' won the admiration of both Hasse and Gerbert.
Probably he was never called upon to fulfil his After the death of the parents, and of
Metapromise, as his onlyknown composition is asong stasio, who left them well off, she and her sister
' 'in Rowe's tragedy, Tamerlane,' To thee, gave evening parties, which were frequented by
gentle sleep. ' died ofconsumption, principal artists. oneHe April 4, all the On of these
'1737, andwasburied April 9, in the west cloister occasions Kelly heard Marianne play a 4-hand
of Westminster Abbey. w. H. H. sonata of Mozart's with the composer. Latterly
MARTIN Y SOLAR, Vicente, born at Marianne devoted herself to teaching talented
Valencia about 1754 (whence he was known in pupils. In 1773 she was made a member of
'Italy as Lo Spaguuolo was a, choir-boy in the Musical Academy of Bologna. In 1782,'),
native town,the cathedral of his and afterwards the Tonkiinstler Societat performed her oratorio
'organist at Alicante. On the advice of an Isacco, ' to Metastasio's words. She also
comItalian singer, named Giuglietti, he went to posed another oratorio, 'SantaElena alCalvario,'
Florence, where hewas commissioned towrite an a mass, and other sacred music ; Psalm, to
'opera for the next Carnival. His Ifigenia in Metastasio's Italian translation, for four and
was accordingly brought out in 1781. eight voices solo-motets, arias, and cantatas,Aulide' ;
Soon after this he produced a new opera, concertos, overtures, and symphonies, and
' Astartea,' in Lucca, as well as a ballet, 'La harpsichord sonatas, two ofwhichwere reprinted
'1783 Donna fes- Pauer.Regina di Golconda.' In La by E. The Gesellschaft der
Musik'teggiata ' and L'accorta cameriera 'were brought freunde possesses the autographs of many of
'out at Turin, and in the following year Iper- these works. Marianne expired on Dec. 13,
mestra ' at Rome. In 1785 he went to Vienna, 1812, a few days after the death of her younger
where he became acquainted with Da Ponte, sister Antonie. c. F. p.
'who wrote for him the libretto of II burbero di MARTINI, Giovanni Battista, or
Giamproduced Jan. 1786. Here as BATTisTA, commonly calledbuon cuore,' 4, Padre Martini, one
speedily became the fashion, his of the most importantelsewhere he scientific musicians of
' 'operas, La capricciosa oorretta,' L' arbore di the 18th century, born at Bologna, April 24,
Diana, 'and 'Unacosa rara 'followingone another 1706 was first taught
; music by his father
last work, produced Antonio Maria,in quick succession. This member of a musical society
Nov. 11, 1786, for a time threw 'Figaro' called 'I Fratelli.' Having become an expert
(produced six months before) into the shade. violinist, he learned to sing and play the
harpsithe follow- chord from[See MozAET.] In the autumn of Padre Predieri, and counterpoint
'ing year Don Juan ' appeared, and Martin from Antonio Riccieri, a castrate Vicenza,of
obtained immortality at the hands and composer of merit.unwittingly At the same time he
'a theme from Una cosa rara studied philosophyof his rival, since and theology with the
makes its appearance in the second finale of monks of San Filippo Neri. Having passed
masterpiece. (See also Kbchel's Cata-Mozart's ^ The article in Hendel'e Aezifton contains sereral grosa mistakeB,
Bach aathe atatemantthat 'DonJuan waa brought outbe(ore*^fiaIn 1788 Martin waslogue, 582, 583.)pp. cosa rara (in which case
' it would havebeen di^ult Mozart tofor
have uaed one ol the themea fromItalian Opera at St. the latter opem^in the former 11,appointed director of the
and the Inclualon, among workabyhim, of the book of canonawith
' pianofortewhere he brought out Gli sposi in accompaniment, publiehedPetersburg, by Bircball in Londoii, and
editedby Cianchettini. These areby Padre Martini.a cantata 'II sogno.' In 1801contrasto,' and 2 See Preaent Stata Mviicof in Qermany, i. 311-13, 862, 354, 362.
a Kelly s miatakea of detail are innumerable. He gives the nam»passed away for'fashion for Italian operathe Martini, and imagining Marianne to be the siater of her father—
'a very old man '
' and nearly hia own age 'French operatook its place. Martin, '—apeaks of her as intime, and a
the vale of years,' though still • poaaessing the gaiety and vivacity
employed the rest of a girl. She was barely forty.deprived of his post,thusMAETINIMARTINI 67
noviciate Great and Frederick William II. of Prussia,his at the Franciscan convent at
Princess Maria Antonie of Saxony, and PopeLago, he was ordained on Sept. 11, 1722, and
returning to Bologna in 1725 became maestro Clement XIV. among the number. He suffered
di cappella of the church of San Francesco. much towards the close of his life from asthma,
Perti held a similar at San a disease of the bladder, and a painful woundGiacomo post
him valuable in the leg but his cheerfulness never desertedPetronio, and from Martinireceived ;
advice on composing church-music, at the same him, and he worked at the fourth volume of
time laying a scientific foundation for the his History Music up to his death, whichof
music by a conscientious study took place in 1784— October according towhole theory of ron 3,
of mathematics with Zanotti, a well-known Moresohi, Gandolfi, and Delia Valle ; on August
physician and mathematician. He thus gradu- i, according to Fantuzzi. His favourite pupil
extraordinary and compre- Mattelally acquired an stayed with him to the last. Zanotti's
amounthensive mass of knowledge, with an requiem was sung at his funeral, and on
literary information far in advance of his Deo. the Acoademia Filarmonica held aof 2,
contemporaries. His library was unusually grand function, at which funeral mass,a the
complete for the time,' partly because scientific joint composition of thirteen maestri di cappella,
'men of all countries took a pleasure in sending was performed, and an Elogio ' pronounced by
Burney, whose own library was Lionardo Italy mourned for him,him books. Volpi. All
his astonishment atvery extensive, expressed and a medallion to his memory was struck by
that of Martini, which he estimates to contain Tadolini. He wasa member of two Accademie,
'vols. {Present State Music in France the Filarmonici ' ofBologna, and the 'Arcadici'17,000 of
death a portionand Italy, p. 195). After his of Rome, his assumed name in the latter being
found its way to the court library at Vienna Aristoxenus Amphion.
rest remained at Bologna in the Lioeo Martini's two greatworks are the Storia deltathe
wasFilarmonico. His reputation as a teacher Musica (3 vols. Bologna, 1757, 1770, 1781),
European, and scholars flocked to him from and the Esemplare ossia Saggio . . . di
contrapamong the most celebrated being vols., Bologna, Theall parts, punto (2 1774, 1775).
Ottani, and Stanislao a. most learned work ; each chapterPaolucoi, Ruttini, Sarti, first is
Mattel, afterwards joint founder of the Liceo begins and ends with a puzzle-canon, the whole
Filarmonico. These he educated in the tradi- of which were solved and published by Cherur
school, the main The three volumes all treat of ancienttions of the old Roman bini.
move- the Middle Ages down tocharacteristic ofwhich was the melodious music ; the music of
separate parts. Martini was also the 11th centurywas tohave been the subject ofment of the
torecommendanewmaes- thefourthvolume,whichhedid not live tofinish.frequentlycalledupon
disputed having sprung up that the completedtro di cappella or to act as umpire in A report
questions. Hewas himselfoccasionallyinvolved MS. was in the Minorite convent at Bologna,
thebest-knowninstance Fetis obtained access to the library throughinmusicalcontroversy ;
the solution found only materials, of which nobeing his dispute with Redi about Rossini, but
which The Saggio is a mostpuzzle-canon by Giovanni Animuccia, use has yet been made.ofa
two keys in the third important collection of examples from the besthe solved by employing
Pitorii, was masters of the ancient Italian and Spanishpart. This, though approved by
prove kind. Besides aRedi to be unjustifiable. To schools, and a model of itsdeclared by
controversialtherefore, wrote a treatise number of small treatises andthis point Martini,
had not unfre- writings (for list see F^tis) Martini left massesmaintaining that puzzle-canons
and quot- church music in the style of the time.been solved in that manner, and otherquently —
:Another important controversy The following were printed ' Litaniae,' op. 1ing examples.
[see vol. i. 797]. 'XII Sonate d'intavolatura,' op. 2was that heldwith Eximeneo p. (1734);
opinion his con- Cene, excellent andthese differences of (Amsterdam, Le 1741),In spite of
' organo edescribe him as a man of great full of originality ; VI Sonate pertemporaries
'nature, always cembalo ' (Bologna, 1747). Duettida Camera'mUdness, modesty, and good
explanations. The Liceo of Bologna, pos-answer questions,andgive (Bologna, 1763).ready to
the requiem, etc., threethink without emotion of sesses the MSS. of a mass, aIt is difficult to
'most learned and oratorios, San Pietro ' (two separate composi-warm welcome which he, the
' 'his country, sagrifizio d' Abramo,' and L' Assun-oldest musicians of tions), IIone of the
Israello' a farsettawhen he visited Bologna in zione di Salomone al trono d' ;bestowed on Mozart
'' Im-or to resist viewing Dirindina ; and three Intermezzi, L'boy of fourteen, La1770 as a '
to open Canarie,' 'Don Chisciotto,' andthe readiness of Italy presario delleit as a symbol of
A, requiemdomain of music and 'II Maestro di Musica.' (103to Germany that vast
are inbeen exclusively and other church compositionshad hitherto sheets),tradition which
brought Pauer, in his 'Alte Klaviermusik,'courtesy and affability Vienna.her own. His
Martini's. Farrencfriendly relations gives a gavotte and ballet ofBolognese monk intothe
the 'Tr^sorFrederick the published twelve sonatas inexalted personages, haswith many
other works are given by LUck,musical,' andGuido d'Arezzo'a Uicrotogui.1 Hehad ten copieB of68 MARTINI IL TEDESCO MABTUCCI
Korner, at Capua,Ricordi, etc. [see the composer, was bornQuellen-Lesdkm]. conductor and
elementsThe best ofmany books He was taught the ofon his life and works Jan. 6, 1856.
is the Slogio military bandmaster,of Pietro Delia Valle (Bologna, music by his father, a
some stir in Naples by1784). G. and made, as a child,F.
MARTINI IL performances onthe piano. AttheageTEDESCO ('the German'), his clever
the name by was admitted to the R. Conserva-which the musicians of his time of eleven he
Here he devoted five yearsknew JoHANN Paul Aegidiits Schwartzen- torio in that city.
pianoforte under BeniaminoDORF, born Sept. at Freistadt, in the to the study of the1, 1741,
Upper training was supplemented byPalatinate, who was organist of the Cesi, whose
Jesuit and composition with Carloseminary at Neustadt, on the Danube, lessons in theory
Lauro Rossi.when he was ten years old. From 1758 he Costa, Paolo Serrao, and He left
studied at Freiburg, and played the organ the Conservatorio in 1872 but after two yearsat ;
the Franciscan convent teaching and playing in publicthere. When he re- passed in he
turned to his native place, he found a step- returned to it as professor, gaining the post by
mother installed at home, and set forth to seek competition. Having appeared with remarkable
his fortune in France, notwithstanding success at concerts inRome and Milan,his com- Martucci
inplete ignorance of the language. At Nancy he undertook, 1875, a tour through France,
was befriended, when in a penniless condition, Germany, and England. In London, where he
by the organ-builder Dupont, on whose advice played at Arditi's Concert, St. George's Hall,
he adopted the name by which he is known. June 1 4, thecharacterof hisreception warranted
From 1761 to 1764 he was in the household of a stay of four months ; he also played in Dublin.
King Stanislaus, who was then living at Nancy. On the occasion of a second visit to Paris in
After his patron's death Martini went he wasto Paris, 1878 heard by Rubinstein, who not only
and immediately obtained a certain amount expressed the highest opinion of his executive
of fame by successfully competing for a prize talent, buthonoured Martucci as a composer by
offered for the best march for the Swiss Guard. directing a performance of his Concerto in Bb
At this time he wrote much military music, minor with Cesi at the piano. The work was
as well as symphonies and other instrumental also played in after years by Eugen d'Albert at
works. In 1771 his first opera, 'L'amoureux the Berlin Philharmonic. Martucci's progress
de quinze ans,' was performed with very great at home was marked by his association with the
holding various appointments Quartetto Napoletano,success, and after whose performances he
as musical director to noblemen, he was ap- directed during eight years, and still furtherhy
pointed conductor at the The3,tre Feydeau, his appointment as conductor of the orchestral
establishment was opened under the concerts institutedwhen that by the Prince d'Ardore, a
name of Theatre de Monsieur for the perform- choice fully justified by his enterprise in
introance oflight French and Italian operas. Having ducing classical and modern masterpieces before
the decree of unheard inlost all his emoluments by Aug. Naples. He also took his orchestra
10, 1792, he went to live at Lyons, where he from Naples to Turin, where he gave a series of
published his ifelopde moderne, a treatise on performances during the exhibition of 1884.
1794 he returned to Paris for the Nominatea directorsinging. In of the Lioeo Musicale at
production of his opera 'Sapho,' and in 1798 Bologna in 1886,Martuccicontinued his concerts
wasmade inspector of the Conservatoire. From in other towns. His programmes, broadly
was ejected in 1802, by the agency, eclectic, sometimesthis post he included theworks ofHubert
as he suspected, of Mehul and Catel. At the Parry, Stanford, and other English composers,
restoration of 1814 he received the appointment for whom he professes a sincere admiration.
superintendent of the Court music, and wrote Duringof his residence in Bologna he made his
XVI., which was performeda Requiem for Louis only appearance as orchestral conductor in a
at St. Denis, Jan. 21, 1816. Very shortly theatre to direct the first performance in Italy
afterwards, on Feb. 10 of the same year, he of Richard Wagner's 'Tristan und Isolde'
operas mentioneddied. Besides the above (1888). After an absence heof sixteen years
he wrote 'Le rendez-vous nocturne' was once more recalled(1773); to the scene of his early
'IV.' Le droit du Seigneur' labours,'Henri (1774); having been named director of the R.
'L'amant sylphe' 'Annette(1795); Conservatorio in Naples, March 1902. He(1783); 5,
Lubin' 'Camille ou le souterrain' is a member of theet (1789); Accademia Reale of Naples,
and 'Zim^o' (1800). In the depart- Commendatore(1796); della Corona d' Italia and
he wrote several masses, Cavalierement of church music dei S.S. Maurizio e Lazzaro. Martucci
psalms, requiems, etc. [see the Quellen-Lemkon]. occupies a place in the front rank of pianoforte
written for the marriage of Napoleon virtuosi. As anA cantata author his style has formedbeen
besides much chamber on thewith Marie Louise exists, best classical models. His works are
known composi-but Martini's best- remarkable for their finish,music, and often display
conthe charming song, 'Plaisir siderable originality.tion is probably In writing for piano-the
m. forte his intimate knowledged'amour.' of its resources
Giuseppe, pianist, orchestral produces effects of a quiteMARTUCCI, exceptional kind.— — :
His very numerous compositions include: which only existed seven years, did important
service in creating a justerSymphony No. 1 in D minor (op. playad College appreciation of75} at the Royal
Music, London,of March 18, 189S. A detailed analysis is in Riv.
Beethoven's works in North Germany, a serviceHut. Ital., iii. 125.
-Symphony No. 2 in F major (op. 81). to which Beethoven characteristically refers in
Concerto in B flatminor for piano and orchestra (op. 66).
piccoli pezzi forFour orchestra. a letter' to Schlesinger, Sept. 25, 1825. His
'Poeioetto Lirico, La Canzone del Bicordl,' for voice and
book on sameorcheatia. the subject, however,
BeetQuintet for piano, two violins, viola, and violoncello (op. 45).
hoven's Leben unci Schaffen (Berlin, 1859Ifo. 1 in for piano, violin,Trio C and (op. 69). ;
No. 2 in E flat for piano, violin, violoncello and (op. 62) 2nd ed., 1865 5th, isa fantastic
; 1901), critique,
(played at one of Halld's Concerts, St. James's Hall, May 17, 1889).
Sonata for violoncello and piano (op. 52). too full of mere conjecture and misty
aesthetiThree pieces for violoncello and piano (op. €9).
cism.Bomanze for (op. In 1827 he received his doctor's diplomaDue 72).
Three pieces for violin and piano (op. 67).
from the university of Marburg, wasand madeUomento Musicale e Minuetto for two violins, viola, and
violoncello. ' Decent,' or tutor, in the history and theory of
'Pagine Sparse,' melodies for voice and piano (op. 66).
Sogni,' for voiceand piano (op. 68 bis).'Due music, at the university of Berlin. He became
Six volumes of compositions for pianoforte.
Professor in 1830, and in 1832 MusikdirectorVariations fortwo pianofoirtes.
Fantasia fortwo pianofortes (op, 32). of the university choir. In 1850 he founded
' 'Two pieces for pianoforte : Capriccio ' and Toccata ' (op. 77).
'pieces for piano solo Norelletta,' 'Three : Notturno,' and 'with Kullak and Stern the Berliner
Musik'Scheizo ' (op. 76).
' 'Two pieces for piano : Berenata ' and Gavotta ' (op. 73). schule,' afterwards the 'Berliner
Conserva' Ti^fle a quatre feailles ' (op. 74).
torium,' and nowlittle pieces for pianoforte solo: 'Serenata,' the 'SternscheThree 'Hlnuetto,'
' Capriccio ' (op. 78). torium' but withdrew in 1856 (Kullak having
' 'Three little pieces for solo ; Freludio,' Canzooetta,'
'Saltarello'(op.79). resigned in and henceforth devoted1855),
forDue Capricci pianoforte (op. 80).
:Unpublished compositions himself to his private pupils and to his work
Oratorio, 'Samuel.'
at the University. He died in Berlin, May 1Concerto for piano and orchestra inD minor. 7,
Sonata for organ. 1866. His numerous works are of unequal
transcriptionsNumerous pianoforte of classical works, and
Baccolta of sixteen pieces for piano by classical authors transcribed merit, the most important being the Lehre von
for violoncelloand pianoforte.
H, A. W, der musilcaKschen Composition, four vols.
(BreitMARTY, Eugene Georges, born in Paris, kopf& Hartel, 1837, 1838, 1847). His Gluck
March 16, 1860, was a pupil of the Conserva- und die Oper (Berlin, two vols. 1863) contains
toire, where he obtained the iirst prize in many ingenious observations, but is of no
in the first in harmony in 1878,solfege 1875, historical value. The others are Vier Malerei
Rome in 1882 with hisand the Grand Prix de in der Tonkunst tjber die Geltung(1828),
cantata, 'Edith.' In 1892 he was appointed Hdndelschen Sologesange, etc. AUgemeine(1829),
ehorus-master at the Theatre Eden, and in the Musiklehre Die alte Musiklehre(1839), (1842),
director of the vocalsame year was made Die Musik des 19. Jahrhundert, etc. (l855),
heensemble classes at the Conservatoire, a post Anleitung zum Vortrag Beethovenschen
Klavierresigned in 1904 he was chorus-master at the werke JSrinnerungen and a
post; (1863), (1865),
conducted theOpera-Comique humous work, Das Ideale und die GegenwcurtOpera in1893,and
in 1900. From June 12, 1901, he has been (1867). Besides what he did for Beethoven's
conductor at the Conservatoire. Marty has music, Marx deserves credit for bringing to light
has been much influenced many little-known works of Bach and Handel.written much, and
by his master, Massenet. We may mention His compositions are not remarkable ; neither
'Ballade d'Hiver' 'Balthazar' over- his oratorios 'Johannes der Taufer,' 'Moses,'(1885);
Saisons' » and 'Nahid und Omar,' nor his instrumentalture (1887); a suite, 'Les (1888);
' all for obtaining more than a 'succesd'estime.'symphonic poem, Merlin enchants, ' music,
''Lysic,' a one-actpantomime His opera, Jery und Bately,' was performed atorchestra; (1888);
three-act opera, 'Th^S.tre Berlin in 1827, and a, melodram, 'Die Rache'Le Due de Ferrare,'
' (Opera, Nevertheless some particularsLyrique Daria,' two-act opera wartet,' in 1829.(1899) ;
; songs, and pianoforte pieces, given in his Erinnerungen (Berlin, 1865) asJan. 27, 1905)
G. F. to his manner of composing are well worthetc.
acts words reading, as indeed is the whole book for itsMARTYRS, LES. Opera in four ;
Donizetti. Produced at interesting picture ofthe state ofmusic in Berlinby Scribe, music by
1840 at the Royal between 1830 and 1860. With Mendelssohnthe Academic, April 10, ;
' April was at one time extremely intimate, and noLondon, as I Martiri,' 20, heItalian Opera,
useful to him butwas an adaptation of 'Poliuto,' doubt was in many respects ;1852. The work
Donizetti's. G. his influence diminished as Mendelssohn grewformer Italian opera ofa
learned musi- older and more independent. y. g.Adolph Bbrnhaed,MARX,
atMay 15, 1799 (or 1795, MARXSEN, Eduard, born July 23, 1806,cian and author, born
Halle, son of a Nienstadten near Altona, where his father wasaccording to Riemann), at
studied organist. He was intended for the church, butharmony from Tiirk,physician, learned
he studied atpost at Nauraburg. His devoted himself to music, whichlaw, and held a legal
He thenwhere he soon home and with Clasing of Hamburg.led him to Berlin,love ofmusic
his father till the death of the latter inand in 1824 he founded, with assistedgave up the law,
went Vienna, and took lessonsthe Berliner Allge- 1830, when he tothe publisher,Schlesinger
1 Nohl, Brief', No. 368.periodical,Musikalische ZeUung. Thismeine:;
in counterpointfrom Stanesby, junior,Seyfried, andthe pianoforte Double Bassoons, madeby Mr.
from Booklet. surpass thatHe also composed industriously, greatness of whose sound ofthe
and on his return to Hamburg instrument whatsoever nevergave a concert any other bass ;
(Oct. 15, at which before,' were introduced. In1834) he played eighteen performed with
pieces of his own composition. He subsequently an organ was erected by Bridge. In 17461740
lived at Hamburg in great request had become so frequentandtherobbersas a teacher. robberies
Brahms was his proprietor was compelledmost illustrious pupil. Of his so daring that the to
sixty or seventy compositions, one for full have a guard of .soldiers to protect the
visitorsor'chestra called Beethoven's In 1747 Miss FalknerSchatten ' was per- from and to town.
formed in 1844 and (a post she retained1845 at concerts in Ham- appeared as principal singer
burg. Hediedat Altona, Nov. 1887. years), and the admission to the concert18, F. o. forsome
MARYLEBONE GARDENS. In 1748 an addition wasThis once was raised to 2s.
celebrated place ofentertainmentwas situated at made to the number of lamps, and Defesch was
the back of and appurtenant to a tavern called engaged as first violin, and about the same
'The Rose of Normandy' introduced. In 1761 John(or briefly 'The time fireworks were
'Rose which stood on the east side of High Trusler became proprietor ; Master (Michael)'),
Street, Marylebone, and was erected about Arne 'appeared asa singer, ballsandmasqueradesthe
middle ofthe 17th century. doors wereThe earliest notice were occasionally given, the opened
of it is in Memoirs by Samuel ^Sainthill, 1659, at the fireworks were discharged at 11,7,
'printed in The Gmtlemcm's Magazine, and a guard was appointed to be in the housevol. 83,
where the garden oblige all persons misbehav-p. 524, is thus described and gardens, and to
'The outside a square brick wall, set with fruit ing to quit the place.' In 1752 the price of
trees, gravel walks, 204 paces long, seven broad admission was reduced to 6d., although the
the circularwalk 485 paces, per night moresix broad, the centre expense was said to be £8 than
square, a Bowling Green, 112 paces one way, the preceding year. In 1753 the bowling green
88 another ; all except the first double set was added to the garden, and the fireworks were
with quickset hedges, full grown and on a larger scale than before. Inkept in 1758 the
excellent order, and indented like town walls.' first burletta performed in the gardens was
It is next mentioned by Pepys, May 1668 : given it was an adaptation, by Trusler junior7, ;
''Then we abroad to Marrowbone and and the elder Storace, of Pergolesi'sthere La Serva
walked in the garden, the first time I ever was Padrona, ' and for years was a great favourite.
there, and a pretty place it is.' Long's bowling The gardens were opened in the morning for
green at the Rose at Marylebone, half a mile breakfasting, and Miss Truslermadecakeswhich
distantfromLondon, ismentioned the long enjoyedin London a great vogue. In 1762 the
GazetU, Jan. 11, 1691-92. Count de Tallard, gardens were opened in the morning gratis,
the French ambassador, gave a splendid enter- and an organ performance given from 5 to 8
before England to the Marquis o'clock.tainment leaving In 1763 the place passed into the
ofNormanby (afterwards Duke of Buckingham- hands of Thomas (familiarly called Tommy)
'shire) and other persons of note at the great Lowe, the popular tenor singer, the admission
Bowling Green at Marylebone,' in June 1699. was raised to Isi and Miss Catley was among
About that time the house became noted as a the singers engaged. In the next year the
gaming-house much frequented by persons of opening of the gardens on Sunday evenings for
Sheifield, Duke of Buckinghamshire, was tea-drinking wasrank ; prohibited and in October a;
a constant attendant, and, as Quin told Pen- morning performance, under the name of a
renant, gave, every spring, a dinner to the chief hearsal, was given, when a collection was made
of the place, at which his parting in aid offrequenters the sufferers by destructive fires at
' many of us as remain un- Montreal,toast was May as Canada, and Honiton, Devonshire.
changed next spring meet here again.' It was Lowe'smanagement continued until 1768, when
was alluded to in Lady Mary Wortley he retired, havinghe who met with heavy losses. In
'Some dukes 1769Montagu's oft-quoted line, at Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Arnold became
proMarybone bowl time away.' Gay, in his 'Beg- prietor, and engaged Mrs. Pinto (formerly Miss
makes Marylebone one of Brent), Mastergar's Opera,' 1727, Brown, and others as vocalists,
'and mentions the deep Pinto asMacheath's haunts, leader. Hook as organist and music
there. Prior to 1737 admission to the director, and' Arne to compose an ode. In
gratuitous, but in that year Daniel 1770 Barth^lemongardens was became leader, and Mrs.
BarIs. each thelemon,Gongh, the proprietor, charged for Bannister and Reinhold were among
admission, giving in return a ticket which was the singers. A burletta by Barthflemon, called
payment for refreshments to that 'The Nobletaken back in Pedlar,' was very successful. In
amount. In 1738 Gough erected an orchestra 1771 Miss Harper (afterwards Mrs. John
Ban'band of music from the opera nister) appeared.and engaged a Miss Catley reappeared, and
performed from 6 to severaland both theatres,' which new burlettas were produced. In 1772
during time they played Torr6, an eminent10 o'clock, Italian pyrotechnist, was
August 'two Grand or engajged,eighteen pieces. In and the fireworks became a moreMASCAGNI 71MASANIELLO
prominent feature in the entertainments, to it not been for the intervention of an amiable
the great alarm of the neighbouring inhabitants, uncle, who came forward and offered to adopt
who applied to the magistrates prohibit their the young musician. Transferred to his uncle'sto
exhibition, fearing danger from house Mascagni devoted himselfto their houses in earnest to
Torre,them. however, continued to exhibit music, and the firstfruits of hislabours appeared
during that and the next two seasons. But in the shape of a symphony in C minor for small
the gardens were losing their popularity in orchestra, and a Kyrie written to celebrate
; the
appear to have been no entertain-1775 there birthday of Cherubini, both of which were
perments of the usual kind, but occasional per- formed at the Istituto in 1879. These were
fol'formances of Baddeley's entertainment, The lowed after two years by 'In Filanda,' a cantata
Magio Lantern,' deliveries of George for solo voices andModern orchestra, which was
favourSaville Carey's 'Lecture upon Mimicry,' or ablymentioned in a prize-competition instituted
exhibitions of fireworks by a Signor Caillot. In by the International Exhibition of Music at
entertainments of a similar description Milan. These1776 successes reconciled Mascagni's
were given, amongstwhich was a representation father to the idea of making his son a musician
of the Boulevards of Paris. The gardens closed and at the death of his uncle in 1881 the boy
not afterwards regularly returnedon Sept. 23, and were to his father's house, when he was
opened. In or about 1778 the site was let to allowed to pursue his musical studies in peace.
builders, and is now occupied by Beaumont His next composition was a setting of a
trans'Devonshire Street, and part of Devon- lation of Schiller's Ode to Joy,' which was per-Street,
shire Place. The tavern, with a piece of ground formed at the Teatro degli Avvalorati with so
at the back, used as a skittle alley, continued much success that CountFlorestano de Larderel,
nearly its pristine state until a wealthy amateur, offered on the spot to payto exist in 1855,
on its own for the composer's education at the Milan Con-when it was taken down, and rebuilt
site and that of an adjoining house, and on the servatoire. Mascagni's career at Milan was not
ground behind it was erected the Marylebone a success. In spite of the sympathy and
enof artists who couragement of his teachers, among whom wereMusic Hall. [A list of names
appeared at Marylebone Gardens is given, with Amilcare Ponchielli and Michele Saladino, he
in T. Smith's Book a, Eainy found the course of regular study insupportable.dates, J. for
H. H. For some time he chafed silently against theBay.] w.
trivial round of counterpoint and fugue, andMASANIELLO. The name in England of
opera.LaMuettbdbPortici. Operain eventually took French leave of his professors,Auber's
and Delavigne, music joined a travelling operatic company in thefive acts ; words by Scribe
capacity of conductor, and turned his back uponby Auber. Produced at the Academic, Feb. 29,
to seek his fortune elsewhere. Formanyand performed there 471 times up to Milan1828,
England it was first per- years he led a life of obscurity and privation,Oct. 28, 1873. In
'Masaniello,' at travelling through the length and breadth offormed, under the name of
Italy with onecompany after another. He hadLane, in English (three acts), May 4,Drury
time for composition, but doubtlessat Covent Garden (three acts). no spare1829 ; in Italian,
Majesty's, April gained much valuable experience in practicalMarch 15, 1849 at Her 10,
' orchestration. Aftermany wanderings Mascagnias La Muta di Portici.' G. [An earlier1851,
married and settled at Cerignola near Foggia,subject was based on a con-opera on the same
make meagre livelihoodrebellion at Naples where he managed to atemporary account of the
was the by giving pianoforte lessons and managing theTommaso Annello ; D'Urfeyunder
municipal school ofmusic. From this obscurityAckeroyde (or Akeroyde)author, and Samuel
suddenly rescued by the success of hiswas printed in 1700, he wasthe principal composer. It
' of the rise one-act opera Cavalleria Rusticana,' whichwonThe famous historywith the title,
The the first prize in a competition instituted inMassaniello, in two parts.'and fall of
the publisher Sonzogno, and was pro-through the early 1889 bysongs remained in favour
CostanziTheatre in Rome, Mayduced at the 18,the 18th century.]part of
Leghorn 1890. The libretto was founded by SignoriPiETEO, was 'bom atMASCAGNI,
Menasci and Targioni-Tozzetti upon a well-father, who was a baker,Dec. 1863. His7,
Sicilian village life by Giovannidiscouraged known story ofson to be a lawyer, andintended his
music. Verga. The opera was received at its first per-learn the rudiments ofhis attempts to
formancewithtumultuous applause,and thenextcompelled to prosecutebudding composer,The
awoke to find himself famous.entered himself day Mascagnistudies by stealth,his musical
' Cavalleria. MascagniLuigi Italy lost herhead over 'pupil at the Istitutosurreptitiously as a
greeted as the successor of Verdi. Medalsprincipal instructor was wasCherubini, where his
struck in his honour. He was welcomedcourse Mascagni's wereIn dueAlfredo Soffredini.
with illuminationsback to his native Leghornhis son was spending hisfather found out how
King ofand torchlight processions, and thecareer ofthe futuretime, and the musicalleisure
presentedhim with the order of the Crown
' would Italyof Cavalleria Kusticana'composer
honour not accorded to Verdi untilhad of Italy, anuntimely close,thereupon have come to an'' '
he ' ' showshad reached middle life. Cavalleria ' works since Cavalleria. ' Itat composer's
oncemade the tourof Italy, and the handling of the orchestra, andspeedily crossed much skill in
the most artistic of Mascagni'sAlps. It was produced in Berlin in the is in many ways the
summerof 1890, and in London, at the Shaftes- but its lack of original invention isoperas ;
bury Theatre, though it haswon considerableunder the management of Signer conspicuous, and
hardly prove acceptableLago in October 1891. It was first performed success in Italy, it could
its glaringin Paris at the Opera-Comique, Jan. capable of recognising19, 1892. to audiences
works ofWagner. What-Everywhere its success was unquestionable. plagiarisms from the
Mascagni as a composer,The public, tired, perhaps, oflong-winded imita- ever may be thoughtof
tions of Wagner, welcomed the crisp action a master of the art of ridame,and he is admittedly
'direct emotional appeal producing his next work, Leof the little work, and, and his idea of
simultaneously infor the moment the vulgarity of the music was Maschere' (Jan. 17,1901),
condoned for the sake of the admirably con- cities, was a piece of audaciousseven different
' unparalleledinthehistorystructed libretto. Cavalleria ' became the impertinence,probably
amount offashion, andwas responsible fora mushroom crop of the stage. Unfortunately no
'of one-act melodramas, each one more squalid galvanise Le Maschereadvertisement could
in subject than the last, which Milan, Venice, Verona,bore a tolerably into a success. At
'close resemblance to the shilling shocker ' of Naples, and Turin it was soundly hissed, while
ephemeral literature,and boasteda corresponding at Genoa the audience would not even allow the
'artistic Only at Eome wasvalue. Since the days of Cavalleria performance to be finished.
Mascagni'sfame has steadily declined. His next it received with any degree of favour, and even
'work, L'Amico Fritz ' (Teatro Costanzi, Eome, there it soon passed into oblivion. Mascagni's
' MarchOct. 31, 1891), an adaptation of Erokmann- latestwork Amiea ' (Monte Carlo, 1905),
Chatrian's well-known novel, made by Signer thoughproduced in more modest fashion, shared
Daspuro under the anagram of P. Suardon, had the same fate as its predecessor. Apart from his
'more refinementthan Cavalleria,' andwas works already men-more" operas and the youthful
carefully written, but the composer scarcely tioned Mascagni has written a cantata for the
attempted to fit his grandiose Italian manner to Leopardi centenary, which was performed at
exigencies of an musicthe Alsatian idyll, and the Reoanati in 1898, and incidental for Mr.
woefully undramatic character of the libretto Hall Caine's play The. Elernal Oily, which was
prevented the opera from winning more than a produced at His Majesty's Theatre in October
siuxiscCestime. 'I Rantzau'(TeatrodellaPergola, 1902.
Florence, Nov. 10, 1892), another adaptation Of late years Mascagni has won some fame as
from Erckmann-Ghatrian, by Signori Menasci a conductor, chieflyowing to repeated tours with
and Targioni-Tozzetti, was even less successful a specially chosen orchestra through the cities
than 'L'Amico Fritz,' thedulness ofthe libretto of Europe and America. A protracted tour in
and the absurdly inflated style of the music the United States in 1903 cost him his place at
equally responsible for its failure. Pesaro. authoritiesbeing The of that institution,
Ratoliff' (Scala, Milan, Feb.'Guglielmo 1895) after repeated endeavours to recall their errant
was a work of the composer's student days, directortohis duties, notunnaturallydetermined
subsequently revised and rewritten. The com- to replace him by a musician who set the
fulfilthe extraordinary notionposer had conceived of ment of his official engagemenijs above the
setting to music a literal and unabbreviated i fascinations of self-advertisement.
translation of Heine's gloomy tragedy, which Mascagni's reputation rests almost entirely
'sufficient to doom the work to failure, upon Cavalleriawas alone Rusticana,' which still holds
and his music did little to relieve the tedium of the stage in spite of fifteen years of
uninterthe libretto. No less decisive was the failure rupted popularity, and the rivalry of a host of
(Scala, Milan, March a imitations.of 'Silvano' 1895), As has already been said, it owes
feeble and half-hearted bid for popularity in muqh to its direct if somewhat brutal libretto,
'composer's most hackneyed Cavalleria but \he music undeniablythe shows a natural
inMascagni had beenmanner. Meanwhile (1895) stinct for theatricaleffect\and it boastsplenty of
appointed director of the Conservatoire at catchy, commonplace_ tunes.\ Nevertheless it is
where his next opera, 'Zanetto,' was easyto trace inPesaro, itthegerms ofwhat in Mascagni's
'1896. Zanetto isanoperatic laterproducedMarch 2, ' works developed into intolerable
mannerversion of Fran9ois Coppee's famous one-att play isms, his pompous, inflated and melodramatic
Passant.' It is slight in structure, being manner of treating'Le simple situations, his vulgar
and harp, but has con-scored only for strings love of mere noise, and his lack of real rhythmic
siderably more refinement of thought and and melodic fertility, ill disguised by attempted
iscustomary in Mascagni'swork. excursionsexpression than upon new paths of expression. The
' Costanzi, Rome, Nov,Iris' (Teatro 22, 1898), speedy exhaustion of a shallow vein of musical
on a Japanese su'oject, is handicapped invention, togetheran opera with the carelessness
enunpleasant libretto, but never- genderedby a singularly by a dangerously sudden success, and
ofhas won more favour than any the fostered by the foolish adulationtheless of partisans, isMASCHERONI MASINI 73
responsible for the complete collapse of what at soldiers who come to capture the bandit chief.
one time seemed a talent of bright for Mascheroni'spromise score overflows with thorougWy
the future of Italian music. s. Italianji. a. melody,' and shows considerable
knowMASCHERONI, Edoardo, was bom at ledge of dramatic effect, which from a conductor
Milan on Sept. i, 1857 (not 1855, as has been of his experience was only to be expected. He is
erroneously stated in previous sketches of his now (Feb. 1906) putting the finishing touches to
career). As a boy he showed no special aptitude 'a new opera, entitled La Perugina.' E. A. s.
for music, and was sent to the Lioeo Becoaria, MASINI, Angelo, born at Forli in 1845,
where he distinguished himself particularly in is perhaps the only Italian tenor who has ever
mathematics. As he grew up he developed a won verya high position without having
apmarked taste for the study of literature, and peared on the operatic stage in England. He
joined the little band of enthusiasts, among came to this country in 1875 as a member of
whom were De Marchi, Pozza, G. Mazzucato, the famous quartet, which, under the composer's
and Borghi, who founded the journal. La vita own direction, sang at the Albert Hall in
nico'oa, towhich he contributednumerous articles Verdi's Requiem Mass, the other singers being
on literary subjects. But with manhood came Mme. Stoltz, Mme. Waldmann, and Signer
the consciousness that musicwas to be his career, Medini. At that time Masini was looked upon
he placedand himself under Boucheron, a as the first of the younger tenors of Italy, and
composer and teacher well known in Milan at in 1876 he sang the part of Rhadames when,
the time, with whom he worked assiduously 'for with Verdi himself conducting, Aida ' was
several years. In his younger days Masoheroni produced for the first time in Paris. This
composed much music of various kinds, but as performance added greatly to his reputation,
time went on he became persuaded that his real and in 1879 Mapleson engaged him to sing at
vocation lay in conducting. He made his first Her Majesty's Theatre. A stupid contretemps,
serious essay in this branch of his art in 1883, however, for which Masini was himself solely
when he was engaged as conductor at the Teatro responsible, prevented his appearance. The
Goldoni at Leghorn. From Leghorn Mascheroni story is fully set forth in the Mapleson Memoirs.
moved to Rome, where he had been appointed It was arranged that Masini should make his
conductor of the Teatro Apollo. Here he debut as Faust in company with Nilsson,
remained seven years, gaining each year in Trebelli, and Faure, but, owing to a
misunderexperience and reputation, so that at last he standing he missed a rehearsal, and then
might fairly claim to be considered the leading hurriedly left London. This blunder proved
Italian conductor of his day, a claim which was a bar his future career in England,to as
Maplerecognised 1893 chosentacitly in by his being son had an injunction against him for breach
'to produce and conduct Verdi's Falstaff ' at La of contract—compromised at last by the
payScala. Mascheroni is still a conductor, but of ment of £200. In Madrid, Buenos Ayres, and
late laurels a composer. Masini sangwithhe has won fresh as elsewhere, however, theutmost
During his Roman period he wrote a good deal success, and gained both fame and fortune. He
of chamber music, which was performed with was for many seasons the leading tenor at the
much applause, and an Album for pianoforte of Italian Opera at St. Petersburg, resigning his
reasonhis won a prize in a Ooncorso at Palermo. But position at last for the that he could no
his masterpiece at that time was the Requiem longer withstand the severe climate. At St.
for solo voices, and orchestra, which he Petersburg, late in his career, he sang Lohen-chorus,
Elsa of Sigrid Arnoldson.wroteinmemoryofthedeathofVictorEmmanuel. grin to the That
So profound an impression did this work create, Masini at his best was a tenor of exceptional
commissioned by the gifts cannot be doubted. Distinguished singers,that the composer was
for voices who appeared with him at St. Petersburg, haveroyal family to write anotherRequiem
only, for exclusive performance in the royal spoken of him in enthusiastic terms. His voice
chapel, where was at once performed. In —very high in range—was rather light init
on the testimony of Manuel Gomez,spite of his success in conducting other men's quality, but
player, who heard himmusic, Masoheroni did nothimselftemptfortune the well-known clarinet
' Lorenza was produced in his prime at Madrid, it was quite equal toon the stage until his '
April the requirements of exacting dramatic the Teatro Costanzi, Rome, on 13,
charm1901. success of this work was very great, Mr. Gomez also speaks of the extremeThe
'triumph it has been produced with which he sang the Duke's music in Rigo-and since its initial
letto. ' was stated at the time that before theat Brescia, Barcelona, Valencia, Buenos Ayres, It
offeredand towns, and has always-won conspicu- production of 'Falstaff' in Milan, Verdiother
' be described as a to write a romance for Masini if he would under-ous favour. Lorenza ' may
ofFenton. However nothingcameCalabrian version of the story of Judith and takethe part
Masini thought that,this case the Judith, so of the proposal. PossiblyHolofernes, though in
poorfalls in even with a song thrown in, it was afar from slaying her brigand Holofernes,
compliment to offerhim asmall part, andno set-love withhim, and ends by disguising herself in
distinction Verdi had confen'edin his place by the off against thehis cloak, and by being shot