Partition Volume 4 (Q - S), Dictionary of Music et Musicians, Grove, George
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Partition Volume 4 (Q - S), Dictionary of Music et Musicians, Grove, George


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875 Pages


Consultez les partitions de morceau Dictionary of Music et Musicians Volume 4 (Q - S), Dictionaries, composition de Grove, George. Partition de style romantique.
La partition se constitue de plusieurs mouvements et l'on retrouve ce genre de musique classée dans les genres écrits, Biographies, Dictionaries, langue anglaise
Obtenez de la même façon tout une collection de musique sur YouScribe, dans la rubrique Partitions de musique romantique.
Rédacteur: John Alexander Fuller-Maitland (1856–1936)
Edition: London: Macmillan, 1910.



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The names deceased writers are printed in italicsof
W. A. AlKIN, Esq. .......
Sir George Grove, O.B., D.G.L.
W. H. H"-W. H. Hadow, Esq. .
H. v. H.
H. V. Hamilton, Esq.
W. H.William Henderson, Esq.
H.G.Georob Heubebt, Esq.
H.A. F.Arthub F. Hill, Esq.
A. J. H.A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq., F.SA.
E. J. H.Miss E. J. HiPKiNS
A. H-H.A. Hughes-Hughes, Esq.
D. H.Duncan Hume, Esq. .
W. H. H.William H. Husk, Esq.
P. H. J.F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, U.S.A.
J.A.M. Adolphe Jullien
F. K.Frank Kidson, Esq. .
H. B. K.H. E. Krehbiel, Esq., New York
J. L.James Lecky, Esq.
R. H. L.Robin H. Lbggb, Esq.
H. M'C. D.Hercules MacDonnell, Esq.
R. F. M'E.R. F. M'EWEN, Esq. .
C. M.Eev. Ghakles Mackeson, F.B.S.
A. M.Herr A. Maczewski, Kaiserslautern
M.Julian Marshall, Esq. J.
M.Mrs. Julian Marshall F. A.
BussBLL Martinbau, Esq. R. M.
Signor Giannandeea Mazzucato G. M.
Rev. J. H. Mee J. H. M.
Miss Louisa M. Middlbton . L. M. M.
Rev. J. R. Milne J. R. M.
Mrs. Newmaroh R. N.
J. Weston Nicholl, Esq. J. W. K.
E. M. Oakbley, Esq. . B. M. O.
Mus.D.Sir Herbert S. Oakbley, H. S. O.
Sidney H. Pardon, Esq. S. H. P.
Sir 0. Hubert H. Parry, Bart., Mus.D., Director of the Royal College
of Music . C. H. H. P.
Barrister-at-lawE. J. Payne, Esq., E. J. P.
PembehtonRev. Canon T. Percy T. P. P.
Herr G. Fbrdinanb Pohl C. F. P.
William Pole, Esq., F.B.S., Mm.D. V. P.
Victor be Pontigny, Esq.
V. DE P.
Reginald Lane Poole, Esq.
E. L. P
Miss OiGA Racster .
O. R.
LuiGi Ricci, Esq.
L. R,
W. ROCKSTRO, Esq. .S. W. S. R.
Lumlby Byan, Esq.Desmond P. L. R.
Siewbrs, Esq.Carl
s'Dr. Philipp Spitta
Peter SchubertFranz Frontispiece
Joseph Joachim Raff 12
Jean Philippe Kameau 18
HeinrichCarl Carsten Reinecke 56
Ernest Reyer 80
Hans Richter 92
Nicholas Andreievich Rimsey-Korsakov 102
Gioacchino Antonio Rossini ... 150
Giovanni Battista Rubini 176
Anton Gregor Rubinstein 178
Charles Camille Saint-Saens . . 206
Antonio Salieri 210
Pablo Martin Meliton de Sarasate t Navascues Sarasate . ... 224
Alessandro Scarlatti 240
Wilhblmine Schroder-Devrient 276
Fac-simile page of the manuscript of Schubert's great Symphony in C 328
Clara Josephine Schumann 344
Robert Alexander 368
408Anton Seidl
410Marzella Sembrich
Friedrich Smetana 486
Countess Rossi 620Henriette Sontag,
638Louis Spohr
646Luigi Pacifico SpontiniGasparo
718Richard Strauss'
Le pantalonQUADRILLE (German Contretans), a dance
De Madelon
executed by an equal number of couples N'a pas de fond,
drawn up in a square. The name (which is
and was adapted to the dance. The music
fromderived the Italian sqimdra)was originally
consists of 32 bars in 6-8 time. No. 2 is
not solely applied to dances, but was used to
' L'Ete,' the name of a very diflioult and
gracedenote a small company or squadron of
horse' itful contredanse ' popular in the year 1800 ;
from three to fifteen magnifi-men, in number,
'consists of 32 bars in 2-4 time. No. 3 is La
cently mounted and caparisoned to take part
Poule ' bars in 6-8 time) which dates from(32
tournament or carousal. The name wasin a
theyear 4 bars in 2-4 time)1802. ForNo. (32
nextgiven to four, six, eight, or twelve dancers,
two figures are danced, 'La Tr6nise,' named
dressed alike, who danced in one or more
com'after the celebrated dancer Trenitz, and La
panies in the elaborate French ballets ' of the
Pastourelle,' perhaps a survival of the old
'18th century. The introduction of oontre- —5'Pastorale.' No. 'Finale'—consists ofthree
danses ' Into the ballet, which first took place
parts repeated four times. In all these figures
'the fifth actofEousseau's FStes dePolymniein
(except the Finale, which sometimes ends with
(1745), and the consequent popularity of these
a coda) the dance begins at the ninth bar of the
dances, are the origin of the dance which, at
music, the first eight bars being repeated at the
'known as the Quadrille de Contredarises,'first
endbywayofconclusion. Themusic ofquadrilles
' quadrille.' usewas soon abbreviated into [The
scarcely original operaticis ever ; and popular
of the Spanish equivalent, cuadrilla, for the
tunes are strung together, and even the works
party of four banderilleros associated with each
of the great composers are sometimes made use
familiar name oftorero in a bull-fight, and the
of.^ The quadrilles of Musard are almost the
a card-game once very popular, may be
menonly exception ; they may lay claim to some
tioned.] The quadrille was settled in its
prerecognition as graceful original musical
comof 19th century,sent shape at the beginning the
mons, w. B. s.
and it has undergone but little change, save
QUAGLIATI, Paolo, born about 1560, was
in the simplification of its steps. It was very
a musician living In Rome, who in 1608 is
indithe Consulate and thepopular in Paris during
cated as holding the position of organist at the
first Empire, and after the fall of Napoleonwas
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore.Liberian In
England by Lady Jersey, who inbrought to
1585he edited acoUection ofSpiritual Canzonets
1815 danced it for the first time at Almaek's"
for three voices, containing, besides sixteen
with Lady Harriet Butler, Lady Susan Ryde,
contributionsnumbers by himself, some by
CountMiss Montgomery, St. Aldegonde, Mr.
Marenzio, Nanino, and Giovanelli. His other Mr. Montague, and Mr. Standish.
publications before 1600 consist of two books
The up with the same eagernessEnglish took it
of Secular Canzonets a 3. Two Canzonets a 4
' which they displayed with regard to the polka
with cembalo and lute accompaniment appear
in and the caricatures of the period1845, Verovio's collection of which has beenin 1591,
abound with amusing illustrations of the
quadrecently republished complete by Alfred
Wotrille mania. It became popular in Berlin in
quenne. After 1600heappears tohave followed
1821. inwith interest the twofold direction music
The quadrille consists of five distinct parts,
'which the name of the contredanses ' tobear the Florentine Stile rappresentativo for solo
' they owe their origin. No. 1 is Le
voices, and the Venetian concerted style with
Pantalon,' the name ofwhich is derived from a
a Some readers may recollect the clever 'Bologna QuadriUes'song which began as follows :
publishedon themes from Bossini's 'Stabat Mater,' which were
appearance of work. plates theseshortly after the that The of
t qnadriUes were destroyed on the publishers learning the sourceThe Balleta weredivided into fire acts, each act into three, six,
' ' was performed oneor from which the author (popularly supposed to be J. W. Davison)nine, ortwelve entr^,*and each entree ' by
dancers, had obtained the melodies. [Hans von BUlow wrote a set of quad-more 'quadriUes' of
'3 Captain Oronow's Sfftnintxc&ncet (1861). riUes on airs from Berlioz's Benvenuto OeUinl,']See
with Weiss tobasso eontinuo. In 1606 he an opera Buffardin. he wentcomposed In 1723
Fux's operawith libretto played inby his pupil Pietro della Valle, Prague, and the two
honour ofentitled ' inCarro di fedeltJi d' amore,' which was 'Costanza e Fortezza,' performed
heHere alsoperformed on a Carnival Charles in the streets of the coronation of
accompaniedRome, It has 1724 Quantzfive solo voices,andwaspublished heard Tartini. In
Rome onin arriving in1611, with the addition ofseveral Arie a 1-3. Count Lagnasco to Italy,
inlessonsHis other works are a book of Concerted Madri- July going at once for11, and
he describesgals It 4 for Gasparini, whomvoices and instruments, with a counterpoint to
' Inhonourable man.'separate book for Basso Continuo, some other as a good-natured and
madeand therebooks of Spiritual Madrigals and 1725 went on to Naples,a 1-3, two he
Mancini, of Sacred Scarlatti, Hasse,Motets and Dialogues for two the acquaintance of
similarand three musicians of achoirs in the concerted style with Leo, Feo, and other
him in ReggioBasso Continuo (Rome, 1612-27). In Diruta's stamp. In May 1726 we find
' Milan,II Transilvano there appears Parma, whence he travelled by
' a toccata by and
arriving onQuagliati for Lyons to Paris,organ or clavier, which has been Turin, Geneva, and
his name wasrepublished by L. Torch! inLArte, Musicale August 15. In Paris—wherein
'^ ' — he remainedItalia, vol. iii. remembered as Quouancej. r. m.
QUALITY. occupied himself with con-See Tone. seven months, and
the flute, the mostQUANTITY. See Metre, vol. iii. 186. triving improvements inp.
second key,QUANTZ,JoHANN Joachim, celebrated important being the addition of
afluteplayer and composer, described by himself in his Versitch einerborn, according to his as
autobiography spielen, vol. iii. Marpurg's Beibrage zwr AnweiswngdieMote . . .
zuAufrecallednahmeder Musik,33.n. 1697,atOber3oheden, 58 (Berlin, 1752). He was at length30,
a village between Gbttingen and Miinden. His to Dresden, but first visited London for three
father, a blacksmith, on Marchurgedhim on his death-bed months. He arrived there 20,
summit of(1707) to follow the-same calling, but, in his 1727, when Handel was at the very
'own words, Providence, who disposes all for his operatic career, with Faustina, Cuzzoni,
the best, soon pointed Attilio, and Tosi in hisout a different path for Castrueci, Senesino,
my future.' JulyFrom the age of eight he had been train. He returned to Dresden on 23,
in the habit of playing the double-bass with his 1727, and in the following March re-entered
elder brother at village fgtes, and judging from the chapel, and again devoted himself to the
this that he had a talent fbr music, his uncle flute. During a visit to Berlin in 1728 the
Justus Quantz, Stadtmusikus of Merseburg, Crown Prince, afterwards Frederick the Great,
offered to bring him up as a musician. He was so charmed with his playing, that he
went to Merseburg in August 1708,' determinedbut his to learn the flute, and in future
diduncle not long survive his father, and Quantz went twice a year to give hini
instrucQuantz passed under the care of the new tion. In 1741 his pupil, having succeeded to
Stadtmusikus, Fleischhaek, who had married the throne, made him liberal offers if he would
his predecessor's daughter. the next settle inFor five Berlin, which he did, remaining till
and a half years he studied various instruments, his death on July 12, 1773. He wasKammerr
Kiesewetter being his master for the pianoforte. rausicus and court-composer, with a salary of
In Deo. 1713 he was released from his ap- 2000 thalers, an additional payment for each
prenticeship, and soon after became assistant, composition, and 100 ducats for each flute
first to Knoll, Stadtmusikus of Radeberg, and which he supplied. His chief duties were to
then to Schalle of Pima near Dresden. Here conduct the private concerts at the Palace, in
he studied Vivaldi's violin-concertos, and made which the king played the flute, and to compose
theacquaintance ofHeine, a musician inDresden, pieces for his royal pupil. He left in MS. 300
withwhom he went to live in March 1716. He concertos [but see the QvMlen-Lexikon, p. 99,
now had opportunities of hearing great artists, on this number] for one and two flutqs—of
such as Pisendel, Veraoini, Sylvius whichWeiss, 277 are preserved in the Neue Palais at
Riohter and Buffardin, the flute-player. In Potsdam—and 200 other pieces
; flute solos,
1717 he went, during his three months' leave, and dozens of trios and quatuors, of which 51
to Vienna, and studied counterpoint with are to be found at Dresden. His printed works—Zelenka, a pupil of Fux. In 1718 he entered are three Sei
' Senate ' dedicated to Augustus
the chapel of the King of Poland, which III. of Poland, op. 1, Dresden, 1734
; 'Sei
twelve players, and was stationed duetti,'consisted of. op. Berlin,2, 1759 [six
; sonatas for two
alternately in Warsaw and Dresden. His flutes, op. of3, doubtful authenticity, London,
salary was 150 thalers, with free quarters Walsh; five sonatas for flutes, also op. 3,
Paris,in Warsaw, but finding no opportunity of Boivin], a method for the flute—Fermcfe
distinguishing himself either on the oboe, the einer Anweisimg die Flote traversi&re zu spielen
instrument for which he was engaged, or the —dedicated to Frederick ' Konige in Preussen,'
took up the flute, studying it with Berlin,violin, he 1762, 4to, with twenty-four
copper1 Not 1707, as Mendel states. 2 In Eoivin's CatiUoffiie.;
more particu-This passed through three (or four) any other combination being fully
German editions, and was also published in larised ; and it is to the string quartet we will >
French and Dutch. He left also a serenata, a turn our principal attention. The origin of the
few songs, music to twenty-two of Gellert's quartet was the invention of four-part harmony,
'hymns, Neue Kirchenmelodien,
' etc. (Berlin, but it was long before a composition for four
1760), and an autobiography (in Marpurg's instruments came to be regarded as a distinct
Beiirdge). Three of the Melodien are given and worthy means for the expression of musical
von Winterfeld, Evang. iii. 272. ideas. Even the prolific J. S. Bach does not
Besides the key which he added to the flute, he appear to have favoured this combination,
invented the sliding top for tuning the instru- though he wrote trios in plenty. With the
ment. His playing, which was unusually symphony was born the string quartet as we
forcorrect the imperfect instruments of the now understand it—thesymphony in miniature
day, delighted not only Frederick, but Mar- and both were bom of the same father, Haydn.
purg, a more fastidious critic. He married, [See FoiiM.]not
happily, in 1737 ; and died in easy circum- The early quartets of Haydn seem to ns
stances and generally respected at Potsdam, sadly feeble in the present day ; there is not
July 1773. enough flesh cover the skeleton, the12, to and
All details regarding him may be found in joints are terribly awkward ; but therfe is the
Lebenund JVerken, etc., by his grandson Albert unmistakable infant quartet, and certainly not
Quantz (Berlin, more clumsy and \inpromising than the human1877). F. G.
QUARENGHI, Gugliblmo, violoncellist and infant. In the course of his long life and
incomposer, born at Casalmaggiore, Oct. cessant practice in symphonic composition,22,
1826, died at Milan, Feb. 1882. He Haydn made vast progress, so that the later4, studied
the Milan quartets ( Conservatoire, 1839-42, occupied 71, etc.) begin to show, in the
the post of first violoncello at the Scala Theatre lower parts, some of the boldness which had
in 1850 became professor of his instrument before been only allowed to the 1st violin.
; at
Eighty-three ofthe Milan Conservatoire in 1851, and in 1879 quartets Haydn are catalogued
Maestro di Cappella at the Milan Cathedral. and printed, while of the ninety-three of his
As a composer he contributed an opera entitled contemporary Boooherini, scarcely one survives.
'II didiMichel'; Mozart, with his splendid genius for poly-published in 1863 some church
music and transcriptions, as well as an inter- phony as well as melody, at once opened up a
esting method for the violoncello a valuable new world. In the set of six dedicated to
treatise Haydn we notice, besides the development inupon the origin of bow instruments
precedes this Metodo di Violoncello (Milan, form, the development of the idea, which it
in which he compares the earliest forms has only been given to Beethoven fully to1876),
with carry out—the making each part of equalthe various barbaric and semi--barbaric
interest and importance. Theoretically, in ainstruments previously in use amongst
primitive nations. In addition the author gives perfect quartet, whether vocal or instrumental,
' 'the Personaggi ' of Monteverde's Orfeo, ' and there should be no 'principal part.' The six
quartets just spoken of were so far in advancethe tuning of the earliest viols.—Riemann,
Lexikon; Baker, £iog. Diet, Shisic. E. h-a. of their time as to be considered on all sides asof
QUARLES, Chakles, Mus.B., graduated at 'hideous stuff.' In our time we find little
that is startling in them, except, perhaps, theCambridge in 1698. He was organist of Trinity
famous opening of No. which will alwaysCollege, Cambridge, from 1688 to 1709. He 6,
was appointed Minster,June sound harsh from the false relations in theorganist ofYork 30,
second and fourth bars.1722 ; and died at York early in 1727. 'A
'Lesson for the harpsichord by him was printed
by w.Goodison about 1788. h. h. Adagio. i35:4
QUART-GEIGE. See Violin.
QUART-POSAUNE. See Tkombonb.
AND REVIEW, conducted by R. M. Bacon
of Norwich. [See vol. i. 181 vol. iii.p. ; p.
680.] G.
QUARTET (Fr. Quaiuor ; Ital. Quartetto). A
composition instruments or voices. Mozart's twenty-six quartets all live,for four solo the six
I. With regard to instrumental quartets the dedicated to Haydn and the last three
comfavourite combination has naturally been always posed for the King of Prussia being immortal.
Those writers whose quartets werethat of two violins, viola, and violoncello, the simply the
Mozart'schief representatives since the days of Monte- echo of —such as Romberg, Onslow,
verde tenor, and bass, in the Ries, and Fesca—made no advance in the treat-of soprano, alto,
spoken ment of the four instruments.orchestra: in fact, when 'quartet' only is
'of, the string quartet ' is generally understood It is not our province here to speak of the
alsopart. Theygrowth of the symphonic form as exhibited in in the toplying too often
ofmannerismthe string quartet, this the pecuUarsubject having been lose much through
so constantlywhichalready discussed under Form, but rather to the composer's harmony,
performancein thenotice the extraordinary development of the occupies three of the parts
chromaticof theart of part-writing, and portionsand the manner in which of pedal notes,
the most elaborate compositions have been scale.
Mendelssohndoesconstructed with such apparently inadequate Still more than Schubert
of four stringedmaterials. these the insufficiencyIn points the quartets of seem to chafe at
Not onlyexpress his ideas.Beethoven so far eclipse all others that we instruments to
his own,no fault ofmight confine our attention exclusively to them. this, but he fails, through
successful quartet-needful forIn the very first (op. 18, No. 1) the phrase in one point
have shownand Schubertwi-iting. Beethoven
perfect string-quartetus that the theoretically
amount of interesthave an almost equalshould
should thereforeof the parts carefirstmovement is delivered so impartially in each of the four ;
merest accompaniment-to each of the four players, as though to see be taken to make the
of value andwhat each can make of it, thatwe feel them to figures in the middle parts
chordsbe on an Tremolos and reiteratedequality never before attained to. If character.
very ideaand indeed thethe 1st violin has fine running passages, those should be shunned,
admissible. Theof the 2nd violin and viola are not a whit of Oiceompaniment is barely
symphonyinferior. Does the 1st violin sing a celestial quartet, though differing from the
colouringof instrumentaladagio, the violoncello is not put off with mere only in the absence
best fitted forbass notes to mark the time. All four partici- and limitation of polyphony, is
certain delicacy,pate equally in the merriment of the scherzo the expression of ideas of a
and complexity, anything likethe dash of the finale. This much strikes refinement and
place, from the weaknessone in the earlier quartets, but later we find boldness being out of
the chiefthat we are no longer listening to four voices of the body of tone produced. Now
disposed so as to sound together harmoniously, characteristic of Mendelssohn's music is its
character, passage-writing isbut that we are being shown the outline, the broad and singing
faint pencil sketch, of works for whose actual his weak point. Consequently, however good
presentation the most perfect earthly orchestra his quartets, one cannot but feel that they
would would scored for full too intolerably coarse. The post- sound better if
in-humous quartets are hardly to be regarded as Take the opening of op. 44, No. 1, for
pieces written for violins, but we are rather stance : this isnot quartet-writing at all ; there
forced to imagine that in despair of finding is a melody, a bass, and the rest is mere
fiUingcolours delicate and true enough the artist has up in the
; second, we have here as thorough
preferred to leave his conceptions as charcoal an orchestral theme as could be devised—the
sketches. This fancy is borne out when we ear longs for trumpets and drums in the fourth
how large a compass the four parts are bar. The namenote . symphony in disguise has
made to cover, a space of nearly five often, andconstantly not unjustly, been applied to these
octaves sometimes being dashed over, with works. This is curious, because' Mendelssohn
little care for the inevitable poverty of tone has shown himself capable of expressing his
ideas withproduced. small means in other departments.
There is a wide contrast between these stu- The four-part songs formale voices, for instance,
pendous works of genius and the polished and areabsolutelyperfectmodels forwhatsuchthings
thoroughlylegitimateworkmanshipofSchubert's ought to be. Schumann (op. is the41) only
everything done whichquartets. Herewe find writer who can be said to have followed in the
ought to be done and nothing which ought not. wake of Beethoven with regard to using the
are indeed in-eproachable models. One quartet as aThey species of shorthand. All his
point deserves notice here as illustrating threelittle quartets have an intensity, a depth of
the comparative strength of two great men : soul, which, as with Beethoven, shrinks from
Beethoven gives frequent rests to one or two plainer methods of expression.
players, allowing the mind to fill in the Of theof the earnest band of followers in this
lacking harmony, and thus producing a clear- school—Bargiel, Kheinberger, and others—aU
ness, boldness, and contrast which no other that can be said is that they (tre followers.
attained Schubert, on the other [Brahms'scomposer has ; three quartets, opp. are51, 67,
work their hardesthand, makes all four parts perfect examples of the art of spreading the
hide that thinness of sound which is the interest overto all the parts, and the way the
of the quartet. return isdrawback made to the opening subject of op. 67
Mention of Spohr's quartets might almost be at the close of -the variations is a touch of
omitted in spite of their large number and their unmistakable genius.]
Technically they are no more II.great beauty. Quartets for strings andwind instruments
advanced than those of Haydn, the interest are uncommon, but Mozart has one for oboe,;
violin, the alto, tenor, and bass voices, from very earlyviola, and violoncello. Next to
string times. Some ground for this assumption mayquartet ranks the pianoforte quartet,
which, however, is built on quite a different be found in the following examples:—The
principle : here the composition becomes either concert of eight flutes (in four sizes) discovered
equivalent an accompanied trio, or to » on one of the tombs in the Necropolis of Gizeh,to
symphony in which the piano takes the place dating—according to Lepsius—from the fifth
of the 'string quartet,' and the other instru- Dynasty (b.c. 2000) which are reproduced
ments—usually violin, viola, and violoncello in Carl Engel's Catalogue of the Exhibition
the place of wind instruments. In any case of Musical Instruments, South Kensington—
the piano does quite half the work. Mozart Museum, 1874. Certain Hebrew coins in the
has written two such quartets, Beethoven only British Museum ascribed to Simon Maccabaeus
one, besides three early compositions, Mendels- (of the second century of the Christian era)
sohn three, Schumann and Goetz one each, depicting lyres differing in size, shape, and
while Brahms (opp. 23, 26, 60) and themodem number of strings, and a pertinent passage,
composers have favoured this form of quartet quoted from Aristides Quintilianus (about B.C.
vol.still more. 110, in Burney'sHistoryofMusie, i. p. 513).
III. Vocal quartets are so called whether Mentionmay also bemade ofthe string trio
poraccompanied by instruments or not. The four- trayed on thesplendid Greek Vase in theMunich
Museum. three figures, grouped in thepart songs ofMendelssohn have been mentioned. The
For many years no oratorio was considered manner of our modern trio performers, appear
complete without its unaccompanied quartet, to be playing ensemble music. Two of the
' are performers have lyres of different sizes andSpohr having set the fashion with Blest
' stringing, third, Polyhymnia,the departed ' in the Last Judgment.' Modem whilst the plucks
opera is learning to dispense with concerted a small harp.
having fashion. Passing hence to the 11th century, it wouldmusic, Richard Wagner set the
appear from Kuhlmann's Geschichte derTo enumerate the fine operatic quartets from Dr.
' 'Don Giovanni ' to Faust, ' would be useless. Bogeninslrwmente, that a set ' of crouths is to
'[Brahms's first set of Liebeslieder ' for piano be seen in an old MS. prayer-book ofthat period
(vide Getetbuch des JErzh. Leopold d'Heil vonduet and four voices ad libitum, was one of the
zu Kloster Neuburg bei Wien,compositions which began his popularity in Osterreich. Bibl.
England in the second set, and in opp. Codex, No. 98, Fol. 110, XI Jahrh.). Four
; 92,
exa,mples. centuries later (April Charles VI.103, and 112, he has left notable 14, 1401)
' granted 'Lettres-Patentes,' to the Society ofHensohel's Serbisches Liederspiel,' op. 32
Stanford's quartets from Tennyson's 'Princess Minstrels who styled themselves 'joueurs
' Pastorals ; and Ernest struments tant hant que has,' and in the follow-Walford Davies's
'ing century the sets ' of viols began to makeWalker's songs from England's Helicon, may
also be mentioned.] their appearance. In Martin Agricola's Musica
stringed instruments InstruTmntalis deutsch woodcuts of aIV. The whole body of (1528),
complete quartet of viols may be seen, as alsoin the orchestra is often incoiTeotly spoken of
' in four different sizes, which he desig-as 'the Quartet,' from the fact that until the Rebecs,'
strings seldom played in nates, 'Discantus,' 'Altus,' 'Tenor,' 'Bassus.' [Intime of Beethoven the
is now the the same year, in the Oortigiano of Bald.other than four-part harmony. It
Castiglione, there is a reference to music playedusual custom to write the parts for violoncello
separate staves in Germany on 'quattro viole da arco.'] In 1566, Andreasand double bass on ;
England) these Amati (see that name) made the famous set of(and in the present day in
instruments for the FrenchKing CharlesIX.instruments are grouped apart, a practice which bow
twelve large and twelve smallseeing that the double bass It consisted ofis decidedly unwise,
violoncello to give pattern violins, six tenors and eight basses, andrequii'es the support of the
in all probability these instruments were thethe tone firmness, more especially the German
this maker's work. On thethe tone of which is finest examples offour-stringed instrument,
backswere painted the arms ofFrance and otherso much lacking in body.
devices, and the motto 'Pietate et Justitia.'term is also applied to the performersV. The
revolution the mobcomposition During the French tookof a quartet, as well as to the
these instruments out of the chapel at Versaillesitself. F. c.
6 an^ and destroyed all butused of a set of stringed (on Oct. 7, 1789),VI. The word is
were afterwards recovered bythe old phrase two violins whichinstruments, corresponding to
' Viotti's pupil, J. B. Cartier. One of the smalla vials.' Although, accurately speak-chest of
is now, or was recently, the property ofinstruments were not violinsing, quartets of musical
following centuryunderstand Mr. George Somes. In theemployed in chamber music, as we
'numbers o'f Chests of Viols ' (two trebles, twountil the era of Monteverde (1568-the term,
basses), for the performance of theliterature and art records of past tenors, twoyet the1643),
' Fan-of 'sets' elaborate compositions in parts, calledcenturies seem to point to the existence
tasies,' were made, and the growing adoptioninstruments, analogous in pitch tothe soprano,of—
whoof Milan,of instrumental music at Archintothe Royal Courts of the following : Count
into theEurope induced quartet passedAntonio Stradivari (see that died in 1860. This
violoncelloname) and theto turn his attention to the making of hands Vuillaume,of J. B.
' by Mons.sets' ofinstruments, comprising instrument usedviolins, tenors, (1689) was the
owned a quartetand basses. The Paganini alsofirst 'set' of instruments, Delsart. Nioolo
whode Camposelice,recorded as by this maker, is that mentioned in The Dueby this maker.
about twenty ofthe Arisi MSS., adocument writtenby Desiderio possesseddied in Paris in 1887,
WilraotteArisi, a Cremonese instruments, and M.priest of the order of St. the great master's
violins,left eightJerome and belonging to the Church of St. ofAntwerp, who died in 1893,
M. de St.Sigismondo (see Ainlonio Stradivari, two violoncellos.his Life two violas, and
second violin,and violin, 1737Work, W. E. Hill & Sons). He states Senoch's quartet— ;
1696—was soldvioloncello,that Stradivari received an order, in 1682, from 1704 viola, 1728 ;
H6tel Diouot.the Venetian banker Miohele Morigi, for in 1886, at thea com-, after his death
' quartets areplete sett of instruments, time Stradivari
' destined to be pre- At the present
andDr. R. E. Brandt,sented to James II. of England. As no trace of owned by Baron Knoop,
late Dr. Charlesthese instruments has as yet been Herren Mendelssohn. Thefound, their the
the Britishexistence rests was bequeathed toentirely upon the statement Oldham's quartet
Stradivaris employedmade in the MSS. referred to. In 1690 the Museum. The quartet of
collaborators at the St.same maker produced the so-called 'Tuscan by Lady Halle and her
dated asConcerto,' or 'set' of instruments, Hall Popular Concerts werefor Cosmo James's
di Medici. Hallo's violin, 1709 Mr. Ries'This probably consisted of two or follows :—Lady ;
viola, 1728 andthree violins, a contralto (small tenor), a violin, 1710 Mr. Gibson's ;
would ap-tenore (large tenor), and a violoncello. The Piatti's violoncello, 1720. ItSigner of the only present-day instrumentaliststhis set^ has been preserved in its pear that
set of Stradivari'soriginal state, and may be seen, together with who play upon a complete
quartet. Dr.the violoncello, in the Musical Institute at instruments are the Joachim
Florence. In 1696 Stradivari made inlaid Joachim's violin is dated 1715, Prof. Haus-the
Prof Carl Halir'squintet which for some years was owned by mann's violoncello, 1724,
finePhilip IV. of Spain, and at the end of the violin is a long-pattern Stradivarius,and the
17th century and the beginning of the 18th, viola played upon by Prof Wirth is lent to the
(dated destined quartet by the Herren Mendelssohn.—Agricola,the 'set' 1696-1709) to have
been presented to Philip V. of Spain, but not Miisica Instrumentalis ; Burney, History of
sold until after Stradivari's death, when his son Music; Yis.v!kma, History Music; deLaborde,of
Paolo disposed of it (in to a priestnamed Essai swr la Musiqite ; Hart, The Violin Hill,1775) ;
Padre Brambrilla for £148, and later it Antonio Stradivari ; Engel, Catalogue, South
became the property ofDon Carlos, afterwards Kensington Exhibition Znstrwtnents, 1874of ;
Charles IV. of Spain. This 'set' consisted of Catalogue Inventions Exhibition, vonof 1885;
violins, two violas, one tenore, and o Moser, Joseph Joachim.two b. h-a.
violoncello. The large tenore vanished at the QUARTET ASSOCIATION, THE. A
dispersal of the royal collection, and the rest of Society for the performance of chamber music,
' set ' were submitted to such barbarous started in 1852 by Messrs. Sainton,the Cooper,
Hill, andreparations at the hands of Dom Vincenzo Piatti, with such eminent artists as
Acenzo and his successor Ortega, that, especially Sterndale Bennett, Mile. Clauss, Mme. Pleyel,
in the case of the violoncellonow in the Chapel Arabella Goddard, Pauer, Hall^ etc., at the
their original character pianoforte. Theygave sixRoyal, Madrid, little of concerts each season at
Willis'sremains. Rooms, butendedwith the third season,
'In modem "times sets ' of instruments by the time not having yet arrived for a sufficient
been largely collected by ardent support ofchamber musicone maker have by the London public.
The programmesconnoisseurs. We are told that the Dumas were selected with much
family, friends ofBeethoven, assembled a quartet freedom, embracing English
composers—BenMaggini's instruments, violin, nett, EUerton, Loder,of Gio. Paolo Macfarren, Mellon, etc.
and with foreign musiciansviola, violoncello, and small bass, that then but seldom heard
the exception of the last, they are some of the Schumann, Cherubini, Hummel, etc., and
specimens this master's work. The Beethoven's Posthumousfinest of Quartets. The pieces
were analysed byPrince J. de Caraman Chimay owned a very G. A. Macfarren. g.
interesting quartet of instruments by Stradi- QUASI as if i. e. an '
, approach to. Andante
pupil Ambrose de ,Comble of Tournay quasi allegretto' orvari's (?) 'Allegretto quasi vivace'
means a little(about 1750) and also an ornamented quartet quicker than the one and not so
(copies of Stradivari) made by J. B. Vuillaume quick as the other—answering to poco allegretto,
instruments were exhibited or piii tosto allegro.jn 1865. [These q
QUATREin the Albert Hall in 1885.] Quartets of FILS AYMON, LES. An
op^raStradivari's instruments have been collected by comique; words by MM. Leuven and
Bruns1 For the history of the violin of this set see article MoBBL. wick, music by Balfe. Produced at the Op&a-—
Comique, Paris, July IS, 1844, and at the
Princess's Theatre, London, as 'The Castle of
Aymon, or Four Brothers,' in three acts,The
Nov. 1844. G.20,
subdivision ofThe thequaver into semiquaverQUAVER Achtelnote, whence American(Ger.
and demisemiquaver followed somewhat later.
' eighth note ' Fr. Oroche Ital. Oroma). A
; ;
Gafurius, in the work quoted above, mentions
note which is half the length of a crotchet,
a note of a minim in length, called by various^and therefore the eighth part of a semibreve
^ 1
hence the German and American names. It names, and written either* but the trueor 4,
I*,is written thus its Rest being represented
semiquaver ofor semichroma, the earliest formby T
The idea of expressing the values of notes by
which was , does not appear until later, while»
diversity of form has been ascribed by certain
the demisemiquaver must have been a novelty
writers to De Muris .(about but this is1340), as late as country,1697, at least in this
undoubtedly an error, the origin of which is
judging from the 13th edition of Playford's
traced by both Hawkins (Hist, Music) andof Tntrodiiction to the Skill Musick, in which,of
'F4tis (art. Muris to awork entitled L'antica') after describing it, the author goes on to say
Musica ridotta alia modema Prattica, by
Vicen'but the Printer having none of that character
tino inwhich it is explicitly stated that(1555), by him, I was obliged to omit it.'
De Muris invented all the notes, from the Large When two or more quavers (or shorter notes)
the Semiquaver. however, thatto It is, certain
occur consecutively, they are usually grouped
the longer notes were in use nearly 300 years
together by omitting the hooks and drawing a
earlier, in the time of Franco ofCologne
[Notathick stroke across their stems, thus j^jj.
tion, vol. iii. p. 399], and it seems equally
[This grouping, which had been in use for
clear that the introduction of the shorter kinds
centuries in MS. music, was one of the great
is of later date than the time of De Muris.
difficulties in the way of printing from
musicappearsThe fact to be that the invention of
types ; it was not overcome until about 1690,
the shorter notes followed the demand created
when John Heptinstall brought it into use.
by the general progress of music, a demand
See Heptinstall, and Music-Pkinting.]
which may fairly be supposed to have reached f In vocal music, quavers which have to be
its limit in the quarter-demisemiquaver, ox^'fi
sung to separate syllables are written detached,
"of a quaver, occasionally met with in modern
while those which are sung to a single syllable
:are grouped ; for example
The Quaver, originally called Chroma or Fusa,
sometimes Unea (ahook), wasprobablyinvented
Morleysome time during the 15th century, for
(1597) says that 'there were within these 200 "The peo-plethatwalk-edin dark ncas, that
years ' (and therefore in 1400) 'but four ' (notes)
F. T.
known or used of the musicians, those were the
One quaver of historical importance deserves
Long, Breve, Semibreve, and Minim ; and
' mention, that which Handel added in pencil to
Thomas de Walsingham, in a MS. treatise the quintet in 'Jephtha' in 1758, six years
written somewhat later (probably about 1440), to lostafter he is supposed have his sight, and
and quoted by Hawkins, gives the same notes, which in Schoelcher's words shows that by
'and adds that of late a New character has
' looking very closely at a thing he was still
introduced, called a Crotchet, which wouldbeen aable to see it little.' G.
musicians remember thatbe of no use, would QUEEN OF SHEBA. (i.) La Rbine de
beyond the minim no subdivision ought to be Saba, in four acts words by Barbier and
Gafurius also, in his Practieamade. ' Franehinus Carre, music by GounojJ. Produced at the
Prosdocimus deMusicae quoting from(1496), Op^ra, Feb. 28, 1862. Adapted as 'Irene' by
Beldemandia, who flourished in the early part H. B. Famie, and produced as a concert at the
century, describes the division ofof the 15th Crystal Palace, August 1865. The beautiful12,
the minim into halves and quarters, called Airs de ballet contain some of Gounod's best
respectively the greater and lesser semirainim, music. G.
white and blackand written in two ways, von Saba.(ii.) See KoNiGiN
(Ex. The white forms of these notes soon1). QUEISSER, Carl Tbaugott, a. great
tromand the black ones have becomefell into disuse, bone player, was born of poor parents at Dtiben,
the crotchet and quaver of modern music. Leipzig, Jan. 1800. His turn fornear 11,
music showed itself early, and he soon mastered
1 There were really five, iacludinff the Large, which Morley calls
the Double Long.
all the ordinary orchastral instruments. He
^ that in the ancient manUHCrlpthy Eng-It ia worthy of notice
known as the Waltham Holy Cross MS., a note islish authors ultimately confined himself to the viola, and
mentioned, called a 'simple,' which has the yalue of a crotchet,
but is written with a hooked item like a modern quaver. That a to the trombone, which he may really be said
havenote half the value of a minim should at any period been
hook may help to account for the modern name crochet, ahook, issomewhatinappropriate tothenote in its presentwritten with a
crotcha, which, being clearly derived from the French croc, or form, which has no hook.— —' — ''
music. [Seemodemto created, since, for instance, the solo the Diminished Fifth ofhave
s. the TuTm rrdrv/m of Mozart's Requiem was Mi contra Fa.]
France, duringgiven inbefore his time usually played on a bassoon. QUINTE. Thename
part of the17th andwas appointed latter half of theIn 1817 he to play the violin the
obsolete five-stringednowand trombone in the town orchestra, and by 18th centuries, tothe
were amongstviols1830 had worked his way into the other tenor viol. Five-stringed
earliest in use. Praetoriusorchestras of Leipzig, including that of the the
times,ancientwere employed inGewandhaus. He played the viola in Matthai's 1619) says they
1632)Instrumentalis,well-known quartet for many years was one and Agricola {Mvska
viols thenfive-stringedtuning of theof the founders of the Leipzig 'Euterpe,' and gives the
of vocal musicAlthough composersled its orchestra for a long time and in short in vogue.
callednot infrequentlywas one of most prominent musical figures during the 16th centurythe
viols ofor 'Quintus,'their tenor part 'Quinte'in Leipzig during its very best period.
ofunder the titledenomination remainedAs a solo trombone-player he appeared fre- that
the firstperiod ; and probablyquently in the Gewandhaus Concerts, with con- tenoruntil a later
' musical
' designates ainstance where Quintuscertos, concertinos, fantasias, and variations,
to Olaudiooccurs in the overturemany of them composed expressly for him by instrument
(Venice, 1609-opera, 'Orfeo'0. Miiller, F. David, Meyer, Kummer, and Monteverde'sG.
thein givesL'^tai de France, 1683,others and the reports of these appearances 1613).
'Quinte dename of 'Fossart,' who played therarely mention him without some term of pride
' Queen's band, and inor endearment. For fulness, purityand power Violon' in the
'included two Quinteslightness of lip, and extraordinary the Parisoperaorchestraof tone,
there wereamongst the instruments. In 1773facility in passages,' says his biographer, 'he
' of the
' amongst the musicianssurpassedallthetrombone-playersofGermany.' four Quintes
' ' Quintes ' wereemployedLeipzig story to the effect that at Grande Chapelle, andThere was a
Jacques RousseauQueisser in aU the orchestras. Jeanthe first rehearsal of the Lobgesang,
gives a
: (Bictionnaire de Musique, Paris, 1708)led off the Introduction as follows
informationconcerningthe 'Quinte.good deal of
in France theUnder 'Viole' he says that
' ' six-stringedQuinte ' and the Taille ' (a large
tenor viol), contrary to the Italian custom,
'amusement. 8e non i same part, and under Partieto Mendelssohn's infinite played the
' ' wereiiero, .B Jem trovaio. mentions that the Quinte ' and Taille '
'knownthroughoutGermany, united under the name Viole.' The highestQueisserwaawell
left hisnativecountry. and lowest notes ofthese instruments, accordingbutappears never tohave
He died at Leipzig, June 12, 1846. G. to the same writer, were
QUICK-STEP (Fr. Pas redaubU; Ger.
Gethe English name for thesehwind Marsch) is
march in the army, a marchmusic of the Quick
thewhich 116 steps of 30 inches go toin
Boost's Jov/rnal Marches,minute. (See of Quinte or Viola.
etc.) It may be well toQuicksteps, Dances,
which is to be inferredfrom it that the tuningthere are 75mention that in the Slow march
was the same as that given by Agricola inof30 inches, and in the 'Double' 165steps of
i.e.1532,March, vol. iii. G.33 inches. [See p. 50.]
form of Neuma,QUILISMA. An ancient
Notation,a kind of shake. [Seerepresenting
w. s. R.vol. iii. p. 396.]
Altoand Tenor.Quintoybr.QUINIBLE. See
An organ stop which causes the England the twotenor violsQUINT. In whichformed
given note to sound as well as the ' Chestsfifth above a a part of the of six Viols, ' so much in
which is pressedbelonging to the key vogue during the 17th and beginningnote of the
From the note and its fifth there arises 18th centuries, were probablydown. identicalwith the
tone an octave below the note. 'a differential Quinte ' and 'Taille' ; but the French title was
16 pipesmixture an organ with -ft. never adopted in this country.^y this The bulky size
'made to sound as if with 32-ft. pipes of the Quinte rendered itcan be ; ' such an awkward
lowest note, but ofis the pitch of the instrument to play upon that itsthat dimensions
energy than ifsounds with far less gradually diminished from centurycourse it to century,
with a 32-ft. pipe. T. E. when the violin cameproperly produced and into more general use,
Fifth). The for- 'FALSA (False it melted into the Haute Centre 'QUINTA (alto viol).
Hexachordonbetween Mi in the In the second half of thebidden interval 18th century it
Hexachordon naturale into a tenorandFa in the developed violin withdurum, four strings,
July 1846. and adopted the clef on themasikaUache Zeitung, 8, third line whichJUff,' — — '
'was formerly chorus. It is, however, by no meansthe clef of the Haute Contre oratorio
or alto naturally. r. c.viol. (See Tenor Viol.)—Agricola easy to write
treble].(Martinus), Musica Instrumentalis Praetorius, QUINTON [See Viol,;
singOrgcmographia Rousseau (J. J.), Dictiormaire QUINTOYEE (Old Eng. Quinible). To;
de Musigue La Borde, Ussai sur la Musiqiie in Fifths—a French verb, in frequent useamong;
Grillet (Laurent), AncUres du Violon ; Hart, extempore Organisers during the Middle Ages.
The Violin. E. h-a. [See Organum, Part-Weiting.] w. s. e,
QUINTET (Fr. Quintuor; Ital. Quintetto). A QUINTUPLE TIME. The rhythm of five
composition for five instruments or voices with beats in a bar. As a rule quintuple time has
without accompaniment.or two accents, one on the first beat ofthe bar, and
I. Quintets for strings have been far less the other on either the third or fourth, the bar
often written than quartets, owing to the being thusdivided into twounequal parts. On
complexity dis-greater demanded in the polyphony. this account it can scarcely be considered a
Boccherini, however, published 125, of which tinct species of rhythm, but rathera compound
twelve only were written for two violins, two oftwo ordinary kinds, dupleand triple,employed
violas, and one violoncello, the others having alternately. Although of practical value,little
two violoncellos and one viola. The former is quintuple time produces an efiect sufficiently
the more usual choice of instruments, probably characteristic and interesting to have induced
because the lower parts are apt be too heavy various composers make experiments therein,to to
sounding with two violoncellos, owing to the the earliest attempt of any importance being a
greater body of tone in this instrument. Schu- symphonyin the secondactofHandel's 'Orlando'
bert's noble Quintet in (op. is for in which the hero's perturbation is re-C 163) two (1732),
violoncellos, time Bumey,but the first is used constantly presented by this peculiar (see
in its upper octave, soaring above the viola. ffistory, iv. 364). The same rhythm occurs in
'Onslow's—thirty-four in number—are for a an air to the words Se la sorte mi condanna
'opera Ariadne ' by Adolfati, writtendouble bass and violoncello. in the of
Beethoven's two Quintets, in El> and C, be- in 1750, and it is alsomet insome ofthenational
long to his earlier periods, and have there- airsofSpain, Greece,Germany, etc. ThusEeioha,
20 of his set of 36 fugues (eachfore none of the extraordinary features of the in a note to No.
curious experiment inlater quartets. Mendelssohn's Quintet in B|> of which embodies some
(op. is so orchestral as to seem almost a either tonality or rhythm), states that in a87)
symphony in disguise, but that in A (op. is certain district of the Lower Rhine, named18)
airs of most of thedances havean exquisite specimen of what a string quintet Eochersberg, the
should be. a, well-marked rhythm of five beats, and he
:Many other combinations'of five instruments gives as an example the following waltz
have found favour with musicians, mostly
including a pianoforte. Thus there is Mozart's
Quintet in for oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon,El>
the composer esteemed theand piano—which
above example the second accent fallsIn thebest thing he ever wrote,—the beautiful one for
being of 2-8on the third beat, the rhythm thatclarinet andanother for the piquantand strings,
followed by 3-8, and the same order is
obviola, violoncello,combination of flute, oboe,
in a charming movement by HiUer,servedand harmonica. Perhaps the most effective
from the Trio, op. 64.association is that of piano, violin, viola,
violonIn Reicha's fugue above referred to, theSchubert's well-cello, and double bass, as in
is the case, the fourth beat receivingreverseknown'Trout' Quintet (op. 114). [The splendid
is shown by the composer's ownthe accent, asquintets Schumann and Brahms for piano andof
-time signature, , as well as by his explicitcombination abovestrings are for the ordinary
directions as to performance. The following is
referredto, as arealsothose ofDvoijdk,DohnAnyi,
:the subjectand others. quintetbyBrahms for clarinetThe
beautiful works.]and strings is one of his most
Beethoven's quintet for piano and wind
instruments (op. in is a noble representative16), Eb
of a verysmall class. Hummelhas also written
Other instances of rhythma well-known one. quintuple are to
who have ever heard be found in a Trio for strings by K. J. Bischoff,II. In vocal musicnone
for which a prize was awarded by the Deutscheit can forget the admirable quintet (for two
Tonhallein185 ; inChopin's Sonata inCminor,soprani, contralto, tenor, and bass) which forms 3
' Zemira.' op. 4 ; in Hiller's 'Rhythmische Studien,' op.the finale to Act 1 ofSpohr's Azor and
'52 in Viens, gentille Dame ; in Boieldieu'sIn modem opera the most striking specimen ;
' '' Prinzoccurs Wagner's Meistersinger.' Five-part La Dame blanche ' ; Lowe's Balladin
'peculiarlyrich effect,and deserves Eugen ; a number in Rubinstein's Tower ofharmony hasa '
Babel,' etc. Another characteristic exampleto be more practised than it is, especially in' —
annual familyoccurs inthe Gypaies'Glee, whose
' 'byW. Reeve(1796). -one with the Bachs, at
greatquodlibets was aThis may fairly be considered an example of ofgatherings the singing
(Engl, transl.)genuine quintuple rhythm, for instead S. Sackof the feature (see Spitta, J.
himself hasusual division of the Bachbar into two parts, such i. iii. 172-6). Sebastian154,
of a written-downas might be expressed by alternate bars of 3-4 delightful exampleleft us one
' variations inand 2-4, or 2-4 and 3-4, there are of the 30 'five distinct quodlibet, at the end
which seebeats in every bar, analysis ofeach consisting of an accent G major, for a detailed
' binin it are Ichand a non-accent. This freedom from the tunes usedSpitta. The two
'Kraut undordinary alternation gewest,' andof two and three is well so lang bei dir nicht
of theexpressedby vertrieben.' Onethegrouping ofthe accompaniment. Riiben, Haben mich
only two[The same true quintuple time, as distinguished examples, althoughbest modern
variations forfrom a combination of triple Reinecke'sand duple time, themes are used, is in
in theGluck's, where,distinguishes the best-known example of all, the two pianoson agavotte of
' simultaneously withsecond movement of Tchaikovsky's Pathetic last variation, he brings in
of Bachsymphony. The passage well-known musettein the third act of the gavotte the
' ' English suite. ATristan und Isolde,' occurring at a most excit- which occurs in the third '
the extemporeing moment in the drama, is apt to escape instance, and one in whichgood
of thethe attention of many is the singinghearers who are only character is retained,
conscious Hopkins,' 'Buy a Broom,'of the impatient effect it produces.' three tunes 'Polly
together, whichSee Rhythm.] s. t. and 'The Merry Swiss Boy'
QUINTUS (the Fifth). The Fifth sometimes done for a joke. APart in was formerly
of a 16th-centurya composition for five voices called also Pars very interesting specimen
of fivequinta and Quincuplum. In music of the 15th quodlibet by Johann Gbldel, consisting
and 16th centuries, the Fifth Part always cor- chorale-tunes—viz. 'Erhalt uns, Herr bei(1)
Gott, von Himmel,'responded exactly in compass with one of the deinem Wort,' 'Ach(2)
Himmelreich, 'Wirother four it would, therefore, have been im- 'Vater unser im ' (4)
; (3)
'possible to describe it as First or Second Cantus, glauben all,' Durch Adam's Fall—isgiven(5)
Hilgenfeldt's Life of Bach.Altus, Tenor, or Bassus. w. s. R. as an appendix to
example of theQUIRE. Another way of spelling Choik. We quote a few bars as an
6. ingenuity with which the five melodies are
' :QUODLIBET (Lat. Whatyou please also brought together
called QuoTLiBET ( ' As many as you please
and in Italian Messanza or Mistichanza
( ' mixture . This was a kind of musicalA ').
joke in the 16th and early part of the 17th
centuries, the fun of which consisted in the
extempore juxtaposition of different melodies,
or secular, which were incon-whether sacred iipi^=^^^i^=p
gruous either in their musical character, or in
the words with which they were associated
however, the words were the samesometimes,
in all parts, but were sung in snatches and
scraps, as in the quodlibets of Melchior Franck. A^^r [ST
Syntagma Musicwm, tom. iii.(See Praetorius,
of performingcap. V.) There were two ways
this : one was to string the melodies together
simply and without any attempt at connecting
modernthem by passages such as those found in
' fantasias ' the other, the more elaborate
method, consisted in singing or playing the
modificationsmelodies simultaneously, the only
allowed being those of time. The effect of this,
skilful musicians engaged inunless only very
now callit, must have been very like what we
'Dutch chorus. ' This pastime was a favouritea— '
AAFF, Anton, one of themostdistinguished history of Scottish music-printing. Eabau"P
tenors of his day ; born 1714 in the gave up business in 1649, dying in 1658. F. K.
village of Holzem, near Bonn, and educated RACCOLTA GENERALE delle opeke
for the priesthood at the Jesuit College at CLA.ssiCHE MUsiCALi. A Collection of pieces of
Cologne. His fine voice 'so struck the Elector, which the full title is as follows : Collection
Clement Augustus, that he took him to Munich, generate des ouvrages classiques de musique, on
where Ferrandini brought him forward in an Choix de chefs d'oeuvres, en tout genre, des
opera. After studying for a short time with plus grands compositeurs de toutes les Eeoles,
Bologna,-Bernacchi at Eaaff became one of the reoueillis, mis en ordre et enrichis de Notices
first tenors of his time. In 1738 sang athe historiques, par Alex. E. Choron, pour servir
Florence on the betrothal of Maria Theresa, and de suite aux Principes de Composition des eeoles
followed up this successful debut at many of d'ltalie.' A notice on the wrapper further
the Italian theatres. In 1742 he returned to says that the price of the work to subscribers
Bonn, and sang at Vienna in Jommelli's is calculated at the rate of 5 sous per page,
'Didone' to Metastasio's great satis- The numbers were not be(1749), to issued periodically,
faction. In 1752 he passed through Italy to but the annual cost to subscribers was fixed at
Lisbon; in 1755 he accepted a summons to from 36 to 40 francs. The work was in folio,
Madi-id, where he remained under Farinelli's engraved by Gill6 fils, and published by
direction, enjoying every favour from the court Leduc& Co., Paris, Rue de Richelieu, 78, with
and public. In 1759 he accompanied Farinelli agents at Bordeaux, Marseilles, Leipzig, Munich,
to Naples. In 1770 he entered the service of Vienna, Lyon, Turin, Milan, Rome, and Naples.
the Elector, Karl Theodor, at Mannheim. In It was got up with great care and taste, but
1778 he was in Paris with Mozart, and seemsin 1779 to have ceased after about six numbers.
'he followed the com-t to Munich, where Mozart For Alfieei's Raccolta di musica sacra
composed the part of Idomeneo for him. He see vol. i. 66. G.p.
died in Munich, May Mozart in27, 1797. RACHMANINOV, Seegei Vassilievich, a
'his letters speaks ofhim as his best and dearest pianist of repute, and one of the most talented
friend,' especially in one from Paris, dated June of the younger Moscow school of composers
-12, 1778. He composed for him in Mannheim born in Government April 1the of Novgorod,
'the au-, Se al labbro mio non credi ' (Koohel, (March 20, O.S.), 1873. At nine years of age
295). c. F. p. he entered the St. Petersburg Conservatoire,
EABAN, Edward, was an Englishman, and where he remained three years, making the
pianoforteafter having fought in the wars of the Nether- his chief study. Three years later,
lands, from theyear 1600, settled at Edinburgh, in 1885, he was transferred to the Conservatou'e
at the Cowgate Port, as a printer, in 1620. at Moscow. Here he studied the pianoforte,
alone first with Tchaikovsky's friend, Zvierev, andOne work with the Edinburgh imprint
afterwardsremains, and in the same year he removed to with Siloti. His masters for theory
Andrews, and finally to Aberdeen in 1622. and composition were Taneiev and Arensky.St.
patronage of the The musical influences of Moscow are clearlyIn this place he was under the
town dignitaries, and had the friendship of evident in the works of Rachmaninov. In
Bishop no doubt, these cii-cum- 1892 he won the gold medal for composition,Forbes. It was,
his craft and on quitting the Conservatoire, in the samestances that enabled him to carry on
concert-tour throughunmolested, unlike John Forbes of the same year, he started on a long
city who, later date, suffered fine and the chief towns of Russia. In 1899 Rach-at a
held maninov appeared in London at one of theimprisonment for infringing the monopoly
and madeby the King's printer in Scotland. Baban concerts of the Philharmonic Society,
at once printing of liturgical a good impression in the threefold capacity ofcommenced the
composer, conductor, and pianist. In 1893works, including a prayer-book, dated 1625,
professor of pianoforte to thewhich is stated to have the music to the Psalms. he was appointed
ofCL. Psalmes Maryinsky Institute for girls, in Moscow, a postIn 1629 he printed two editions
whichhe still holds. Several ofRachmaninov'sof the princelie prophet David, a quarto for
especially thebinding with and a 16mo edition. Also, songs and pianoforte pieces,Bibles
in Psames David famous prelude in minor, have attained1633, two editions of The of CJt
popularity. His compositions are asin prose and metre according to the Church immense
:Scotland. Aberdene, imprinted by followsof ... 2n
8o.Edward Rohan David Mdvill, 1633,for A, Obcbbstbal
These have the music to the Psalms printed Gipsy Capriccio, op. 12; SymphoDy,'The Rock,' fontaala, op. 7;
op. 13 (1895).from Though probably not somovable type.
Hart ofwell executed as the music of Andro Two Concertoa, opp. 1 and 18 ; two Suitea. opp. 5 and 17 ; six
pieces for four hands, op. 11 ; five pieces for two hands, op. 3Edinburgh, these are of great interest in the
11; —
(Including the minor prelude) ; levea plecea, ; six an eulogyC$ op. 10 lawyer—wroteBolognesePanoaldi—aMomentsMuaicaux, op. 16 ; TaTiationsonthe theme ofChopln'B
butmentionsPrelude InC minor, op. 22. unfortunatelyin his memory, but
onat PaduaelectionC. Chamber Mubio one date, that of his
qualitiesElegiac trio (In memory of Tchaikovsky) for pianofoirte, violin, violinist his1815. As aMarch 31,
and violoncello, op. 9 (1893) ; Bonata for violoncello and piano- rathermusicianthose of aforte, op. 19; two pieces tor violin and pianoforte, op. 6; two appear to have been
pianoforte,pieces for violoncelloand op. 2. tells usPancaldithan those of a virtuoso.
D. Vocal tonedignified and hisstyle wasthat his
*Six choruses tor female voices, op. Ifi; humorous chorus formixed Haydn, Beethoven,countedvoices Cantata, ' sonorous, that he
; Spring,' for chorus, baritone solo, and
orchestra, op. 20 six songs, op. 4: six ditto, op. 12 ditto,
; 8; that hefriends, andand Romberg among his
'op. 14 ; Fate ' (to Beethoven's Fifth Symphony), op. 17.
' music.Aleko,' opera in one act, first performed at the Imperial Opera- respects thaneducated in otherwas well
«-House, Moscow, 1892. -n
himself especiallydevotedAs a composer he
that timeBACKET, EACKETT, or RANKETT (also Quartet, which atto perfecting the
lessknown as Cervelat). An obsolete instrument influence—wasBoccherini'sin spite of
countries.of small cylindrical bore, played with a double Italy than in otherthought of in
the cause ofreed of the bassoon type. It is described both interest inIt would seem that his
by Praetorius and by Mersenne, and was made German critic,chamber musicwas aroused by a
both of ivory. apparent length Eadicati's quartetswood and The some ofwho, reviewing
'Theof the instrument was very small, as the bore remarked thatperformed in Vienna,
doubledmany times upon itself, the true length compose works ofItalian mind is not apt to
addition the holes matter thebeing thus disguised. In to character in thisthe highest ;
Eadicati'sor ventages closed by the tips of the fingers in take precedence.Germans seem to
the usual way, the doubling of the tube allowed than melodies accom-quartets are nothingmore
which were parts.' Thisof the piercing of several holes harmonies in secondarypaniedby
number ofclosed by other joints of the fingers, or soft Eadicati that he gave aso incensed
parts of the hand. According to Praetorius Vienna, in orderconcerts of Italian music in
rackets were made in families, the compass convinced ofthe that the German critic might be
of a set of four extending from C to d'. D. j. B. on his return to Italy, not onlyhis error ; and,
EADIOATI,FelicbdaMaurizio di,violinist writing ofmany quartetsdevoted himselfto the
at Turin in 1778 died, endeavoured to induceand composer, bom ; and quintets, but also
Vienna,according to the Quellen-LexiJcon, at Italian composers to do likewise, andother
April 14, 1823. His parents belonging to stigma cast upon Italian musicthus efface the
Italy, the child's singular numerous con-the poor nobility of by the Germans. Besides his
the more,interest in music was encouraged tributions to chamber music, Eadicati wrote
and he began his studies at a very early age. or seven operas, among which are includedsix
him the violin. ProfitingPugnani taught his 'Ricardo Cuor di Leone," produced at
great master, Eadicati 'by the precepts of this Bologna a couple of farces, I due Prigionieri,'
'acquired many of Pugnani's finer qualities, II Medico per forza ; a concerto for violin,
' 'and, on reaching manhood, toured with un- number of small Arias,' Cavatinas,'and a etc.
France, and England.qualified success in Italy, All these were in the possession of his son in
The love of his native land, however, and the 1828. The most complete list of his
compoadditional inducement of a post at the Court sitions published and MS.—is probably that—
V., drew him backof King Victor Emanuel given in the Qiiellen-Lexikon. Radicati's wife
accompanied byto Italy, whither he returned, and his son Karolus, who became a lawyer,
accomplished wife Teresa Bertinotti. erected a monument to his memoryhis in the
the town ofBolognaannounced Campo Santo at Bologna.In the year 1815 —Pancaldi (Carlo),
leader of the towna competition for the post of Cenni intomo Felice Sadicali, Bologna, 1828 ;
orchestra—at that time celebrated ; but when Eitner, Quellen-Lexikon ; Fttis, £iog. des Mus.
that Eadicati had entered Baker, Biog. Diet. came to be known e. h-a.
contend against himlists, no one would RADZIWILL, Anton Heinrich,the Prince of,
'result that he was elected to the post RoyalPrussian Statthalter 'ofthewith the GrandDuchy
without contest. After ofPosen, bom at Wilna,on March 31, 1815, June 13, 1775, married
the appoint-this his talents obtained for him in 1796 the Princess Luisfe, sister of that
disdirector of the great orchestra of the tinguished amateur Princements of Louis Ferdinand of
professor of the Prussia. [See vol.Basilica di S. Pietro, and ii. p. 772.] Eadziwill was
Filarraonico ofat the famous Liceo known in Berlin not only as anviolin ardent admirer
career was calamitously cut of good music, but as aBologna. His fine violoncello player,
a fatal carriage and 'a singer of suchshort, in the prime of life, by taste and ability as ia
very rarely met with 'iaccident. amongst amateurs.
on the subject of Eadicati's Beethoven was the greatThe authorities object of his
admiraAccording to the He playedbut few dates. tion. his quartetscareer give with devotion,
he was in London 1806-7, made a long journey toQuellen-Lexikon Prince Galitzin's on
(Fitis, Biog. desMus.) purpose to hear thetoured in Lombardy Mass in D, wasand invited by
Carlo 1 A.M.Z. 1831, JulyW. See alsoHis principal biographer. 1809, June 1814, 1816. 28 ; 28.JOSEPH JOACHIM KAFFEAFP 13BAFF
Beethoven 'to subscribe to the publication of reviewer finding in it something which points
that work, and indeed was one of the seven to a future for the composer.' Encouraging
who sent names in answer to that notices of opp. 2 to 6 inclusive are also givenin their
appeal. To him Beethoven dedicated the in the A. M. Zeitvmg for the 21st of the same
Overture in C, op. 115 (known as 'Namena- month. Amidst privations which would have
'feier which was published &a Grosses Ouver- dauntedany one ofless determination worked'), he
ture in dur gedicAtet,' etc., by Steiner of steadily on, and at length having fallen in with
Vienna in 1825, Liszt, waa treated by him with the kindness
Eadziwill was not only a player, a singer, which always marked his intercourse with rising
and a passionate lover of music, he was also or struggling talent, anda waa taken by him on
composer of nomean order. Whistling'sHand- a concert-tour. Meeting Mendelasohn for the
huch (1828) names three Romances for voice first time at Cologne in 1846, and being
afterand PF. (Peters), and songs with guitar and wards invited by him to become his pupil at
violoncello (B. & H.), and Mendel mentions Leipzig, he left Liazt for that purpoae. Before
duets with PF. accompaniment, a Complaint of he could carry this project into effect, however,
Maria Stuart, with PP. and violoncello, and Mendelasohn died,and Ralfremained atCologne,
many part-songs (still in MS.) composed for occupying himself inter alia in writing critiques
Zelter's Liedertafel, of which he was an en- forDehn's Caeilia. Later, in 1854, hepublished
thusiastic supporter.' But these were only Die Wagnerfrage, a pamphlet which excited
'preparations for his great work, entitled Com- considerable attention. Liszt's endeavours to
positions to Goethe's dratoatic poem of Faust.' secure him a patron in Vienna in the person of
This, whichwas published in score and arrange- Mecohetti the publisher, were frustrated by
ment by Trautwein Berlin Mecchetti's deathof in Nov. 1835, while Raff was actually on
contains twenty-five numbers, occupying 589 the way to see him. Undismayed by these
pages. A portionwassungbytheSingakademie repeated obstacles he devoted himself to a
as early as May severe course1, 1810 ; the choruses were of study, partly at home and
performed in May 1816, three new scenes as partly at Stuttgart, with the view to remedy
late as Nov. 21, 1830, and the whole work was the deficiencies of his early training. At
brought out by that institution after the death Stuttgart he made the acquaintance of Billow,
of the composer, which took place April who became deeply interested in him, and did8,
1833. The work was repeatedly performed him a great service by taking up his new
during several years in Berlin, Danzig, Concertstuck, forPF. and orchestra, and
playingHanover, Leipzig, Prague, and many other places, it (Jan. 1, 1848).
as may be seen from the index to the A, M, By degrees Raff attached himself more and
Zeiiung. It made its appearance in a perform- more closely to the new German school, and in
ance at Hyde Park College, 1850 went to Weimar to be near Liszt, whohadLondon, on May
21, 1880,under the direction ofL. Martin-Eiffe. at that time abandoned his career as a virtuoso
A full analysis of it will be found in the A. M. and waa settled there. Here he remodelled an
'Zeitung for opera, Kbnig Alfred,' which he had composed1836, pp. 601, 617 ; and there is a
threecopy in the British Museum. 6, in Stuttgart years before, and it was
RAFF, Joseph Joachim, bornMay 1822, produced at the Court Theatre, where it was27,
at Lake often performed. It has also been given else-Lacheu on the of Zurich. He received
where. Other works followed—a collectionhis early education atWiesenstetten inWurtem- "of
'berg, in the home of his parents, and then at PF. pieces called Friihlingsboten ' in 1852, the
the Jesuit Lyceum of Schwyz, where he carried first string quartet in 1855, and the first grand
sonata for PF. and violin (E minor) in the iirst prizes in German, Latin, and
mathematics. Want of means compelled him In the meantime he had engaged himself to
to give up classical a Doris Genast, daughter of the well-known actorhis studies, and become
and manager, and herself on the stage and inschoolmaster, buthe stuck to music, and though ;
herunable to afford a teacher, made such progress 1856 he followed to Wiesbaden, where he
not only was soon in great request as a pianoforte teacher.with the piano and the violin, but also
in In 1858 he composed his second violin sonata,composition, that Mendelssohn, to whom he
'sentsome MSS., gave him in 1843 arecommen- and theincidentalmusic for Bernhardvon
Weidation mar,' a drama by Wilhelm Genast, the overtureto Breitkopf& Hartel. This introduction
to which speedUy became a favourite, and wasseems to have led to his appearing before the
public, and flood much played throughout Germany. In 1859to the ibat drops of that of
compositions he married. In 1863 his first symphony, 'Anof all sorts and dimensions which
das Vaterland, prize offered by thefrom 1844 he poured forth in an almost un- ' obtained the
ceasing stream. 1 we have found no Gesellsohaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna (outOf op.
of thirty-two competitors), and was followed bycritical record but op. 2 is kindly noticed by
'the N. Zeitsclwift for August 1844, the the 2nd (in C) and the 3rd (in F, Im Walde')5,
in 1869, the 4th (in G minor) in 1871, the 5th
1 Zelter's Correspondence with Ooethe teems with notices of the
Prince. ('Lenore') in 1872, the 6th ('Gelebt, gestrebt,— ; ;
remarkable.gelitten, gestritten, gestorben, spontaneous isumworben in are made to appear')
and the 7th minor (op. 185),1876, (' Alpensinfonie in Concerto in') 1877, In the Pianoforte
are in doublethe 8th (' Friihlingsklange in the subjects') 1878, and the in each movement all
this is one9th (' Im Sommerzeit in another, yet1880. A 10th ('Zur counterpoint with one')
melodious works;Herbstzeit was played at Wiesbaden and the and most') ; of Eafl"s freshest
Scherzos are,11th, left unfinished at his death, was Symphonies: therevised To return to the
excep-by Erdmannsdbrfer. withoutIn 1870 his comic opera and the Finalesas a rule, weak,
' vulgar. WritingDame Kobold ' was produced atWeimar. indeedOther tion boisterous and
public. Raffoperas for which he uneducatedhimself wrote the libretti here, as ever, for an
have not been symphony to descendperformed in public. Two can- has forgotten that for a
unworthy of thetatas, 'Wachet auf,' and another it to bewritten for from a high tone is for
the Festival in commemoration of the battle of name.
Songs (Sanges-Leipzig, were his first works for men's voices, remarkable set of thirtyA
its wealthand are popular with, notice forchoral societies. His ar- Friihling, op. 98) deserves
becomerangement which haveof Bach's six violin sonatas for PF. of fine melodies, some of
den Weg'is a work of great merit. (' Kein Sorg umnational property
' pianoforteDetailed analyses of and among histhe first six of these Sohon' Else,' etc.) ;
originalVariations on anSymphonies will be found intheMonthlyMusical music is a set oftwenty
astonishingSecord for 1875, and from these a very good theme which displays an(op. 179)
five andidea of the the theme—ofcomposer's style may be gathered. fertility of resource,
built up intoRemembering his struggles and hard life it is seven quavers in the bar—being
and elegance.only a matter for wonder that he should have canonsand scherzosofgreat variety
popular,striven earnestly Concerto was veryso and so long in a path that Raff's Pianoforte
Orchestra (op. 180)was not his natural walk. A glancei at the and his Suite for Violin and
need not benearly complete list of his works at the foot of only little less so. His versatility
this notice will explain our meaning. The enlarged upon. In all the forms
ofmusicalcom' brilliant qualitiesenormous mass of drawing-room music ' tells position he showed the same
Hisits own tale. Eaff had to live, and having by and the same regrettable shortcomings.
nature a remarkable gift of melodyand perhaps gift melody, his technical skill, his inex-of
his power ofnot much artistic refinement, he wrote what haustible fertility, and above all
beyondwould pay. But on looking at his works in never repeating himself—all these are
the higher branch of music—his symphonies, praise. But his very fertility was a misfortune,
choice ofconcertos, and chamber—one cannot but since it rendered him careless in the
'be struck by the conscientious striving towards his subjects writing pot-boilers ' injured the
a high ideal. In the whole of his published development of a delicate feeling for what is
movements, without a lofty and refined in short, the conscientiousSymphonies the slow ;
single exception, are ofextreme melodic beauty, critic hesitates to allow him a place in the front
although weak from a symphonic point of view rank of composers.
are invariably worked out Even those who have leastthe first movements sympathy with
with surprising technical skill, the subjects Raff"s views on art-must admire the energy and
appearing frequently in double counterpoint spirit with which he worked his way upwards
canon. And however in spite of every obstacle povertyand in every kind of could throw in
may appear, way. was amodern and common his themes his He member of several societies,
have often been built up with the greatest and received various orders.they In 1877 he
to this end showing that was appointed with muchcare, note by note, ; &lat director of
down the first the Hoohhe does not, as is often said, put oonservatorinm at Frankfort, a post
comes into his mind. Observe the he held until his death, inthing that thenight of Jiine
of the first subject in his 24-25, 1882. [Since hisfollowing treatment death liis music has
: passed,1st Symphony 'An das Vaterland' alike in Germany and England, into an
oblivion which cannot excite surprise in those
who realise the inherent weaknesses of the
composer and the
; sudden change on the part of5=^^g
the public, from a widespread admiration to
Violapp almost complete neglect, is of itself a severe
criticism on his work.]S^^^^m^^
The first of his large works performed in
this countrywas probably the LenoreVioloncello Symphony
at the Crystal Palace, Nov. 14, 1874. [The
Musical World oikagast 1890, p. 629, contains
translation ofa Raffs letters explaining the
and double augmenta- meaning of the work.]canon in augmentation This was followeda by
and the 'Im Walde,' andinstances as this are numerous, the PF.tion. Such Concerto in C
contrapuntal devices minor (Jaell), at thewith which these Philharmonic ; the Sym-the art' ;
' Op.phonies 'in G minor, Im Walde,'
Friihlings71. Suite in 0. PF. solo. KUhn. Valse favorite. PF. solo.
klange' 72. in minor, PF. solo, Kistner.and 'Im Sommerzeit,'witli the Concertos E
KUhn. Fantasie. PF.solo. Kistner.
for violoncello and violin, and the Suite for 73. lat Grand Sonata. PF. and Spanish Rhapsody, for PF,
V. (E minor). Schuberth. Kistner, 1855.PF. and orchestra, at the Crystal Palace. His 74. S FF, solos (Ballade, Scher- Illustrations de '
L'Afrizo, Metamorphosen). Schu- caine' (4 Nos.). PF. solo.Quintet (op. two Trios107), (opp. 102, 112),
berth. B.B.4
Sonata Suite de Morceaux(op. 128), and other pieces, were played 75. (12) pour 10 SungB for Men's Voices.
les petltes mains. PF, solo. Kahnt.
at the Monday Popular Concerts. f. g. Kistner. Concert -Overture (in F).
76. Ode au Frintemps. Morceau Siegel.
de Concert. PF. and Orcb. Festival-Overture on 4 fa-Catalogue Maff's Works.^of Schott. vourite Student-songs, for
77. Quatuor (No. 1) in D minor, the 50th anniversary ofOp. Op.
'for Strings. Schuberth, the Deutschen-Burschen-Serenade. PF. solo.1. Andre. 42. 'Le Pritendant' . . . de
2nd Grand Sonata for78. PF. schaft.' FF. 4 hands. Prae-2. Trois pieces caracbfristiques. KUcken (3 Nos.). PF. solo.
and V. (in Schuberth.A). ger.PF. solo. B. & H.2 Kistner.
79. Cachoucha, Caprice. FF.eolo, Gavotte; Berceuse;
' Eapidgle;a. Scherzo (O minor). PF. solo. 43. Divertissement sur La
Peters. Valse. PF. solo. Siegel.
B. AH. Juive.' PF. solo. Schuberth.
'Wachetauf' —80. (Geibel). Men's 3 ClavierstUcke Menuet,4. Horceau de Salon . . . Bur 44. Fantasina sur *Le Barbier
voices, Solo, Chorus, and Romance.Capriccietto. FF;'Maria de Kudenz,' PF. de Seville.' PF. solo. '
Orchesti-a. , Schott. solo. Fraeger.
solo. B. StH. Schuberth.
81. No. 1. Sicilionne de I'Op^ra 'Ein' feste Burg,' overture
!>. 4 Galopn. PF. solo. B. & H. 45. Souvenir de 'Don Giovanni.'
des 'Vfipres Siciliennea.'— to adrama on the 30-years'
6. Jtlorceau Inst. Fantaisie et PF. solo. Schuberth.
No. 2. Tarantelle de ditto. war. Orchestra. Uofmeis-Varns. PF. solo. B. & H. 46. 'La dernldre —Rose ' (The
PF. solo, Peters. ter.
7. Rondeau sur 'lo titn ricco.' last rose of summer).
Im82. Suite de (12) Morceaux pour 3rd Grand Sonata, FF. and
PF. solo. B. & H. promptu. PF. solo. Cranz.
les petites mains. FF. V. (in D). Schuberth.8. form 47.12 Komances en d'Etu- 3 Lieder (by J. G. Fischer)
ducts. Schuberth, 4th Grand Sonata. PF. anddea Cahiers.
; en 2 PF. for Bar. or Alto and PF.
83. Mi)«ourka-Caprice. PF. solo, V. 'Chrom, Sonate in ei-solo. B. & H. SeniF.
Schott. nein Satze.' (G minor).
9. Iiuproinptu brillant. PF. 48. 2 Lieder for Voice and PP.
84. 'Chant de TOndih,' Grande Schuberth.
sulo. B. &H. Seutf.
Etude de I'Arpeggio tremo- 2 Etudes m^lodiques.- PF.10. HoiDinage au Ndoroman- 49. Lieder3 (by J. G. Fischer)
latido. PF. solo. Peters. Eolo. Schuberth.
tisuie. Grand Caprice. PF. for Voice and PF.
Hein85. 6 Morceaux. FF. and V. Styrieime. FF. solo.
Hofsulo. B. & H. richsliofen.
11. Air Suisse, transcrit. PF. 50. 2 Italienische Lieder (by
86. 2 FantaisiestUcke, PF. and Marche brillante. FF. aolo.solo. B. & H. Sternau) for Voice and PF.
Vcello. R. B.3 ^Eofmeister.
12. Morceau de Salon. Fant. Heinrichshofen.
87. Introduction and All° scher- El^gie. PF. solo.
Hofmeisgracieuse. PF. solo. B. & H. 51. 5 Lieder for Voice and PF.
zoso. FF. solo. R. B. ter.
'IS. VaUa Kondino sur Les Kistner.
*88. Am Giessbach,' Etude. PP. 'Vom Bhein,' 6
FantasieHuguenots.' PF. duet. B. 52. 3 Lieder for Voice and PF.
solo. R. B, stUcke. PF.solo. Kistner,AH. Schlesinger.
89. Vilanella, FF. solo. R. B. 'Blatter und BlUthen,' 12
14. Sonata &. Fogne (Gb minor). 53. 2 Liedervom Rhein forVoice
90. Quartet, No. 2, in A, for pieces for FF. solo. Kahnt,
PF. Bolo. B. & H. and PF. Sehloss.
Strings. Schuberth. 3rdStringquartet(Eminor).15. Pofimes.6 PF. solo. Schott. 54. Tanz-capricen (4). PF. solo.
91. Suite D. PF. solo. Peters.16. Impromptus for PF. Unpub- Bahn.
92. Capriccio in D minor. PF, 4th string quartet (Alished. 55. FrUhlingaboten— 12 short
solo, Peters. minor). Schuberth.
17. Album Lyrique. PF. solo. pieces for PF. solo.
Schu93. 'Dans la nacelle,' Reverie- 5th String quartet (G).
Schuberth (4books contain- berth.
Barcarolle. PF, solo. Peters. 9 pieces). SalonstUck.56. 3 PF. solo.
94. Impromptu Valse. PF. solo. Festmarsch, for Orchestra,
IS. Parapfarases (on Liszt's songs) Bachmann.
Peten. Schott.
PF. solo. Bck. 'Aus der Schweiz."
Fantas95. 'La. Polka de la Reine,' 2nd Symphony (in C), for
19. Fantaisie draniatigue. PF. tisch? Ggloge. Bachmann.
Caprice. FF. solo. Orchestra. Schott.Peters.solo. LitoltE. 2 Nocturnes, PF.and violin.
96. 'An das Vaterland,' Prize Psalm 130 ('De Frofundis').
20. 2 MoFCeaux de Salon. S^nJ- Schuberth.
Symphony (No. 1). Schu- 8 voices and Orcb.
Schunadeitalienne; AirBhenan. Duo in A. PF. and
violonberth. berth.
PF. solo. Litolff. cello. Nagel.
Male Fantaisie97. 10 Lieder for Voices. (Ff). PF. solo.
21. Loreley. Dichtung ohne 60. Schweizerweisen (9 M'os.).
Kahnt. Kistner.
Worte. PF. solo. Spina. PF. solo. Schuberth.
98. 'Sanges-Frtlhllng.' 30 Ro- 143. Barcarolle (E^). PF. solo.
'22. 2Rhapsodies til^giaquea. PF. 61. No. 1. Wagner's Lohengrin,'
manzen, Lieder, Balladen, Kistner.
'solo. Spina. Lyrische Fragraente.' PF.
144.and Gesange, for Sopr, and Tarantella (C). FF. solo.
23. 3 Pidcescaract^stiques. PF. solo.—No. 2. Do.
'TannPF. Schuberth. Kistuer.
solo. Kistner. hfiuser,' Fantasie. PF.
99. 3 SonatiUes (A minor ; G 145. 5thGrandSonata.FF.andV,
'24. Valse m^lancollque. PF. solo.—No. 3. Do. Pliegende
C). PF. solo. Schuberth. (C minor). Schuberth.
solo. Spina. HoUSndei*,' Reminiacenzen.
'100. Deutscblands Auferste- 146. Capriccio (Btf minor). FF.
25. Romance-^tude. FF. solo. PF. solo.—No. 4.
SchuFest Cantate on solo. R. B.hung.'Spina. mann's 'Qenoveva.' PF.
the50thanniversary of the 2 Meditations. FF. solo,
26. Den Manen solo. Schuberth.Scarlattis.
Battle of Leipzig, for Male R.B.
Scherzo. PF. solo. Spina. 62. Salon-Etuden from Wag- ,
Voices and Orch. Kahnt. Scherzo in m. PF. solo.
27. Angelens letzter Tag im ner's operas. PF. solo.
101. Suite forOrchestra. Schott.
Kloflter. BinCyclus, etc. (12 Schlesinger. No. 1.Andante
102. 1st Grand Trio, for PF., 2^^es forPP. Bolo. R. B.
piecesin PF. solo, from 'Fliegende Hollander.'2 books).
v., and violoncello. Schu- Chaconne (A minor). 2PFs,
'Kistner. —No. 2. Sestetfrom
Tannberth. R. B.
28. 2 airs from ' Robert le hSuser.'—No. 3.
IiohenOverture, Or- Allegro agitato. FF.103. Jubilee for aolo.
Diable,' transcribed for FF. griii's farewell.
chestra. Kahnt. R, B.
motifs from Wag-Unpublished. 63. Duos on
104. 'Le Galop,' Caprice. PF. 152. 2Romances. FF. solo. R. B.
29. Llebesfrtlhling, songs. ner's operas. PF. and V.
solo. Peters. 153. 3rd Symphony, 'ImWalde'
30. 2 Mazurkas and Serenade, SiegeL No. 1. 'Fliegende
Orchestra.105. 5 Eglogues. PF. solo. Peters. (F). Kistner.
for PF. Hollander.'—No. 2.
'TannFantaisie -Polonaise. PF. 154. 'Dame Kobold,' Comic106.
31. Tarantelle, forPF. Cranz. hSuser.'-No. 3.
'Lohensolo. Peters. opera. B. B.
32. Am Bhein, Romanze. PF. grin.'
107. Grand Quintuor (A minor). 155. 3rdGrand Trio. PP., V.,and
solo. Spina. \. Capriccio in F minor, PF.
PF., 2 VV., viola, and violoncello. B. B,
33. Albmnstiick, for PF. Unpnh- solo. Leockart.
156. Valse brillantevioloncello, Schuberth. (fib). PF.
lished. 65. No. 1. Fantaisie on motifs
Saltarello. PF. solo. R. B. solo. Rien.108.
'34. 6 Liedertlbertragungen, for from Berlioz's Benvenuto
109. RSverie-Nocturne. PF. solo. Cavatine (Ab) and Etude
Cellini.' PP. solo. No. 2.PF. Ebner, —
'R. B. La Fileuse.' FF, solo,
35. Capriccietto (on themes from Caprice on motifs from
'110. La Gitana,' Danse Espagn. Seiis.
'Preischlltz'). PF. solo.' Raff's 'Alfred.' PF. solo.
B. 158. 4th Grand Trio (D). PP.,Caprice. PF. sOlo. R.
Schuberth. Schuberth.
Boleros and Valse, 2 Ca- v., and violoncello. Seitz.111.
36. FantaisieMilitaire(onthemes Trauni-KOnigund sein Lleb
prices. PF. solo. Schu- 159. 1st Humoreske (D) In Waltz
fi-ora 'Hi^uenots'). (GTeibel). Voice and PF.PF.
berth. form. PF. duet. B. B,
solo. Schuberth. Schott.
160. Reisebilder (10 Nos.). FF.112. 2nd Grand Trio (in G). PF.
'37. Melange (on themes from 67. La F^ d'Amour.' Morceau
duet. Siegel.V. and violoncello. R, B.
' ViolonSonnambula '). PF. solo. caract^ristique pour
Rhapsodie. PF. 161. Concerto for Violin & Orch.113. UngarischeConcert avec PF. Schott.Schuberth. de
aolo. Forberg. (B minor). Siegel,
Transcriptions (Beethoven,38. Grand Mazourka. PP. solo. 68. 6 solo,114. 12 Songs for 2 voices and Suite in G minor. PP.
StoU. Gluck, Mozart, Schumann,
Challier.PF. Forberg.
39. Nocturne (on romance by Spohr). FF. solo. Peters,
lyriques. FF. 163. Suite inG major. FF. solo.115. 2 Morceaux
Liszt). FF. solo. Kistner. Suite. FF. solo. Karner.
solo. Forberg, Seitz.
40. Capriccietto Paraphrases de Salon (Tro-&la Boh^mlenne. 70. 2
116. Valse Caprice. PF. solo. 164. Sicilienne, Romanze,
TarFF. solo. Kistner. vatore, Traviata). PF. solo,
B.Forberg. antelle. PF. solo. B.
41. Romance PF. solo. Kistner. Peters.
'La Gicereuella, Nouveau117. FestivalOverture(in A), for 165.
Kistner. Carnaval.' PF.solo. Siegel.Orchestra.
1 express his obligations to Messi-s. Augener"The Editor desires to
A Co. tor great assistance kindly rendered him in the difficult task
3 =Rieter-Biederniaiin &Co,of drawing up this list. R.B
4 B.=Bote & Bock.2 B, 4 H.=Breitkopf & HSrtel. B., ;' —
Op. Op. wasmay infer that hefirst compositions, we
166. Idylle i Valse champfltre. 198. 10 GesSnge for Mixied Choir.
PF. BOlo. Seitz. Seitz. died in London1740. Heborn about 1735 or
4th Symidiony (G minor). 2 Scenes for Solo Voice and Street,Orchestra. * Great PortlandSchuberth. Orch. Jiiger-braut ' and at his own house, 74
FantaJsle-Socate (D minor), 'DieHlrtin.' Siegel. inhis residenceJanuary 1813. DuringFF. solo. Siegel. 14,
. Suite in Eb for PF. and
169. Romanze; Valse brillante. Orch. Siegel. periodical concerts,establishedAmsterdam hePF. solo. Siegel. 201. 7th Symphony, 'In the
1'70. La Polka glfsaante, entitled *TheCaprice. Alps ' (Bb). Orch. Seitz. symphonyand produced Ms
PF. solo. Siegel. 202. 2 Quartets for PF. V. Va.
' ' From Amsterdam171. Im Kahn ' and Der Telemachus.'Tanz.' and violoncello (G). Siegel. Adventures of
2 BongB for Mixed Cfaolr ' Volker,' cycllsohe
Tondich'La Muette,'where his opera,he went to Paris,and OrcheBtra. Siegel. tung Nob.).(9 V. and FF.
'Maria Stuart, eln Oyclus Siegel. came to1790-91 hewas performed, and about
von GeaSngeii,' for Voice
, Suite (Bb). Orch. Challier.
and PF. Nos.) Siegel. sufficient encourage-(11 . 8th Symphony 'Frllhlinga- London, where he received
8 GesSnge for Voice and FF. kl^inge
' (A). Orch. Siegel. permanentto make it hisSeitz. , 2nd Concerto for ment to induce himV. and
174. 'Aus dem Tanzaalon, Phan- Orch, (A minor). Siegel. became very popularhome. His compositionstaaieStllclEe'(12M'os.). PP. 207a. Pbantasie (G minor). 2
4 bands. Seitz. PFs, Siegel, symphony entitledEngland, particularly ain
* Orientales," 8 Morceaux. 2D7&, The same arranged for FF.
* gave aPF. solo. Forberg. and strings. Siegel. June 1791, heThe. Battle.' On 1,
176. Octet for stringB (C). Seitz. 208. 9th Symphony (E minor),
Hanover 'Square Rooms,177. 6fch Symphony, ' benefit concert at the'Lenore.' Ira Sommer.' Orch.
SieOrch. Seitz. gel.. violinist and com-which he figured both asat178. Sestet. 2 VV., 2 violas, 2 209. ' Die Tageszeiten,'for Choir,
vluloncellos. Seitz. PP., and Orch. B. & H. assisted by Signer Pacchierotti,poser ; he was
179. Variations on an orlgtnal 210. SuiteforVIn.andPF. Siegel,
theme. PF. Momington, and Monsieursolo. Seitz. 211. 'Blondel de Nesle,' Cyclus Madame Mara, Lord
180. Suite for Solo V. and Orch. von OesSngen. Barit. and JuneDahmer (videMorningGhromde^ 1,1791),Siegel. PF. B. & H.
2nd Humoreske in "Waltz 212. Weltende—Gericht—Neue subscrip-year he gave a series ofThe following
.form, 'Todtentanz (Danae Welt, oratorio. B. & H.
macabre).' duet.PF. 8ie_ 213. 10thSymphony,'ZurHerbat- Rooms, and at thesetion concerts at Willis's
2 Komancea for Horn (or zeit.' Siegel.
* the orchestra.violoncello)and PF. Siegel. 214. 11th Der Win- he both played solos and led
183. Sonata for PP. and violon- ter.' Siegel,
Emanuele Barbella is said to have taught
'cello. Siegel. 215. Vonderschwiibischen Alb,'
184. 6 Songs for 3 women's voices 10 PF. pieces. Siegel, whether this be factRaimondi the violin, but
and PF. Siegel. 216. 'Am der Adventzelt,' 8 PF.
185. Concerto, PP.and Orch. (C pieces. Bahn. Bumey's remarkor no, we may infer from Dr.
minor), Siegel.
186a. {Bistory Music, vol. iii.), *The sweet toneMorgenliedforMlxedCholr of
and Orch. Siegel. WOEKB WITHOUT OpDS-NUMBHlt. style of a Raimondi,' that thisand polished
. Einer entachlafenen.
Soprano BoIo, Chor.andOrch! Valse-rondlno on motifs from ad-artist's technique was of the then greatly
'Siegel. Saloman'a Diamantkreuz.'
Erlnnerung an Venedlg (6 Schuberth. mired Tartini school, Raimondi's published
Ifos.). PF. Bolo. Siegel. 'Beminlscences of the
Meistei'compositions include two symphonies—besidesSinfonietta forwind instru- singer' Pts.). Scbott.(4
ments. Siegel. Valse -Impromptu k la
Tyrothe 'Telemachus' above mentioned, a number6th Symphony (D minor), llenne. Schott.
'Gelebt, gestrebt, gelltten, Abendlied Con- of quartets for two violins, viola, and
violongestritten, gestorben, um- cert-paraphrase. Schuberth.
worbeii.' Orch. B. B. Berceuse onanIdea of Gounod's. cello, two sets of six trios for two violins and
190. Feux follets, Caprice-dtude. Siegel.
and some sonatasPF. solo. violoncello, for two violins,Siegel. Improvisation on Damroscb's
'191. Blumensprache. SixSongs. Lied Der Llndenzwelg.'
Llchviolin and violoncello, and violin and viola.
Riea and Erler. tenberg.
192. 3String Quartets. No. 6. (C Valse de Juliette (Gounod). Dr. Bumey, History Music Park (W. T.),of ;
minor) Suite Slterer Form. Siegel.
So. 7. Capi-icclos Wallaohian Mtmcal F^tis,(D) Die schdne 4 on (2) Memoirs ; Biog, desMus. Eitner,
Mulleriu.—yo. 6. (C) Suite and Servian themes. Siegel,(2)
Quellen-Lexikon; The Gentleman's Magazine,In Canon-form. Kahnt. Introduction and Fugue for
OrConcerto (D minor). Violon- gan (E minor). R. B. Jan. 1813 The Times, May 1800.
; 14, E. H-A,
cello and Orch. Siegel. Baff-Album—containing op. 156
2nd Suite in Ungarisuher Nob. 2:194. 167, 1, 166, No. 2; 196, RAIMONDI, PiETRO, was bom at Rome of
Weiae (F). Orch. Bahn. Noa. 1—4{ 197. Seitz.
parents195. 10 Gesfinge for men's voices. Oper Im Salon—containing op. poor Dec. 20, 1786. At an early age
^ahnt. 35—37, 43—45, 61, 65.
Schuhe passed six years in the Conservatorio of the196. Etude 'am Schllf ; Ber- berth.
ceuse Novelette Im- FrUhlinga-Lled, Mez. Sop. and
; ; Piet^ de' Turchini at Naples, and after many
promptu. PF, solo. Seitz. PF. Schott.
Capriccio (1%). PF. solo. Stlindchen for Voice and PF. wanderings, mostly on foot—from Naples to
Seitz. Ootta.
Rome, from Rome to Florence, from Florence to
RAG TIME. A modem term, of American Genoa—and many years, he at length found an
origin, signifying, in the first instance, broken opportunity of coming before the public with an
rhythm in melbdy, especially a sort of con- opera entitled *Le Bizzarrie d'Amore,' whichwas
tinuous syncopation. 'Rag time tunes' is a performed at Genoa in 1807. After three years
name given in the States to those airs which there, each producing its opera, he passed a
*associated with the so-called coonare usually twelvemonth at Florence, and brought out two
songs or lyrics, which are supposed to depict more. The next twenty-five years were spent
life in modern America. f. k, between Rome,negro Milan, Naples, and Sicily, and
RAIF, OsKAR (born July 31, 1847, at each year had its full complement of operas and
ZwoUe, in Holland, died July 29, 1899, in ballets. In 1824 he b.ecame director of the
of Tausig, and occupied a royal theatresBerlin), was a pupil at Naples, a position which he
post as pianoforte teacher in the Royal Hoch- retained till 1832. In that year the brilliant
Berlin,with the titleofKoniglicherPro- success ofhis opera *schuleat buffa, II 'Ventaglio (Naples,
fessor, from 1875 till the time he died. h. v. h. 1831), procured him the post of Professor of
RAIMONDI, Ignazio, Neapolitan violinist Composition in the Conservatorio at Palermo.
his birth isunknown, Here hewasmuchand composer. Thedate of esteemed, and trained several
promisingjudging by the fact that he went to pupils. Inbut, December he1852, was
and there produced his called upon toAmsterdam in 1760, succeed BasHi as Maestro di;;'
Cappella at St. Peter's a post for which, if the English Opera-House.
; Subsequently to
knowledge, experience, and ceaseless labour of her public appearance she took lessons from
production ofin all departments his art could Crivelli. In 1837 she sang in oratorio at the
qualify him, he was amply fitted. Shortly Sacred Harmonic Society, and continued to do
before this, in 1848, he had after four years so for several years. She made her first
appear'of toil completed tliree oratorios, Potiphar, ance at the Philharmonic, March 18, 1839.
'Pharaoh,' and 'Jacob,' wliich were not only In 1840 she sang at the Antient Concerts, and
designed to be performed in the usual manner, in 1843 at the Birmingham Festival. After
but to be played all three in combination as performing ventat Co Garden from 1838 to
one work, under the name of 'Joseph.' On 1843 she transferred her services to Drury Lane,
August 7, 1852, the new Maestro brought out where she made a great hit by her performance
'this stupendous work at the Teatro Argentina. of Arline, in Balfe's Bohemian Girl, ' on its
The success of the three single oratorios was production, Nov. 27, 1843. In the previous
when weremoderate, but they united on the year she had a most successful season in Dublin,
following day—the three orchestras and the and repeated her visits to Ireland in 1844 and
three troupes formingan ensetribU of nearly 400 1849. She was engaged as prima donna at the
excitement and applausemusicians—the of the Worcester Festival of 1845. She continued to
spectators knew no bounds, and so great was perform in the metropolis until about 1852,
his emotion that Raimondi fainted away. He when she removed to Edinburgh, where she
long survivedid not this triumph, but died at remained until about 1856. She then retired,
Kome, Oct. 30, 1853. and in 1858 went to live at Old Windsor, and
The list of his works is astonishing, and taught music in the neighbourhood until her
embraces 62 operas 21 grand ballets, composed
; complete retirement in March 1871, when she
for San Carlo between 1812 and 1828; 8 removed to her father's at Bristol. Her voice
oratorios ; 4 masses with full orchestra ; 2 was a high soprano, even and sweet in quality,
ditto with 2 choirs a cappella ; 2 requiems but deficient in power, and she possessed great
with full orchestra 1 ditto for 8 and 16 voices judgmentandmuch dramatic feeling. Although
a Credo for 16 voices ; the wholeBook ofPsalms, her limited power prevented her from becoming
for and 8 voices many Te Deums,4, 5, 6, 7, ; a great singer, her attainments were such as
Stabats, Misereres, Tantum ergos, psalms, and enabled her to fill the first place with credit to
litanies two books of 90 partimenti, each on herself,and satisfaction to herauditors. Shedied;
a separate bass, with three different accompani- at Redland, Bristol, Sept. 22, 1877. w. H. H.
a collection figured basseswith fuguedments ; of
RALLENTANDO,RITARDANDO,RITENaccompaniments as a school of accompaniment ENTE, RITENUTO—' Becoming slow again,'
4 fugues for 4 voices, each independent but 'Slackening,' 'Holding back,' 'Held back.'
of being united and sung together as acapable The first two of these words are used quite
quadruple fugue in 16 parts ; 6 fugues for 4 indifferently to express a gradual diminutiqn of
voices capable of combination into 1 fugue for the rate of speed in a composition, and although
for choirs 16 fugues for24 voices ; a fugue 16 ; the last is commonly used in exactly the same
voices,4 24 fugues for 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 way, it seems originally and in a strict sense to
of which 4 and 5 separate fugues will combine have meant a uniform rate of slower time, so
into one. A fugue in 64 parts, for 16 four-part that the whole passage marked ritenuto would
above featchoirs, is said to exist. Besides the be taken at the same time, while each bar and
with the three oratorios he composed an opera each phrase in a passage marked rallentando
seria and an opera buffa which went equally would be a little slower than the one before it.
well separately and in combination. Such That there exists a difference in their uses is
stupendous labours are, as F^tis remarked, conclusively proved by a passage in the Quartet
enough reader the headache : what op. 131 of Beethoven, where in the 7thto give the
movepersevering artist ment (allegro) a phrase ofmust they have done to the three recurring
who accomplished them ? But they also give minims, which is repeated in all five times, has
'one the heartache at the thought of their utter the direction Espressivo, poco ritenuto ' for its
futility. appearances,Raimondi'scompositions, with all their first three which are separated by
ingenuity, belong to a past age, and we may two bars a tempo, and for the last two times
safely say that never be revived. G. has ritardando, which at length leads into thethey will
RAINFORTH, Elizabeth, bom Nov. 23, real u, tempo, of which the former separating
1814, studied singing under George Perry and fragments were but a presage. This is one of
T. Cooke, Davison, very rare instances of the use of the wordand acting under Mrs. the the
eminent comedian. Afterhaving gained experi- ritenwlo by Beethoven. The conclusion from it
ence at minor concerts, she appeared upon the is confirmed by « passage in Chopin's Rondo,
four barsstage at the St. James's Theatre, Oct. 27, 1836, op. 16, consisting of the which
im'as Mandane, in Ame's Artaxerxes, ' with com- mediately precede the entry of the second
She performed there for the subject. Here the first two bars consist of aplete success.
figurewhich repeated,remainder of the season, and then removed to fragment ofa preceding is
VOL. IV C— :; ;
so Itthat both these bars are exactly important work.the same in 1882. This is an
butthelasttwo bars, however, -enthusiasm,havealittle chromatic from oversuffers somewhat
minuteness, andcadence leading into the second subject. care,The it is done with great
largely bydirection overthe iirsttwo bars profitedis 'poco ritenuto,' intelligence, and obviously
and over ' himself. Sliethe last two rallentando, ' by which from Lisztdirect information
in sixwemay be quite sure that the composer writings (1880-83,intended also edited Liszt's
the repeated fragment to be played at the same Her cousin,volumes).
speed in April 1832,each bar, and the chromatic cadence was bom 17,Bruno Ramann,
commerce,to be slackened gradually. up toat Erfurt, and was brought
Ritenente is used music were soby Beethoven in the PF. but his desire and talent for
succeeded inSonata, op. 110, about the middle or 1858 heof the first strong, that in 1857
undermovement, and again in and put himselfthe Sonata, op. Ill, getting rid of his business
in regular instruc-the iirst movement, in the seventh and fif- Brendel and Riedel, forDr. F.
studied underteenth bars from the beginning five yearsof the Allegro tion. He then for
andcon brio. It would and was a teacherseem that the same effect Hauptmann at Leipzig,
' until his death,is intended as if ritenuto ' were employed in Dresden from 1867
; composer at
' numerous,each case, the words meno mosso ' might His works arehave March 13, 1897.
forbeen entirely of songsused. Beethoven prefers Sitardando to but they consist almost
and more orHallentando, which latter is common only in his one or more voices, and of small
Heearlier works. pieces for the pianoforte.M. less sentimental
dramatic pieces. 6.EAMANN, LiNA, musical writer and edu- also wrote poetry, and some
eminent com'cationist, was bom at Mainstookheim, near RAMEAU, Jkan Philippe,
Kitzingen, in Bavaria, June writer on the theory of music, bom24, 1833. Her poser, and
1683,' in the house nowturn for music and her determination to succeed at Dijon, Oct. 23,
Jean, waswere evident from a very early age. It was No. 5 Rue St. Michel. His father,^
not, however, till her seventeenth year that she a musician, and organist of Dijon cathedral, in
intendedJean Philippe,had any instruction in music. At that time easycircumstances. He
magistrate,her parents removed to Leipzig, and from 1850 the eldest of his three sons, to be a
to 1853 she there enjoyed the advantage of but his strong vocation for music and obstinacy
views. Accordingpianoforte lessons from the wife of Dr. F. of character frustrated these
harpsichord atBrendel, herself formerly a scholar of Field's. to his biographers he played the
period she adopted the career of a seven, and read at sight any piece of music putFrom this
him to suchteacher of music, and studied assiduously, beforehim : music indeed absorbed
though without help, for that end. After a an extent when at the Jesuit College that he
in America, she opened (in neglected his classical studies, and was alto-period of activity
(Holstein) for gether so refractory that his parents were1858) an institute in Gliickstadt
the special training of musie-mistresses, and requested to remove him. Henceforth he never
maintained it till in which year she opened.^ book, unless it were a musical treatise.1865,
establishment, the He quickly masteredfounded a more important the harpischord, and
Music School atNuremberg, in conjunction with studied the organ and violin with success, but
Volkmann of Tilsit, and assisted by there was no master in Dijon capable of teachingFran Ida
Frl. Ramann's him to write music,astaffof superior teachers, under and he was left to discover
own superintendence. The school was trans- forhimselfthelaws ofharmonyandcomposition.
Gbllerich in 1890, when Frl. jVt the age of seventeen he fell inferred to Aug. lovewith a
Munich. With a view to young widow inEamann moved to the neighbourhood, who
inspecial object of her life she has published directiy aid nim good service, since the shamethe
Musik als Gegenstand der which he felt attwo works Die the bad spelling of his letters
Merseburger, and drove himErziehwng (Leipzig: 1868), to write correctly. To break off
Erzieh- und Unierrichts-lehre der this acquaintance his fatherAllgemeine sent him, in 1701,
H. Schmidt, 1869 2nd ed. to Italy, where,Jugend (Leipzig: ; however, he did not remain
with favour long,which were both received a mistake which, in after life,1873), he regretted.
German press. From 186 shewasmusical He liked Milan, andbythe indeed the attractions of
Hamburg Jahreszeiten. so gi-eat acorrespondent of the centre ofmusic must have been great
volume of her essays contributed to that but for some unknown reasonA he soon left with
been collected and published, under a theatrical managerpaper has whom he accompanied as
(Nuremberg firsttitle of Aits der Oegcnviart violin to Marseilles,the Lyons, Nimes,
MontIn the early part of 1880 she pellier, and other placesSohmid, 1868). in the south of FranQg.
' 'Christus (Leipzig, How longpublished astudy of Liszt's the tour lasted it is impossible to
first volume ascertain,and later in the year the as no letters belonging to thisKahnt), period
completed in two volumes in are to be found. 'of a Liszt, From his Premier LivreLife of de
The first portionwas(Leipzig, Breitkopf).1894 1 [The date of birth Is taken from the compoaer'fl momiment at
Dijonand : the firat edition of this Dictionary gives the moreS. H. Eddy, Chicago, usnaltranslated by Mrs.
date. Sept. S5, 1683.]
published in two vols. 3 HisCowdery, and mother's name was Claudine Demartin^oourt.byMiss E.—
pieces de clavecin' (Paris, 1706) we learn that rgadfir,-and the—very boldness and novelty- of
he was then living in Paris, at a wig-maker'a his theories excited surprise and provoked
in the Vieille Temple, Haydn did at criticigm. His dijgovery of the law ofinversionRue du as
Keller's, though without the disastrous results in chords was a stroke of genius, and led fo
which followed that connection. Meantime he very important results, although in founding
was organist of the Jesuit convent in the Rue his system of harmony on of thethe sounds
St. Jacquesj and of the chapel of the Peres de la common chord, with the addition of thirds
Meroi. No particulars, however, of the length above or thirds below, he put both himself and
of his in Pai'is are known, nor how he others on a wrong track. application-stay In the
occupiMy/the interval between this first visit of his principle to all the chords he found
and /tSf^ return about 1717. In that year a himselfcompelled to giveup all idea of tonality,
competition took place for the post of organist since, on the principles of tonality he could
of the church of St. Paul, and Rameau was makenot the thirds for the discords fall on
among the candidates. Marchand, then at the the notes that his system required. F^tis
head of the organists in Paris, was naturally justly accuses him of having abandoned the
one of the examiners ; and either from fear tonal successions and resolutions prescribed in
of being outshone by onewhom he had formerly the old treatises on harmony, accompaniment,
patronised, or for some other reason, he used and composition, and the rules for connecting
his whole influence in favour of Daquin, the chords based on the ear, for a fixed orderwho
obtained the post. Mortified at the unjust of generation, attractive from its apparent
preference thus shown to a man in all points regularity, but with the serious inconvenience
his inferior, Rameau again of leaving each chord disconnected from theleft Paris for Lille,
and became for a short time organist of St. rest.
ifetienne. Thence he went to Clermont in Having rejected the received rules for the
Claude-i succession and resolution of chords which wereAuvergne, where his brother resigned
contrary his system, Rameau perceivedthe post of organist of the cathedral in his to the
favour. In this secluded mountain town, with necessity of formulating new ones, and drew
a harsh climate predisposing to indoor life, he up a method for composing a fundamental bass «
every species of music. The principles hehad plenty of time for thought and study. The for
defects of his education drove him to find out laid down for forming a bass difierent from the
everything for himself. From the works of real bass of the music, and for verifying the
right use ofthe chords, are arbitrary, insufficientDescartes, Mersenne, Zarlino, and Kircher he
large number of cases, asgained some general knowledge of the science in a and, regards
of sound, and taking equal division of the many of the successions, contrary to the judg-the
ment of the ear. Finally, he did not perceivemonochord as the starting-point of his system
using the chord of the 6-5-3 bothof harmony, soon conceived the possibility of that by as
on a sound basis. a fundamental chord and an inversion heplacing the theory of music
destroyed his whole system, as in the formerHenceforth he devoted all his energiestodrawing
it is impossible to derive it from the thirduphis Treatise onHarmonyBeducedtoitsNaiwral case
^ After however,and as soon as that^ii^pBftant work above or below. more study,Erindples,
particularly on the subject ofharmonics,Rameauwas finished he determined to go to Paris and
gaveupmanyofhis earliernotions,and correctedpublish it. His engagement with the chapter
essential mistakes.several years to run, some of his most Theof Clermont had, however,
development and modification of his ideas mayand there was great opposition to his leaving,
be seen by consulting his works, of which theowing to the popularity of his improvisations
: Nouveau syslimefollowing is a list de Ttiusiqueon the organ, in which his theoretical studies,
tMorique . . . pour servir d'Jntrodnction aufar from hampering his ideas, seemed to give
traits dmarmomie 4to) ; Oinirationthem greater and fertility. (1726,freshness
harmonique, etc. (1737, 8vo) ; Dimonstration dii,Once free he started immediately for Paris,
principe de I'harmmiie (1750, 8vo) ; Nmi-cellcsand brought out his Trail4 de VHarmonie
sur la dimonstration du principe de(Ballard, 432 The work did reflexions1722, 4to, pp.).2
8vo) Extrait d'une riponse deVharmonie (1762, ;not at firstattractmuch attentionamong French
M. Eanwaua M. Euler sur VidentiU des octaves,musicians, and F^tis observes, it laidyet, as
etc. 8vo)—all published in Paris. To(1753,the foundation for a philosophical science of
dealing withthese specific works, all the scienceharmony. Ram^aJi^atylaJs-piolix and obscure,
of harmony, should be added the Dissertationoften calculated rather to repel thanattract tfie
methodes d'accompagnementsur les diffirentes
1 Claude EameiLU, a man of indoioitable wiU and capricious
temper, clever organist, lived ancceiiflively at Dijou, Lyons,atld a pour le clavecin ou pour I'orgue (Paris, Boivin,
Marseilles, Clermont, Orltjans, Strasburg, and Autun. His son
JeanFrancis, a giftedmusician, buta dissipatedman, isadmirably 1732, 4to), and some articles which appeared
portrayed by Diderot in his Newti de /tameav. He published in
and in Mdmoiresin the Mercwre de Fra/nce, the1766 apoem in five oantos called Le RamiXde, followed in the same
schoolfellowyearby La nmuietle UawAhie, a parodyby his Jacques de Trivoux.
Cazotbe. Ke is mentionedby Mercier in his Tableau de Paris.
3^ The third Part of this was translated into English dfteenyearn Fetis has explained, detailed, and refuted Rameau's system in
I'Bistotre de t'narmonio. which has been nt-ed bylater with the title A Treatiieo/MuiiccontaininffthePrinciplesof his EiqmiK de
date, 8vo, the writer, and to which be refers his reiuiers. '\^Composition. London, no 160'pp.' —
pro-performance wasThe mere titles though theof these works are a proof set to music,
representation at theitsof the research and invention which Rameau hibited on the eve of
ill-fortune.stroke ofbrought to bear on the theory of music Academic—an exceptional; but
see Hugues Imbert'sthis work,what was most remarkable in his case is that [On the history of
of the facts,and for aresumehe succeeded in lines which are generally Symphonie(1891),
last the379 ff.] AtTimes, 1898, p.opposed to each other, and throughout life see Musical
him with anagreed to furnishoccupied the first rank not only as a theorist, AbW Pellegrin
founded'Hippolyte et Aricie,'but as a player and composer. opera in five acts,Just when
Rameaucompelled'Phedre.' Hehis Traiti de I'Harmonie was beginning to on Racine's
security in case500 livres asattract attention he arranged to make music to sign a bill for
sagacity andshowed moreopera failed, butfor the little pieceswhich his fellow-countryman, the
have been expectedthan mightAlexis Piron, was writing for the Th6S,tre de la more heart
Foire, and accordingly, on Feb. they from one3, 1723, C
th^trp,produced 'L'Endriague,' in three acts, with I'autel et soupait duQui dinait de
ct lo soir idolatre,Le matin catlioliquedances, divertissements, and grand airs, as
stated in the title. In Jan. 1724 he obtained with the music on itswas so delightedfor he
that hethe privilege of publishing his cantatas, and at La Popeliniere's,first performance
Thevarious instrumental comijositions, amongst ofthe first act.tore up the bill at the end
' de clavecin, avec une Methode enthusiastic, and afterothers his Pitees world in general was less
stupidity ofpour la m&anique des doigts,' etc., republished overcome the ill-will orhaving
' theas Pitees de Clavecin, avec une table pour les Rameau had to encounterthe performers,
and oblong the prejudices ofagr^ments'' (Paris, 1731 1736, astonishment of the crowd,
artists.folio). routine, and the jealousy of his brother
the favourite music-master among ladies his genius, and it is toAs Campra alone recognised
ofSte. Croix bythe Princedeof rank, and organist of the church hishonourthatwhen questioned
' There is stuffde la Bretonnerie, Rameau's position and pros- on the subject, he replied,Conti
warranted his taking a wife, and on Aricie for ten operaspects now enough in Hippolyte et ;
was united to Marie LouiseFeb. 25, 1726, he this man will eclipse us all.
Mangot, a good musician, with a pretty voice. opera was produced at the Academic onThe
The disparity of their ages was considerable, Rameau was then turned fiftyOct. 1, 1733.
eighteen, but her loving which histhe bride being only years of age, and the outcry with
aand gentle disposition made the marriage greeted suggested to him that he hadwork was
one. career ; for a time he con-very happy possibly mistaken his
Rameau pro- wasA few days later, on Feb. 29, templated retiring from the theatre, but
one-act pieceduced at the Theatre de la Foire, a reassured seeing his hearers gradually accus-by
'L'Enr81ement d'Arlequin,' followed in novelties which atcalled toming themselves to the
' Prodigue,' two acts, 'the autumn by Le faux first shocked them. The success of Les Indes
comic piecesboth written by Piron. Such small galantes' (August of 'Castor et23, 1735),
obviously composed, by a man ofas these were Pollux,' his masterpiece (Oct. 24, 1737), and of
(he wasnow forty-two),his age and attainments 'Les Fetes d'Hebe' (May 21, 1739), however,
a stagewith the view of gaining access to neither disarmed his critics, nor preventedsolely
rank, but there was no hope of admis-of higher Rousseau from making himself the mouthpiece
the Aoad^mie without asion to the theatre of of those who cried up Lully at the expense of
difficult for agood libretto, and this it was as the new composer. But Rameau was too well
obtain then as it is now. There isbeginner to aware of the cost of success to be hurt by
extant, from Rameauremarkable letter, still epigrams, especiallywhenhefounda thathe could
askingHoudar de Lamotte, dated Oct. 1727, count both on the applauseto of the multitude,
tragedy, and assuring him thathim for a lyric and the genuine appreciation of the more
enone who had masteredhe was no novice, but lightened.
' blind poetconcealing his art." The industrythe art of His was immense, as the following
request, but aid came from anotherrefused his list of his operas and ballets produced at the
the giniral,quarter. La Popelinifere, fermier Academic in twenty :years will show
and artist, whose houses in Parismusician, poet, DardanuB, actaflye and pro- Platde, thi«e actaand prologue
ilogue (Oct. 19. 1739). (Feb. 4, 1749).frequented by the mostand at Paasy were
Loa Pfitea de Polymnie. three NaTa, three acta and
hadchosen 'acta and prologao (Oct. 12.artists French and foreign, 1746), (April 22, 1749).celebrated
j Le Temple de la Ololre, P6te, Zoroaetre, five acta (Dec 5.
claveoinist and conductor of the actaRameau as his in three and prologue (Not, 1749).
';*, 17*i). La Guirlande, on lea Fleui-a en-long placed at hisat his fStes, and beforemusic ZaTa, four ac1» and
; I prologne chanttSea, one act (Sept. 21. 1751).
!(Peb. 29, 1748). Acanthe et Cdphiao, three actsthe organ in his chapel, his orchestra,disposal
1 1 Pygmalion, one act (Aug. (Nov.27, 18, 1761).
did more, for through his l!r48). Lesand his theatre. He Surpriaes de 1'Amour, three
' Lea F£te8
' de I'Hymen et de acts (July 12, 1767).Voltaire theRameau obtained from I'AinouT, three acta andinfluence prologue Lea Paladins, three acts (Feb.
lUarch 15, 1747). 12, 1760).'Samson,' which he promptlylyric tragedy of
Besides these, Rameau found time to
writecomiderI and Ponglnhave fallenInto themietake o<Both Fitia
Bepar^te work. divertissements for 'LesIng this a Courses de Temp6,' a' ;
Pastoral (The3.tre August nauseam. Nor did he neglect the chorus heFranfais, 1734), and ;
' La Rose' added greatly to its musical(Theatre de la Foire, March developed it,1744),
both by Piron. From 1740 to 1745 the director interest, and introduced the syllabic style with
of the Opdra gave him no employment, and in considerable effect. Lastly, his ballet-music
'this interval published was in its rhythms, and so fresh andhe his Nouvslles-Snites so new
'Pitees de that wasde clayecifi~and his Pieoeajde-elavecin pleasing in melody, it at once adopted
en concerts avec un violon ou une flflte' and copied in the theatres of Italyand Germany,(1741),
remarkable jscunpositions whtcVhave been re- We have said enough to prove that Rameau
( was a composer ofreal inventionprinteaby Mme. Farrenc ' Le Tr^sor des and originality.
Pianistes and M. Poisot. He also accepted His declamation was not always so just as that')
the post of conductor of the Op^ra-Comique, of of Lully his airs have not the same grace,
Monneti and are occasionallywhich was manager, probably in the marred by eccentricity and
hope of attracting public attention, and forcing harshness, and disfigured by roulades in
doubtthe management of the Academie alter their ful taste but when inspii-ed by his subjectto ;
treatment him. Rameau found appropriate expressionof Finally he composed for for all
' 'the Court Lysis et D^lie,' Daphnis et Egle, sentiments, whether simple or pathetic,
pas'Les Sybarites' (Oct. and Nov. 'La sionate, dramatic, or heroic. His best operas1753);
' contain beauties which defy theNaissance d'Osiris, 'and Anaorfon ' (Oct. 1754), caprices of
all given at Fontainebleau. Some years pre- fashion, and will command the respect of true
viously, on the occasion of the marriage the artists for all time.of
' But if his music was soDauphin with the Infanta, hehad composed La good, how is it that
it never attainedPrincesse de Navarre ' to a libretto of Voltaire's the same popularity as that
(three acts and prologue, performed with great of Lully ? In the first place, he took the wrong
line on a most important point ; and in thesplendour at Versailles, Feb. 23, 1745). Thia
second, he less favouredwas the most successful of all his operas de was by circumstances
dramstancc, and the authors adapted from it than his predecessor. It was his doctrine, that
for a musician of genius all subjects are equally'Les Fetes de Ramire,' a one-act opera ballet,
good, and hence he contentedalso performed at Versailles (Dec. 22, himself with un-1745).
In estimating Rameau's merits we cannot in interesting fables written in wretched style,
instead of taking pains, as Lully did, to securejustice compare him with the great Italian and
pieces constructed with skill and well versified.German masters of the day, whose names and
that heworks were then equally unknown in France He used to say could set the Gazette
de HoUande to music. Thus he damaged hiswemustmeasurehim with contemporaryFrench
own fame, for a French audience will not listencomposers for the stage. These writers had no
to good music unlessidea of art beyond attempting a servile copy even it is founded on an
interesting drama.ofLuUy, with overtures, recitatives,vocal pieces,
Much as Rameau would have gained by theand ballet airs, aU cast in one stereotyped form.
co-operation of another Quinault, instead ofRameau made use of such a variety ofmeans as
having to employ Cahusac, there was anothernot only attracted the attention of his hearers,
reason for the greater popularity of Lully.but retained it. For the placid andmonotonous
Under Louis XIV. the king's patronage washarmonies of the day, the trite modulation,
quite sufficient to ensure the success ofan artistinsignificant accompaniments, and stereotyped
but after the Regency, under Louis XV. , otherritornelles, he substituted new forms, varied
authorities asserted themselves, especially theingenious harmonies,and piquant rhythms,
' Rameau hadeffective philosophes.' first to encounterboldmodulations, and a richerand more
the vehement opposition of the Lullists ; thisorchestration. He even ventured on enharmonic
hehadsucceeded in overcoming, whenacompanyinstead of the time-honouredchanges, and
Italian singers arrived in Paris, and at onceofaccompaniments with the strings in five parts,
obtained the attention of the public, and theand oboes in two, and with tttttis influtes and
support of a powerful party. The partisans ofstrings, hewhich the wind simply doubled the
music rallied roirad Rameau, andFrench thegave each instrument a distinct part of its own,
two factions carried on what is known as theand imparted life and colour to the whole.thus
'Guerre des Bouffons,' but when the struggleWithout interrupting the other instruments, he
perceivedwas over, Rameau that his victoryintroduced intei-esting and unexpected passages
was only an ephemeral one, and that his worksbassoons, and thusou the flutes, oboes, and
not maintain their position in thewouldopened a path which has been followed up
Academic years.repertoire of the beyond a fewwith -increasing success. He also gaveever
With a frankness very touching in a man ofimportance to the orchestral pieces, introducing
gifts, he said one evening to the Abb6hishis operas with a well-constructed overture,
'Arnaud, who had lately arrived in Paris, If Ithe period,instead ofthe meagre introduction of
were twenty years younger I would go to Italy,in which the same phrases were repeated ad
Pergolesi for my model, abandonand take
' Supplement au Roman comigue, 61. Thie factSee Monnet's p,
escaped Rameau's biographers. something of my harmony, and devote myselfBeems tohave aU—;
to attaining truth of deelamation, organist Balb&tre.which should such as Dauvergne, and the
he the sole guide of musicians. and thoseBut after sixty He vehement controversialist,was a
one cannot change experience points would naturally say hard
; plainly whom he had offended
enough the best course, but thin almost tothe mind refuses things of him. Tall, and
to obey.' No critic could have stated the sharply mai-ked features indi-emaciation, his
truth more plainly. Not having heard character, while his eyesItalian cated great strength of
music in his youth, Rameau There was a de-never attained to burned with the fire of genius.
the skill in writing for the voice that he might cidedresemblance betweenhim andVoltaii'e,and
have done and he is in consequence their likenesses side; only the painters have often placed
firstFrenchmusician Rameauofhistime,insteadoftaking by side. Amongst the best portraits of
his rank among the great composers ofEuropean may specified those ofBenoist (after Restout),be
fame. But for this, he might Carmontelle (fullhave ellected Caffieri, Masquelier, and
that revolution in dramatic Chardin inmusic which Gluok length). In the fine oil-painting by
accomplished some years later. the Dijon, he is represented seated,Museum of
But even as it was, his his violin,life's work is one of with his fingers on the strings of
which any man might have been proud and in the instrument he generally used in composing.
old age he enjoyed privileges accorded stood in the/oj/er of the Operaonly to The bust which
talent of the first rank. theatre was burntdownThe directors of the was destroyed when the
Op^ra decreed him a pension ; his appearance in 1781 that in the library of the Conserva-;
in his box was the signal for a general burst toire is by Destreez A bronze statueof (1865).
applause, and at the last Dijon inperformance of 'Dar- by Guillaume was erected at 1880.
danus' (Nov. 9, 1760) he received a perfect The fine medal of him given to the winners of
ovation from the audience. At Dijon the grand pHx de Home was engraved bythe
Academic elected him a member in 1761, and Gatteaux.
the authorities exempted hituselfand his family There are many biographies of Rameau the
for ever from the municipal taxes. The most valuable are, among the older, Chabanon'sking
had named him composer of his Mlogechamber music (1764) ; Maret's Eloge hislorique (1766) ;
in 1745 ; his patent of nobility was registered, and the very curious details contained in De
and he was on the point of receiving the order Croix's L'Ami des Arts among(1776) ; the
of St. Michel, when, already suffering more modern, thefrom the notices of Adolphe Adam,
infirmities of age, he took typhoid fever, and Fetis, Poisot Nisard and Pougin(1864), (1867),
died Sept. 12, 1764. All France mourned for (1876).
him Paris gave him a magnificent Rameau had
; funeral, and one son and two daughters,
none ofin many other towns funeral services were held them musicians. He left in MS. four
in his honour. Such marks of esteem are ac- cantatas, three motets with chorus, and
frag'corded only to the monarchs art. ments ofanof opera Roland,' all which are now
in theHaving spoken of Rameau as a theorist and Bibliothfeque Nationale. None of his
composer, we will now say a word about him organ pieces have survived ; and some cantatas,
as a man. If we are to believe Grimm and mentioned by the earlier biographers, besides
two lyric ' 'Diderot, he was hard, churlish, and cruel, tragedies Abaris ' and Linus,' and a
'avaricious to a degree, and the most ferocious comic opera, Le Procureur dup^,' are lost ; but
of egotists. The evidence of these writers is, they would have added nothing to his fame.
Somehowever, suspicious ; bothdislikedFrenchmusic, of his harpsichord pieces have been*
'and Diderot, as the friend and coUaborateiir of published in the Tresor des Pianistes ; in the
'would naturally be opposed to Alte Klaviermusikd'Alembert, the ' of Pauer (Ser. 2, pt. 5)
and of Roitzsch 'man who had had the audacity to declare war ; also in Pauer's Alte Meister,'
'against the Encyclopedists.' It is right to say and in the Perlcs Musicales
' A(51, 52). new
though he drew a vigorous and scathing edition, with a prefacethat, by Saint-Saens, appeared
in Paris inportrait of the composer, he did not publish it.^ 1905. g. c.
the charge of avarice, Rameau may have RAMONDON, Lewis,As to presumably a
Frenchbut he supported sister man, and at first abeen fond of money, his singer in the pre-Handelian
' ItalianCatherine duringan illness of many years, and operas. He appeared in 'Arsinoe,'
more than one of his brother artists 1705 in 'Camilla,'assisted ; 1706 and
; 'Pyrrhus and
Demetrius,' 1709. He sometimes took
Leve1 Kameau wasasked to correctthe articleson music forthe
Sncyctopidie, but the MSS. were not submitted to him. He publlehed ridge's parts in these operas, but about 1711
inconsequence : JSrreurgaur laTnuaique dans VSnoyclopfitlie (17551
Rameau he ceased to be aSuite d€« Erreurt, etc. (17S6) ; Riponae de H. d MM. let public singer, and turned his
Encyctop6die aur leivr AvertUsement ; Lettre deSdtteurs de V |1757) talents to composition.d'Alembert d Si. Jtwneau, concernatit le corpa aonore, avee la He brought outM. the
r6ponee de M. Rameau (undated, but apparently 1759)—aU printed series called 'The Lady's Entertainment' inin Paris.
s morals andWe refer to Diderot's violent satire on the philo- 1709, 1710, 1711, and 1738. He arranged
the18thcentury, entitled Le Neveude Rameau.flopbictendencies of
for the harpsichord 'curious fact that this brilliantly written dialogue was only the 'It is a song-tunes in Camilla
Itnown in France through a re-translation of Goethe's German
using, perhaps for the first timeversion. The first French edition, by Saur, appeared in Paris only in
music-notain 1821. tion for this instrument, a five instead3 she lived in Oijon,and died of a six-A good playeron the harpsichord ;
-dihere, 1762. line stave, and giving as the reason—' that the,
Later issues of these publica-lessons being placed on five lines renders them publications.
name and beforeproper for a violin and a base.' His vocal tions have Randall's erased,
compositions v^ere in high favour, and half a, 1720 his name entirely disappears from them.
'dozen or so may be seen in Walsh's Merry Randall, William, is presumed to be a
Musician, Cure for the Spleen,' vol. son of preceding Randall. deathor a i., the P. At tlie
1716 ; others are on the single song sheet of of John Walsh, junior, Jan. 15, 1766, William
'the period. A tune of his, All you that must Randall succeeded to the extensive business in
a leap in the dark,' attained some degree Catherine Street, and shortly afterwards wastake
being sung by Macheath coupleof popularity by in for a of years or less in partnership
the 'Beggar's Opera.' It is probable that he with a person named Abell. Randall & Abell
died about 1720, as his name does not appear issued in large folio in 1768 what is practically
'any fresh work after that theto occur on date first complete edition of the Messiah,' as
but biographical details regarding him are well as some minor issues. Randall was in
lacking. F. K. business alone in 1771, and besides reprinting
WalshRAMSEY, Robert, was organist of Trinity the publications, he published many
College, Cambridge, from 1628 to 1644 in- interesting works. One of these was a reissue
'clusive, and Magister Choristarum ' from 1637 in 1771 of Morley's Plaine and Easie
Introinclusive but whether before or after duclion. Collections of Vauxhall or otherto 1644 ;
those dates is not certain in either case. He songs came forth, country dances, and the
took the degree of Mus.B. at Cambridge in like. William Randall died about 1780, and
and was required to compose a 'Canti- his widow, Elizabeth, earned on the business1616,
cum ' to be performed at St. Mary's Church. until itwas taken over, about 1783, by Messrs.
A Morning and Evening Service in F by him Wright & Wilkinson, who made a great
busicontained in the Tudway Collection (Harl. nessalmost solely by reprinting Handel's worksis
in Ely Library, where, and from the original plates. F. K.lis. 7340) and the
at Peterhouse College, Cambridge, there are RANDEGGER, Alberto, composer,
conalso two anthems of his. Add. MS. 11,608 in ductor, and singing-master, wasbom at Trieste,
Museum contains a setting by him April 13, 1832. He began the study of musicthe British
thirteen, Lafontof the dialogue between Saul, the witch, and at the age of under for the PF.
—Samuel ' In guiltie night,' which was after- and L. Ricci for composition, soon began to
Purcell. Tudway miscalls him write, and by the year 1852 was known as thewards set by
him is in the British composer of several masses and smaller piecesJohn. A madrigal by —
' was of music, and of two balletsMuseum, and a commencement song ' a 8 Church ' La
'sold at Warren's sale in 1881. G. Fidanzata di Castellamare ' and La Sposa
Mus.D., bom 1715, was d' Appenzello,' both produced at the TeatroRANDALL, John,
Bernard grande of his native town. In the latter yeara chorister of the Chapel Royal under
joined three other of Ricci's pupils inGates. He was one of the boys who shared he the
'representation of Handel's Esther ' at composition of a buffo opera to a libretto byin the
'he himself taking Gaetano Rossi, entitled II Lazzarone,' whichGates's house, Feb. 23, 1732,
had much success, first at the Teatro Mauronerthe part of Esther. He graduated as Mus.B.
his exercise being an at Trieste, and then elsewhere. In the next twoat Cambridge in 1744,
was appointed organist years he was occupied as musical director ofanthem. In 1743 he
tlieatres at Fiume, Zara, Sinigaglia, Brescia,of King's College, and on the death of Dr.
Venice. In the winter of 1854 he brought1755 was 'elected Professor of Music andGreene in
'he proceeded Mus.D. out a tragic opera in four acts, called Biancaat Cambridge. In 1756
Gray's Ode for the Capello,' at the chief theati'e of Brescia. AtHe composed the music for
this time he was induced to come to London.the Duke of Grafton as Chan-Installation of
positionin and some He gradually took a high there, andcellor of the University 1768,
Trinity Col- has become widely known as a teacher of sing-church music. He was organist of
conductor, and composer, and an enthusi-died atCambridge, March 18, ing,legeinl777. He
of good music of whatever school orpreserved in England by astic lover1799. His name is
country. He has resided in England ever since,his two Double Chants. w. H. H.
one ofthe most prominent musical figuresRANDALL, a London music-seller and and isP.,
' In 1864 he produced atthe sign of Ye in the metropolis. thepublisher, who had a shop at
Theatre Royal, Leeds, 'The Rival Beauties,' aVioland Lute,' at Paul's Grave, without Temple
comic operetta in two acts, which has hadmuchsome years later. HeBar, in 1707, and for
andto John success in London many other places. Inmay have been related, by marriage,
of 1868 he became Professor of Singing at theWalsh, senior, the great music-publisher
Academy of Music, and has since beenhe was a jiartner Royalthis period. Before 1710
his own place made an honorary member and director of thatwith Walsh, and had abandoned
Katherine institution and a of the Committee ofof for Walsh's address inbusiness
Management. He is a Professor of Singing at-His name, in conjunction withStreet, Strand.
theimprints of Walsh's the Royal College of Music, and is on BoardWalsh's, appears on many;;
wouldof Professors. In the autumn that Schubert's 'Schbne Miillerin'of 1857 he con- certain
ducted existed. He was called out of hisa series of Italian operas at St. James's never have
him a visit,Theatre, and in 1879-85 the Carl Rosa Com- room while Schubert was paying
friend hadpany. [He conducted his return found that hisgrand operaunder Harris's and on
Miiller'smanagement with a volume of Drury Lane and Covent Garden disappeared
had accidentally looked intoin 1887-98. He conducted Hall poems which hethe Queen's
much interestedChoral and had been soSociety in 1896-97, but his most im- while waiting,
next dayportant off. On his going theposition of this kindwas the conductor- in as to carry
Schubert presented himship of the Norwich Festival, to reclaim the book,which he held
songs, whichwith great success from some of the now well-known1881 to 1905 inclusive.] with
wasduring the night. ThisMr. Kandegger's published works are numer- he had composed
to entitle Rand-ous and important. They comprise a dramatic in 1823. It is surely enough
cantata (words hartinger to a perpetual Mme. Rudersdorff), entitled
' brother Josef, of whom nothingFridolin," composed for the Birmingham Festi- He had a
that he was probablyval, and produced there with great success, is known beyond this—
— Beethoven'sAugust the immediate entourage of28, 1873; twosoprano seenas 'Medea,' one of
sung funeral. He, Lachner, andby Mme. Eudersdorff at the Gewandhaus, coffin at the
gone together asLeipzig, in 1869, and 'Saffo,' sung by Mme. Schubert are said to have
Lemmens torch-bearers (Kreissle von Hellbprn's ScJmbert,at the British Orchestral Society,
March G.31, 1875 ; the 150th Psalm, for soprano p. 266).
extraordinarysolo, chorus, orchestra, and organ, forthe Boston EANDLES, Elizabeth, an
Festival, 1872 Funeral Anthem for the death infant musical prodigy and performer on the
pianoforte. She was born atWrexham, Augustof the Prince Consort, twice p'erformed in
wasLondon ; a soena, 'The Prayer of Nature,' sung 1, 1800, and played in public before she
by Edward Lloyd at a Philharmonic concert in fully two years of age. Her father, a blind
harperand organist ofWrexham, ofsome degree1887 ; and a large number of songs and
conher undercerted vocal music for voice and orchestra or of local fame (1760-1820), placed
PF. He is also the author of the Primer John Parry the harper, and afterwards tookof
Singing in Novello's series. As a teacher of her on tour to London, where she attracted
singing, Mr. Bandegger has a large number of much attention, and was made a pet of by the
pupils now before the English public as popular Royal family. A second visit to London was
singers. (See the Musical Times for undertaken in and a concert for her1899, p. 1808,
653 if.) G. benefit given in the Hanover Square rooms.
EANDHARTINGER, Benedict, an Aus- At this Madame Catalani and other singers
trian musician, memorable for his connection and instrumentalists gave their gratuitous
serwith Schubert. Hewasborn atRuprechtshofen, vices. Sir GeorgeSmart conducting. She settled
in Lower Austria, July 27, 1802 ; at ten years in Liverpool as a music teacher about 1818,
old came to the Convict school at Vienna, and and died there in 1829. f. k.
was then a pupil of Salieri's. He afterwards RANELAGH HOUSE AND GARDENS
and for wasstudied lor the law, ten years Secre- were situated on the bank of the Thames,
tary to Count Szfohenyi, an official about the eastward of Chelsea Hospital. They were
Court. But he forsook this line of life for erected and laid out about 1690 by Richard
entered the Court Chapel asmusic ; in 1832 a Jones, Viscount (afterwards Earl of) Ranelagh,
tenor singer ; in 1844 became Vioe-Court-Capell- who resided there until his.death in 1712. In
meister, and in 1862, after Assmayer's death, 1733 the propertywas sold in lots, and
eventuentered on the full enjoyment of that dignity. ally the house and part of the gardens came
inHis compositions are more than 600 number, into the hands of a number of persons who
'comprising an opera, Konig Enzio ; 20 masses converted them
' into a place of public
entertainmotets symphonies quartets, etc. 400 ment.60 ; ; In 1741 they
; commenced the erection
4songs, 76 -part songs, etc. Of all these, of a spacious Rotunda (185 feet external, and
124, chiefly songs, are published also a vol. 150 feet
; internal diameter), with four entrances
'national songs, and a vol. of Greekof Grepk through porticos. Surrounding it was an
acquaintanceliturgies. His with Schubert arcade, and over that a covered gallery, above
probably began at the Convict, and at Salieri's which were the windows, sixty in number. In
though as he was Schubert'sjuniorby five years, the centre of the interior and supporting the
they can have been there together only for a roof was a square erection containing the
short time but there are many slight traces of orchestra,; as well as fireplaces of peculiar
close friendship between them.the existence ofa construction for warming the building in
He was present, for example, at the first trial winter. Forty-seven boxes, toeach contain
the D minor String Quartet (Jan. eightof 29, 1826), persons, were placed round the building,
and he was one of the very few friends who and in these the company partook of tea and
visited Schubert in the terrible loneliness of his coffee. In the garden was a Chinese building,
Randhartinger it is almostlast illness. But for and a canal upon which the visitors were''
rowed about Eanelagh was opened at work in the centre of the mountain,in boats. Cyclops
with a, public breakfast, April 5, 1742. The and the lava pouring down its side, was
admission was 2s. including breakfast. On exhibited. The mountain was 80 feet high.
May 24 following it was opened for evening In 1793 the Chevalier d'fion fenced in public
concerts ; Beard was the principal singer, with a French professor, and about the same
the leader, and the choruses were ThamesFesting time regattas on the in connection with
chiefly from oratorios. Twice a week ridottos the place were established. In 1802 the
were given, the tickets for which were £l:ls. Installation Ball of the Knights of the Bath
including supper. Masquerades were was given at Eanelagh,each, and also a magnificent
afterwards andshortly introduced, the place entertainment by the Spanish Ambassador.
soon became the favourite resort of the world These were the last occurrences of any
importfashion. Ranelagh was afterwards opened ance fortunes of the placeof ; the had long been
about the end of February for breakfasts, and languishing, and it opened for the last time
on Easter Monday for the evening entertain- July 1803. On Sept. 30, 1805, the8,
ments. On April 10, 1746, a new organ by proprietors gave directions for taking down the
apublicmorning rehearsalBytieldwas opened at house and rotunda ; the furniture was soon
of the music for the season, and Parry, the after sold by auction, and the buildings
recelebrated Welsh harper, appeared. In 1749, moved. The organ was placed in Tetbury
Aix-la-Chapelle, an honour of the Peace of Church, No traces ofRanelagh
'entertainment called A Jubilee Masquerade remain the site now forma part of Chelsea
in the Venetian manner, ' was given, of which Hospital garden. w. H. H.
Horace Walpole, in a letter to Sir Horace EANK. A rank of organ-pipes is one
comMann, dated May 3, 1749, gives a lively plete series or set, of the same quality of tone
description. and kind of construction from the largest to
This proved so attractive that it was repeated the smallest, controlledby one draw-stop, acting
several times in that and succeeding years, on one slider. If the combined movement of
until the suppression of such entertainments in draw-stop and slider admits air to two or more
In 1751 morning concerts were given such series of pipe^, an organ-stop is said to be1755.
Frasi and Beard being of two or more ranks, as the case may be.twice a week, Signora
the singers. At that date it had lost none of Occasionally the twelfth and fifteenth, or
'its charm. You cannot conceive, ' says Mrs. fifteenth and twenty-second, are thus united,
Amelia, 'what a sweet forming a stop of two ranks but, as a rule,Ellison, in Fielding's ;
stops whose tones are reinforcementselegant delicious place it is. Paradise itself only those
-partialscan hardly be equal to it.' In 1754 an of some of the higher upper of the
of singing, recitation, etc. was gi'ound-tone are made to consist of severalentertainment
' Comus's Court, ranks, such as the Sesquialtera, Mixture,given under the name of
These stops have usually fromwhich was very successful. In 1755a pastoral, Furniture, etc.
the words from Shakespeare, the music byArne, three to five ranks each, reinforcing (according
Young were the to their special disposition) the ground-tone bywas produced Beard and Miss
' of its 17th, 19th, 22nd, 24th,singers Handel's L'Allegro ed II Pensieroso the addition
3rd, 6th, andBeard's benefit night, and 26th, 29th,—that is, of its 8thwas introduced on
1759 Bonnell in the third and fourth octave above. [SeeStanley was the organist. In
Cecilia's Day Sesquialtera and Mixture.] j. s.Thornton's burlesque Ode on St.
RANSFORD, Edwin, baritone vocalist, song-great success. In 1762was performed with
singer. In writer, and composer, born March 13, 1805, atTenducci was the principal male
of the Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, died in1764 a new orchestra was erected in one
July 1876. He first appearedthe original one being London, 11, onporticos of the Eotunda,
' opera-chorusheight. On June the stage as an extra ' in the atfound inconvenient from its
the King's Theatre, Haymarket, and wasMozart, then eight years old, per-29, 1764,
afterwards engaged in that of Covent Gardenharpsichord and organ severalformed on the
Charlesthe benefit of Theatre. During Kemble's manage-pieces of his own composition for
ment of that theatre he made his first appear-a charity. In 1770 Burney was the organist.
'Don Caesar in The Castle ofAndalusia,'exhibited, when the ance asFireworks were occasionally
In 1777 on May 27, 1829, and was engaged soonprice of admission was raised to 5s.
afterwards by Arnold for the English Opera-the fashionable world played one of its strange,
the Lyceum). In the autumn ofRanelagh. Walpole House (nowunreasoning freaks at
— fashion now to 1829, and in 1830, he was at Covent Garden.wrote on June 18 : ' It is the
In 1831 he played leading characters undertwo hours after it is over. Yougo to Ranelagh
Surrey Theatre, and becamebut it is literal. The Elliston at themay not believe this,
wasgo at twelve. a general favourite. In 1832 he withmusic ends at ten, the company
Joe Grimaldi at Sadler's Wells, playing Tomcaused the concert to becommencedThis practice
'in Campbell's nautical drama Thethan before. In 1790 a repre- Truck,at a later hour
madeeruption, with the Battle of Trafalgar, ' in which he a greatsentation of Mount Etna in
hit with Neukomm's song, 'The Sea.' At this
theatre he sustained the part of Captain
'Cannonade in Bamett'a opera The Pet of the
Petticoats.' He afterwards fulfilled important
des Vaches isRanzmost celebratedTheengagements at Drury Lane, the Lyceum, and
is said toof whichAppenzell, a copythat ofCovent Garden. At Covent Garden he played whomAnne, withour Queenhave been sent to
'ofthe Doge Venice in Othello,' March 25,
first work inThegreat was a1833, when Edmund Kean last appeared on the
BiciniaGeorg Rhaw'sprinted iswhich it was
'stage, and SirHarry in The School for Scandal found into beIt is also(Wittenberg, 1545).
on Charles Kemble's last appearance as Charles
Zwinger's Fasci-inon Nostalgiaa dissertationSurface. His final theatrical engagement was
Medicarum (Basle, 1710).culvs ZHssertationumat Coventwith Macready Garden in 1837-38.
his Diciionnaireversion inRousseau printed aHe wrote the words of many songs, his best
for fourLaborde arrangedMusique, whichde
'being perhaps In the days when we went
wasMtisique. ItUssai mr lavoices in hislater years his entertainments,gipsying.' In
' Guillaumehis Overture toused by Gretry in
'Gipsy Life,' 'Tales of the Sea,' and 'Songs of
Fiano du.his MMhod deand by Adam inTell,'Dibdin,' etc., became deservedly popular. As
also arranged byIt has beenCmiservatoire.^
a genial bon camafade he was universally liked.
Tell andRossini (' GuillaumeWebbe, Weigl, '),
[He was also a music-seller and publisher, and
^- b. s.Meyerbeer.during the forties and fifties issued a great
at Vienna, Feb.Eduard, bornBAPPOLDI,
number of the popular songs of the day. His
father at anplaced by his1831. He was21,shop was in" Charles Street, Soho, but in 1850
and made his firstearly age under Doleschall,
Oxford Street. In 1869 hehe moved to 461
year as violinist,in his seventhappearance
went into partnership with his son, William
His talent for thepianist, and composer.
Edwin, at 2 Princes Street, Cavendish Square.
induce the Countesspianofortewas so great as to
the business after hisThe son, who continued
Thalberg'sput him under Mittag,Banffy tovocalist of ability.father's death, was a tenor
violin was the instrument ofteacher. But the
Sept. 1890. F. K.] w. H.He died 21,
in studying itchoice, and he succeededhisOpera in four acts, text byRANTZAU, I.
Jansa, who induced him to go to Londonundermusic byG. Targioni-Tazzetti and G. Menasci,
madeno recorded 1850. Here he
Mascagni. Produced at the Pergola, Florence,
far providedhis return to Vienna he was soOnat Covent Garden, JulyNov. 10, 1892, and
thatliberality of the same lady, hefor by the
Conservatorium underbecame a pupil of theRANZ DES VACHES (Kuhreihen, Kuhrei;
1854. He thenHellmesberger from 1851 to
patois GhUereiha), a strain ofangen Appenzell
himself under Bbhm, and shortly beganputin some parts ofirregular description, which
as a promisingto travel, and to be spoken ofhornSwitzerland is sung or blown on theAlpine
player. The first real step in his career was
call the cattle from the valleys toin June, to
a concert of Joachim's atRotterdamconductingSeveral derivations havethe higher pastures.
concertmeister sincein 1866, where hehad beenorsuggested for the words ranz and reihenbeen
1861. At the end of that year he went to
been translatedby the Englishreigen. Banz has
as capellmeister, in 1867 to Stettin inLiibeck
' rondeau,' and has beenrant,' and the French'
the same capacity, and in 1869 to the Landes-or 'rank,'from the Keltic root 'renk'derived
theater at Prague. During this time he was
the derivation of reihen, inwhich may also be
the violin, andworking hard at also studying
'mean the proces- case both words would
compositionwith Sechterand Hiller. From 1871(Schweize-march of the cows.' Staldersion or
to 1877 he was a colleague of Joachim's at the
'thinks that reihen means torisches Idiotikon)
Hochschule at Berlin—where he proved himself
' other authorities sayor fetch,' whilereach,'
a first-rate teacher—and a member of hisdanceword is the same as reigen (athat the
quartet party. In 1876 he was made Eoyalsinging), and derive ram fromaccompanied by
' rejoice.patois ranner,' to 1the Swiss There Is a curious analogy between the aboveand thefollowing
strain, which withis sung inftnite variations in the agriculturalanddes Vaches are very numerous,The Eanz districts near I^ndon to frighten away the birds from the seed.
In Txith passiiges the F is more nearly FS.and words in the differentboth in musicdiffer
irregular in char-are extremelycantons. They
changescadences and abruptacter, full of long
fact that they areIt is a curiousof tempo.
particularly whenin tune, moreseldom strictly 2 Other examples and deseriptiona will be found In the following
works:—Cappellei-'s Pilati MontU Stolberg'aJTiatoria (I7ff7) ; Reisehorn, an instrument inon the Alpineplayed in DeutscMand, der Bchvieiz, etc. ; Ebel'fl SchUderung(a'794) der
represented GebirgsvOtker der Schieeiz Sigmund von Wagner'sthe Bagpipe, the note (W98) ; AcTUwhich, like
Schweizer Kuhreihen (1805) j the article on Viotti in the Diceule
extra note between F and F)t. /'hUoaophUjue sur lais really an {An B) ; Caatelnau's ConaidireUiojis Nostalgieby F
(1806): Edward San&a'a Curiosities [\Sn)^ RecwnlMiMical de liwrnof the Ranz desis very characteristicThis note des Vachet et de Chansons Rationales Suisses, third edition, Berne,
Kuhreihen1818, also Tarenne's SamTtdwnff von Schweizer uvd Vot&e-being re-like the followingVaches passages Vavhes
; Uedern (1818) ; Ruber's RecueUde ftanzdes (1830) ; andTobler'a
Appenielliicher Sprachschatz (1837).varied almost ad infinitum.peated andBAMEAUPHILIPPEJEANEASELIUS EASOUMOWSKY 27
Professor, received a call to a so that congregationand soon after the may easily sing the
court concertmeistership at Dresden. This, chorale-tune while the trained choir provide the
however, his love for Joachim and for Berlin, harmonies. The chorale-tune is in the ujiper
where he had advanced sufficiently to lead the part, but the harmonies are not always mere
Quartets alternately with his chief, induced him note-for-note counterpoint as in
amodernhymnfor a long hesitate to accept, notwith-time to tune. A few specimens of these settings are
standing the very high terms offered. At given in Schbberlein's Schatz. Other published
'length, however, he did accept it, and became works of Raselius are Teutsche Spriiche ans den
(in joint conoertmeister with Lauterbaoh .,'1877) Sonntaglichen Evangelia . . 53 German
at the Dresden opera, and chief teacher in the Motets a 5 (Nuremberg, and 'Neue1594),
Couservatorium. He retired in 1898, after Teutsche Spriiche auf die . . . Test und
which time he only taught a few favoured .,'Aposteltage . . 22 Motets a 5-9, described
pupils; he died in Dresden, May 16, 1903. as composed on the 12 Modes of Dodeca-the
Though a virtuoso of the first rank he followed chordon (Nuremberg, 1595). Besides these
in the footsteps of Joachimby sacrificing display published works there remain in MS. several
interpretationto the tiner of the music, and collections of Latin and German motets and
succeeded in infusing anew spirit into chamber- magnificats by Raselius. He is also known as
music at Dresden. He composed symphonies, the author of a historical work, a chronicle of
quartets, sonatas, and songs, some of which Ratisbon, originally written both in Latin and
have been printed. They are distinguished for German, of which only the German edition
earnestness, and for great beauty of form, and survives. Raselius remained at Ratisbon till
quartet was performed Dresden in thea in 1600, when he received a pressing invitation
winter of 1878 which aroused quite an unusual from the Elector Palatine Frederick IV. to
sensation. In 1874 Eappoldi married a lady return to Heidelberg as Hofcapellmeister. This
himself, Laura.nearly as distinguished as higher post of honour he was not permitted to
Kahree, who was born in Vienna, Jan. 14, retain long, as death carried him olf on Jan. 6,
and whose acquaintance he made many 1602. monograph on Raselius by J. Auer of1853, A
talent, like his,years before at Prague. Her Amberg appeared as a Beilage to Eitner's
showed itself very early. On the nomina- Monatshefte of 1892. J. K. M.
tion of the Empress Elisabeth she became a EASOUMOWSKY,! Andreas
KyeilloConservatorium at Vienna, under Russian nobleman towhom Beethovenpupil of the VITSCH, a
AfterDachs and Dessoff, from 1866 to 1869. dedicated three of his greatest works, and whose
taking the first prize, she made a toumee to the name will always survive in connection with
'of Germany, ending at Weimar. the Rasoumowsky Quartets (op. He wasprincipal towns 59).
maturedThere she studied under Liszt, and the son of KyrillRasum, a, peasant ofLemeschi,
that beauty of touch, precision, fire, and a village in the Ukraine, who, with his elder
have raised her to the first brother, was made a Count (Graf) by theintelligence, which
and which induced Empress Elisabeth of Russia. Andreas wasrank of pianists in Germany,
praise andHerr von Biilow—no lenient critic—to bom Oct. 22, 1752, served in the English
Beethoven's op. 106 in the Russian navies, rose to the rank of admiral,her playing of
worthy colleague of and was Russian ambassador at Venice, Naples,highest tei-ms. She was the
G. Vienna. In Eng-husband inthe best concerts ofDresden. Copenhagen, Stockholm, andher
Andreas, was born at Hahn- land his name must have been familiar, or FooteRASELIUS,
Palatinate some would hardly have introduced it as he has inbach near Amberg in the Upper
'son Vienna he married, intime between 1562 and 1564. He was the The Liar ' (1762). At
preacher, who had studied at 1788, Elisabeth Countess of Thun, one of theof a Lutheran
and whose ori- Graces,' elder sister of the Princess CarlWittenberg under Melanohthon, 'three
latinised into [see vol. ii. 723a] ; and on Marchginal name. Easel, Melanchthon Lichnowsky p.
Emperor1581tol584 Andreas attended 1792, had his audience from theEaselius. From 25,
of Heidelberg, of Austria as Russian ambassador, a post whichthe then Lutheran University
in the short intervals for more thandegree as Magister Artium he held withtaking his
musician,same year hewas appointed twenty years. He was a thoroughlatter year. In the
Gymnasium of excellent player of Haydn's quartets, incantor and teacher at the an
Lutheran second violin, not improbablythen conducted under which he tookRatisbon,
himself. That,as cantor he published studying them under Haydnauspices. In his capacity
book with the connection with Lichnowsky, he mustin 1589 a Musical Instruction with his
Musicae Beethoven is obvious ; butno directHexachordiim seu Quaestiones haveknowntitle
until Maycomprehensae, which was trace of the acquaintance is foundPraclicae sex capitibus
In 1599 1806 (six weeks after the withdrawal ofin use at Ratisbon in 1664. 26,still
' Beethoven—in his usual poly-'Regenspurgischer Kirchen-Contra- Fidelio whichappeared his '),
of thesettings a 5 of —has marked on the first pagepunkt,' which contains simple glot
Psalm-tunes andolder Lutheran51 of the 1 are forms used by BeethovenRaautnoffaky and Eaaoumoffaky
in various dedicat ons.title describes them as setchorales. The fuU— ;
Quartet in F of op. 59, as the date on which tres dedi^es i son Excellence Mon-humblement—he began it ' Quartetto angefangen Beethoven himself men-am 26ten sieur le Oomte,' etc.
1806.'May Brunswick,tions them in a letter to Count
In 1808 the Count formed his famous May 11, 1806, but whichquartet which he has dated
party—Schuppanzigh, firstviolin date 1807.
; Weiss, viola; Thayer (iii. sees reason to11)
Lineke, violoncello and which Bernard
; he himself second The Quartet in F is the one
violin—which for many years met in thrown on the groundthe even- Romberg is said to have
ings, and performed, among other unplayable.—The slowcompositions, and trampled upon as
'Beethoven's pieces, 'hot from the fire,' movement is entitled in the Sketchbook Einenunder
his own immediate instructions. Akazienbaum aufs GrabTrauerweiden oder
—In April 1809 appeared willow.or acaciathe minor and meines Bruders' 'A weeping
Pastoral Symphonies (Nos. 5 and grave ofmy brother.' But which6), with a tree over the
dedication(on theParts) toPrince died in twenty-threeLobkowitz and brother? August 1783,
'son excellence after, andMonsieur le Comte de Rasu- years before, Carl not till ten years
moffsky ' (Breitkopf& Hartel). These Johann not till 1848. Carl's
marriage-contractdedications doubtlessimplythat onlyonMay 1806.Beethovenwas largely had, however, been signed 25,
the recipient of the Count's bounty, but there Is it possible that this inscription is a
Beetis no direct evidence of it, and there is hoveuish joke on the occasion ? If so, he begana strange
absence of reference The finale has ato the Count in Beethoven's in fun and ended in earnest.
letters. His name is mentioned only once Russian theme in D minor for its principal
July 24, 1813—and there is a distant subject, and the second of the three has a Rus-allusion
in a letter of a much later sian in E major as the Trio of its thirddate (Nohl, Bricfe theme
B. 1865, No. 354). In the autumn of 1814 movement. G.
came the Vienna Congress (Nov. 1814- [The tunes are given in Kbhler's 'Album1,
June and as as 188 and respectively and9, 1815), the Empress of Russia Russe' Nos. 175 ;
was in Vienna at the time, the Ambassador's are also in 'Chants Nationaux Russes,' Nos.
Palacewas naturally the scene of special festivi- 13 and 45.]
ties. It was not, however, RATAPLAN,there that Beethoven like Rub-a-dub, is an imitative
was presented to the Empress, but at the Arch- word for the sound of the drum, as Tan-ta-ra
duke Eodolph's.i The Count's hospitalities is for that of the trumpet, and Tootle-tootle
were immense, and, for the flute.'vast as was his palace, a It is hardly necessary to mention
separate its 'wooden annexe had to be constructed introduction by Donizetti in the FUle du
'capable of dining 700 persons. Regiment, ' or by Meyerbeer in the Huguenots
On June six days before the and every Londoner is familiar3, 1815, signa- with it in
of 'ture the final Act of the Congress, the Count Sergeant Bouncer's part in Sullivan's Cox and
wasmade Prince (Fiirst), and on the Slst of the Box.' 'Rataplan, der kleine Tambour' is the
following December the dining-hall just men- title of a Singspiel by Pillwitz, which was
producedtioned was burnt down. The Emperor ofRussia at Bremen in 1831, and had a
congave 400,000 silver roubles towards siderable run both in North and South(£40,000) Germany
the rebuilding, but the misfortune appears between that year andto 1836, g.
have been for RAUZZINI,too much the Prince ; he soon Venanzio, born 1747, in Rome,
after sold the property, pensioned his quartet, where he made his d^but in 1765, captivating
and disappears from musical history. The his audience by his fine voice, clever acting,
many years and prepossessingquartet kept together for after this appearance. In 1766 or 1767
date, Sina playing second violin. Beethoven he was at Munich, where Bumey heard him in
mentions them Apropos of the Galitzin Quartets 1772, and where foiu: of his operas were the letter to his nephew already referred He sang at various during this, about 1825. A. w. T. In London he made his first appearance
The three quartets to which Rasoumowsky's in in1774, Corri's 'Alessandro nell' Indie.'
[His 'name is attached form op. 59, and are in F, E appearance in a pasticcio of 'Armida in
minor, and C respectively. The first of the the same year has resulted in the attribution
already mentioned, was begun May to him ofthree, as an opera of that name dated 1778,
and26, 1806, and the whole three were finished the error has been copied into most
and had evidently been played before Feb. dictionaries from27, the first edition of this work.]
date of a letter in the Allg. mus. He also1807, the distinguished himself as an excellent
teacherZeilung describing their characteristics.^ They of singing, Miss Storace, Braham, Miss
published in January 1808 (Vienna Bureau Poole (afterwardswere Mrs. Dickons), and Incledon,
and the being amongdes Arts Pesth, Schreyvogel), dedi- his pupils.
; In 1778 and 1779
(on the Parts) begins 'Trois Quatuors he gave subscriptioncation concerts with the violinist
Lamotte, when they were assisted by such(quoted by Thayer, lli. 321).Schlndler, i. 233
eminent3 alluded to In the number for May 6aemore and artistsasThey are again Miss Harrop, Signor Rovedino,
auccessfiil, and possiblyto be soon published ; and then, withmore
astonishing naXveti, follows 'Eberl's newest compositions, too, are 3 OtherformsarePatapataplan, Palalalalan,Bumherumbumbum.
anticipated with great pleasure ' I Bee the Didionnaire SncyclopSdigue of Sachs ft Villatte.; ,
Fischer, Cervetto, Stamitz, Decamp, and de- Imperfection, and Diminution in Mensurable
menti. He also gave brilliant concerts in the Musicke the Common Practise andagainst
Cusnew Assembly Rooms (built at Bath,1771) tome of these Times Examples whereof are
where he took up his abode on leaving London. exprest in theHarmony of 4 Voyces Concerning
Here he invited Haydn and Dr. Burney to visit the Pleasure of 5 vsuall Recreations. 1.
Hunthim, and the three spent several pleasant days 2. Hawking. 3. 4. Drinking.
together in '1794. On this occasion Haydn 5. Enamouring—a vain attempt to resuscitate
wrote a four-part canon (or more strictly a an obsolete practice. The musical examples
round) to an epitaph on a favourite dog buried were composed by Edward Pearce, John Bennet,
'iu Rauzzini's garden, Turk was a faithful dog and Ravensoroft himself. [Much ofthe material
and not a man.' (See Turk.) Rauzzini's is found in a MS. in the Brit. Mus. Add. MS.
'operas performed in London were Piramo e 19,758 {Diet, Nat. Biog.). In 1618-22of he
'nsbe' (March 16, 1775, and afterwards in was music-meister at Christ's Hospital {Mus.
Vienna), 'Le Ali d'Amore' (Feb. 27, Times,1776); 1905, p. 580.)] In 1621 he published
'Creusa in Delfo' 'La(1783); Regina di the work by which he is best known, 'The
Golconda' (1784); and 'La Vestale' (1787). Whole Booke of Psalmes : With the Hymnes
' L' Eroe Cinese,' originally given at Munich in Evangelicalland Spirituall. Composed into four
1771, was performed in London in 1782. parts by SundryAuthors with severallTunes as
(These dates are from the Public Advertiser.) have been and are usually sung in England,
He composed string-quartets, sonatas for PF., Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy, France, and
Italian arias and duets, and English songs the Netherlands.' Another edition was
pubalso aRequiemproduced at the littleHaymarket lished in 1633. Four anthems or motets by
Theatre in 1801, by Dr. Arnold and Salomon. Ravenscroft are among the MSS. in the library
He died, universally regretted, at Bath, April of Christ Church,8, Oxford. [For other music by
1810. His brother him see the Quellen-Lexilcon.^ The date of his
Matteo, bom in Rome 1754, made his iirst death is not known. It is said by some to
appearance at Munich in 1772, followed his have been about 1630, and by others about
brother to England, and settled in Dublin, 1635. w. H. H.
'where he produced an opera, II Rfe pastore, ' in RAVINA, Jean Henki, a pianoforte
com'1784. He had written Le finte Gemelli ' for poser, was bom May 20, 1818, at Bordeaux,
Munich in1772,and 'L' operanuova' for Venice where his mother was a prominent musician.
in 1781. He employed himself in teaching At the instance of Rode and Zimmermann the
singing, and died in 1791. o. F. p. lad was admitted to the Conservatoire of Paris
RAVENSCROFT, John, one of the Tower in 1831. His progress was rapid-—second prize
Hamlets waits,andvioUnistatGoodman's Fields for PF. in 1832; first prize for the same in
Theatre, was noted for his skill in the composi- 1834; first for harmonyand accompaniment in
tion of hornpipes, a collection ofwhich he pub- 1835, ajoint professorship ofPF. Nov. 1835. In
lished. Two of them are printed in Hawkins's Feb. 1837 he left theConservatoireandembarked
History, and another in vol. iii. of'The Dancing on the world as a virtuoso and teacher. He
Master.' A set of sonatas for two violins and resided exclusively at Paris, with the
excepviolone or arch-lute, were printed at Rome in tion of a journey to Russia in and Spain1853,
1695. He died about 1745. w. H. H. in 1871. He received the Legion of Honour in
RAVENSCROFT, Thomas, Mus.B., born 1861. His compositions are almost all salon
about was a chorister of St. Paul's under pieces, many ofthem very popular in their time,1582,
Edward Pearce, and graduated at Cambridge in graceful and effective, but with no permanent
' qualities. 41607. In 1609 he edited and published Pam- He also published a -hand
arrangemelia. MusickesMiscellanie : or Mixed Varietie ment of Beethoven's nine symphonies. Ravina
pleasant and delightful Catches died in Paris, Sept. 1906.—The aboveof Roundelayes 30,
'of3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Parts in one—the earliest sketch is indebted to M. Pougin's supplement
collection ofrounds, catches, and canons printed to F^tis. G.
impression appeared RAWLINGS, or RAWLINS, Thomas, bomin this country. A second
about was a pupil of Pepusch,in 1618. Later in 1609 he put forth 'Deutero- 1703, Dr. and
melia ; or the Second Part of Musiok's Melodic, a member of Handel's orchestra at both opera
or melodius Musioke of Pleasant Roundelaies and oratorio performances. On March 14,;
he was appointed ChelseaK. H. mirth, or Freemen's Songs and such 1753, organist of
delightfull Catches' containing the catch, Hospital. He died in 1767. His son, Robert,
' Hold peace, knave,' sung in Shake- bom in 1742, was =t pupil of his father, andthy thou
wasspeare's 'Twelfth Night.' In 1611 he published afterwards of Barsanti. At seventeen he
' Melismata. Musicall Fhansies, fitting the appointed musical page to the Duke of York,
with whom he travelled on the continent untilCourt, Citie, and Countrey Humours, to 3, 4
death in when he returned to Englandand 5 Voyces.' In 1614 he published 'A Briefe his 1767,
Discourse of the true (but neglected) use of and became a violinist in the King's band and
Charact'ring the Degrees Perfection, Queen's private band. He died in 181 leavingby their 4,—
deserved.a son, Thomas A., born in enthusiasm1775, who studied than his labours and
music under his father pianoforte recitals,and Dittenhofer. He Besides organ andweekly
composed which iusome instrumental music eighty voices,performed he formed n choir of
at the Professional Concerts, the existing Sacredbecame a violinist 1862 was amalgamated with
at the Opera and the In 1867 hebest concerts, and a teacher of Newcastle.Harmonic Society
concertsof the pianoforte, violin, and orchestralthorough-bass. began a series of excellent
He composed and arranged season for ninemany pieces for the which were carried on every
discontinuepianoforte, and some songs, and died about compelled tothe years, when he was
middle of the 19th century. pecuniary loss which theyw. H. H. them, owing to the
RAYMOND two performancesAND AGNES. A 'grand entailed. 1876 he gaveIn
devotedromantic English Opera in three ' Theatre Royal, andacts ; words of 'Antigone' atthe
by E. Fitzball, music training his choir (200by E. J. Loder. Pro- much of his time to
Vocal Society,duced at Manchester in 1855, and at St. Newcastle AmateurJames's voices), the
in Sunder-Theatre, London, June 1859. on the Tyne and11, g. and other Societies
RE. The second at which the bestnote of the natural scale in land, besides giving concerts
works com-solraisation and in the nomenclature of France artists performed. His published
and someand Italy, as TJt (or Do) is organ pieces,the first, Mi the prise four songs, three
hewas appointedthird, and Fa the fourth anthems. Atthe close of 1880
in 1888 heorganist Hilda's, S. Shields,of St.
queant laxisUt resonare fibris appointment. [Heresigned the corporation
Mira, gestorum, /amuli tuorum.
the Royal Collegewas an honorary Fellow of
honoraryBy the Germans and English it is called D. G. and in 1886 received theof Organists,
RE PASTORp, IL. A dramatic cantata degreeofMus.D. from
' for the NewcastleMetastasio's words (with compressions), com- He composed a Jubilee Ode '
Newcastle,posed by Mozart at Salzburg in 1775, in honour Exhibition of 1887, and he died at
of the Archduke Maximilian. First An account of his life andperformed March 8, 1903.
April 1903. HisApril 23, 1775. It contains an overture and works is in Mvsical Times,
was an ac-fourteen numbers. The autograph is in the wife, Emma Mary {rde Woolhouse),
and the actively connected withRoyal Library at Berlin, work is pub- complished musician,
She died Maylished in Breitkopfs complete edition as Series the musical life of Newcastle. 6,
V. No. 10. Aminta's air, 'L'amer6,' with 1693. p. K.] w! B. s.
which English dramatist andviolin obbligato, is the number by the READE, Chakles,
died Aprilwork is most widely known. g. novelist—born June 8, 1814, 11,
REA, William, born in London, March 1884—claims a notice in his capacity of«xpert25,
about ten years old learnt the connoisseur, and one of the earliest collectors of1827 ; when
time thepianoforte and organ from Josiah Pittman, for old violins. He devoted much to
whom he acted as deputy for several years. In study of violin construction, and—as his sons
'was appointed organist to Christ- put it—acquired askeen a scent for the habitatabout 1843 he
church,Watney Street, St. George's-in-the-East, of a rare violin, as the truffle dog for fungus
and at the same time studied the pianoforte, beneath the roots of the trees.' He gathered
instrumentation under Stern- much of this accurate knowledge from onecomposition, and
pianist at thedale Bennett, appearing as a Henri, a player ajid amaker to boot, resident in
of the Society of British Musicians in Soho, withwhom he engaged in experiments inconcerts
Christchurch hewas appointed varnish, and in the business ofimporting fiddles1845. Onleaving
Undershaft. In 1849organist to St. Andrew from abroad for the English dealers. Frequent
Leipzig, where his masters were visits to Paris, in the latter connection, resultedhe went to
Richter ; he subsequently studied sometimes in profit, and atMoscheles and other times in
finanOn hisDreyschock at Prague. return cial catastrophe but they succeeded in bring-under ;
Mr. Rea gave chamber concerts at ing to England some of the finest specimensto England, of
and became Cremonathe Beethoven Rooms, (1853) instruments that are known to-day.
to the Harmonic Union. In 1856 he They were in Paris, buying a stock of thirtyorganist
London Polyhymnian Choir, to fiddles, when thefounded the Revolution of 1848 broke out,
much time,training of which he devoted and Henri threw aside fiddle-dealing and joinedthe
excellent results at the same time the revolutionists. He was shotand with ; before his
orchestral society. In friend'sconducted an amateur eyes at the first barricade, and Charleshe
Michael's, Readewasappointed organist at St. escapedwith difficulty,leaving fiddles1858 he the
1860 was chosen by competi- behind. TheseStookwell, and in were found stored away in a
corporation of Newcastle- cellar afterorganist to the the Revolution, and eventuallytion
filled thealso successively reached Reade, who recordson-Tyne, where he that he sold one
in succession, and of them forpost at three churches more than he paid for the wholesame
Newcastle lot.Road Chapel. At At the time of the Specialthe Elswick Loan Exhibi-at
diffuse a taste for good tion of MusicalRea worked hard to Instruments held at the SouthMr.
encouragement Kensingtonmet with less Museum in 1872, Reade wrotemusic, though he a31EEADING REBEC
series of at Drury Lane in the latterletters upon Cremona fiddles in the who was a singer
JPail Mall In June 1695 he andGazette, in whicli he propounded the part of the l7th century.
theory 'that the Lost Cremona Varnish ' was Pate,another singeratthe theatre,wereremoved
a spirit varnish laid over an oil varnish. from their places and fined 20 marks each for
Coming as it did from so noted a connoisseur, riot attheDogTavern, Drurybeingengaged in a
there were theoi-ymany who accepted the as Lane, but were soon after reinstated.
the solution of the question. These letters A Rev. John Reading, D.D., Prebendary of
were privately reprinted by G. H. M. Muntz, Canterbury Cathedral, preached there a sermon
under the title A Lost Art Revived : Cremona in defence church music, alnd published it inof
Fiolins and Varnish (Gloucester, and1873), 1663. w. H. H.
again in the volume entitled Readiana (Ghatto REAL FUGUE. See Fugue.
& Windus, 1882). In later life Charles Reade REAY, Samuel, born at Hexham, March 17,
abandoned fiddles and fiddle-trading, but we 1822, was noted for his fine voice and careful
of his infatuation in his writings.find traces singing as a chorister atDurham Cathedral ; and
The adventurous career ofJohn Frederick Lott, under Henshaw the organist, and Penson the
the violin-maker, is told by him, somewhat precentor there, became acquainted with much
his novel all Tradesromantically, in Jack of music outside the regular Cathedral services.;
whilst interesting matter concerning the violin After leaving the choir he had organ lessons
comes into Christie Johnstone, and his collection from Mr. Stimpson of Birmingham, and then
Cream. Reade (Charlesof tales entitled — L., became successively organist at St. Andrew's,
and Rev. Compton), Charles Reade ; Coleman Newcastle ; St. Peter's, Tiverton(1845)
(1847);-(John), Charles Reade Sutherland Edwards, St. John's Parish Church, Hampstead; (1854)
Personal Recollections Hart (G.), The Violin St. Saviour's, Warwick Road; (1856) ; St.
Diet, Nat. Biog. E. h-a. Stephen's, Paddington Eadley Collegeof ; (1859,
READING, John. There were three musi- succeeding Dr. E. G. Monk) Bury, Lancashire
cians of these names, all organists. The first and in 1864 was appointed(1861);
'Songwas appointed Junior Vicar Choral of Lincoln schoolmasterand organist ' of the parish Church
Cathedral, Oct. 10, 1667, Poor Vicar, Nov. 28, Newark, retiring from the latter post in 1901,
and Master of the Choristers, June but retaining that of Song schoolmaster on the1667, 7,
1670. He succeeded Randolph Jewett as Magnus foundation until his death, which took
organist of Winchester Cathedral in 1675, and place at Newark, July 22, 1905. In 1871
retained the office until 1681, when he was Reay graduated at Oxford as Mus.B. In 1879
organist of Winchester College. He he distinguished himself by producing atappointed the
died in 1692. He was the composer of the Bow and Bromley Institute, London, two comic
Latin Graces sung before and after meat at the cantatas of J. S. Bach's ('Caffee-cantate' and
'CoUegeelectiontimes,and thewell-known Bauern-cantate '), which were performed thereannual
' ' —Winchester School song, Dulce Domum ; all certainly for the first time in England—on
'printed in Dr. Philip Hayes's Harmonia Oct. 27, under his direction, to English words
The second was organist of of his own adaptation. Mr. Reay was noted asWiccamioa.'
from 1674 to 1720. a fine accompanist and extempore player on theChichester Cathedral
Several songs included in collections published organ. He published a Morning and Evening
1681 and 1688 are probably by one or Service in F, several anthems,andtwo madrigalsbetween
Readings. third, born (all Novello) but is best known as a writer ofother of these two The ;
(1677, was a chorister ofthe Chapel Royal under part-songs, some of which ' The clouds that
In 1696-98 he was organist of wrap, 'Thedawnofday, 'written for theTivertonDr. Blow.
from Dr. W. H. Vocal Society) are deservedly popular. G.Dulwich College [information
REBEC (Ital. Ribeca, Ribeba Span. Rabd,Cummings]. He was appointed Junior Vicar ;
of Lincoln Cathedral, Nov. 21, Rabel). The Frenchname (said to be of Arabicand Poor Clerk
Choristers, Got. 1703, origin) of that primitive stringed instrument1702, Master of the 5,
was in use throughout western Europe inand Instructor of the choristers in vocal music, which
1704. He appears to have resigned the Middle Ages, and was the parent of the violSept. 28,
have returned to and violin, and is identical with the Germanthese posts in 1707, and to
' '
' and the English fiddle ' in outlineLondon, where he became organist of St. John, geige ;
the mandoline, ofDunstan in the West, something like which it wasHackney (in 1708), St.
Street, and probably the parent. It was shaped like theSt. Mary Woolchurchhaw, Lombard
' half of a pear, and was everywhere solid exceptSt. Woolnoth. He published A Book
Italian manner) with at the two extremities, the upper of which Wasof New Songs (after the
the formed into a peg-box identical with that stillSymphonies and a Thorough Bass fitted to
use, and surmounted by a carved humanand (about 1709) 'A Book inHarpsichord, etc.,'
Readings was head. The lower half was considerably cutof New Anthems.' One of the
'Adeste down in level, thus leaving the upper solid partalso the reputed composer ofthe tune to
instrument to form a natural finger-board.1764. ofthefideles.' He died Sept. 2,
was out,person named Reading, The portion thus cut down scoopedThere was another32 REBEC REBEL
and over the cavity thus formed was was known until, atglued a disused, and no specimen
short pine belly, pierced Instruments at Milanwith two trefoil-shaped the exhibition of Musical
sound-holes, and fitted with a bridge and specimens were shown.sound- in 1881, six genuine
sculpture, painting,Representations of it in
The illustra-are abundant.manuscripts, etc.,
Italian painting of the 13thtion is from an
Instruments acentury engraved in Vidal's
songsArchet. [The custom of playing in
which came into vogueunison with the voice,
in the classifica-in the 15th century, resulted
' answering ininto definite sets 'tion of rebecs
Tenor, and Bass voices.pitch to the Treble, Alto,
Musica Instrumentalis,Martin Agrioola, in his
of rebecswoodcuts of a 'set'1528, gives
Altus, Tenor, andwhich he calls Discant,
E. J. p.Bassus. B. H-A.]
FtoT, born in Paris aboutREBEL, Jean
a singer in the service1661, [the son of Jean,
his death inof the French court, from 1661 to
After a precocious childhood he entered1692.]
In 1703 he producedthe Opdra as a violinist.
' con-Ulysse,' opera in five acts with prologue,
taining a pas seul for Francois Pr6v8t to an air
post. The player either rested the curved end violin solo. The operacalled 'Le Caprice,' for
of the instrument lightly against breast,the or for years thefailed, but the Caprice remained
else held it like the violin, between the chin test-piece of the ballerine at the Opera. After
andthe collar-bone, andbowed it likethe violin. composed violin solos' forthis success. Rebel
It had three stout gut strings, tuned like the 'La Boutade,"various other ballets, such as
lower strings of the violin (A, D, 6). Its tone 'Les Caracteres de la Danse' 'Terpsi-(1716),
was loud and harsh, emulating the female voice, 'La Fantaisie' 'Leschore' (1720), (1727),
according to a Frenchpoem ofthe 13th century.
Plaisirs ChampStres,' and 'Les Elements.'
Quidam rebecam arcuabant, Several of these were engraved, as were his
Muliebrem vocem confingentes.^
In 1713 he was accom-sonatas forthe violin.
'An old Spanish poem speaks of el rab^ gri- panist at the Opera, and in 1717 was one of
2 'tador,' or the squalling rebec' This powerful the '24 violons,' and by 1720 'compositeur
mediaevaltone made it useful in the orchestra
; [This latterde la chambre ' to the King. oflice
and Henry the Eighth employed the rebec in he resigned in 1727, in favour of his son
his state band. Itwas chiefly used, however, to Fran9ois, and later passed on to him the duties
andShakespeare'smusiciansaccompanydancing ; ofconductor of the Opera, which hehad fulfilled
in Borneo and Juliet, Hugh Rebeck, Simon
for many years.] He died in Paris, 1746 or
Catling (Catgut), and James Soundpost, w^ere 1747, and was buried on Jan. 1747. [His3,
rebec-players. After the inven-undoubtedly sister, Anne-Ren^b, born 1662, became one
tion of instruments of the viol and violin type of the best singers of the court, and from the
it was banished to the streets of towns and to age of eleven years, appeared in the ballet, etc.
whence the epithet 'jocund'rustic festivities, She marriedwas in 1684 to Michel Richard de
applied to it in Milton's L'Allegro. It was Lalande (see vol. ii. and she died inp. 623),
usually accompaniedbythedrum ortambourine.
in France in the 18th cen-It was in vulgar use Jean-Fury's son Franqois, bom in Paris,
ordinance issuedtury, as is proved by an by June 19, 1701, at thirteen played the violin
his official capacity as 'Eoi desGuignon in in the Opera orchestra. It seems to have been
which street-fiddlersViolons'in 1742, in are at Prague, during the festivities at the
corona'prohibited from using anything else ; II leur tion of Charles VI. in 1723, that ha became
jouer d'une espfeoe d'instrumentsera permis d'y intimate with Franjois Francoeur ; the two
et connu sous lek trois cordes seulement, nom composed conjointly, and produced at the
sans qu'ils puissent se servir d'unde rebec, —Academic, the following operas: 'Pyrame et
cordes sous quelque pr^texte queviolon k quatre Thisbe' 'Tarsis et(1726); Z^ie' (1728);
extant, datedA similar order is 1628,ce soit.' Scanderbeg" (1735); 'Ballet de la Paix'
forbidden to play the treble orbassin which it is (1738); 'Les Augustales ' and 'LeRetourdu
et les mauvais lieux,'violin 'dans les cabarets Roi' 'Z^lindor,'(1744); 'Le Trophic ' (in
rebec. The rebec .was extinct inbut only the honour of Fontenoy, 1745); 'IsmJine' (1750) ;
in France. Itisnow totallyEngland earlier than ' Les 'Gteies tut^laires ' (1751) ; and Le Prince
Glonarium^ b.t. 'ban-1 D'Aymeric de Peyrat; see nii Gauge's de Noisy
' (1760) ; most of which were
com°« Vld»l, Ida ImtrumenU i arOut. posedAnt Bod. de HIto ; lee for court f§tes or public rejoioinga.Don [Rebel'
seems to have combines tomake it one of thebeen the sole author of a Pas- word, everything
torale heroique' safest and most valuable of instruction-books.(1730).]
From 1733 to 1744 Rebel and Franoceur The second part especially, dealing with
'acciwere 'joint leaders of the Aoademie orchestra, notes foreign to the constitu-dental notes—or,
and in 1753 andwere appointed managers. They tion of chords—contains novel views,
obsersoon, however, retired in disgust at the petty vations throwing light upon points and rules of
vexations they were called upon to endure. harmony which before were obscure and
conLouis XV. made them surintendants of his fused.
music, with the Order of St. Michel. In March In 1862 M. Reber succeeded HaUvy as
1757 these inseparable friends obtained the Professor of composition at the Conservatoire
privilege of the Opera, and directed it for ten since 1871 he was also Inspector of the
years on their own account, with Conservatoire.gieat ad- succwsales or branches of the
ministrative ability. He died in Paris, after a short illness, Nov. 24,
Rebel died in Paris, Nov. 1775. He com- 1880, and was succeeded as Professor by M.7,
posed some cantatas, a Te Deum, and a De Saiilt-Saens.
Profundis, performed at the Concerts Spirituels, His compositions comprise four symphonies,
but all his music is now forgotten, excepting a a quintetand three quartets for strings, one PF.
'lively airin the first finaleof Pyrame et Thisb^ ditto, seven trios, duets for PF. and violin, and
which was adapted to a much-admired pas seul PF. pieces for two and four hands. Portions of
of Mile, de Camargo, thence became a popular his ballet ' Le Diable amoureux ' have been
pubcontredanse—the first instance of such adapta- lished for orchestra, and are performed at
con' certs. In 1875 he produced a cantata calledtion—and in this form is preserved in the C\k
du Caveau,' under the title of 'La Camargo.' 'Roland,' but 'Le Menetrier k la oour,'
op^rainteresting siccount of the family, with comique, and 'Naim,' grand opera in five acts,[A very
have never been performed,though the overturesdetailed notices of the music of G. F. Kebel,
appeared in the Sammelbande of the Int. are engraved. His best vocal works are his
Mus. Ges. vol. vii. by M. L. de la melodies for a single voice, but he has composedp. 253,
choruses for three and four men's voices, andLaurencie.] G. c.
KEBER, Napoleon-Henri, born at Miil- some sacred pieces. G. c.
hausen, Oct. 1807 pat twenty entered the RECITA (Ital.), 'performance.'21,
counterpoint and RECITAL, a term which has come into useParis Conservatoire, studying
in England to signify a performance of solofugue under Seuriot and Jelensperger, and
composition underLesueur. Circumstances ledhim music by one performer. It was probably first
chamber-music, after the success used by Liszt at his performance at the Hanoverto compose
SquareRooms, June 1840,though asapplyingof which he attempted opera. His music to 9,
' and the wholethe second act of the charming ballet Le to the separate pieces not to
theconcertexcited performance. The advertisement ofDiable amoureux' (Sept. 23, 1840)
the says that *M. Liszt will give Recitals on theconsiderable attention, and was followed at
' Pianoforte of the following pieces.' The nameOp^ra-Comique by La Nuit de Noel,' three acts
Ha]l^ and others,'LePfereGaillard,'threeaots(Sept. was afterwards adopted by(Feb. 9, 1848),
' Benoit,' one act and is in the present day often applied to con-1852), Les Papillotes de M.7,
certs when two or more soloists take part.and 'Les Dames Capitaines,'(Dec. 28, 1853),
Recital is used for a concertIn these works he The term Operathree acts (June 3, 1857).
towards noise in which the music of an opera is sung withoutstrove to counteract the tendency
costume or action. G.then so prevalent both in Frenchand bombast
RECITATIVE (Ital. Eecitativo Germ. Me-to show how much may ;and Italian opera, and
materials of citativ Fr. EicAtatif ; irom the Latin Secitare).be made out of the simple natural ;
judicious A species of declamatory music, extensivelythe old French opera-eomique by the
those portions of an Opera, an Oratorio,used inuse ofmodem orchestration.
dramaProfessor of har- or a Cantata, in which the action-of theIn 1851 he was appointed
is too rapid, or the sentiment of the poetry toomony Conservatoire, and in 1853 theat the
' adapt itself to the studied rhythmGaillard pro- changeful, towell-merited success of Le Pere '
constructed Aria.Onslow's of a regularlycured his election to the Institut as
The invention of Recitative marks a crisis inhe renounced thesuccessor. Soon after this
history of music, scarcely less importantchamber-music. He thetheatre, and returned to
the discovery ofthan that to which we owealso write on music, and his TraiUbegan to
Whether the strange conception inthroughmany editions, harmony;d'Harmmiie (1862)went
originated was first clothed in tangiblework of its which itand is without comparison the best
Emilioform by Jacopo Peri, Giulio Caccini, orkind in The outline is simple andFrance.
Cavalieri, is a question which has never beenthe chords easy delmethodical, the classification of follow and well connected, the explanations
world, for theThus first launched upon thethe exercises practical andluminously clear,
a new impetus to the progressmusical taste—in a purpose of givingwell calculated to develop
(1V98).Haydnof art, this particular style of composition has
undergone less cliange, during the last 300
years, than any other. unao-What simple or
companled Recitative (Redtaiivo secco) is to-day,
it was, in all essential particulars, in the time
'of Euridice.
' Then, as now, it was supported
by the lightest possible accompaniment,
originMozart (17SC).(c) ,,,ally a figured-bass. as now, its periodsThen, (,,)
were nothing moremoulded with reference to
than the plain rhetorical delivery of the words i^
BeU eonte vienecbe carta i quellatto which orrhythmicthey were set ; melodious
avoided, asphrases being everywhere carefully
notonly unnecessary, but absolutely detrimental I
the detrimental that theto desired effect—so
poetrydifficulty of adapting good recitative to
Beethoven (1805).
written in short rhymed verses is almost
the metre tendinginsuperable, the jingle of
to crystallise itself in regular form with a
persistency which is rarely overcome except by
it is, that thethe greatest masters. Hence
verse andbest poetry for recitative is blank ;
hence it that the same intervals, progres-is,
have been used over andsions, and cadences
matters,over again by composers who, in other
have scarcely a trait in common. We shall best
selecting a few examples fromillustrate this by
of thethe inexhaustible store used by some
greatest writers of the l7th, 18th, and 19th
that, in phrases endingcenturies premising
notes, it has beenwith two or more reiterated
long the custom to sing the first as an
appoghigher than the rest. We havegiatura, a note
but the rule appliesshown this in three cases,
(o) Peei(1600). (o) Cavalieri (1600).
le fu meglior pen - siero.che tra pun-geii-tl Bplnl.
Mendelssohn(I) (1836).
(o) Carissimi(16^.
- - ri •a la - ra - el {Sung) Ib - ra - eLin Tic to
1=^E= m S.i3. BachUACH (1T34).,^» (
they re-joi-oed ex - ceeding-ly (Sung) ceed-lDg-ly.
(")„ (6) Handel (1713).
il ne-mi-co traacorre A mi dunque Agi-lea ?
the purpose for which they were originally governed by no law whatever beyond that of
designed. But the staunch conservatism of euphony. Its harmonies exhibit more variety
Becitativo secco goes even farther than this. Its now than they did two centuries ago ; but
accompaniment has never changed. The latest they are none the less free to wander wherever
composers who have employed it have trusted they please, passing through one key after
its support to the simplefor Basso continuo, another, until they land the hearer somewhere
which neither Peri, nor Carissimi, nor Handel, in the immediate neighbourhood of the key
nor Mozart cared to reinforce by the introduc- chosen for the nextregularly constructed
movetion of a fuller accompaniment. The chief ment. Hence it is that recitatives of this kind
modification of the original idea which has are usually written without the introduction of
found favour in modern times was when the sharps or flats at the signature since it is
harpsichord and the pianofoi'te were banished manifestly more convenient to employ any
the operafrom orchestra, and the accompani- number of accidentals thatmay be needed, than
ment of Eecitativo secco was confided to the to place three fouror sharps at the beginning
principal violoncelloanddoublebass the
; former of a piece which is perfectly at liberty to end in
filling in the harmonies in light arpeggios, while seven flats.
the latter confined itself to the simple notes of But notwithstanding the unchangeable
charthe Sasso continuo. In this way the Recitatives acter of lieciiativo secco, declamatory music has
were performed at Her Majesty's Theatre for not been relieved from the condition which
immore than half a century by Lindley and poses progress upon every really living branch
Dragonetti, who always played at the same of art. As the resources of the orchestra
indesk, and accompanied with a perfection at- creased, it became evident that theymight be no
tained by no other artists in the world, though less profitably employed in the accompaniment
Charles Jane Ashley was considered only second of highly impassioned recitative than in that
Lindley in expressionto and judgment. The of the aria or chorus and thus arose
; a new
general style of their accompaniment was style of rhetorical composition, called
accomexceedingly simple, consisting only of plain panied recitative {Mecitativo stromentato), in
chords, played arpeggiando ; but occasionally which the vocal phrases, themselves unchanged,
the two old friends would launch out into received a vast accession of power, meansby of
passages as elaborate as those sho*n in the elaborate orchestral symphonies interpolated
example Dragonettifollowing ; playing the between them, or even by instrumental passages
large notes, and Lindley the small ones. designed expressly for their support. [The
Don Giovanni. Leporello. Don Giovanni.
preade An-co-nmeglio M'acca rez-za, ml abbracciaPer IknunoesGaal-lo-z&me
'In no country has this peculiar style been so first example of it seems to be in Landi's San
and its advantages tellingsuccessfully cultivated as in England, where Alessio' (1634)], in
the traditions of its best period are scarcely situations were so obvious that it was
imyet forgotten. an interesting MS. of mediately adopted by other composers, and[On
recognised as a legitimate formMendelssohn's, showing the kind of treatment at once of art
he preferred while following the English prac- not, indeed, as a substitute for simple recitative,
tice, see A which has always been retained for the ordinaryMusical Times, 1902, p. 727.]
of jiroduo-return was made to the old method by the business of the stage, but as a means
employment of the piano, first by Mr. Otto ing powerful effects, in scenes, or portions of
Goldschmidt scenes, inwhich the introduction ofthemeasuredat a performance of Handel's
out of place.'L'AUegro' in 1863, and more recently by Sir aria would be
John Stainer, at in various oratorios. It will be readily understood that the sta-St. Paul's,
Again, as bility ofsimple recitative was not communicablethis simple kind of recitative is
steadily increasingfree now as it was in the first year of the 17th to the newer style. The
century, from the trammels imposed by the laws weight of the orchestra, accompanied by a
correspondent increase of attention to orchestralof modulation. It is the only kind of music
overwhich need not begin and end on the same key. effects, exercised an irresistible influence
As a matter begins upon some it. Moreover, time has proved it to be no lessof fact it usually
school and style thanchord not far removed from the tonic harmony sensitive to changes of
happensof the aria or concerted piece which preceded the aria itself; whence it frequently
that a composer may be as easily recognised byit ; and ends in or near the key of that which
recitatives as by his regularlyis to follow ; but its intermediate course is his accompanied— '
constructed movements. calls his lostScarlatti's accompani- course of which Orfeo distractedly
ments harmonise withexhibit a freedom of thought immeasur- in tones whichbride by name,
ably in advance of the age in which he notthe least appearancelived. thesymphony, yethave
Sebastian Bach's ' Iphigenie en Tauride,'recitatives, though priceless of belonging to it. In
device isas music, are more remarkable for the beauty of later operas, the sameand all the
their harmonies modern composersthan for that spontaneity of constantly adopted ; and
—expression ^notably Spohr, whowhich is rarely attainedbycomposers have also used it freely
which aunfamiliar with the traditions of the stage. with a. scene, inopens his 'Faust'
Handel's, on the contrary, plays the most delightfulthough generally band behind the stage
Mephistophelesbasedupon thesimplestpossibleharmonic found- of minuets, while Faust and
ation, exhibit a rhetorical jierfection of which sing an ordinary recitative, accompanied by
the most accomplished the regular orchestraorator might well feel the usual chords played by
proud ; and we cannot doubt that it is to this in front.
inevitablehigh quality, combined with a never-failing By process of natural, if nota
truthfulness led to another, inof feeling, that so many of them development, this new style
distinct fromowe their deathless reputation—to the unfair which the recitative, though still
exclusion ofmany others, of equal worth, which the accompaniment, assumed a more measured
still lie hiddenamong the unclaimed treasures of than that of the air, yettone, less melodious
for ordinaryhis long-forgotten opersis. Scarcely less success- more so, by far, than that used
ful, in his own peculiar style, was Haydn, whose declamation. Gluck has used this peculiar
' 'Creation ' and Seasons ' owe half their charm kind of Sedtativo with indescribableMe7,ai
' Iphigenieto their pictorial recitatives. Mozart was so power, in the prison scene, in en
uniformly great, in his declamatory passages, Tauride.' Spohr employs it freely, almost to
that it is impossible to decideupon their the exclusion of symmetrical melody, in 'Diealmost
comparative though has certainly his cheval demerits ; he letzten Diiige.' Wagner makes it
neverexceeded the perfection of ' Die Weiselehre bcUaille, introducing it everywhere, and using
'dieser Knaben,' or Non temer.' Beethoven at- it as an ever-ready medium for the production
'highest flights in AbscheuUoher effects.tained his ! wo of some of his most powerful dramatic
? !
'eilst du hiu ' and Ah, perfido ; Spohr, in His theories on this subject have already been
' 'Faust,' and Die letzten Dinge ; Weber, in discussed 'so fully that it is unnecessary to
' Freisohiitz.' Theworks of Cimarosa, Kos- that hisDer revert to them here. Suffice it to say
sini, and Cherubini abound in examples of ac- Melos, though generally possessing all the more
companied recitative, which rival their airs in prominent characteristics of pure recitative,
would be difhcult to point out sometimesbeauty ; and it approaches so nearly to the rhythmic
who has failedany really great composer to symmetry of the song, that—as in the case of
' 'appreciate the value of the happy invention. Nun sei bedankt, mein lieber Schwan
Yet even this invention failed either to meet it is difficult to say, positively, to which class
dramatic composer or to ex-the needs of the it belongs. We may, therefore, fairly accept
haust his ingenuity. It was reserved for Gluck this as the last link in the chain which fills up
'strike out yet another form of recitative, the long gap between simple Recitativeto secco
more powerful enginedestined to furnish a for and the finished aria. ['The free declamation,
the production of a certain class of effects than built on the natural inflexions of the speaking
that had preceded it. He it was who first voice, which is employed forany the vocal part of
'the idea of rendering the orchestra, Debussy's Pelleas etconceived M^lisande," though not
and the singer to all outward appearance en- styled 'recitative,' has much in common with
independent of each other of filling the it.]tirely ; , w. s. E.
speak, with a finished orchestral RECITING-IirOTEscene, so to (Lat. Repereussio, Nota
groundwork, complete in itself, and needing no domiTians). A name sometimes given to that
melody to enhance its interest, while the important note, in avocal Gregorian Tone, on which
tones which, how-singer declaimed his part in the greater portion of every verse of a psalm
ever artfully combined with the instrumental or Canticle is continuously recited ; and it is
appeared to have no connection with commonlyharmony, used of the corresponding note in
it whatever ; the resulting effect resembling Anglican chant.
which would be produced, if, during the As this particularthat note invariably corresponds
symphony,someaccomplishedinterpretation ofa with the Dominant of the Mode which thein
singer were to soliloquise aloud in broken Psalm-Tone is written, the terms. Dominant,
such wise as neither to take an andsentences, in Reciting-Note, are frequently treated as
performance norostensible share in the to interchangeable. [SeeModes and Psalmody.]
by the introduction of irrelevant Thedisturb it Reciting-Note makes its appearance
of this maydiscord. An early instance be twice in the course of every tone first, as the
in 'Orfeo.' After the disappearance of initial memberfound of the Intonation, and
afterorchestra plays an excited cres-Euridice, the wards as that of the Ending the only
duringcendo, quite complete in itself, the tion to the general rule is be foundto in the—
Tonus Peregrinus (or Irregularis), in which the contrabass measures 8 feetplayer. An existing
trueDominant of theNinthMode (E) is used for 8inches ; itslowestnote isDbelowthebass stave.
the first Reoiting-Note, and D for the setond. Instruments ofdifferent familieswere formerly
The Eeciting-Notes of Tones III, V, VII, family forming a consort,kept apart, each or
VIII, and IX, are so high that cannotthey band, of its own. The basis of the consortwas
be their true pitch,sung, at without severely the quartet—the discant, the alto, the tenor,
straining the voice in practice, therefore, these consortwas
; and the bass. But the not confined
tones are almost always transposed. An to the quartet thus Virdung, referring to
attempt has been sometimes made arrange 'so to recorders, writes : GeJierally, one makes four
their respective pitches as to let one note flutes in one case, or six this is called a set,;
generally A—serve for all. This plan may, two discant, two tenor, and two bass.' The
perhaps, be found practically convenient ; but circumstancethat each setwaskept in a separate
it shows very little concern for the expression case, enables to sayhowmany recorders wereus
of the words, which cannot but suffer, if the played together. In the time of Henry VIII.
jubilant phrases of one Psalm are to be recited the number rose to seven, eight, and nine, as
on exactly the same note as the almost despair- theinventory that monarch's recordersshows.of
ing accents of another. w. s. E. WhenPraetorius wrotetwenty-onewere required
EECOEDER. A name given in England to to form a full flute consort. Dr. Burney saw
a kind of flute, now discarded, but once very a set atAntwerp comprising no less than thirty
popular in "Western Europe. 'The verb to filled, wasor forty, the case for which, when
record ' was formerly in common use in the sense so heavy that eight men were required to raise
of to warble or sing as a bird, e.g., 'Hark! it from the ground. By the middle of the
hark oh, sweet, sweet How the
! ! birds record number had dwindled in18th century the
too' (Beaumont and Fletcher). A recorder, France to five, and in a very late set, now in
then, is a warbler, than which a more appropri- the Grosvenor Museum at Chester, it is reduced
appellation for the instrument, lookingate to
sweetness and facilityits for trilling, it would
be hard to find. When the word sprang up
is uncertain. There is resison for believing
was in in thethat it use 14th century ; it is
indisputable that in the 15th it was known
from Cornwall to Scotland ; for in a
miraclethe Cornish language, the manuscriptplay in
'of which is of that date, we have recordys ha
symphony' (recorders and symphony), and in
Scottish work entitled the Buke the How-the of
late maid ie Holland, (c. 1450), The rote, and
the recordour, the ribup, the rist.'
The recorder belonged to the fipple flute
flageo-family (see Fipple Flutb), ofwhich the
let is a familiar example. It was distinguished
from the other members of the family by the
finger-holes. Theirnumber and position of its was eight. The highest, which was
closed with one of the thumbs, was pierced at
played with a little finger,the back, the lowest,
at the side, of the tube. The remaining six
were placed in the front of the instrument.
were made in oneIn early recorders, which
piece, the lowest hole was duplicated for the
accommodation of left-handed players there; Discant Alto. Tenor. Bass.
finger, butwere thus two holes for the little The Chester Flutes.
Theone of them was kept stopped with wax.
of the hole explains a paradox. to four. The date of this set is unknown, butduplication
was an eight-holed they are marked with the name of Bressan, aAlthough the recorder
maker of whose flutes Sir Johninstrument, it was called in France (in addition Hawkins speaks
douce and la d'Angltsterre) la in away which shows that they were in commonto la fliUe fiUte
flute. The use in his time (1719-89) in 1724 Mr. Bressan,a neuf trous, or the nine-holed ;fi&te
whom presumablycontrabass recorders were pierced with by the Chester setwas made,largest
eight. They were covered was carrying on business at the Green Door inthree holes below the
closed Somerset House Yard, in the Strand.with keys, the two lowest ofwhich were
The tone of the recorderinstruments by the otherwise unem- was remarkable forin some
others by the feet, of the two characteristics, solemnity and sweetness.ployed thumb, in— ' : a
Bacon twice alludes to ita solemnity
; Milton the a bee. The change of name led to aflute
speaks of its 'solemn touches,' and under the history of music—strange chapter in the
name of 'the solemn pipe,' mentions it as warning to thoseone chapter which should be a
of the instruments played on a, great occasion who attempt to reconstruct extinct instruments
in Heaven. Its sweetness was ineffable. Refer- of what they might,out of preconceived ideas
ring to the effect of recorders used at a theatre or must, have been. Formore than a hundred
to represent a choir of angels, Pepys writes years recorder was enshrouded in mystery.the
' But that which did please me beyond any- recorder ? Sir JohnIt was asked, What was a
thing in the whole world was the wind-musique Hawkins put forward the notion that it was
when the angel comes down, which is so sweet a flageolet, and persuaded himself that Lord
that it ravished me, and recorder as havingindeed, in a word, did Bacon had spoken of the
wrap upmy soul so that itmade me really sick, six holes, the number of those of the flageolet.
just as I have formerly been when in love Burney, thirteen yeara after Sir John,with writing
my wife that neither was
; then, nor all the evening stated authoritatively that a recorder a
going home, and at home, I was able to think flageolet, thereby revealing the secret that he
ofanything, but remained had his rival's labours with-allnight transported, availed himself of
so as I could Next camenot believe that ever any musick out acknowledging his obligation.
hath that real command over the soul of aman Mr. William Chappell, who brought himself to
as this did upon in a bookme : and makes me resolve to the belief that he had discovered of
practice wind-musique, and to make my wife instructions for the recorder the statement that
do the like.' Some weeks afterwards the instrument was pierced with a hole calledhe buys
a recorder, 'which,' the recorder. fancied that the recorderhe says, 'I do intend to He
learn to play on, the sound of it being of all took its name from the hole, and drawing
sounds in the world, most pleasing further on his imagination, supposed the holeto me.
' '
' to be covered skin.The command which recorders had over witha pieceofthin Finally,
the soul of a man,' and their Carl Engel acquired a Common flute (it is now
in the South Kensington Museum) in which—power to mitigate and 'swage
wasWith solemn touches troubled thouglits, and chase there a hole covered with membrane. He
Anguish, and doubt, and fear, and sorrow, and pain pronounced this flute to be a recorder of the
From mortal or immortal minds
17th century, and explained that the hole thus
may serve to explain why Hamlet, in the covered was intended to make the sound reedy
frenzied state to which he had been wrought and tender whereas an examination of the
by the spectacle of the murder of his father instrument would have shown him that his
played before his guilty uncle, should bethink recorder of the 17th century was made in New
him of the calming influence of a consort of Bond Street between 1800 and 1812, and that
' 'these instruments. Come, ' he cries, some the hole covered with membrane was so placed
music come, the recorders. ' If Shakespeare's
; that it was impossible for it to affect the tone.
design were carried out, instead of tlie two The claim of the recorder to be considered
musicians we generally see furnished with the head of instruments of the flute kind was
little pipes not unlike penny whistles, there destined to be called inquestion. Itssupremacy
would come upon the stage in the recorder was challengedbythe transverse flute,an
instruscene at least four recorder players carrying ment called by the French- the German flute,
instruments varying in length from nearly two to distinguish it from the recorder, which they
to nearly four feet. It is needless to say that termed the English flute. In lip flutes, to
even the discant is far too stout to be snapped which family the German flute belongs, the
like a twig, so that the act of violence some- channel from which the jet of air issues (see
times seen, the breaking to pieces ofthe recorder Flute) is formed by the lips. The control
borrowed of the player, would be as impractic- exercisedbythe lipsover theshape of the jet and
foreign to the true spiritable as it is of the the size of the opening of the mouth-hole of the
scene, and out of keeping with the nature of flute enables the player to influence the
intonagentle Hamlet.the tionand the quality ofthe tone, advantages (not
With the advance of the orchestra the to mention greater power) more than sufficient
consorts of wind instruments broke up and to compensate for inferiority in sweetness and
such membersdisappeared, only of each family dignity. In Handel's orchestra the German
being retained as were most suitable for the and the Common flute existed side by side, a
combination. The member of the recordernew circumstance which enabled Handel to express
family which survived had a compass of two niceties offlute timbretowhich we are strangers.
/'",octaves, from/' to iingerings up to a'" being 'Thus in Judas Maccabseus ' he was able to
sometimes given. About the end of the 17th avail himself of the martial strains of two
century the instrument ceased to be called the German flutes for 'See the Conquering Hero
recorder, retaining only the appellation of flute, comes,' but to assign the cajolery of 'Wise
descending after a time to that of the men flattering 'and may deceive you to the cooing
came beCommon flute. In France it to styled blandishments of two Common flutes. We can'' ;
always tell he intends to be used, the third decade of the 19th century, longwhich flute
for lie terms Common flute Flauto the after instrument had been banished fromthe ; that
German flute hautboy playerTraversa, Traversa, Traversiire, the orchestra, the second used
Traversiera so-called flageoletsometimes, hut rarely, Flauto to play the part on a at the
Traversa. Scarcely ever does Ije leave open Antient Concerts. As the society was
estabwhich flute is to be employed there is, how- lished only seventeen years after
; in 1776,
ever, in 'Paniasso in Festa,' a passage marked is reasonable to supposeHandel's death, it that
Flauto ou Trav. 1., Flauto ou Trav. II. the practice was handed down from 'the time
Handel's orchestra is known to have contained of the great composer.
hautboys and four bassoons his flutes, as When the orchestrawasremodelledfour ; byHaydn
shown, were still more numerous. He only the transverse flute waswill be retained, the
once uses una traversa bassa. When he wrote Common flute being altogether rejected. The
iraversieri tviti, he no doubt expected not short German flute having thus captured its rival's
treble transverse flutes to respond. It place, proceeded to usurp its title of Flauto, andof four
seems certain that he had at his command as to drop its oldname, Traversa. Its superiority
manyCommon flutes ; for thefourth scene ofthe for orchestral purposes was already so marked
'act of Giustino opens with a passage in as to cause Haydn's choice to fall upon itfirst
which not less than four FlauK and a Bassa de' but during career as a composer it
Flauti play together. We are not bound to received an improvement which gave the coup
suppose that Handel had in his pay ten de grdee to the old favourite. The
improvewho devoted themselves exclusively ment consisted in boring new holes in the tubemusicians
coveringto the flute performers on other instruments, and them with keys kept closed by
especially the hautboy, were expected to take springs. To make clear the importance of this
step it is necessary to explain that in the one-the flute when required.
keyed flute, which was tlien use, there wereHandel could call for not only five but six in
fipple flutes, his ottavino being a fiauta piccolo, no holes for four of the notes of the chromatic
Common flute, not a transverse instru- octave. When the player was in want ofor octave
even suspected, either of them, he muffled, and to some extentment. This doesnot seem to be
flattened, note above the accidental neededyet the evidence is quite conclusive. Here one the
proof must suffice. The accompaniment to by closing one or more holes below the hole
' ' 'cantate (the air in Kinaldo, from which the note to be flattened issued.Augelletti che
Although tlie spurious notes thus obtained wereon the singing ofwhich birds were let loose) is
impure, feeble, and out of tune as to makemarked in the conducting waT& flauto piccolo, so
copy in Buckingham the flute and those who played it bywordsbut in the autograph
' Flageolett.' Now amongst musicians, the one-keyed flute held itsPalace Handel has written
ground for a period of not far short of a century.Handel would never have called a transverse
a flageolet. The usual description of Remonstrances on the subject of its imper-piccolo
scored for two fections were put to silence by the dictum thatthis accompaniment, that it is
the flute, like the violin, was perfect theflutes and a piccolo, gives to the modern reader ;
player, it was asserted, not the instrument, wasimpression, neither the flutes nor thea false
againstwe now call by at fault. At length a stand was madepiccolo being the instruments
fipple flutes, authority. The rebellion broke out in England,those names. It is a trio for three
where two professional players named Tacet andand two the flautopiccoloa. flautopiccolo flauti ;
adopt a flute with nowhich th.e support. Florio had the courage toplaying a brilliant solo flauti
was quicklypronounced by a less than six keys. Their exampleThe accompaniment has been
' followed. Between 1770 and 1780 the six-musician to be the loveliest imaginable ' ; the
' flute came into use in this country, andwrites of it, The musick pro- keyedscoffing Addison
keys wereand bird-calls by degrees, in spite of opposition, theceeded from a concert of flagelets
Handel introduced abroad.were planted behind the scenes. 'which
advantages conferred on the transverseTamburino in 'Alcina, Theuses tYieflautopiccolo ina
chromatic octaveWater Music. In flute by the completion of theand in two movements of the
thatare were so immense that it is inconceivablelatter two piccolos which play in unisonthe
makers of the time should not have thoughtthe same key as the theemployed. They are not in
the Common flute.were fipple of applying the system toorchestral piccolo, but, like it, they
Why the idea was not carried out is unknown,Thrice the piccolo furnishes a floridflutes. flauto
' may be conjectured that mechanicalthe soprano voice ; in Augel- but itaceorapaniment to
Of the ten digitsa song in difficulties stood in the way.letti che cantate, ' just mentioned, in
' ' warbling with which the hands of man are furnishedKiccardo,' and in Hush, ye pretty
nine are available for execution, the tenthGalatea.' The obbligato butchoir,' in =Acis and
' flute. As thebass solo, being required for holding thein the last-named work to the
holes,in the Common flute was pierced with eightruddier than the cherry,' is marked
one finger was free when they were allseems to have been always onlyscore flauto, but
the makers may havepiccolo. As late as closed. Possibly, then,assigned to the flauto— —; — — '
been unable to contrive a method of acting on the cry of the Evil Spiritsor
the five keys required for thechromatic octave,
igni.In girum imus noctu ecce atconsumimur
being baffled by the want of fingers for the
frequently constructed in exactpurpose but The canons were
; . whatever was the cause, closed
accordance with the method observed in thesekeysdid not find theirway to theCommon flute,
and innumerable quaint conceitsand sothe instrument curious lines ;afteratime fellcompletely
into were invented, for the purpose of giving thedisuse. (See Proceedings of the Musical
singers some intimation of themanner in whichAssociaiien, 1897-98, 145-224 1900-1,pp. ; pp.
'Canitmore Hebraeorum110-120; theywere to be read.and 1901-2, 105-137.)pp. The
'above was a very common motto. Misericordia etis epitomisedfrom the writer's Ledv/res on
obviaverunt sibi ' indicated that thethe Secorder, to Veritasbe published shortly, c. w.
andRECTE singers were to begin at opposite ends, meetET EETRO, PER (Imitatio
can'in the middle. In the second Agnus Dei ' ofcrizans, Imitalio per Motum retrogradum,
ImiHobrecht wrote, 'AriestaMo recwrrems his 'Missa Graecorum,'
; Ital. Imitazione al Sovescio, o
' firstalia vertatur in Pisces—Aries being the signSiversa ; Eng. Retrograde Imitation).
of the Zodiac, and Pisces the last. In anotherA peculiar kind of Imitation, so constructed
part same Mass he has given a far morethat the of themelody may be sung backwards as
mysterious directionwell as forwards ; as shown in the following
two-part canon, which must be sung, by the tenor cancriza et per antifrasin canta,Tu
first in capite antifrasizando repete.voice, from left to right, and by the second, Gum furcis
from right to left, both beginning together, but
This introduces us to a new complication the;at opposite ends of the music.
secret of the motto being, that the tenor is not
only to sing backwards, but to invert the
intervals (' per antifrasin canta until he reaches'),
' 'the Horns—that is to say, the two cusps of
^= the semicircular Time-Signature—after whichS^Egf^E^E^E
he is to sing from left to right, though still
conThe earliest known instances of Retrograde tinuing to invert the intervals. Thisnew device,
Imitation are to be found in whichamong the works of the intervals themselves are reversed,
the Flemish composers of the 15th century, as well as the sequence of the notes, is called
'who delighted in exercising their ingenuity, not Retrograde Inverse Imitation ' (Lat. ImitaMo
only upon the device also upon the cancrizansitself, but motu contrario ; Ital. Imitazione al
Inscriptions prefixed to the canons in which it conLrario riverso). It mighthave been thought
was employed. The Netherlanders were not, that this would have contented even Flemish
the only musicians indulged ingenuity.however, who But it did not. The part-books
successfully in this learned species of recreation. had not yet been turned upsidedown ! In the
Probably the most astonishing example of it subjoined example we have endeavoured to
on record is the motet, ' 'Diliges Dominum,' show, in an humble way, the manner in which
written by William Byrd for four voices thismost desirablefeatmay alsobe accomplished.
Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass—and transmuted The two singers, standing face to face, hold the
eight-part composition, by adding a book betweeninto an them ; one looking at it from the
second Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, formed ordinary point of view, the other, upside down,
by singing the four first parts backwards. It and both reading from left to right—that is to
this complication say, beginningis scarcely possible to study at opposite ends. The result,
attentively, without feeling one's brain turn if not strikingly beautiful, is, at least, not
strange to say, the effect produced inconsistentwiththe lawsgiddy yet, ofcounterpoint. (For
other examplesis less curious than beautiful. see Inscription.)
'n)•nRia-Tm-o<l »f-«p-ii«i
-Ida - dA-i« Dominum, om nes tea, lau-da-te Do-mi-num.
that the idea of singing Retrograde ImitationThere is little doubt has survived, even to
suggested by our own daymusic from right to left was first ; and in more than one very
^Oracular Verses which may be popular form. In the yearthose strange 1791 Haydn wrote
or forwards, without for his Doctor's degree,read either backwards at the University of
well- Oxford, 'to words or metre ; such as the a Canon cancrizans, (injury atre ' 'Thy Voice,
Harmony which willknown Pentameter ), be found in
' vol. ii.
and hep.. 367, has also usedibit amor. the same deviceRoma tibi subito motibns
in the minuet of one of his symphonies. Some
1 History, ch. 96.Reprinted by Hawkins, other modern composers have tried it, withsaid to have been first invented by the2 Venus recurreniXM,
Philadeipbus.during the reign of PtolemyGreeic Poet, Sotades, less happy effect. But perhaps it has nevermuch later datehave quoted are, however, ofThe examples we
than theHh century. yet appeared in abeing certainly not earlier more popular formthe oldest ofthem thanEEDEKER REDOUTE 41
that of the well-known Double Chant by Dr. British Museum. A motet, some fancies, and
Crotch. a voluntary byhim are in MS. at Christ Church,
Oxford. [See also the Monaishefle for 1902, for
list of other works by him.] His name is
includedby Morley in the list ofthosewhoseworks
he consulted for his 'Introduction.' w. h. h.
REDHEAD, Richabd, born March 1, 1820,
at Harrow, was a chorister at Magdalen College,
It would be difficult to point to two schools Oxford, 1829-36, having received his musical
more bitterly opposed to each other than those education therefromWalterVioary, theorganist.
of the early Netherlanders, and the English He was organist at Old Margaret Chapel (now
Cathedral writers of the 19th century. All Saints'Yet Church), Street, in
1839here we see an artifice, invented by the former, 1864, and from the latter date at St. Mary
and used by one of the latter, so completely con Magdalene, Paddington, a post he held till his
amore, that, backed by the harmonies death atpeculiar Hellingley, Sussex, April 1901.27,
to the modern 'free style,' it Hishas attained a works are almost exclusively written or
position quite unassailable, and will probably compiled for use in the Church of England
last as long as the Anglican Chant itself service, viz. 'Churchshall Music,' etc., 1840, 'Laudes
continue in use. [Sir John Diurnae,Stainer wrote a the Psalter and Canticles in the
Mornhymn-tune 'Per Recte et Retro' in 1898 for ing and Evening Service,' Music1843, for the
the Church Hymnary (No. it is also No. Office of the Holy381) ; Communion,' 1853; 'O
81 ofNovello's edition ofthe my 'composer's hymns. people,' anthem for Good Friday Church
It reads backwards in all the parts.] With Melodies, a collection of short pieces and Six
these things before us, we shall do well to Sacred Songs," 1858
; 'The Celebrant's Office
pause, before we consign even the most glaring Book," 1863
; 'Ancient Hymn Melodies, Book
pedantries ofour forefathers ofto oblivion, w. s. E. Common Prayer with Ritual music. Canticles
REDEKER, Louise Dorettb Augustb, a at Matins and Evensong, pointed as they are
contralto singer, who made her first appearance to be sung in churches and adapted to the
in London at the Philharmonic AncientConcert of June Psalm Chants, and Parish Tune Book
and remained19, 1876, a great favourite until and Appendix,' 1865 ; 'The Universal Organist,
she retired from public life on her marriage with a Collection of Short Classical and Modem
Dr. (now Sir) Felix Semon, Oct. Pieces,' 1866-81;19, 1879. She 'Litany with latter part
wasbornatDuingen, Hanover,Jan. 19, 1853, and of Commination Service, Music to the Divine
from 1870 to1873 studied inthe Conservatorium Liturgy during the Gradual, Offertorium and
at Leipzig, chiefly under Konewka. She sang Communion, arranged for use throughout the
first in public at Bremen in 1873. In 1874 year,' 1874 FestivalHymns for All Saints and
she made the first of several appearances at St. Mary Magdalene Days, Hymns for Holy
the Gewandhaus, and was much in request Seasons, Anthems, etc.for a. c.
concerts and oratorios REDOUTE. Publicin Germany and other assemblies at which the
countries during 1874 and 1875. In England guests appeared with or without masks at
she sang at all the principal concerts, and at pleasure. Theword is French, and is explained
the same time by Voltaire and Littr^maintained her connection with as being derived from
the Continent, where she was always well the Italian ridotto—perhaps with some analogy
received. Her voice is rich and sympathetic to the word 'resort.' They soon made their
she sings way to Germany andwithout eSbrtand with great taste. G. England. They are
REDEMPTION, THE. A Sacred Trilogy, frequently mentioned by Horace Walpole under
writtenandcomposedby CharlesGounod. First the name 'Ridotto,' and were one of the
performed attractions at Vauxhallat the Birmingham Festival, August and Ranelagh in the
30, 188?, under the composer's direction. M. middle of the 18th century. In Germany and
REDFORD, John, was France the French version of the nameorganistand almoner, was
and master adopted. The building usedof the Choristers of St. Paul's for the purpose
Cathedral in the latter part of the reign of in Vienna, erected in 1748, and rebuilt in stone
Henry VIII. Tusser, in 1754, forms part of the Burg or Imperial(1491-1547). the author
of the Hundred good Points Husbandrie, Palace, the side of the oblong facing theof
was one of his pupils. An anthem, 'Rejoice Josephs-Platz. There was a grosse and a Meine
in the Lorde alway,' Redoutensaal. In the latter Beethovenprinted in the appendix played
toHawkins'sHistory and in the Motett Society's a concerto of his own at a concert of Haydn's,
first volume, is remarkable for its melody and Dec. 18, 1795. The rooms were used for concerts
expression. till aboutSome anthems and organ pieces 1870. The masked balls were held
by him are in the MS. volume collected by there during the Carnival, from Twelfth Night
Thomas Mulliner, master of to Shrove Tuesday, and occasionallySt. Paul's School, in the
afterwards libraries weeks preceding Adventin the of John StaSbrd ; some being public,
Smith and Dr. Rimbault, and now in the i.e. open to all on payment of an entrance fee,
and others private. Specialnights and"concertina, its union withwere reserved the harmonium
for the court and ' having provedthe nobility. The Redou- Beating reeds in the organ not
'tentanze—Minuets, AUemandes, Contredanses, [See Fkbe Reed, vol. ii. p. 106.]successful.
Schottisches, Anglaises, name implies, passes freelyand Landler—were The vibrator, as its
composed for full plate to whichorchestra, and published through the long slotted brass
(mostly by Artaria) for pianoforte. the first impulse of the windMozart,' it is adapted ;
^Haydn, Beethoven, Hummel, within the slot and thusWoelfl, Gyrowetz, tending to push it
and others, 'have left dances viritten for apertm-e. In percussion ' harmoniumsthis close the
purpose. suddenly in motion bya blowc. F. s. the vibrator is set
REDOWA, a the keyboard.Bohemian dance which was from a hammer connected with
introduced into Paris in 1846 or Hakmonium, vol. ii. [The1847, and [See p. 308.]
quickly attained for a single form is that of theshort time great popu- Beating reed in its
larity, both there and in London, although it is organ and the clarinet. In this the edges of
now never danced. In Bohemia there are overlap the slot leading into thetwo the vibrator
variations of the dance, close it periodi-the Rejdovak, in 3-4 resonating pipe or tube, and so
or 3-8 time, which is more like a waltz, and cally during vibration. The reed, which is a
the Rejdovaoka, in 2-4 time, which is some- lamina, has roughly the form of athin blade or
thing like a polka. The ordinary Redowa is long parallelogram, and it is firmly secured fora
written in 3-4 time (M.M. portion of its length to the bed or table of theTheJ=160).
dance something which the slot is cut. Inis like a Mazurka, with the tube or mouthpiece in
rhythm less strongly marked. The following the organ reed the necessary opening for the
example is part of a Rejdovak which entrance of the wind at the free end is obtainedis given
' bladein Kohler's Volkstanze aller Nationen by giving a slight curvature to the or
reed ; the pressure of the wind tends to close
this opening, and vibration is thus set up.
obtainedIn the clarinet the same result is by
giving a slight curvature to the bed of the
mouthpiece towards its tip, the under side of
the reed itself being left perfectly flat (seem^^^^^^
The Double reed, as used in the oboe and
the bassoon, is constructed of two segments
united in a tubular form at one end, and
splayed out and flattened at the other so as to
leave a slight opening in shape like the section-r-e-^-M^! h^
s&t iiii^^^^ of a double-convex lens. The bassoon reed is
'placed directly uponW. B. S. the crook ' of the
instrument, but the oboe reed is built up upon aREED (fi.AncAe; Ital. Aneia; Germ. Matt,
'small tube or staple. ' The exactMohr). Thespeaking part ofmanyinstruments, appearance
of both single and doubleboth ancient and modern the name reeds will be gathered
; being
debetter from the drawings than from a morerived from the material of which it has been
detailed description.immemorially constructed. The plant used for
it is a tall grass or reed, the Arundo Donax or
Saliva, growing in the South of Europe. The
substance in its rough state is commonly called
' cane,' though differing from real cane inmany
respects. The chiefsupply isnowobtained from
Frejus on the Mediterranean coast. Manyother
materials, such as lance-wood, ivory, silver, and
'ebonite,' or hardened india-rubber, have been
experimentally substituted for the material iirst
named but hitherto without success. Organ
reeds were formerly made of hard wood, more
recently of brass, German silver, and steel.
The name Reed is, however, applied by
organchannel againstbuilders to the metal tube or f
which the vibrating tongue beats, rather than
°"""'" "'^•"^ •>«'« t» ">» mouthpiece by ato the vibrator metaufBrta™:"^'itself.
Double R6ed»:-2.BM«ooii reed. 3. Baeeoon reed, toeehortenedReeds are divided into the Free and the to »ho» the opeulns between thetwo blades. 4. Oboe reei.
Beating the latter again into the Single and
The single reed is used also on the saxophone,the Double forms. The Free reed is used in
and the double reed for the ohaunter1 of theSn KSchers Catalogue, No. S99. etc.
' 8e«Nottelwlim'B ThematicCatalogue, Section 11. pagei 136-37. Highland bagpipe, but the drones of the bag-— — —
pipe are sounded by single reeds of a most music at the Olympic under Mr.ducting the
rudimentary character. It is possible to replace management, and making prolongedWigan's
the double reed of the oboe and bassoon by a provincial tours.
single reed of the clarinet type fitted to a small In 1855 he started anew class of performance
mouthpiece. The old dolcino or alto-fagotto which, the name of 'Mr. and Mrs. Ger-under
was so played in the band of the Coldstream Entertainment,' made his nameman Reed's
Guards by the late Mr. Henry Lazarus when a widely and favourably known in England. Its
boy. The idea has been revived of late years object was to provide good dramatic amusement
as a novelty, but neither the oboe nor the for a large class of society who, on various
bassoon is capable of improvement in this way, grounds, objected to the theatres. It was
although the saxophone, also a conical tube, is opened at St. Martin's Hall, April 2, 1855,
well adapted to the single reed, being an instru- as 'Miss P. Horton's Illustrative Gatherings,'
'wider calibre.]ment of w. H. s. ; with addi- with two pieces called Holly Lodge ' and
'tions by D. J. B. The Enraged Musician (after Hogarth),
REED, Thomas Gbkman, born at Bristol, written by W. Brough, and presented by Mrs.
June 1817. His father was her husband only, as27, a musician, Reed, with the aid of
and the son first appeared, at the age of ten, accompanist and occasional actor. In Feb.
at the Bath Concerts as a PF. player with 1856 they removed to the Gallery of
Illustra'Loder and Lindley, and also sang at and there produced AJohn the tion, Regent Street,
Concerts and at the Bath Theatre. Shortly Month from Home,' and 'My Unfinished Opera'
after, he appeared at the Haymarket Theatre, (April 'The Home Circuit' and27, 1857);
where his father was conductor, as 'Seaside Studies' (June 1859)—all byLondon, 20,
Ball,' EdmundPF. player, singer, and actor ofjuvenile parts. W. Brough; 'After the by
'Ifi 1832 the family moved to London, and Yates Our Card Basket,' by Shirley Brooks
; ;
'the father became leader of the band at the An Illustration on Discord ' (' 'The Rival
Brough (April andGarriok Theatre. His son was his deputy, Composers by 3, 1861) ;'),
'and also organist to the Catholic Chapel, The Family Legend, ' by Tom Taylor (March
Sloane Stieet. German Reed now entered 31, 1862). They then engaged Mr. John
and produced the following series ofeagerly into the musical life of London, was Parry,
written for this company ofan early member of the Society of British pieces specially
Musicians, studied hard at harmony, counter- three, and including some of Mr. Parry's most
playing, composed much, gave popular and admirable songs in the characterspoint, and PF.
at the Pantomime, Mrs. Rose-many lessons, and took part in all the good of Paterfamilias
:music he met with. His work at the theatre leaf, etc. etc.
' 'measure of scoring and The Cliarming Cottage.' April A Dream in Venice.' T. W.consisted in great
Robertson. March 18, 1867.6,1863.
'adapting, and getting up new operas, such as Bitwka. OurQuietCh&teau.' B. Beece.'ThePyramid.' Shirley
Feb. 1664. Dec. 26. 1867.T,'Fra Diavolo' in 1837. In 1838 he became
'"The Bard and his Birthday.' Inquire w-itbin.' jr. C.
Burnand. July 22, 1868.W. Brough. April 20, 1864.Haymarket Theatre,Musical Director of the
'Peculiar Family.' Do. Idstofthe Faladina.'B.Beece.'The
1838 March 19, 1S6S. Dec. 23, 1868.a post which he retained tiU 1851. In
'The Yachting Cruise.' F. C.
succeeded Mr. Tom Cooke as Chapel-he also Burnand. April 2, 1866.
Bavarian Chapel, wheremaster at the Royal the company was further in-At this period
the music to the Mass was for long noted both creased by the addition of Miss Fanny Holland
execution. Beethoven's Massfor quality and and Mr. Arthur Cecil, and soon after by Mr.
for the first time inin C was produced there Mr. Alfred Reed. TheCorney Grain and
England, and the principal Italian singers this lastfollowing was the repertory during
took part in the Sunday services.habitually period :
ShakespeareanAt the Haymarket, for the 'LiscbenandFritschen.' Offen- Near Belations.' Arthur
bach. Feb. 8, 1869. Sketchley. August 14, 1871.performances of Macready, the Keans, the
' ' Planch^.No Cards,' W. S. GUhert, and King Christmas.'
' Sul- Dec. 26, 1871.he made many excellent Cox andBox,'Bui*nand andCushnians, etc.,
March 1869. (A CecU'a Charity begins at Home.' B.Uvan. 29.
overtures andinnovations, by introducing, as first appearance.) Eoweand Cellier. Feb. 7, 1872.
'Ages Ago.' W. 8. Gilbert and My Aunt's Secret.' Burnand
entr'actes, good pieces, original or scored by Molloy. March 1872.P. Clay. Kov. 22, 1869. and 3,
' Neighbour.' C, Happy Arcadia.' W. S. Gil-Beggarmy F.rubbish usually playedhimself, instead of the
March 28, 1^0. bertand F. Clay. Oct. 28, 18:12.Burnand.
temporary closing 'Our Island Home.' W. S. Gil- 'VeryCatching,' Burnandandat that date. During the
bert. June 20, 1870. Molloy. Nov.18, 1872.
'Reed did the work of producing Mildred's Well.' Burnandof the theatre. •The Bold Eecruit.' F. Clay.
and German Seed. May 5, 1873.July 19, 1S70.'Sappho' at Drury LanePacini's opera of Novel.' Do. Jan.'ASensation
1871.30.(April 1843—Clara Novello, Sims Reeves,1,
1844 he married Miss Priscilla this period a diversion was made by theetc.). In During
years pursued 'Opere di Camera,' for fourHorton, and for the next few introduction of
:useful, miscellaneous life as characters. These comprisedthe same busy,
bewitched.' Virginiathe production of English 'JessyLea. OxeufordandMac- 'Widowsbefore, directing
larren. Gabriel.
Sadler's Wells ' 'opera at the Surrey, managing FairExchange ; AHappy•Too Many Cooks.' Oifettbacb. A '
Balfe. Eesult'; 'ChingChowHi.' AU'The Sleeping Beauty.'season of English opera, with hisduring a Soldiei-'s Legacy.' Oxen- threeby OiTenbach.'The
and Mactarren.Pyne, Harrison, etc., con- toldwife. Miss Louisa— — ''
"While the entertainment still remained these pieces were playedat The accompaniments to
the Gallery of Illustration, manyReed became lessee on a pianoforte and harmonium. For
of St. George's Hall for the production ofComic Sketches' of Mr. Oorneyyears the 'Musical
Opera. He engaged an orchestra of forty attraction of the enter-and Grain were a principal
a strong chorus, and *The Contrabandista tainment. German Reed died at Upper East
(Burnand 'and Sullivan), L'Ambasaadrice Sheen, March 1888, and in 1895Surrey, 21,
(Auber), and the 'Beggar's end, with theOpera' were pro- the entertainments came to an
duced, but without the necessary success. Mr. deaths of Alfred German Reed, March 10, and
Reed then gave his sole attention to the Gallery 16. An attempt wasCorney Grain, March
of Illustration, which he was uniformly made to revive the enterprise, butwithout
successful, owing to the fact that he carried' Mrs. Geuman Reed, n^ Priscilla Horton,
out his entertainments, not only 1818, Fromwith perfect was born at Birmingham, Jan. 1,
respectability, but quali-always with great talent, a very early age she showed unmistakable
much tact and judgment, and constant variety. fications for a theatrical career, in a fine strong
When the lease of extraordinarythe Gallery of Illustration voice, great musical ability, and
expired, the entertainment was transferred to power of mimicry. She made her first
appearSt. George's Hall, and there the following ance at the age of ten, at the Surrey Theatre,
entertainments were produced : management, as the Gipsy Girlunder Elliston's
' He's in *Guy Mannering.' After this'she was con-Coming.' F. C.Burnand Gilbert A'Beckett and German
and Gerinan Beed. Keed. stantly engaged at the principal metropolitan
'Too Manyby One.' F. C. Bur- 'Matched and Match.' F. C.
nand and F. Cowan. Burnand and German Beed. of parts. Hertheatres in a very wide range
'The 'TbieeTenants ; 'Ancient A Puff of Smoke.' C. J. Bowe
Britons.' Oilbert A'Beckefct and and Mme. Goetz. rare combination of grea,t ability as a singer,
*German B«ed. Oar Dolls' BoweHouse.' C. J.
with conspicuous gifts as an actress, and most•A Tale of Old China.' F. 0. and Cobaford Dick.
Burnand and Molloy. *A Wight's Surprise.' West appearance, veryattractive led to a satisfactory
'Eyesand no Byes.' W. S. Gil- Cromerand German Beed.
bert andGerman Beed. •Poster Brothers.' F. C. Bur- step in her career. On August 16, 1837, she
* 'ASpanishBond ; An Indian nandand King Hall.
''The Wicked Duke.' Happy Bungalow.' A. Law. signed an agreement with Macready for his
famous performances at Covent Garden andThe following were produced under the
Drury Lane, in which she acted Ariel, Ophelia,management Mr, Oorney Grain andof Mr.
1the Fool in 'Lear,* the Attendant Spirit in
:Alfred Reed
'Oomus,' Philidel in 'King Arthur,' and Acis'No. 204.' F. Burnand and 'A Water Cure.' A. Law, Ar-C.
German Beed. nold Felix, and George Gear.
in 'Acis and Galatea,' After the conclusion
' 'Once in a Century.' G. A Moss Bose Bent.' A. Iiaw
A'Beckettand Vivian Bligh. and A. J. Caldlcott. of this memorable engagement, Miss Horton
Double Event," Law,'Our New Dolls' House,' W. A A.
Yardley and Cotsford Dick. Alfred Beed, and Corney Grain. became the leading spirit in Planch^'s graceful
' *Answer Paid.' F. C. Burnand Fairly Puzzled.' OliverBrand
burlesques at the Haymarket Theatre. OnandW. Austin. and Hamilton Clarke.
•Doubleday's A Terrible Fright.' a. LawWill.' Jan. 20, 1844, she married Mr. German Reed,
and Corney Grain.and King Hall.
'Artful Automaton.' Arthur Old Knockles.' A. Law and and the rest of her career has been relatedunder
Lawand King Hall. A. J. Caldlcott.
Peculiar Law and his name. She died at Bexley'A Tremendous Mystery.' F. A Case." A. Heath, March
and King Hall. G. Grosamitb.G, Burnand
18, 1895, a few days after her son and Corney
' Enchantment.' A. X^aw and Hobbies.' Stephens, Yardley,
German Beed. aud G. Gear. Grain. g,
' Wat-Orimstone Grange.' G. A Pretty Bequest.' M.
son and Hamilton Clarke.A'Beckettand King Hall. REED-STOP. "When the pipes of an organ,
''£100 Beward.' Law and A Night In Wales.' H. Gard-A.
Corney Grain. nerand Corney Grain. controlled by a draw-stop, produce their tone
'Back from India.' Pottinger 'In Cupid's Court.' M.
Watby means of a vibrating tongue strikingCaldlcott. theStevensand Cotsford Dick. sou and A. J.
' AUnited Pair.' Comyns Can-The Pirate's Home.' G. face of a reed, the stop is called a Reed-stop ;Bligh. ard A. J. Caldlcott.A'Beckettand Vivian
'A Christmas Stocking.' O. The Friar.' Do. when the pipes contain no such reeds, but theirand King Hall. TheNaturalist.' ComynaCarr
tone is produced merely by the'Casfcle Botherem.' A. Law and KingHaU. impinging of
•TaUy-Hol' M. Watson andand Hamilton Clarke.
air against a sharp edge, the stop is called aA.A'Beckett A. J. Caldlcott.'TheThreeHafca.'
'Edouard Marlols. Wanted an Heir.' Do.and Flue-stop. Any single pipe of the former kind
* Mate." W.'A Flying Visit.' A. Lawand The Bo'aun's
Caldlcott.Oorney Grain. Browne and A. J. is called a Reed-pipe, any single pipe of the
' •Brittany Folk.' Walter^PrithThe Turquoise Bing." G. W.
latter kind, a Flue-pipe.and A. J. Caldlcott. Pipes containing FreeGodfrey and Lionel Benson.
MalcolmChristmas.' Law •Tuppins and Co.''A Merry A. reeds are seldom used in English organs,Solomon. butand King HaU. Watsonand Edward
Walter Frith'Bandford and Merton.' Bur- 'The Verger,' are occasionally found in foreign instruments
King Hall.nand and A. B. Gatty. aud
'Carnival Time.' M. Watson under the name of'All at Sea.' A. Law and Physharmonika, etc. [See
and Corney Grain.Corney Grain.
' Walter Browne Harmonium, Reed.] Thereed-stopsMany Happy Betums.' G. 'Possflssion.' consisting
J. Caldlcott.A'Beckettand Libnel Benson. and A.
'of striking-reeds are voiced
' in various ways
* 'Killlecrumper.' M. WatsonA Bright Idea.' A. Law and
and E. Solomon.Arthur Cecil. imitateto the sounds of the Oboe, Cor Anglais,
TheOld Bureau,' H. M. Paull'Cherry Tree Farm.' A. Law
and A. J. Caldlcott. Clarinet, Bassoon, Horn, Cornopean,and Hamilton Clarke, Trumpet,
' Barley Mow.' WalterHead the Poll.' A. Law 'TheThe of etc, all of which are ofFrith and 0. Grain. 8-ft. pitch (that is, inand Eaton Faning.
• Dan'l's Delight.' ArchieArm-Nobot^'s Fault.' A, Lawand unison with the diapason). The Clarion 4-ft.strong and J. W. EUiott.Hamilton Clarke.
' 'An Odd Pair.' M. WatsonA Strange Host.' A, Lawand is an octave reed-stop. The Double Trumpet
and A. J. Caldlcott.King Hall.
' 'P^gy's Plot.' SomervilleGib- 16-ft. is a reed-stop oneDreadful Boy.' O. octave lower inThat pitch
neyand Wtdter Slaughter.A'Beckettand Corney Grain.
than the diapason ; it is also'A Big Bandit,' H. Watson called a Contra-*A Mountain Heiress.' G.
audW. Slaughter.and Lionel Benson. posaune, or sometimes aTrombone. Reed-stops
' 'Melodramaula,' Do.Tieaaure Trove.' A. Lawand
A. J. Caldlcott. I ifacreadj/'tA.O. See Jteminiicences, hy Sir P. Pollock,
ii, 97.— :
of the 'trumpet class are often placed on a very- that Duncan did go before them playing aGiles
high under such names as a small trump.pressure of wind reill or dance upon ' The Irish
Tuba etc. such high- alludedmirabilis, Tromba major, ; reel, which is apparently to here, is in
pressure reed-stops are generally found on the 2-4, orcommontime, andisalwaysdancedsingly
Solo-manual the reed-stops of the Great organ the danced in steps, are followed
; firsteight bars,
being of moderate loudness those on the Choir next eight
; by a round for the bars, wlien the
organ softer character.altogether of a A very originalstepsareresumed,butreversed. w.h.g.i'.]
much larger proportion of reed-stops is usually An example of the Danish reel will be found
assigned 'to the Swell organ than to any other inEngel's National Music (London,
' 1866).
manual, owing to the brilliant crescendo which characteristicOne of the most Scotch reels is
they produce as the shutters :—of the swell-box the Reel ofTuUooh (Thulichan)
open. Reed-stops are said to be 'harmonic'
when the tubes of the pipes are twice their
normal length and perforated half-way with a ^^^^^m
small hole. Their tone is remarkably pure and
brilliant. The best modern organ-builders have
made greatImprovements in the voicing
ofreedstops, which are now'produced in almost infinite Others, equally good, are 'Colonel M'Bean's
'variety both as to quality 'and strength of Reel,' Ye're welcome, Charlie Stuart,' The
tone. J. s. Cameronian Rant,' 'Johnnie's friends are ne'er
'REEL(Anglo-Saxon hreol,connectedwiththe pleased,' and Flora Macdonald.'
Suio-GothiontWa,'towhirl'). Anancientdance, For the slow Reel see Strathspey, w. b. s.
originthe of which is enveloped in much ob- REEVE,William,bom 1757 ; after quitting
scurity. The fact of its resemblance to the school, was placed with a lawstationer in
ChanNorwegian Hallv/ng, as well as Lane, where his fellow-writerits popularity cery was Joseph
in Scotland, and its occurrence inDenmark, the Munden, afterwards the celebrated comedian.
north of England, and Ireland, has led most Determined, however, upon making music his
writers to attribute to it a Scandinavian became a pupilorigin, profession, he of Richardson,
although its rapid movements and lively char- organist of St. James's, Westminster. In 1781
acter are opposed to the oldest Scandinavian he was appointed organist ofTotnes,Devonshire,
dance-rhythms. The probability is that the wherehe remained till about 1783, whenhe was
reel is of Keltic origin, perhaps indigenous to engaged as composer at Astley's. He was next
Britain, and from there introduced into Scandi- for some time an actor at the regular theatres.
navia. In Scotland the reel is usually danced In 1791, being then a chorus singer at Covent
to toby two couples ; in England—where it is now Garden, he was applied complete the
comalmost only found in connectionwith theSword position of the music for the ballet-pantomime
'Dance, as performed in the North Riding of f Oscarand Malvina, 'left unfinishedbyShield,
who, upon some differences with the manager,Yorkshire—it is danced by three couples. The
figures of the reel diifer slightly according to hadresigned his appointment. Reevethereupon
their chief feature their circular produced an overture and some vocal music,the locality ; is
whichwere much admired, and led to his beingcharacter, the dancers standing face to face and
describing a series of figures of eight. The appointed composer to the theatre. In 1792
consists of 8-bar phrases, generally in he was elected organist of St. Martin,
6-4. In 1802 he became part proprietor of Sadler'scommon time, but occasionally in The
dramaticIrish reel is playedmuch fasterthan the Scotch Wells Theatre. His principal
ordinary hornpipe-tune is used. sitions were 'Oscar and Malvina,' and 'Tippooin Yorkshire an
1791 'Orpheus and Eurydice,' partlyThe following example, 'Lady Nelson's Reel,' Saib,' ;
'Gluck, 1792 The Apparition,'a MS. collection of dances in the posses- adapted from ;is from
: 'British Fortitude,' 'Hercules and Omphale,'sion of the present writer
and 'The Purse,' 1794; 'Merry Sherwood'
'best-known song,(containing Reeve's I am a^^^ Friar of orders grey 1795 ; 'Harlequin and'),
' Bantry Bay,' 'The RoundOberon,' 1796,
'Tower,' and Harlequin Quixote,' 1797 ; Joan
'of Arc,' and Ramah Droog' (with Mazzinghi),
' Turnpike Gate (with1798 ; The '
'Thomas and Susan,''The Embarkation,' and
'Paul and Virginia' (with Mazzinghi),1799 ;
Anna,' 1800; 'Harlequin'sand 'Jamie and
Almanack,' 'The Blind Girl ' (with
'The Cabinet' (with Braham, Davy,1801;
Moorehead), 'Family Quarrels' (withand and
stated Braham and Moorehead), 1802 'The Caravan,'[In News Scotland (1591) it is ;from'' — '
1803; 'The Dash,' and 'Thirty Thousand' Donizetti's 'Linda di Chamounix,' appearing
'fwithDavy and Braham), 1804
; Outof Place' 'Fidelio.' [His operaticalso as Florestan in
'(with 'Braham), and The Corsair,' 1805
; The career was more or less overshadowed by the
WhitePlume, 'RokebyCastle, 'and 'AnBratach, great plac» he made for himself in oratorio he
1806; 'Kais' (with Braham), 1808; 'Tricks Gounod's operasang the part of Faust when
upon Travellers ' (part), 1810; and 'The atOut- was given for the first time in English,
side Passenger (with
' Whitaker and D. Corri), Her Theatre, and for a few per-Majesty's
1811. Rewrote music for some pantomimes part of Sirformances he sang Braham's old
at Sadler's Wells; amongst ' 'them 'Bang up,' Huon in Oberon. ' Captain Macheath, in The
by Dibdin,0. jun., containing the favourite the last operaticBeggar's Opera,' was one of
'Clown's song, Tippitywitchet, ' for the autumnGrimaldi. parts in which he appeared.] In
He was also author of The Juvenile Preceptor, of 1848 he was engaged at the Norwich
Musior Entertaining Instructor, etc. He died June showed his ability ascal Festival, where he
22,1815. w. H. H. an oratorio singer by an extraordinarily fine
' 'BEEVES, John Sims, son of a musician in delivery of The enemy said ' in Israel in
the Royal Artillery, was born at Woolwich, hemade his firstEgypt.' On Nov. 24 following
Sept. 26,1 1818 {Memoirs of the Eoyal Artil- appearance at the Sacred Harmonic Society in
'lery Band, by H. G. Farmer 74 ff.). Handel's Messiah.' The rapid strideswhich he(1904), p.
He received his early musical instruction in oratoriofrom was then making towards perfection
his father, and at fourteen obtained the post were shown—to take a few instances only
'of organist at North Cray Church, Kent. Upon by his performances in Judas Maccabaeus ' and
gaining his mature voice he determined on 'Samson,' Paul,' and 'Lobgesang,''Elijah,' 'St.
'becoming a singer, and [after a year spent in and Eli ' and Naaman ' (both composed
ex'studying for the medical profession] in 1839 pressly for him). [He sang in Bach's St.
made his first appearance at the Newcastle- Matthew under Sterndale Bennett,Passion,'
'upon-Tyne Theatre, as the Gipsy Boy in Guy when the work was given for the first time in
Mannering,' and subsequently performed Dan- England in 1854.] But his greatest triumph
'La Cenerentola,' and other baritone was achieved Festival at thedini in at the Handel
parts. The true quality of his voice, however, Crystal Palace in 1857, when, after singing in
' 'having asserted itself, he placed himself under Messiah ' and Judas Maccabseus with
in'Cooke, and the seasons creased reputation, he gave saidJ. W. Hobbs and T. in The enemy
'of 1841-42 and 1842-43 was «, member of in Israel in Egypt ' with such remarkable
Macready's company at Drury Lane, as one of power, fire, and volume of voice, breadth of
tenors, performing such parts as style, and evenness of vocalisation, as com-the second
'the First Warrior in Purcell's King Arthur,' pletely electrified his hearers. He repeated
'Ottocar in Der Freischiitz,' and the like. He this wonderful performance at several
succeedprosecute his studies, first to ing festivals, and in the Handelian repertorythen went, to
Paris under Bordogni, and subsequently to nothing was more striking than his delivery of Mazzuoato he appeared at the 'Total Eclipse' from 'Samson.' [He was theMilan ;
'Donizetti's Lucia di first representative of various tenorScala as Edgardo in parts in
' cantatasLammermoor with marked success. Return- oratorios and that are for the most part
England he [appeared at various con- forgotten in the present day, such as Benedict'sing to
Jullien Peter,' Bennett's 'Maycerts, and] was engaged by for Drury 'St. Queen,' Sullivan's
' 'where he made his first appearance on Prodigal Son ' and Light of the World.' HisLkne,
' ' 'as Edgar in The Bride singing of Tom Bowling ' and Come into theMonday, Dec. 6, 1847,
once took position as garden, Maud remained unapproachableof Lammermoor,' and at ' until
'and singer of the first rank. His the end of his life. It was unfortunate thatan actor
a pure high tenor of delicious hewas compelled by adverse circumstances to govoice had become
singing after hadthe tones vibrating and equal through- on his voice begun to decay.quality,
skilfully managed, and displaying His farewell concert took place at the Albertout, very
His deportment as an Hall on May 1891, but he sang afterwardsremarkably good taste. 11,
was natural and easy, his action manly at Covent Garden, and at music halls. Someactor
and exhibiting both passion critics, who onlyheard him in his last days, wereand to the purpose,
inclined question whether hepower, without the least exaggeration.' A to had ever beenand
he performed his first original great, but their doubts were without foundation.fortnight later
In the quarterofacenturyduringwhichLyonnel in Balfe's 'Maid of Honour.' hi^svoicepart,
was at its he sang onconducted the performance, en- best, the orchestra with[Berlioz, who
parts of Jenny Lind, Clara Novello, Tietjens, Adelinafor the performance of twogaged him
Patti, and Christine Nilsson,Faust at Drury Lane, Feb. 7, and held his ownLa Damnation de
engaged at Her with them all. Asisuredly none but a greatIn 1848 he was1848.]
artist could have done that. EvenTheatre, and came out as Carlo in in his vocalMajesty's
decay there was nothing harsh or ugly. He
name in a birthday book
1 possibly Oct 21 (he entered hieOr
never sang off the key, and even when he wasthat day).as born on' '
'nearly a model known Dresden Amen, ' which hasseventy his legato singing was as the
ot steadiness and breath management. The been used with marvellous effect in Wagner's
expression ' 'voice colouring ' was not much used Parsifal. G.
in Sims day, but of the art implied in REFRAIN (Fr. Se/rain Germ. Beimkehr).Reeves's ;
the words a past master. No one could This word used in music to denote what inhe was is
with the exact tonegreater certainty find to poetry is called a 'burden,' i.e. a short sentence
fit the most varied emotions. It was a com- or phrase which recurs in every verse or stanza.
prehensive talent indeed that could range at It was probably first employedin music in order
will from the levity of Captain Macheath's to give and unity to theroundness melody, and
songs to the poignant pathos of Handel's was thethen transferred to poetry which was
'Deeperand deeper still,' the emotional wairath written especially for music. Such collections
'of Beethoven's 'Adelaide,' or the cycle 'An as the Ecliosdu temps passe ' givean abundance
die feme Geliebte.' He died at Worthing, of examples in French music, where songs with
Oct. Sims '25, 1900.] Reeves married, Nov. refrains are most frequently to be found. Lil-2,
1850, Miss Emma Lucombe, soprano singer, liburlero ' may be cited as one English instance
who had been a pupil of Mrs. Blane Hunt, and out of many. [See vol. ii. p. 731.] Schubert's
appeared at the Sacred Harmonic four Refrain -Lieder wereSociety's published as op.
concert of June 19, 1839, and sang there and 95. M.
at other concerts until 1845, when she went REGAL (Fr. E^ale It. Eigale or
; mnfak).
to Italy. She returned in word derived1848, and appeared [The may be from 'regulus,' the
in opera as well as at concerts. She retired idea of gi'adation being inherent in a keyboard.
from public life and occupied herself as a The wooden harmonicon, when played with a
for keyboard, was at one timeteacher of singing, which she had a de- called 'r%ale en
This nameservedly high reputation. [She died at Upper bois. describes a variety of organ,']
Norwood, June 10, 1895 and in the same which is especially interesting as being in some
Maud ways the prototype of the modernyear her husband married his pupil. Miss harmonium.
'consists of a singlerow ofRene, with whom he went on a successful con- It beating ' reeds, the
cert tour in South Africa in 1896.] His son pipes of which are in some instances so small
Herbert, after a careful education under his as hardly to cover the reeds. A fine specimen
is in the possession ofthe Brusselsfather and at Milan, made his successful debut Conservatoire,
and was lent to the Inventionsat one of Mr. Ganz's concerts (June 12, 1880), Exhibition in
considerable favour from the 1885. The name 'bible regal' is the title ofand met with
another variety, the peculiarity ofwhichpublic, w. H. H. ; additions from the Diet, of consists
in its being arranged to foldNat. Biog., S. H. Pardon, Esq., etc. in two, on a similar
SYMPHONY, THE. principle to that on which leather backgammonREFORMATION
his Symphony in boards are made. The bellows are coveredwithMendelssohn's own name for
leather, so that when the instrumentminor, written with a view to performance at is foldedD
Tercentenary Festival of the Augsburg Pro- it presents the appearance of a large book.the
was intended to be Praetorius in his Syntagma, vol. iii. pi. iv.,testant Confession, which
gives a view of one, which its extendedcelebrated throughout Germany on June 25, ^
conbellows andmention of it appears to be in dition, all, appears to be about1830. The first
Wales, Sept. 3 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. He ascribes (ii.a letter of "his own from North 2, p. 73)
from the invention to a nameless monk others give1829. On May 25, 1830, he writes ;
organ-builderfinished, and when copied it to Voll, an at Nuremberg inWeimar that it is
was not, however, 1575. The specimen preserved in the Mustewill be sent to Leipzig. It
of the Conservatoire at Paris is said to dateperformed the political troubles of thatthen ;
any festive demonstrations. In from the end of the 16th century, and has ayear prevented
was in rehearsal compass of four octaves. The instrument hasJanuary and March, 1832, it
'long since extinct, but the name regaldid not come to actual per- beenin Paris, but it
applied in Germany to certainNovember when it was is still reed-formance till 1832,
stops. ["The word is used by Fetis, Rimbault,played under his own direction at Berlin. It
and Engel to denote the portable organ of therepeated during his life, but was re-was not
centuries. Mr. HipkinsNov. 1867. 12th and 13th pos-vived at the Crystal Palace, 30,
sessed a remarkably fine specimen, believed toIt was afterwards played at the Gewandhans,
unique as far as Great Britain is concerned.and was published in beLeipzig, Oct. 29, 1868,
by It is smaller than the Brussels one, being 2 ft.score and parts by Novello & Co., and
' 5 in. wide, and (with the bellows) 3 ft. 8 in.Symphony No. 5— 107, No.Simrock as op.
The compass is from E to c"'. TheThe first Allegro long.36 of the posthumous works.
boxwood stained black, thenaturalsbetween the old sharps are ofis said to represent the conflict
of bird's-eye maple. The keys are not balanced,and the Finale is foundedand new religions,
' but hinged. The instrument is of oak, and isEin' feste Burg ist unseron Luther's Hymn,
dated with no maker's name.]prominent themes of 1629,One of the mostGott.'
phrase In the inventory of Henry VIII. 's musicalis the beautiful ascendingthe work"
op.instruments [Harleian MS., 1419, A fol. 200], inD minor.1. Sonata for violin and piano,
we find thirteen and viola.pairs ofsingle regalls (the 'pair* 2. Trio for piano, violin
for violinand piano, in £>.3. Sonata
meant only one instrument) and five pairs of 4. SongB.Six
F minor,6. Sonata for violoncelloand piano, Indouble regalls (that is with two pipes to each
/Two Sacred Songs with oiguti.g
' piano.note). iBongB for 4 voices withThename continued in use at the
EngTlu'ee Organ pieces.7.
lish Court down to 8. Five SongB.1773, the date of the death ,
' for handflj.9. Walzer Kapricen ' (piano pieceB 4
of Bernard 'Gates, who was tuner of the Regals ' for 4 hands).10. Deutsclie TSnze ' pieces
11. Waltzes for FF.. the King's household.' For further parti- 12. Five Songs.
'13. Lose Bl&fcter,' FF. solo,culars the reader ia referred to Mr. A. J.
Hip14. Duets foi- soprano and alto, with piano.
kins's Musical iThstruments (A. & C. Black, 15. Ten Songs.
organ.16. Suite inE minor, for
1887), where instruments are • solo,figured; also to VJ. AuB der Jugendzeit,' twenty pieces for PF.
'IS. Improvisation,' FF. solo.the same writer's History the Pianoforte^of organ.19. Two Sacred Songs, with
solo.20. Five Humoresken for PF.1898. G.; with additions from MS. notes left
* Gesang ' (male chorus, with orchestra).21. Hymn An der
by Mr. Hipkins. 22. Six Waltzes, for piano hands).(4
23. Four Songs.
REGAN, Anna, soprano singer. [See 24. Six Pieces for FF. solo.
25. Aquarellen for FF. solo,SCHIMON.]
Seven FantasiestUcke for FF. solo.26.
27. Fantasie for organ on 'Bin' feste Burg-'REGER, Max, was born March 19, 1873, at
minor.28. Sonata for piano and violoncello, in6
Brand, minor, for org&n.a village near Kemnath in Bavaria, and 29. and Fugue, C
SO. Fantasie for organ on 'Freu' dich sehr, omeine Seele.
left his native place when but yeara old for 31. Six Songs.
82. Seven Chai-acteristlc Pieces for PP. solo."Weiden, whither his father, who was a teacher,
33. Sonata for Organ, Fit minor.
' Plttoieaques for piano hands).34. Pieces (4was transferred in 1874. There he received his
85. Six Songs.
firstmusical training through his father and the 36. Bunte Bl&tter, nine small pieces for PF. solo.
37. Five Songs.
, ^ ^,organist, whose name was Lindner. In 1890 male chorus (a o-9J.("Two volumes of Folk-songs for
Two of formixed (a ft^).jjo Jhe went to study with Riemann at Sonders- '"'1 Sacred Oerman (a 7<12}.
VSeven Choruses for male voices,hausen, whom he followed to Wiesbaden on the
voices.39. Three Six-part Choruses for mixed
'latter's appointment Wie Bch5n leucht't uns der Morgenstem,'to the Conservatorium, and / I. Fantasie on*n*'' fororgan).If. Dittoon 'StrafmichnichtIndeinemZom'(bothI
became himself a teacher there in 1895, till 41. Sonata inA for violinand piano.
B minor, and O- minor.42. Four Sonatas lor violin, inD minor. A,in 1896 he was called to the service of his
43. Eight Songs.
44. Piano After recovering from a severe illness
45. Six Intermezzi for piano.
he returned to his own home in 1898, removed 46. Phantasieand FugueonBACHfor organ.
47. Six Trios for organ.
again in this time to Munich, he1901, where 48. Seven Songs.
rFour Sonatas for violin alone (one in the style of Bach).^married.
'\Two for clarinet and piano.
Two50. Bomances for violin inOand D.Of all the composers of the modem German
61. Twelve Songs.
'school ofchamber and church music Herr Reger Organ Fantasie on Atle Menschen mUssen sterben.*
'62. -I Ditto. Wachet auf, riift uns die Stimme.'
occupies a place that is probably the most pro- '-Ditto. 'Halleluja, Gott zu loben.'
63. 'Silfaouebten' for piano.minent of any, and the fact that his publishers
54. Three String Quarbetts in G, A, andD minor.
65. Fifteen Bongs.attest to an enormous sale of hisworks in Berlin
66. Five easy Preludesand Fugues for organ.
'and other musical centres must contribute to - i Variations on Heil unaerm. KSniK. Heil.'l,„ „..„„°'- °*«*°/'°'1 Symphonic Fantasie and Fugue.
that belief. It cannot be denied that he is a 58. Six Burlesken for PF. (4 hands).
59. Twelve Pieces for organ.
gifted, a*a celebrated German criticcomposer
60. Sonata for organ inD minor.
Falmsonntagmorgenindividuality, and that he ' (5 voicesa cappella).remarks, with strong {'
Der evangeUsche Kirchenchor (for 4 voices), forty EasyCom*
. handles with the utmosF'facility ,the art of positions for church performance.
62. Sixteen Songs.
a large number of personscounterpoint ; but to Twelve Honologues for63. the organ.
64. String quintet inCHlnor (two violins, two violas, and violon-at the present day his resources ofharmony and
65. Twelve Pieces for organ.his indulgences in rhythm and in form will
66. Songs.
infinite as to fog even amost attentive 67. Fifty-three Easyappear so 'Choral Vorspiele.
68. Six Songs.
and experienced listener with their complexity. 69. Ten Organ Pieces.
70. Seventeen Songs.Truly, however, hiscompositions
containremark71. 'Gesang der VerklSrten' (for 6-Toiced choir and grand
orchestra).original effects. In his songs, toquoteable and
72. Sonata for pianoand violin.
'the aforesaid critic, hat er sich vielfach von 73. Variationsand Fugue on an originaltheme foroi^n.
74. String quartet inD minor.
Stromung fortreissen lassen, welche daseiner 75. Eighteen Songs.
Fifteen ' SchllohteWeisen76. ' forpianoand voice.Grundwesen des Liedes zerstbrt.' To which he
la) Serenade inD for flute,77. violin, and viola.
\b) Trio InAminor for violin, viola,adds that Herr Reger's powers of invention are and violonceUo.
78. Sonata for violoncelloand PF. in F.
only the employment of a consciousso rich that 79. Fourteen volumes of Pieces for piano, for organ, lor piano and
violin, for piano and violoncello, and songs.instead anlimitation of his artistic means of Five Easy Preludes80. and Fugues, B^h's Two-part Inventions
arranged as organ trios (with K. Stranhe), andintentional eclipse of his forerunners i§"to be de- twelve
pieces for organ.
would then be the master to 81. Variations and Fugue on atheme of J.sired ofhim, and he S. Bach, lor PF. solo
'82. Twelve small pieces for PF. solo, Aus meinem Twebuche.'
continue the direct line ofthe greatGermancom- 83. Eight Songs formale chorus.
Sonatas for PF.84. and violin in Ftt of thirty-four years of ageposers. For a 85. Four Preludes for the organ.
Variations andas 86. Fugue on a theme by Beethoventhe number of his compositions is enormous, for two PPs
from the catalogue below, which, it Twowill be seen 87. Compositions for violinand PP.
88. Four SongB.only one number forwill be noticed, contains
89. Two Sonatas (E minorand D) lor PP. aolo.
90. Sinfonietta for oi-chestra.orchestra (op. 90).—— — — ;
.Without opus numbdra are : Sistine Chapel, which are so far interesting asTwo Booka of Canons (1896) for PF.
PF. Transcriptions Kuhlau, etc., for FF. solo andof Bach, showing the curious custom of the time in
Four ' liturgical texts. Thus, inHeiterc Lieder.' combining different Sacred Songs. the two upper voices singtheFour one of them, whilePF. Studies left hand alone.for the
Five FF. Studies [arrangetnents of Chopin's works). 'usualwords ofthemass the tenor sings the Eooe
' Wiegenlied."
Piano songs by Hugo Wolf and RichardTranscriptions of ancilla Domini,'and the Bass 'Ne timeas Maria,'
Der which seem to show that this mass was
r Evangelische Kirchenchor, consisting of would
Book 1. sacred songs (8.A.T.B.) for all festivals,Forty easy
specially composed for the festival of thein four series.
Book II. Cantattk 'O wie selig' for mixed choir and con- Annunciation. In the other, the Alto and
stringsgregation, withaccompaniment of and organ.
Book III. Cantata for Good Friday, "O Haupt Toll Bint 'Tenor sing Duni sacrum mysterium cemeret
und Wundeu,' for alto and tenor (or sopr.) solos, mixed
Joannes,' which would imply the bechoir, violin solo, oboe solo, and organ. work to
Formale chorus :
intended for the festival of St. John theNine volkslieder.
Five volkslieder. Evangelist. Regis is also the author of a mass
Twelve madrigals.
:Fopmixed choir 'L'omme arme,' in the Archives of Cambrai,
Eight volkslieder.
and aSix of few other pieces in the collections of
Twelve German sacred songs (in three books).
'Fetrucci. The setting of a popular song S'il'Komm, helliger Geist.'
'Es Uel eim Than,' for 5-part choir. vous plaisait ' a transcribed by Kiesewetter in4,
*Vom Himmel hoch,' for 4-part chorus, two solo violins,
choir, and congregation, with organ orharmonium. his Schicksale und Beschaffenheit des weltlichen
For Organ;—Schule des Triospieis (arrangements of Bach's
Gesanges, serves to show the skill of Regis as a2.part inventions, with K, Straube).
Bomanse, also forharmonium. contrapuntal harmonist of the time in » very
with organ or piano.Songs
Arrangements of fifteen of Bach's clavier works for organ. favourable light. J. E. M. of aougs for harmoniuin.
PF. and violin:—Petite Caprice, Eomanze (G major), and REGISTER, of an organ. Literally, a set
of pipes as recorded or described by the name
For PF. and violoncello :—Caprice.
;For voiceand FF. —Sixteen songs. written on the draw-stop an
; hence, in general,
PF. solo :—Perpetuum mobile, Elegie, Humoreske, Bomanze,
Moment musical, Scherzino, Albumblatt, Frlihlingslied, organ-stop. The word ^register' is, however,
31<ilodie, two Humoresken, Nachtatllck.
not quite synonymous with 'stop,' for we doCanons in all major and minor keys. Book 1. in two parts,
Book II, in three parts.
not say 'pull out, or put in, a register,' but,
Bomance. and Prelude and Fugue. ' 'a stop, ' although we can say indifferently a
Begiments-Marsch der ehemaligen Hannoveiwihen Armee
'(arrangement). large number of registers ' or of stops.' The
new set of orchestral variations is announced for perform-A
word is also used as a verb for example, theance in the winter of 1907-8. ;
Literary work •.-^Beitrdge zur Madvlaliorulelvre (Contribution to
'expression skill 'registration'in registering ' or
the Bules of Modulation). U Y H
means skill in selecting various combinations
'EEGGIO, PiETRO, born at Genoa in the first of stops for use. The word stop is, however,
quarter of the 17th century, was private musi- never used as a verb in this sense. j. s.
cian (lutenist Christinaand singer) to Queen REGISTER is now employed to denote a
of Sweden after her abdication. After her final portion of the scale. The 'soprano register,'
departure from Rome, Eeggio came to England the 'tenor register,' denote that part of the
he pub- compass thoseand settled at Oxford, where, in 1677, scale which forms the usual of
'lished. ./I Treatise to sing well any Song whatso- voices the head register ' means the notes
ever. In 1680 lie issued a book of songs dedi- which are sung with the head voice ; the 'chest
' those which are sung from the chestcated to the king, and containing the earliest register
setting of 'Arise, ye subterranean winds,' from the 'upper register' is the higher portion of
Purcell. the compass of an instrument or voice, and soShadwell's 'Tempest,' afterwards setby
on. How it came to have this meaning, the(See Sammelhdnde of the Int. Mus. Ges. v. 553.)
discover.are in the British Museum writer hasjiot been able to g.Seven Italian songs REGISTRATION (or REGISTERING) isin MS., two duets in the Fitzwilliam
art of selecting and combining the stopsCambridge, and a three-part motet, in the theat
' asLibrary, Oxford. Reggio died or registers ' of the organ so to produce theChrist Church
best effect. See Organ-Playing, vol. London, July 23, 1685 (Hawkins), and was pp. the Fields. M.buried in St. Giles's
surname of a family of Flemishmusician the EEGNART,REGIS, Jean, a Flemish of
musicians who flourished towards the end oflatterpart ofthe 15thcentury, usuallyreckoned
16th century. There were five brothers,Caron,Obreeht,andOkeghem thealongwithBusnois,
August, as givenone of whom, Augustin (notas belonging to the transitional school of
comby Eitner, which would correspond to Augustusposers between Dufay and Binchois on the one
to Augustinus) was a canon ofTinctoris in Latin but nothand,andJosquinDespresontheother.
the Church of St. Peter's, Lille (not Douai, asmentionshim with special distinction. He was
Eitner suggests in the QuelUn-Lexikon, forget-master of the choir-boys in Antwerpfor a time
dedication partly quotedting the words of theCathedral, and is also supposed to have been in
andby himself in his Bihliographie, p. 216),^personal relation with Dufay. Though he does
1590 edited and published at Douai a,have ever been a innot appear, like Dufay, to
i contradictaSee also Goovaerb's Bihllagraphie, p. 268 ; but hemassesmember of the Papal Choir, two of his
Begnartas Canonhimself by elsewhere (p. 52) describing Augustin
Louvain.the great choir-books of the of St. Peter*stwere copied into
Collectionofthirty-nineMotets, publication in 1602-3o4-6,composed herself in preparing for
by his four brothers Francis, Jacob, Faschasius, husband's Masses, con-three volumes of her
and Charles Regnart. The and also awork appropriately taining altogether 29 a 5, 6, 8, 10,
'bears on its title-page Nos.the motto, Ecce quam book Sacrae Cantiones, a 4-12, 35of
bonum et quam jucundum fratres habitare of Regnart which ap-in The other sacred works
unum,' Psal. 132. The were a book offull title is 'Novae peared during his lifetime
Cantiones Saorae, 4, 5, et 6 vocum turn in- Sacrae a 5-6, 1575, and one a 4,Cantiones,
strumentorum cuivis generi tum vivae MariaZe, 1588, Marianvoci 1577 also one entitled;
aptissimae, authoribus thanksgiving forFrancisco, Jacobo, Pas- Motets composed by way of
casio, Carolo Begnart, fratribus germanis ' (an- recovery from severe illness. He was, however,
other incidental mistake of Eitner his secular works,is that of even more widely known by
taking the word Canzone'germanis' as indicative of which consist of two books of(1)
nationality, and explaining it on the ground Italiane, two books entitleda 5 (1574-81), (2)
that Flanders was then secular songs, as 5part ofGermany, while Threni Amorum, German
all that the word areally implies is tiiat the and several collections, 3, 4, 5,(1595), (3)
'brothers were fuU bro&Srs). Of the four Kurtzweilige teutsche Liedernach Artentitled only two welschen Villanellen'attained any real position or der Neapolitanen oder
eminence collection ofas composers, Francis and Jacob. The (1576-91). Of the latter, the
other two are only represented by three motets was republished by Eitner in modem67 a 3
a piece in this Collection, and written in the simpleof their careers score in 1895. They are
anynothing is known with any certainty. Of melodious Italian canzonet style, without
Francis, Angustin tells us that he had pursued artificiality of counterpoint. In some
introhis studies at the University Douai and composer apologisesof the ductory lines of verse the
Cathedral of Tournai. Besides the twenty-four for his frequent intentional employment of
motets in the Collection above mentioned, consecutive fifths in the harmony as being in
Francis Regnart is chiefly popular characterheknown by a book of accordance with the simple
fifty Chansons a 4-5, 'Poesies de Ronsard et wished to give these songs. The melody of
autres,' originally published at Douai by Jean one of them, 'Venus du und dein Kind,' has
Bogaerd in and afterwards at Paris by become, with a slight alteration in the first line,1575,
'Le Roy and Ballard in 1579. These Chansons the chorale tune well-known later, Aufmeinen
have now been republished in modern score by lieben Gott.' Two of Regnart's other songs,
H. Expert in his collection 'Les Maitres which have something more of imitativea 5,
Musicians de la renaissance Fran^aise.' F^tis counterpoint, have been reprinted in Commer's
mentions a book of Missae tres a 4-5, by selection of 'Geistliche und weltliohe Lieder
Regnart, published by Plantin in aus der xvi-xvii None of LatinFrancis 1582, Jahrh.' his
but there is no trace of such a publication in motets have been reprinted, with the exception
Goovaert's Bibliographic, and Eitner knows of one which found admission into the
Emmgelical Gotha Gantionalnothing of it. of 1655, whence it has
Of the life and works of Jacob Regnart been reproduced in Schoberlein's ScJiatz. His
we have fuller information. He was early Masses, several of them based on the themes of
an Alumnus of the Imperial Chapel German popular songs, must have popularreceived as been
at Vienna and Prague. In 1564 he is desig- in their day, judging from the MS. copies of
nated ais tenor singer in the chapel and as a them enumerated in Eitner m surviving in
chapel accompanied the Emperor various church archives. Amember of the Passion according
Matthew,to the Augsburg Diet of 1566. In 1573 he is to St. a 8, by Regnart survives only
mentioned as musical preceptor to the boys of in MS., of which some account is given in
before 1579 became the vice- Eade, Die aelterethe choir, and Passionskompositionen, pp.
was offered by the 60-62.capellmeister. In 1580 he J. E. M.
of Saxony the post of oapellmeister at REGONDI, GiTJLlo, of doubtfulElector parentage,
vacant by the death of Scandelli, but bom at Geneva in 1822.Dresden His reputed father
the was a teacher indeclined. In 1582, however, he left theGymnasium of Milan. The
to enter that of the Archduke child appears to have beenimperial service an infant
phenoInnsbruck, where he remained as menonon the guitar, andFerdinand at to have been sacrificed
father,capellmeister till 1595. He then returned to by his who took him to every court of
where he died in 1600. Shortly before Europe, excepting Madrid, beforePrague, he was nine
a book of Masses years old. They arriveddeath, in the dedication of in England in Junehis
Emperor, Rudolf II., which, however, 1831 ; and Giulio seems never to haveto the left the
till afterwards, he recom- United Kingdom againwas not published except for two concert
wife tours in Germany,mended to the care of the Emperor his one with Lidel, the
violonchildren. The widow, a daughter of cellist, in 1841, the other withand six Mme. Dulcken
bass singer in the in 1846. On theformerVisoher, the famous ofthese toursheHans played
Orlando both the guitar andChapel at Munich under the melophoneElectoral (whatever
Munich, where she occupied that may have been), andreturned to evoked enthusiasticLassus,EEHEAESAL EEICHA 51
praises from the correspondents of the A. M. action and business begin. The orchestra is
Zeitung in Prague andVienna for his extraordi- neverused until the last two or three rehearsals,
nary execution on both instruments, the very and Full Bandthese are termed Rehearsals
artistic and individual characterof his perform- (Germ. GenercU-probe). Last of all, before the
ance, and the sweetness of his cantabile. The public production of the work, comes the Full
concertina Sirwas patented by Charles Wheat- Dress exactly as itRehearsal, will appear in
stone in 1829[seeConcertina],butdidnotoome performance. G.
into use till Eegondi took it up. He wrote two REICHA, Anton Joseph, born at Prague,
concertos for it, and a very large number of Feb. lost his father before27, 17.70, he was a'
arrangementsand originalcompositions. Healso year old his mother not
; providing properly
taught it largely, and at one time his name was for his education, he left home, and took refuge
tobe seen in almost allconcertprogrammes. He with his grandfather at Glattow, in Bohemia.
was a great friend of Molique's, who wrote for The means of instruction in this small town
him a Concerto for the Concertina (in G) which being too limited, he went on to his uncle
played with great success at the concert ofhe Joseph Eeioha (born in Prague, 1746, died at
the Musical Society of London, April 20, 1864. Bonn, a violoncellist,1795), conductor, and
When he went abroad for his second tour, his composer, who lived at Wallerstein in Bavaria.
performance and the effect which he got out of His wife, a native of Lorraine, speaking nothing
and anso unpromising inartistic instrument but French, had no children, so they adopted
astonished the German critics. (See the A. M. the nephew, who thus learned to speak French
Regondi appearsZetong' for 1846, p. 853.) to and German besides his native Bohemian. He
have been badly treated by his father, and to now began to study the violin, pianoforte, and
have had wretched health, which carried him flute in earnest. On his uncle's appointment,
on May 1872. G. inoff 6, 1788, as musical director to the Elector of
REHEARSAL (Fr. M^aUion, Ger. Probe). Cologne, he followed him to Bonn, and entered
In the case of concerts, a trial performance pre- the band of Maximilian of Austria as second
the public one, at which each piece flute. dailyliminary to The intercourse with good music
included in the programme is played through roused the desire to compose, and to become
at least once, if in MS. to detect the errors in- something more than an ordinary musician,
and in any case to study but his uncle refusedevitable in the parts, to teach him harmony.
bring outthe work and discover how best to He managed, however, to study the works of
intentions of the composer, and to ensure Kirnbergcr and Marpurg in secret, gained muchthe
ensemble on the part of,the performers. practical knowledge by hearing the works ofa perfect
reasons, princi- Mozart, Haydn,In England, owing tomany but Handel, and and must have
pally the over-occupation ofthe players, suffi- learnedmuch from his constant intercourse withto
seldom given to orchestral Beethoven, who played the viola in the samecient rehearsals are
Society himself and was muchworks. Theold rule ofthe Philharmonic band with attached to
altered) was to have one rehearsal him. Atlength hisperseveranceand his success(now happily
the performance on in composition conquered hisuncle's dislike. Heon Saturday morning for
Popular Con- composed without restraint, and his symphoniesMonday evening, and the Saturday
playedin like manner, rehearsals and other works were by his uncle'scerts were originally,
concerts. Nonewworks orchestra.'fortheMonday evening
than two On the dispersion of the Elector's Court inefficiently performed with lesscan be
where liecase of large, intricate, 1 794, Reieha went to Hamburg, re-rehearsals ; and in the
requisite. We mained till 1799. There the subject of instmo-and vocal works, manymore are
tion in composition began to occupy him, andthat Beethoven's Eb Quartet,have it on record
composed his first operas, 'Godefroidseventeen times before there heop. 127, was rehearsed
'thereforemust de Montfort, ' and Oubaldi, ou les Franjais enits performance the playersfirst ;
(two acts). Though not performed,that state of familiarity and Egypte'have arrived at
the latter were well received,attains with a some numbers ofcertainty which a solo player
on the advice ofa French ^migr^, he startedsonata. andconcerto or
the close of 1799, in the hopepractice of either for Paris towardsIn the case of Operas, every
Feydeau. In thisor producing it at the Theatreor orchestra, separately ofchorus, principals,
but two of his symphonies, an over-rehearsal. These will some- he failed,together, istermed a
' Italiennes,' were playedweeks or two ture, and some Scenescontinue every day for sixtimes
dialogue, concerts. After the successive closing ofthewholeofthevoice-music, atmonths, as the
and the Salle Favart, he wentheart. Whilst Theatre Feydeauand action has to be learnt by
inone part of to Vienna, and passed six years (1802-8),is learning the music inthe chorus
makingintimacy with Beethoven, andprincipals areprobably at work renewedthe theatre, the
Salieri,green-room, friends with Haydn, Albreohtsberger,with the composer at a piano in the
Mariathe stage. and others. ThepatronageoftheEmpressis being rehearsed onand the ballet
musicand dialogue areknownIt isonlywhen the
1 an intereBtlDg notice by Kaatner, quoted by Thayer,See
JJeethoverit i. IBS.rehearsals on the stage withthat theby heart;
Theresa was of great service to him, and at published a Germanher be grateful for. Czerny
request 'he composed an Italian opera, Argina, translation of the Traiti de haute composition
regina di Granata.' During this happy period (Vienna,' vols, folio), and in his Art1834, four
of his life he published symphonies, tise of Reicha'soratorios, cSimproviser obviously made
a requiem, six string quintets, and many solos Art de varier—fifty-seven variations on an
for PF. and other instruments. He himself original theme.
attached great importance to his '36 was naturalised inFugues Reicha married a Parisian,
pour le piano,' dedicated to Haydn, but they and received the Legion of Honour in1829,
are not the innovations which he believed them 1831. himself several times forHe presented
to be in placing the answers on any nomination; and every election to the Institut before his
note of the scale he merely reverted to the as Boieldieu's successor in 1835. He only
Eicercari of the 17th century, and the only short time, being carriedenjoyed his honours a
effect of this abandonment 1836.of the classic laws of offby inflammation of the lungs. May 28,
Real fugue was to banish tonality. His death was deplored by the many friends
The prospect of another war induced honourable characterReicha whom his trustworthy and
to leave Vienna, and he settled finally in Paris had attached to him. A life-like portrait,
in 1808. He now realised the dream of his somewhat spoiled by excessive laudation, is
youth, producing first 'Cagliostro' Beicha (Paris,(Nov. 27, contained in the Notice sur 1837,
1810),anopera-oomique G.composedwithDourlen 8vo), by his pupil Delaire. c.
and at 'the Academie, Natalie ' (three acts, July REICHARDT, Alexander, a tenor
singer,'30, 1816), and Sapho ' (Dec. 16, 1822). Each was born at Packs, Hungary, April 1825.17,
of these works contains music worthy of respect, He received his early instruction in music from
but they had not sufficient dramatic effect to an uncle, and made his first appearance at the
take with the public. age ofeighteenattheLemberg theatre asRodrigo
'Reicha's reputation rests on his chamber- in Rossini's Otello. ' His success there led him
music, and on his theoretical works. Of the to Vienna, where he was engaged at the Court
formerthe followingdeservemention : a Opera, and completed education underdiecetto his
for five strings and five wind Gentiluomo,instruments ; an Catalani, etc. At this time he
octet for four strings and fourwind was much renowned for his singing of the
twenty-four quintets for flute, oboe, clarinet, Lieder of Beethoven and Schubert, and was in
horn and bassoon six quintets
; and twenty request at all the soirees ; Prince Esterhazy
quartets for strings ; one quintet for clarinet made him his Kammersanger. In 1846 he
and strings one quartet for PF., flute, violon- a toiimie through Berlin, Hanover, etc.,;
cello, and bassoon Paris,
; one do. for four flutes ; six to returning to Vienna. In 1851 he
do. for flute, violin, tenor, and violoncello ; six made his first appearance in England, singing
string trios ; one trio for three violoncellos at the Musical Union, May and at the6,
harmonic,tweuty-four do. for three horns ; six duets for May 12, at many other concerts, and
two violins; twenty-two do. for two flutes; before Queen Victoria. In the following season
'twelve sonatas for PF. and violin, and a number he returned and sang in Berlioz's Romeo and
of sonatas and pieces for PF. solo. He also Juliet,' at the new Philharmonic Concert of
composed symphonies and overtures. These April 14, also in the ChoralSymphony, Berlioz's
' 'works are more remarkable for novelty of com- Faust,' and the Walpurgisnight,' and enjoyed
bination harmonies, than a very great popularity.and striking for From this time until
abundance and charm ofideas. Reicha's faculty 1857 he passed each season in England, singing
for solving musical problems brought him into at concerts, and at the Royal Opera, Drury
Lane,notice among musicians when he first settled in- and Her Majesty's Theatre, where he
'Paris, and in 1818 he was offered the professor- filled the parts of the Count in The Barber of
'ship of counterpoint and fugue at the Conser- Seville,' Raoul in The Huguenots,' Belmont in
were the 'Seraglio,'vatoire. Among his pupils there Boilly, Don Ottavio in 'Don Juan,'
Jelensperger, Bienaimd, Millaut, Lefebvre, and Florestan in 'Fidelio.' The last was a
and very successful,Elwart, PoUet, Lecarpentier, Dancla, impersonation, and in this part
'was saidothers. he to have laid the foundation of the
His didactic works, all published in Paris, popularity which he has so honourably earned
and maintained in London.'are : Traitd de Melodie, etc. (4to, 1814) ; C(ywrs He also appeared
de composition mimcale, etc. TraiU de with much success in oratorio.(1816) ; In 1857 he
haute composition (first part 1824, gave his first concert inrrmsicale Paris, in the Salle
Erard, and thesecond 1826), a sequel to the other two and following sentence from
; Berlioz's
Artdu compositefu/r dramatique, etc. (4to, 1833). report of the performance will give an idea of
'and his style and voice.F^tis has criticised his theories severely, M. Reichardt is a tenor
successful in their day, they are of the first water—sweet, tender,though highly sympathetic
can surpass the and charming. Almost allnow abandoned, but nothing his pieces were
redemanded, andmethod of his analysis, and those he sang them againclearness and without a
always find much to sign offatigue.' In 1860he settledwho use his works will in Boulogne,— ;
which he seldom manifests even towards the the chorus, in order to gain experience. She
greatest masters. He never rested until he had sang Franz Lachner's Requiemthe alto part in
arranged for the performance of Eeiohardt's that sheat Leipzig in 1871 with such success
Morning Hymn, after Milton, at the Diisseldorf 'became engaged at Carlsruhe. She played as
Festival of 1835 and; hia enthusiasm for the June andAgathe,guest ' at Berlin as Pamina, 5,
composer, and his wrath at thosewho criticised June 9, 1874 she then returned to Munich,;
him, are delightful to read.' Years afterwards, and sang Daniel in Handel's 'Belshazzar,'
when his mind had lost the ardour of youth, she marriedApril 14, 1875. Soon after
and much experience had sobered him, he still Emanuel Eeicher, an actor at the Gartnerplatz
retained his fondness for this composer, and few theatre, sang there in opfraand for a time
things aremore charming than the genial appre- played Grim-bouffe, but returned to opera and
ciationwithwhich he tells Reichardt's daughter gerde in the 1st Cycle, and Erda in the 2nd
of the effect her father's songs had had, Cycle, 1876. She next playedat Bayreuth in
even when placed in such a dangerous appeared asposi- at Hamburg, Vienna (where she
tion as between works 'of Haydn and Mozart, Leah production of Rubinstein's Mac-on the
at the Historical Concert at the Gewandhaua cabees Munich. Having re-and again at'),
in Feb. 1847. It is the simplicity, Faurethe naivety ceived instruction for the purpose from
the national feeling of this true German music and Jules Cohen at Paris, she sang in French
that he praises, and the applause with which it such success thatat Monte Carlo in 1880 with
was received shows that washe not alone in his she received an offer to sing at La Scala, Milan,
appreciation. Amongst Reichardt's numerous butdeclined it in favour ofan engagementunder
works are eight operas ; eight Singspiele, includ- made her debutNeumann at Leipzig, where she
'ing four to Goethe's poems, Jery und Bately,' as Fidelio, May 12, 1880. She became a great
'Erwiri und Elmire,' 'Claudine von favourite, and remained there until 1882. She(1789),
' 'Villabella,' and Lilla ; five large vocal works, played Neumann's company in the Trilogy atin
'including Milton's Morning Hymn, ' translated Berlin and otherGerman towns, inLondon,and
by Herder, his most important work, in 1835 lastly at Trieste, where she died June 2, 1883.
a large number of songs, many of which have [See Neumann's Erinnerwngen, etc., 1907.]
passed through several editions, and been pub- She made agreat impression at HerMajesty's
'lished in various collections. Theatre as Fricka on the production of
Rhein'writingsReichardt's show critical acumen, gold,' May 5, and of WalkUre,' May 6, 1882,
observation, and jiidgmeut. Besides the letters and still more as Briinnhilde in the 2nd Cycle
'previouslymentioned,hepublished Das Kunst- not only was her magnificent voice equal to all
numbers in two vols. presentation ofmagazin, eight (Berlin, the demands upon it, but her
1782 and Studienfur TonMnstler wnd the character was full of force and of pathos.1791) ;
a criticalandhistorical periodical While than Fran Vogl in theMusihfrewnde, no less touching
with thirty-nine examples (1792) ; Vertraute truthfulness of her expression, she was more
aus Paris, three parts Vertravie heroic and dignified the supernatural elementBriefe (1804) ; ;
Beise nach Wien, etc. was brought into stronger relief ... in theBriefe auf einer (1810) ;
fragments of autobiography in various news- grand awakening scene her mannerwas perhaps
papers and innumerable articles, critiques, etc. too coldly dignified and wanting in the
interesting from the sivenessThe Briefe are specially which characterises the heroine when
copious details they give, not only on the music, she has finally abandoned her supernatural
^politics, literature, and society of the attributes and become a true woman.' a. o.but on the
various places he visited. A biography, J. F. REICHMANN, Theodoe, was bom at
RosBeichardt, sein Leben vmd seine musikalische tock, March 15, 1849, was taught to sing at
Schletterer, CapellmeisterThdtiglceU, by Herr first byMantius, and subsequentlyby Lamperti
of the cathedral of Augsburg, is unfinished, two in Milan he made his debut as a baritone at
having been published at Augs- Magdeburg in and sang at Berlin, Rot-volumes only 1869,
burg in 1865. [For list of compositions and terdam, Strasburg (1872), Hamburg (1873),
see the QiLellen-Lexilcon.'] A. M. Munich and was a member of thewritings, (1875),
REICHER-KINDERMANN', Hedwig, the Court Opera at Vienna in 1882-89. In 1882
daughter ofthe oelebratfedbaritone, Kindermann he sang the part of Amfortas at Bayreuth for
the first time, andwasbom, July 15, 1853, at Munich. She was identified with it for(?.«.),
was taught the piano first by hermother, and at some ten years, after which differences with
Music, but abandoned the same the authorities resultedthe School of in his non-appearance
Franz there untilin favour of singing, on the advice of 1902. In the seasons between
She received her vocal instruction 1889 and 1891 he sang in New York, and inWiillner.
latterfrom her father, and made her d^but at the the year returned to Vienna, becoming
'as one of the boys in the Meis- once more a member of the Opera Company inMunich Opera
in the 1893. In that year hetersinger,' and next played small parts sang the part of Creon
' Medea at andrama, and ballet, besides singing in in ' operatic festival at Gotha.opera,
1 Apfll 1835. AtheniBwm, May 20, 1882.Letters, Dee. 28, 1833 ; 3,; ;;
in when directed a musical1865, a krge number of students, who Brosig; had founded and
thought that they had a right of entry, which performed oratorios,broke society at Ratibor,
into the conoert-hall. becomeknown duringetc., under him, and had
theSuch was the state of things on Professor 1879 1880 as musical reporter toand
Oakeley's appointment other literary worksin 1866. Finding it ScMesicher ZeUvmg, and by
ilnposaible, After heafter twenty years, to return to the {Nmms, 1882 Prosodies, 1885-86).;
original system of Tiiomson and Bishop, music, he published somehe definitely took to
made a, compromise, by giving free (sonatas, studies,admissions vocal and organ compositions
to which wasthe Professors, the University Court, the etc.), and a biography of Schumann,
students in their fourth year at college, and a published Peters in and in that yearby 1887,
few leading musicians in the city, and musical critic foradmitting he moved to Berlin to act as
the rest of the audience by payment. From the Allgerrteine Musikalische ZeiMmg. For
thisdate anew eradawnedon theReidConcerts a time occupied at the Royal Library,he was
-playing andthe university and the city were satisfied, and besides being teacher of organ
the standard of performance at once rose. the Scharwenka-Klindworth
ConserIn 1867 the engagement of Manns and of vatorium and organist of the Phil-till 1894,
a Palace orchestra year the Kaiserfew of the Crystal produced harmonic till 1895, in which
very good results. appointed him to the great church in the
In 1869 HalU and his band were engaged, Augusta- to the memoryViotoriaplatz, erected
for tickets soon he enjoyedand the demand became so of the Emperor William I., where
great that the Professor organised two supple- a great reputation as an organ virtuoso, and
mentary performances on the same scale aa the directed some of the most magnificent and
imconcerts masses, and'Reid,' and thus, from which on some pressive performances of oratorios,
occasions seem to have been a mere performance church music generally, given in any church
ofballadsand operaticmusicbya starringparty, in Germany. In 1897 he received the title
into Bachthe Reid Concert grew the 'Edinburgh of Professor, and in 1898 founded a
'Orchestral,' or Reid Festival,' which in turn Society. He died at Charlottenburg, May 24,
was converted into the series of historical con- 1906.
in vol. iii. 816. The Scottish femalecerts described p. His compositions include duets for
TJ]jiiversities Commission abolished the 'Reid voices ; love scenes in waltzform for four voices
Concert' itself, about 1893. G. a chorus for four male voices ; an album of
Ignaz (born Deo.REIMANN, 27, 1820, at children's songs for solo voice ; toccata for organ
Albendorfin the district ofGlatz, died June 17, in Eminor (op. piano duets ; two wedding23) ;
became principal teacher and choir- songs for bass yoicei ; arrangements of twenty-1885),
Silesia, havingmaster at Rengersdorf in been five German soiigs, 'Das deutsche Lied,' of the
a pupil of the Breslau Seminary. He was an 14th to the 19th centuries, also for bass voice
diligent and fluent composer of a prelude and fugue in D minor for theexcessively triple
and wrote no fewer than 74 and ciacona forchurch music, Qrgan ; organ in F minor. His.
masses, of which only 18 were published, 24 writings are numerous, and include a
contribupublished), 4 Te Deums pub- tion on the theory andRequiems (4 (3 history of Byzantine
4 Oratorios, 83 Offertories musiclished), 37 Litanies, (1889) ; two volumes of musical
retropublished), 50 Gradualieu (40 published), spects, Wagneriana-IAsztiana an opening(48 ;
many burial-songs, wedding cantatas, volume to his own collection ofbesides lives of
celeovertures, and other brated musicians,Salves, Aves, etc., and 9 being the biography of
Schuinstrumental works. mann already mentioned, to which he added,
(son of the above) wasbom March those of BUlow and J. S. Bach.Heinrich H. v. H.
musical REIMANN,1860, at Rengersdorf, and received Matthiett (Matthias Reyman-14,
from his father. He passed the nus), (born 1544 at Lowenberg, diedinstruction Oct. 21,
and studied philology at at Prague), wasGymnasium at Glatz, 1597, a Doctor of Law and
fol- Imperial CouncillorBreslau from 1870 to 1874, graduated the underRudolf II. , andwrote
'taught at the gymnasia of twoworks for the lute ; the onelowing year, and entitled Noctes
Berlin, Ratibor, and Glatz, musioae' appeared inStrehlen, "Wohlau, 1598, and the other,
'in each place successively, till in Cithara sacra psalmodiae IDavidisfor a year ad usum
of that at Gleiwitz, in testudinis,' in 1603.1885 he became director h. v. h.
REINACH,Silesia. There he quarrelled with the , Saloman (Th6odoke), bomUpper
up his post,- embraced the June 1860, at St.authorities, threw 3, Germain-en-Laye, was at
thenceforth devoted him- first educated at theProtestant faith, and fcole Normal in that place.
to music. As a schoolboy (Gym- His bent was always for languages,self entirely and
especialready conducted an orchestral ally for Archaeology.nasiast) he had His occupation of the
post ofsociety, and had composed church Conservator (curator) of the Museum,and choral
music, and as a student had led of Antiquities at St. Germainand chamber —which was both,
(Gesangverein), the reward of,academical singing-club and the ever-fresh incentivethe
' studying incidentallywith Moritz to, his taste for originalLeopoldina,' research— affordedHEINKICH OAKSTEN REIXECKECAKL;
1872 he made extensive tours Incidentally
; in England Motets 5-6, appeared in 1579.a
he played at the Musical Union, Crystal Palace, that in 1589 Lassus dedi-it may be mentioned
and Philharmonic, on the 6th, 17th, and the eighth volume19th cated a book of six masses,
of April, 1869, respectively, and Abbot ofmet with great of Patrocmki/m Musices, to thethe
success hoth as a virtuoso and a composer. He himself returned to Wein-Weingarten. Reiner
reappeared in this country in to his death on1872, and was garten, and from at least 1586
equally well receivedi [In 1895 he resigned was engaged as lay singerandAugust 12, 1606,
the post of conductor of the Gewaudhaus monastery. His publica-choir-master to the
concerts, but kept his position consist of severalin the Conserva- tions are fairly numerous, and
torium, being whichappointed in 1897 director of motets,masses,andmagnifieats,volumesof
musical studies until when in detail, especially1902, he retired need not here be specified
altogether.] missing, alsosince part-books are frequently
Eeinecke's industry in composition is great, two German songs a 3-5. Threevolumes of
his bestworks, as beexpected, exist in MS., of amight being those settings a 5 of the Passion
for piano his The first
; three PF. sonatas indeed are ex- similar character to those by Lassus.
oellentcompositions, carryingoutMendelssohn's Motets was reproduced involume of Reiner's
technique without indulging the eccentricities Ottomar Dresel in 1872,of lithograph score by
modern virtuosi in the
; his pieces fortwo PFs. are also and one of the numbers also appears
good ; his PF. Concerto in minor, » well- supplement to Proske's 'Musica Divina,' editedFJt
established favourite both with musicians J. K. M.and by F. X. Haberl in 1876.
the public, was infollowed by two others in E EEINHOLD, Hugo, bom March 3, 1854,
minor and C respectively. Besides other instru- Vienna, was a choir-boy of the Hofkapelle of his
mentalmusic—awind octet, quintets, fourstring Conservatoriumnative city and a pupil of the
quartets, seven trios, concertos workedfor violin and der Musikfreuude till 1874, where he
violoncello, etc.—he has composed an opera in with Bruckner, Dessofl', and Epstein under the
'live acts, Konig Manfred,' and two in one act endowment of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and
'each, Der vierjahrigen Posten ' (after medal. He hasKbmer) Gotha, and obtained a silver
' 'and Ein Abenteuer Handel's ; Auf hohen presented various compositions, numbering up
Befehl' and 'DerGouvemeurvon Tours' to op. to the public, including piano(1886), 59,
incidental music to Schiller's in A(1891); 'Tell'; music and songs, a string quartet (op. 18
an oratorio, Belsazar' cantatas' ; formen's voices major), a suite in five movements for piano and
' 'Hakon Jarl ' and Die Flucht nachAegypten strings, and a Prelude, Minuet, and Fugue for
overtures, 'Dame Kobold,' 'Aladdin,' 'Friedens- stringed orchestra. The two latter were
perfeier, Zenobia, a funeral
'an overture, ' 'and march formed at the Vienna Philharmonic Concerts of
for the Emperor Frederick (op. ; two Dec. 1877, and Nov. respectively,200) 9, 17, 1878,
masses, and three symphonies, (op. 79 in A, and were praised by the Vienna thecritic of
and minor)op. 134 in minor, op. 227 in 6 Monthly Mimeal Secord for their delicate
and a large number of songs and of pianoforte acter and absence of undue pretension. The
pieces in all styles, including valuable studies quartetwasexecutedby Hellmesberger. H. v. H.
his of fairyand educational works. Of settings EEINHOLD, Theodor Christlieb, bom in
tales as cantatas for female voices, Schnee- 1682, died in 1755, was the teacher of Johann
' 'wittohen,' Dornrbschen,' Aschenbrodel,' and Adolf Hiller (Hiiller), composerthe of numerous
several others are very popular. His style motets, andcantorofthe Kreuzkirche atDresden
counterpointis refined, his mastery over .ind from 1720 till his death. h. v. h.
form is absolute, and he writes with peculiar EEINHOLD, Thomas, born atDresden about
and correctness. He has also done was theclearness 1690, reputed nephew, or, as some said,
much editing, for Breitkopfs house. His son, of theArchbishop of that city. Hehad an
position at Leipzig speaks for his ability as a early passion for music, and havingmet Handel
pianist (especially in Mozart) at theconductor ; as a Archbishop's residence conceived so
position forhe kept up a high many years ; as strong a liking for him that after a time he
accompanist he is first-rate ; and as an quitted his abode andan sought out the great
comfor the pianoforte he is recognised as poser in London,arranger where he appeared in various
one of the first of the day. Various contribu- works of Handel's, aftermaking his first
appearmusical literature will be found ance in Julytions to 1731 at the Haymarket Theatre
Lexikon. [See also as a singerenumerated in Eiemann's in 'The Grub Street Opera.' He
Segnitz, Carl Ileineeke.'\ ri G. died in Chapel Street,E. Soho, in 1751.
Jacob, born about 1559 or 1560 His son, CharlesREINER, Frederick, bom in 1737,
was atat Altdorf in Wurtemberg, brought up received his musical education first in St. Paul's
BenedictineMonastery ofWeingarten,where and afterwards in the Chapelthe Eoyal. On Feb. 3,
first musical training. We he madehe also received his 1755, his first appearance on the stage
have it on his own authority that he was after- at DrUryLane as Oberon in J. C. Smith's opera,
of Orlando Lassus at Munich, 'The Fairies,' beingwards a pupil announced as 'Master
a volume of Eeinhold.'where also his first publication, He afterwards became organist ofEEINKEN EEISSIGER 59
St. George the Martyr, Bloomsbury. In 1759 by G. A. Eitter, then studied theology in
he appeared aa a bass singer at Marylebone Berlin, but after passing his examination,
deGai-dens, where he continued to sing for many voted himself entirely to music, and studied
seasons. He afterwards performed in English with A. B. Marx. His first attempts at
operas, and sang in oratorios, and at provincial composition, some psalms sungbythe Cathedral
festivals, etc. He was especially famed for choir, attracted the attention of King Frederick
'his singing of Handel's song, ruddier than William IV., and procured him a travelling
the cherry.' He was one theof principal grant. He visited Paris, Milan, Eome, and
bass singers at the Commemoration of Handel Naples, taking lessons in singing from Geraldi
in 1784. He retired in 1797, and died in and Bordogni. On his retm-n in 1853 he
Somers Town, Sept. 1815. See Musical obtained29, a post in the Conservatorium of
Times, 1877, p. 273. w. H. H. Cologne, and in 1858 became organist in the
KEINKEN, JoHANN Adam, or Jan Adams Cathedral of Bremen, and conductor of the
Eeincken, eminent organist, bom at Wils- Singakademie. He had already composed an
'hausen in Lower Alsace, Api-il 27, 1623, a oratorio, Jephta ' (performed in London by
pupil of Heinrioh Soheidemann, became in HiiUah, April and published16, 1856, with
1654 organist of the church of St. Catherine at English text by Novellos), and in 1875 his
'Hamburg, and retained the post till his death, opera Edda ' was played with success at
KTov. 24, at the age of ninety-nine. He Bremen, Hanover, and elsewhere.1722, His
' 'was a person of some consideration at Hamburg, Bismarck-hymn obtained the prize at
Dortboth on account of his fine playing, and of his mund, and he composed a symphony, and
beneficial influence on music in general, and a large number of part-songs. [He was a
the Hamburg opera in particular, but his vanity member of the Berlin Academy from 1882,
and jealousy of his brother artists are severely and had the title of Eoyal Professor in 1888.
'commented onby his contemporaries. So great His cantata In der Wiiste ' had a great success,
and widespreadwas his reputation that Sebas- and his opera 'Kathchen von Heilbronn' re-so
tian Bach frequently walked to Hamburg from ceived a prize at Frankfort. He retired from
Ltineburg (1700 to and Cothen the Singakademie in 1890, and died at Bremen,1703), (1720),
hear Keinken may be considered Feb. F. him play. 13, 1896.]
EEISSIGER, Karl Gottlieb, son ofthe best representative of the North-Gennan
Chrisschool of organists of the 17th century, whose tian Gottlieb Eeissiger, who published three
strong points were, not the classic placidity of symphonies for full orchestra in 1790. Born
Jan. at Belzig near Wittenberg,the South-German school, but great dexterity 31, 1798,
of foot and finger, and ingenious combinations where his father was Cantor, he became in
the stops. His compositions are loadedwith 1811 a pupil of Sohicht at the Thomas-of
schule, Leipzig. In 1818 he removed to thepassages for display, and are defective in form,
University with the intention of
studyingbothinindividualmelodiesandgeneralconstruc'are very scarce Hortus theology, but some motets composed in 1815tion. His works ;
viol da gamba and and 1816 had already attracted attention, andMusicus,' for two violins,
the success of his fine baritone voice made himbass (Hamburg, is reprinted as No.1704)
the Maatschappij determine to devote himself to music. InXIII. of the publications of
(Amsterdam, 1821, he went to Vienna and studied operatot bevordering der Toonkunst
thoroughly. Here also he composed 'DasNo. XIV. of the same publication con-1887).
Eockenweibohen.' In 1822 he sang an aria of'Partite Diverse' (variations),sists of Reinken's
pieces are Handel's, and played a PF. concerto of his ownbut even in MS. only very few
composition at a concert in the Karnthnerthorknown—two on Chorales, one Toccata, and
^ theatre. Soon after he went to Munich, where(for Clavier). Of thetwo sets of Variations
' he studied with Peter Winter, and composedfirst of these, one—on the chorale An
Wasser'an opera. Dido,' which was performed severalflussen Babylons'— is specially interesting,
Dresden under Weber's condnctorship.performance on times atbecause it was by an extempore
Bach At the joint expense ofthe Prussian governmentthat chorale at Hamburg in 1722 that
and of his patron von Altenstein, a musician,venerable Eeinken the words,extorted from the
1824 through Holland,
' dead, but I see he undertook a tour inI thought that this art was
France, and Italy, in order to report on thethat it still lives in you.' Two organ fugues,
condition of music in those countries. On hisVariations on chorales and on aa toccata in G,
commissioned to draw up aLeipzig,and return he was'ballet, ' etc. are inMSS. atDresden,
scheme for a Prussian national Conservatorium,Darmstadt. (See the Tijdschriftofthe
Vereenigat the same time was offered posts at theMuziekgeschiedenis, vi. buting voor N.-Nederlands
Hague and at Dresden. The latter he accepted,151-8, the Quellen-Lexikon, etc.) A. M.pp.
replacing Marschner at the opera, where heKarl Martin, conductorEEINTHALEE,
laboured hard, producing both German andBremen, born Oct.of the Private Concerts at
music Italian operas. In 1827 he succeeded C. Erfurt, was early trained in13, 1822,
1 transl. 1. 197-9. von AVeber as conductor of the German OperaSpitta'8 Bach, Engl,— '
'at Dresden. Among his operas, Ahnenschatz Sehomdorf (I^eipzig, 1880),gerraeisterin von
'(1824), 'Libella,' 'Turaudot,' Adfele de (Dusseldorf, aballet,Foix,' and 'Das Gralspi^l ' 1895),
'and 'Der Sohiffbruoh von Medusa,' had great Rache (1887),a work for singing'Der Blumen
'success in their day, but the term Oapellmeis- with choir and piano,and speaking soloists,
tennusik' eminently describes them, dramatic scenas,and they 'Kbnig Drosselbart' (1886),
have almost entirely disappeared. The overture an 'Wittekind' a concertooratorio, (1888),
'to the Felsenmiihle,' a spirited and and orchestra twonot un- and a suite for solo violin ;
interesting piece, was occasionally and a greatplayed. sonatas for pianoforte and violin ;
Massesand 'churchmusic [an oratorio, David miscellaneous pieces for piano soloquantity of'],
a few Lieder, numerous chamber In 1881 hecompositions, and for the voice are mentioned.
particularly some graceful and easy trios for edited an Illustrated History of German music.
PF. violin and violoncello, made his name very G.[He died in Berlin, Dec. 1, 1903.]
popular for a period. He is generally term implying con-supposed RELATION is a general
to have been the composer of the piece known nection between two or more objects of
con'as Weber's Last Waltz.' Keissiger died Nov. points of similarity andsideration, through
1859, and was succeeded the position7, at Dresden by contrast. In other words, it is
Julius Rietz. F. g. which such objects appear to occupy when
REISSMANN, Attgttst, musician and writer reference to one another. Itconsidered with
on music, born Nov. 14, 1825, at Frankenstein, is defined by its context.
Silesia, was grounded in music by Jung, the The relations of individual notes to one
Cantor ofhis native town. In 1843 heremoved in various ways. Foranother may be described
to Breslau, and there had instruction belongingfrom instance, they may be connected by
Mosewius, Baumgart, Ernst Riohter, Llistner, to or being prominent members of the diatonic
and Kahl, in various branches, including piano- contrasted in variousseries o£any one key, and
viplin, andforte, organ, violoncello. He at degrees by the relative positions they occupy
first proposed to become a composer, but a that series. A further simple relation isin
residence in 1850-52 at Weimar, where he came established mere proximity, such as mayby
in contactwiththenew school ofmusic, changed be observed in the relations of grace-notes,
hisj>lans and drove hiiu to literature. His first appoggiaturas, turns, and shakes to the essential
book was VonBach bis Wagner (Berlin, notes adorn and this is carried so1861) which they ;
rapidly followed by a historical work on the far that notes alien to the harmony and even
German song. Das dewtsche Lied, etc. to the key are freely introduced, and are per-(1861),
as Geschichte des Deutschen Liedes fectly intelligible connectionrewritten when in close with
was succeeded by his characteristic(1874). This again diatonic notes. The relations of,
General History of Music Allg. Geschichte der disjunct notesmay be found, among other ways,
Musik vols. 1864, Leipzig), with a great by their belonging to a chord which is easily(3
examples Allg. Musik- callednumber of interesting ; to mind ; whence the successive sounding
lehre ; and Lehrlmch der nvusik. Kom- of the constituents of familiar combinations is(1864)
vols. Berlin, 1866-71). His later easily realised as melody whilepositionen (3 ; melody which
nature, attemptsworks were of a biographical is founded upon less obvious relations is not so
to show the gradual development of the life readily appreciated.
of the' chief musicians—Schumann The relations ofchordsmayand genius be either direct or
SchubertMendelssohn (1867), (1873), indirect. Thus theymay have several notes in(1865),
Haydn Bach (1881), Handel (1882), common, as in Ex. 1, or only one, as in Ex.(1879), 2,
Weber In 1877 heGluok (1882), (1883). Ex. 1. Bl. 2. Ex. 3.
lectures on the historypublished a volume of
of music, delivered in the Conservatorium of
he resided from 1863. His chiefBerlin, where
was the completion ofemployment from 1871
the Musik Conversationslemkon, in which he
Mendel as editor, after the death of to make simplesucceeded direct connection, while the
diversitythe latter. The 11th volume, completing the of their derivations, or their respective
appeared in 1879, and it will longremain degrees of consonance and dissonance,work, afford an
comprehensive lexicon of music. immediate sense ofas the most contrast. Or they may be
it neces- indirectly connectedDr. Reissmann unfortunately thought through an implied chord
oppose the establishment of the Hoch- or note upon which theysary to might both converge
enforce his opposition as the common chordschule in 1875, and to ofD to that of C through
bitter pamphlet, which, however, has long G, to which D is Dominant, whileby a G in its turn
Many treatises on musical is Dominant tosince been forgotten. C (Ex. 3). The relation thus
later part of his establishedwere written in the is sufficiently cleareducation to allow the
practical musician Dr. Reissmann was major chord of thelife. As a supertonio and its minor
as he was in literature. seventh and majoras industrious and minor ninthalmost to be
'Gudrun' (Leipzig, 1871), 'Die Biir- systematically affiliated inThe operas, the key, though its'
third and tonalities as of the musical structure,minor ninth are not in the diatonic part on
series. the one hand ; and on contrast of character and
A further illustration of the relations of style in the idea on the other which between
chords is afforded by those of the Dominantand them establish the balance of proportion. The
'Tonic. They connected by their roots being relation ofthe secondmain divisionare —the
work'fifth apart, is the simplest interval, ing-out sectiona which —to the first part of the
moveexcept the octave, in music ; but their other ment is that of greater complexity and freedom
components are entirely distinct, as is the com- in contrast to regularity and definiteness of
pound tone of the roots, since none of their musical structure, and fanciful discussion of
morelower and characteristic harmonics are characteristic portions of the main subjects in
coincident. They thus represent the strongest contrast to formal exposition of complete ideas
contrast in the diatonic series of a key, and and the final section completes the cycle by
taken together define the tonality more returningwhen to regularity in the recapitulation.
clearly than any other pair of chords in its The relations of the various movements of a
range. large work to one another are of similar nature.
relations of keys are traced in a similar The earliestThe masterswho wrote Suitesand Senate
manner as, for instance, by the tonic and per- da Camera or da Chiesa had but a rudimentary;
fect fifth of one being in the diatonic series of and undeveloped sense of the relative contrasts
another, or by the number of notes which are ofkeys consequently
; theycontented themselves
both. The relations of the of withcommon to keys connecting themovementsby putting them
the minor third and minor sixth to the major all in the same key, and obtained their
conmode (as of E|> and with reference to are trasts by alternating quick and slow movementsAb 0)
intelligible through the minor dances,rendered mode or and by varying the degrees of their
but the converse does not hold good, for the seriousness or liveliness : but the main outlines
relations of keys of the major mediant or sub- of the distribution of contrasts are in these
the minor mode (as ofE minor respects curiously similar tomediant to and the order adopted
relerenceAminor with to minor) are decidedly in the average modern Sonata or Symphony;
remote, and direct transition to them is not Thus they placed an allegro of a serious or solid
follow. In factthe modulatorytendency character at or near the beginning of the work,easy to
is towards as typified by the Allemandeof the minor mode the connections ; the slow or
of its relative major rather than to those of its solemn movementcame in the middle, as typified
actual major, while the outlook of the major by the Sarabande and the conclusion was a
relation of the light and gay quick movement, as typified bymode is free on both sides. The
the Gigue. And further, the mannerkey of the Dominant to an original Tonic is in which
explicable on much the same grounds as that a Courante usually followed the Allemande, and
The Dominant a Gavotte or Bourree or Passepied, or some suchof the chords of those notes.
satisfactory dance, preceded the final Gigue, has its counter-key is generally held to be a very
complementary or contrast in the construction part in the Minuet or Scherzo of a modem
music of any sort, but it is not of work, which occupies an analogous positionof a piece of
the very with respect either to the slow or lastmovement.universal cogency. For instance, at
force ofoutset of any movement it is almost inevitable Inmodem works the additional contrast
harmony should early and is obtained by putting central movements inthat the Dominant
when a fresh different but allied keys to that of the firstemphatically present itself ; hence
and last movements the slow movement mostis reached it is sometimes desirable to ;section
avoid tautology. With frequently being in thekey of the Subdominant,find another contrast to
keys of the mediant or At the same time additional bonds of connec-some such purpose the
both of tion are sometimes obtained, both by makingsubmediant have at times been chosen,
interesting phases of contrast and the movements pass without complete breakwhich afford
being mainly the from one to another, and in some cases (illus-connection the connection
trated by Beethoven and Schumann especially)characteristic major third of the original tonic,
using the same characteristic features orbeing emphasised by the byand the contrast
the first case, figures in different movements.sharpening of the Dominant in
key of The more subtle relations of proportion, bothTonic in the second. Theand of the
the matter of the actual length of the variousin such cases because inthe subdominant isavoided
not sufficiently movements and their several sections, and inthe contrast afforded by it is
of the breadth of their style in the congruity offorce in the total impression ;strong to have
forms of expression and of the qualify oftheirthe movement.
any artistic theemotions they appeal to ; in the distributionrelations of the parts ofThe
of the qualities of tone, and even of the groupsmanner those of contrastwork are in a similar
harmony and rhythm, are all of equal im-and tonality. For ofwithin limits of proportion
section portance, though less easy either to appreciateof the first and secondinstance, those
' ' or to effect, as they demand higher degrees offirst movement ' or sonatain what is called
power and perception and the properofcomplementary artistic ;are based on the contrastformEELATIVE EELLSTABB
adjustment of such relations is on harmony; in 1811as vital to 1809 gave lectures
operas, oratorios, long after his returncantatas, and all other forms travelled to Italv. Not
while walking atof vocal music, as to the purely instrumental with apoplexyhe was struck
wasforms. August 19, 1813,and foundCharlottenburg,
hours afterwards. AsThe same order of relations appears in all dead on the road some
' Passion,'parts of the art ; for instance, the alternation composer he left three cantatas, aa
of discord and concord same Mass. Also an opera songsis the relation, a Te Deum, and a ;
vocal scores of Graun'simplying contrast and connection, analogous to toonumerous to specify ;
' '
' Iphig^nie andthe relation between suspense or expectation Tod Jesu,' and Gluck's ; a
'and its relief and, of Orphfe ' apparently
; to speak generally, the art German libretto
of the composer instrumental music heis in a sense the discovery from his own pen. Of
symphoniesand exposition of intelligible relations published—marches for PF., andin the
multifarious material at a series of pieces with characteristichis command, and a overtures ;
'Sensibility,' etc. twenty-complete explanation of the word would amount titles, 'Obstinacy,' ;
to a complete theory of music. short pieces for PF., vioUn and baas, etc.o. H. H. p. four
EELATIVE is Wber die Vererinigung der mus. vmdthe word used to express the Also Versuch
Ueber dieconnection between a major and a minor key oraiorischen Deklamaiion (1785) ;
which have the same signature A minor is the Bemerlcwngen emer Jteisenden . . , (1789);
' ' ' 'relative Ebiohakdt) and Anleitv/ngfur Clamer-minor of 0, C the relative major (see ;
works, for theof A minor. In other words, the relative spieler (1790). These most
minor of any key is that which has its keynote part bibliographical curiosities, are very
inon the submediant of the major key. The term structive.
daughters, of whomis used to distinguish this minor key from the Eellstab had three
other, which is ^perhaps as closely allied to CAKOLi:gE, bom April 18, 1794, died Feb. 17,
the major, that which has the same keynote was a singer, distinguished for her extra-1813,
His son,as the major, and is consequently called the ordinary compass.
' 'tonic ' minor. The tonic ' minor of is C Hbinmoh Fbibdeich Ludwig, born April
'minor, the tonic ' major of is ; in in Berlin, though delicate in health,C 13, 1799,
this case, the key-signature is of course and destined for practical music, was compelled
changed. , M. by the times to join the army, where hebecame
Ka.el Fkibdeich, was ensign and lieutenant. In 1816, after theEELLSTAB, Johann
lessonson the piano from Ludwigborn in Berlin, Feb. 27, 1759. His father, » peace, he took
printer, wished him to succeed to the business, Berger, and in 1819 and 1820 studied theory
thoughts were with Bernhard Klein. At the same time hebut from boyhood his whole
and in the Brigade-devoted to music. He was on the point of taught mathematics history
starting for Hamburg to complete, with Em; schule till 1821, when he retired from the army
mauuel Bach, his musical studies begun with to devotehimselftoliterature,ultimatelysettling
fatherAgricola and Fasch, when the death ofhis in Berlin (1823). He also composed much
'forced him to take up the business. He added part-music for the jungere Liedertafel,' which
music-printing and publishing branch ; was he founded in conjunction with G. Beichardta
librarythe first to establish a musical lending in 1819, wrote a libretto, 'Dido,' for B. Klein,
founded a Concert-Society, on the and contributed to Marx's Musikseiiimg. A(1783);
Hiller's at Leipzig, and called it pamphletonMadame Sontag (Senriette, oder diemodel of
connoisseurs and amateurs,' an achone Sdngerin) procured'Concerts for him three months'
unusually distinctive title for those days. The imprisonment in 1826, on accountof its satirical
first concert took place April 16, 1787, at the allusions to a well-known diplomatist. In
and in course of time the 1826 hejoined theEnglisohes Haus, staffofthe Vbssische Zeitv/ag,
following works were performed ; Salieri's and in a short time completely led the public
'Armida,'Schulz's 'Athalia,' Naumann's 'Cora,' opinion on music in Berlin. His first article
'San Agostino,' Bach's wasHasse's 'Conversione di a report on a performance of Euryanthe,'
' 'Magnificat,' and Gluck's Aloeste,' which was Oct. 31, 1826. Two years later he wrote a
thus first introduced to Berlin. The Society cantata for Humboldt's congress of physicists,
merged in the Singakaderaie. He wroteat last which Mendelssohn set to music.
musical critiques for the Berlin paper, signed Eellstab was a warm supporter of classical
his initials and had concerts every otherwith ; music, and strongly condemned all undue
atwinter at his own house,Sunday during the at tempts at effect. He quarrelled with Spontini
' 'which such works as Haydn's Seasons ' were over his Agnes von Hohenstauffen (Berlin
but these meetings were stoppedperformed ; Musikalische Zeitwng for 1827, Nos. 23, 24,
by the entry of the French in 1806, when he and and the controversywas maintained26, 29),
frequently had twenty men and a dozen horses withmuch bitterness until Spontini Berlin,left
lost not only music hisquartered on him ; his but ,when Eellstab, in pamphlet Ueber mein
aD his capital, and had to close his printing- Verhaltniss als KrUiker zu fferrn Spontin/i,
time, he resumed his concerts ; in acknowledged that he hadpress. In (1827) gone too far.REMOTE 63EEMBT
Rellstab's novels and essays are to be found Paris, and in the summer of 1877 came to
for the most part in his Gesammelte Schriften, London, where also he produced a sensational
24 vols. (Leipzig, Broekhaus). A musical effect in private circles. The season being far
periodical, Iris Gebiet der Tonjcwnst, founded advanced he appeared inim public only once, at
by him in 1830, survived till 1842. His Mapleson's benefit concert at the Crystal Palace,
reeoUeetions of Berger, Schroeder-Devrient, where he played a fantasia on themes from the
'Mendelssohn, Klein, Dehn, and Beethoven Huguenots.' In the autumn of 1878 he again
(whom he visited in March 1825) will be found visited London, and played at the Promenade
in Aus meinem Leben vols.(2 Berlin, 1861). Concerts. Hewason hisway to America, where
was thoroughlyHe eclectic in his taste for he gave concerts and tookup his residence. In
music, and, though not an unconditional sup- 1887 he undertook a tour of the world, in the
porter, was no opponent of modemthe school course of which he appeared in private in
Liszt and Wagner.of He died during the London in 1891 and 1893. anAs artist he
night of Nov. 27, 1860. f. g. combined perfect mastery over the technical
EEMBT, JoHANN Ernst, was born in 1749 difficulties of his instrument with a strongly
or 1750 at Suhl, in the Thuringer-Wald, where pronounced individuality. His wassoul in
in 1773 he was also appointed organist, and his playing, and his impulse carried him away
remained till his death on Feb. 26, 1810. He as he warmed to his task, the impression
prowas distinguished as a performer, and, devoting duced on the audience being accordingly in
himself to the study of the works of Sebastian an ascending scale. Another important feature
Bach, he worthily upheld the more solid tradi- in Rem&yi's playingwas the national element.
tionsofthe Bach school oforgan-playing against He strongly maintained against Liszt the
the prevailing shallowness of his time. Messrs. genuineness of Hungarian music, and showed
Breitkopf & Hartel stiU retain in cata-their himself thoroughly imbued with that spirit by
'logue some of hisworks originallypublished by writing several Hungarian melodies,' which
them, such as his six Fugued Chorale-preludes, have been mistaken for popular tunes and
six Organ Trios, and various Chorale-preludes in adopted as such by other composers. The same
Trio-form. Various Fughettas for theOrgan also half-Eastern spirit was observable in the strong
'appear in Volkmar's Orgel-Album. ' j. n. M. rhythmical accentuation of Remenyi's style, so
REMENYI,Edtjard (realnameHoffmann), rarely attained by artists of Teutonic origin.
a famous violinist, was bom in 1830 at Heves Remenyi's compositions are of no importance,
(according to another account at Miskolc) in being mostly confined to arrangements for his
Hungary, and received his musical education instrument, and other pieces written for hisown
at the Vienna Conservatorium during the years immediate use. [His name isknown to
music1842-45, where his master on the violin was lovers in the present day by the circumstance
Joseph Bbhm, the famous teacher of Joachim. that Brahms went on a tour with him as his
'In 1848 he took an active part in the insurrec- accompanist, and was discovered ' by Joachim
tion, and became adjutant to thefamous general in this capacity. Rem^nyi died during a
conGorgey, under whom he took part in the cam- cert at which he was playing at San Francisco,
"paign against Austria. After the revolution May E. h-a.15, 1898.]
had been crushed he the REMOTE is a term used in speaking ofhad to fly country,
and went to America, where he resumed his modulation from one key to another, or in
career as a virtuoso. [The details of his Ger- regard to the succession of keys in a work in
man several movements. A remotekey has little intour in 1852-53, which indirectly had so
great an influence on the career of Brahms, may common with the key which may be called the
be read in Florence May's vol. starting-point. Thus a key with many sharpslAfe of
flats in the signature will probably be veryi. 92-104.] In 1853 he went to Liszt in orpp.
' from In early daysWeimar, who at once recognised his genius remote ' the key of C. the
and became his artistic guide and friend. In of the harmonic period, the nearest keys to a
the following year came London and was major key were considered to be its dominant,he to
relative andappointed solo violinist to Queen Victoria. In subdominant, and tonic minors ;
1855 was in America, and in 1860 he ob- the nearest to a minor key were its relative andhe
Hungary, tonic majors, the dominant major, and the sub-tained his amnesty and returned to
waswhere some time afterwards he received from dominant minor. As the art progressed, it
the Emperor of Austria a similar distinction gradually admitted that keys which stood to
other in the relation of a third, whetherto that granted him in England. After his each
return home he seems to have retired for a, major or minor, were not to be considered
time living chiefly on an remote from each other. Beethoven, in thefrom public life,
his slowestate he owned in Hungary. In 1865 he piano sonata in C, op. 2, No. 3, puts
appeared for the first time in Paris, where he movement into the key ofE major ; in op. 106,
Repeated tours in in B flat, the slow movement is in F sharpcreated a perfect furore.
minor ; and Schubert, in his sonata in the sameGermany, Holland, and Belgium further spread
In 1875 he settled temporarily in key, employs C sharp minor for his slow move-his fame.;;; ;
; the connection, In this last instance, Steiermarkische Musik-is became conductor ofthe
attained by a kind of an orchestralunconscions mental pro- verein, and earned experience as
cess, involving a composingsilent modulation through the post till 1870,the director. He kept
key of the tonic minor, B flat minor, the period, amongand its re- many orchestral works during
lative major, sharp major. ' and a sym-This is an unusual overture to Sardanapalus,'them an
succession of keys, even with Schubert as well as his first
; but phonic poem, 'Helena!,'
other examples, quite as strange, are works made theirin Beet- symphony in F. The three
hoven's 'posthumous' receivedquartets, and elsewhere. Leipzig, where they wereway as far as
Of the eleven semitones apart from the From the date of hiskeynote, with great success.
six were now accepted as teacher, andwithin the scope of resignation he lived as an unofficial
modulationwithout a long and complex process composition, until his deathdevoted himself to
two others, the whole tone above and His works includebelow the at Prague, Jan. 22, 1898.
keynote, involve a flat), adouble modulation, the tone more symphonies (in F and Etwo
above being 'the dominant of the dominant, and ' for orchestra, given at thePhantasiestiick
the tone below being the under Dessofl';subdominant of the "Vienna Philharmonic concerts
subdominant. 'There remain, therefore, three a Slawische Liederspiel ' for solos and chorus,
keys which are very remote, the semitone of two pianos, anotherabove with accompaniment
and below the keynote, 'Oestliche Eosen,' aand the augmented work of the same kind,
fourth of the ' manykey. Even these are nowadays concert-opera, Waldfraulein,' and songs,
brought within fairly easy distance, eminent pupils may beby the fact etc. Among his most
that for the semitone above, Heuberger, vonit is only necessary mentioned Busoni, Kienzl,
to regard the keynote as the leading-note of Rezniozek, and Felix Weingartner. (Neue
the new key ; and for the semitone below, M.a MusHc-Zeitwng, 1890, p. 261.)
' Phrygian cadence (such
' as is figured in the EENATJD, Maukioe Arnold, bom 1862,
last two examples in vol. i. column a) Bordeaux, studied singing at the Conser-p. 436, at
may be imagined. The semitone above and subsequently at that ofthe vatoire, Paris,
keynote is used for the slow movement of Brussels. From 1883 to 1890 he sang at the
Brahms's sonata for violoncello and piano, op. Monnaie, Brussels, in a variety of parts,
99, in F, where F sharp major is on Jan.thekey chosen making a great impression ; 7, 1884,
'for the slow movement. As transition to the as the High Priest in Beyer's Sigurd,' and
augmented fourth of the key involves several on Feb. 1890, as Hamilcar in Beyer's10,
'steps of modulation, this may operasbe considered the Salammbfi,' on production of these
most remote part of the octave. (It is not quite he also sang baritone or bass parts in 'Manon,'
obvious why minor keys should almost always 'Lakm^' etc., and as Kothner in
'Meisterbe remote from other minor keys, but they singer.' On he made his d6butOct. 12, 1890,
'certainly are, from almost all excepting the key at the Opera-Comique, Paris, as Karnac in Le
of their subdominant minor. See Relation.) Eoi d'Ys,' and sang on Deo. 3 as the hero of
'In relation to any given major keynote, wemay Diaz's new opera Benvenuto.' On July 17,
recognise four degrees of proximity, besides ite 1891, he made a very successful debut at the
relativeand tonicminors. In relation to thekey Op&a as Nelusko, and remained there until
of the notes and G 'stand nearest of all 1902. On0, F Feb. 29, 1892, he sang the modest
'next come F flat, F, A flat and A, as standing part of Leuthold, in Tell,' at the Rossini
cenin the relation of thirds, major or minor next, tenary he added to his repertory of; ; the parts
as requiring a double modulation, D and B flat Telramund,Wolfram, lago, Beckmesser, Hilperie
'and farthest of all, C sharp, B, and F sharp, in Guiraud's Fr&l^gonde,' completed by
Saintthe lastbeingthe extreme ofremoteness. Before Saens, the Shepherd in Bruneau's 'Messidor,'
was apart ofpractical music, and, on Nov.equaltemperament 15, 1899, Chorebe in Berlioz's
'the inherent error in the scale was confined by Prise de Troie.' On leave of absence, Juneon
.tuners to the 'remote ' keys, that term being 1897, he made his d^but23, at Covent Garden
many sharps as Wolframused simply of the keys which had and De Nevers in selections from
or flats, leaving the key of C perfectly in tune, 'Tannhauser' and 'Huguenots,' at Statethe
F and 6 almost perfect. M. performance in honourand of the Diamond Jubilee
B^MY,W. A. , thenamebywhich an eminent of Queen Victoria ; and in the same season he
musician and teacher in Prague preferred to be sang the above parts, Don Juan, and Juan in
*Mayer, D'Erlanger'sknown. His real name was Wilhelm InezMendo. ' He fullyconfirmed
andhe was the son of a lawyer in Prague, where his Parisian reputation by his fine voice and
prewas born, June 1831. A pupil of 0. F. sence, and excellenthe 10, singing and acting. From
of seventeen 1898 to 1905Pietsch, he appeared at the age he has re-appeared herefrequently
years as the composer of an overture to Sue's at the above theatre, singing the part ofHenry
' obedience VIII. inFanatiker in den Cevennen ; but in Saint-Saens's opera, July
' 19, 1898,
thatto the parental desires, he studied law, took the of Hares in De Lara's 'Messaline,' July 13,
Dr.Jur. in and did not take up 1899 and appearingdegree of 1856, ; as Hamlet, Eigoletto,
Valentine,music as his profession until 1862, when he Escamillo, etc. In 1903 M. Renaud' —
trio eachsang at Paris, as Herod in Mas- given the twice over time with fullthe Gaite, in
' both there, and at the repeats. m.senet's H^rodiade,' and
Don Juan, and the REPjfeTITION. (Fr.) Rbheaesal.Op^ra-Comique in 1904 as
great success. REPETITION (Pianofoetb).Flying Dutchman, always with The rapid
He sang Carlo in 1907 in Bruneau's reiteration of a note is called repetition aat Monte ;
'Nais Micoulin.' A. c. special touch of the player facilitated by
SeePlLGEiMB chanical contrivances inEENCONTRE IMPREVUE. the pianoforte action
VON Mekka. the earliest and most important of these having
RENDANO, Alfonso, horn April 5, 1853, been the invention of Sebastian Erakd. [See
near Cosenza, studied first at the the diagram and description of Erard's actionat Carolei,
with Thalberg,Conservatorio at Naples, then under Pianofoete, vol. iii. p. 730..] By such
at the Leipzig Conservatorium. He a contrivance the hammer, after the delivery ofand lastly
Gewandhaus with marked success a blow, remains poised, or slightly rises again,played at the
visited Paris andon Feb. 1872. He then so as to allow the hopper to fall back and be8,
London, performed at the Musical Union (April ready to give a second impulse to the hammer
Philharmonic (March before the key has nearly recovered its position30, 1872), the 9, 1873),
concerts,andmuchtheCrystal Palace, and other of rest. The particular advantages ofrepetition
society and after a lengthened stay returned to grand pianoshave been widely acknowledgedin ;
a gracefuland refined player, pianoforte makers, and much ingenuity hasto Italy. He was by
and a great command been inventing or repetitionwith a delicate touch, spent in perfecting
mechanism of the piano. His playing actions for them ; in upright pianos, however,over the
especially good. He published the principle has been rarely employed, althoughof Bach was
importance. G. has been feltand shown by care insome piano pieces ofno its influence
'REPEAT, REPETIZIONE, REPLICA (Ger. the position ofthe 'check in all cheek action
inFr. iJ^^^iJMoro,whichalso means struments. The Frenohhavenamedthemechani-Wiederholwng ;
'sonata form, there power repeat a note"rapidly, double'rehearsal'). Inthe so-called oal to
and escape-certain sections which are repeated, tehappement' ; the drawbacks to doubleare
out in full twice over, or are ment—whichthe repetition really is—are foundare either written
in increased complexity of mechanism and
=4p^= at thewritten only once, with the sign
over-liability to derangement. These may be
end, whichshows thatthemusic is toberepeated rated, but there always remains the drawback
beginning or from the previous of loss of tone in repeated notes the repetitioneither from the ;
sections which, ac- small depth of touchoccurrence of the sign. The blow being given from a
are—the elasticcording to the strict rule, are repeated, comparedwiththenormaldepth, is not so
firstmovement, both sections and cannot be delivered with so full a,forte, orfirst section of the
scherzo at their first appear- with a piano or pianissimo of equally tellingof the minuet or
after which vogueand both sections of the trio, vibration. Hence, in spite of the greatance,
scherzoisgoneoncestraightthrough given to repetition effects byHerz andThalberg,theminuetor
Thelatterhalfofthe firstmove- other eminent players have disregarded them,without repeats.
sections even opposed to repetition touches,the first, or even both, of the or have beenment, and
for were 10movement, may he repeated see as Chopin and von Bulow ; see p. 7, §in the last ;
op. No. 2 op. of the latter's commentary on selected studiesinstance Beethoven's Sonatas, 2, ;
Symphony No. Chopin (Aibl, Munich, 1880), where he de-2 op. 78 Schubert's by10, No. ; ;
variations, escapement a 'deplorablethere is an air and signates double as9. Also, where
and of all the innovation.both sections of the air
repeated. This A fine example of the best use of repetitionstrictly speaking, beshould,
which 45the facility with is in Thalberg'sA minor Study, op.undoubtedly arose from
player could vary theon a good harpsichord the
stops andby using different ;qualities of tone,
instrument,that, on that -etc.there was a tradition
' made at everyregister ' should bea change of
'L.H. " ZEcustom notAlthough it is a regularrepetition.
withafterthe trio,to playtheminuet or scherzo,
where the player, using the first two fingersattention toBeethoven thinks fit todrawrepeats,
thumb in rapid succession on each note, pro-through, andto be played straightthe fact that it is
triplets almost the effect of a
' duces by thesewords Da Capoafter the trio theby putting
' sustained melody with a tremolo. Repetition isreplica,' in one orrepetizione, ' or senzasenza
device with stringed instruments, havingmore- an oldin op. No. where,instances, as 10, 3,two
a with thebeen, according to Bunting, practicedivided into two sections,trio is notover, the
Irish harpers, as.weknowitwaswith thecommonwhererepeated ; in op. 27, No. 2,and is not
the Italianmandoline,and theSpanishsenza dulcimer,is marked 'La primapartethe Allegretto
|)andurria.first part without repeat). In
' (therepetizione
remarkable instance may be quoted of thehe has Aand Seventh Symphonieshis Fourth
effective 'use of repetition ' Agnusin the Fugato (piano Benedictus thetus the ' ; (8)
' ; (7) —solo) from Liszt's' Todtentanz'(Danse Communio 'Lux aeterna.'Macabre), Dei' ; and the(9)
- Vivace, the Respon-To these are sometimes added (10)
' me,' which, though not ansorium, Libera
Mass,immediately followsintegral portionofthe
the Lectioall solemn occasions and (11)it, on ;

' meam,' of which we possessTaedet animam
great historical least one example of
tlie ninePlain-song Melodies adapted toTheBut there need be no difficulty inplaying this
the mass will be foimd in thedivisions of
on a well-regulated and checked single
escapeproper for theGradual, together with that
ment. "With a double escapementthe nicety of belongsResponsorium. The Lectio,which really
checking is not so much required. a. j. h.
Service, has no proper Melody,to a diflerentEEPOETS (the word seems not to be used
' Lectionis.'but is sung to the ordinary Tonus
in the singular), an old English and Scottish
[See Inflexion.] The entire series of Melodies
term for points of imitation. From the eight
produces so solemn anis of rare beauty, and
examples in the Scottish Psalter of 1635 (re- large bodyeffect, when sung in unison by a
printed in the Rev. Neil Livingston's edition,
of grave equal voices, that most of the gi'eat
it would1864) seem that the term was used
composershave employed its phrasespolyphonic
in a more general sense, of a setting of certain
more freelythan usual, in theirRequiem Masses,
tunes in which the parts moved in a kind of
either as Canti fermi, or in the form
ofunisonfree polyphony, not in strictly imitative style.
passages interposed between the harmonisedous
In Parcell's revision of the treatise which
portions of the work. Compositions of this
appears in the third part of Playford's
Introkind are not very numerous but moat of the;
duction to the Skill of Musick (twelfth edition,
classedamong theexamples we possess must be
1694), the term igmentioned but not explained,
most perfect productions of their respective
'further than beingas synonymous with
tion': 'The second is ImUaiion ov Beporls,
'Palestrina's Missa pro Defunctis,' for five
which needs no Example.' (See Sammelb&nde
voices, first printed at Rome in 1591, in the
of the Int. Mus. Ges. vi. p. 562.) m.
form of a supplement to the Third Edition of
REPRISE, repetition a term which is occa-;
'his First Book of Masses,' was reproduced in
sionally applied to any repetition in music, but
1841 by Alfieri, in the first volume of his
is convenientlymost confined to the recurrence ^
' Raccolta di Musica Sacra ; again, by L^fage
of the first subject of a movement after the
ina valuable 8vo volume, entitled 'Cinq Messes
conclusion of the workingout or Dmchfiihrung,
de Palestrina' ; andby the Princede laMoskowa
[In Couperin, Eameau, and other French
comin the 9th volume of his collection [see vol. iii.
posers, the term is used of a short refrain at
andp. 271], has since been included by Messrs.
the end of a movement, which was probably
Breitkopf& Hartel, of Leipzig, in their complete
be played over more thanintended to twice,
edition. This beautiful work is, unhappily,
as sometimes it contains the ordinary marks
very incomplete, consisting 'only of the Kyrie,'
of repetition within the passage covered by
' 'the Offertorium,' the Sanctus,' the
Benethe word.] o.
dictus,' and the 'Agnus Dei.' We must not,
REQUIEM (Lat. Missa pro Defundis Ital.
; however, suppose that the composer left his
per ; Fr. Messe des MartsMessa i Defunti ; work unfinished. It was clearly his intention
Germ. Todtenmesse). A solemn Mass, sung
that the remaining movements should be sung,
annually^ in CommemoratidH of the Faithful
in accordance with a custom still common at
Souls' Day (Nov.Departed, on All ; and,2) Roman funerals, in unisonous plain-song and,
with a less general intention, at funeral services,
as a fitting conclusion to the whole, he has left
the anniversaries of the decease of particularon
'us two settings of the Libera me,' in both of
persons, and on such other occasions as may be
which the Gregorian melody is treated with an
dictated by feelings of public respect or
indiindescribable intensity of pathos.^ One of
vidual piety. these is preserved in MS. among the archives
The Requiem takes its name ' from the first
of the Pontifical Chapel, and the other, among—Introit ' Requiem aeternam donaword of the those of the Lateran Basilica. After a carelul
eia, Domine.' When set to music, it naturally comparison of the two, Baini arrived at the
arranges itself in nine principal sections : (1) conclusion that that belonging to the Sistine
' 'aeternam theThe Introit— Requiem (2)
; Chapel must have been composed very nearly—
'Kyrie the Gradual,and Tract 'Requiem(3)
' ; at the same time as, and probably as an adjunct
and 'Absolve, Domine'; Theaeternam,' (4)
to, the five printed movements, which are also— The Offer-Sequence or Prose ' Dies irae '
; (5) founded, more or less closely, upon the original—
'Domine Jesu Christi the Sanc-torium (6)
' ; Canti fermi, and so constructed as to bring their
I Its name an a special Haaa. TheMusic o( theThat iB touy.
PolyphonicHaaaalwaysbearsthenameoftheCantolermo * Paris. Launerordinary et Clc; London, Schott& Co.
' Bee Alfieri,on which It Is lonsded. Raccolta diMuaica Sacra, torn, vil.—— ' ;
.'characteristic beauties into the highest possible posed after the last Osanna,' to fulfil the usual
'relief—in touching office 'no case, perhaps, with more of the Benedictus —which is here
' ' 'etfect than in the opening Kyrie,' the first few incorporated with the Sanctus—exhibits the
bars of which will be found at vol. ii. 613. composer's power of appealingp. to the feelings in
Next in importance Palestrina's Requiemto its most affecting light.
a very grand sixis one, for voices, composed by The second Requiem, in D minor, for three
Vittoria for the funeral of the Empress Maria, male voices is in many respects a greater work
widow of MaximOian II. This tine work than the first
; though the dramatic element
undoubtedly the greatest triumph of Vittoria's pervades it so freely that its character as a
genius—comprises all the chief divisions of the religious service is sometimes entirely lost.
Mass, except the Sequence, together with the It was completed on Sept. 24, 1836, a few
Besponsorium and Lectio, and brings the days after the composerhad entered his
seventyplain-song subjects into prominent relief seventh year ; and, with the exception of the
throughout. It was first published at Madrid sixth quartet and the quintet in E minor, was
in 1605—the year of its production. In '1869 his last important work. The Dies irae ' was
the Lectio was reprinted at Katisbon, by Joseph first sung at the concert of the Conservatoire,
Schrems, in continuation of Froske's 'Musica March 19, 1837, and repeated on the 24th of
Divina.' A later issue of the same valuable the same month. On March 25, 1838, the
collection contains the Mass and Eesponsorium. work was sung throughout. In the January
The original volume contains one more move- of that year Mendelssohn had already recom-—
'ment ' Versa est in luctum—which has never mended it to the notice of the committee of
reproduced in modernbeen notation ; but, as the Lower Rhine Festival; and in 1872 and
this has now no place in the Roman Funeral 1873 it was sung as a funeral service in the
Service, its omission is not so much to be Roman Catholic Chapel, in Farm Street, London.
regretted. It is doubtful whether Cherubini's genius ever
Some other very fine Masses for the Dead, shone to greater advantage than in this gigantic
by Francesco Anerio, Orazio Vecohi, and Giov. work. Every movement is full of interest
'Matt. Asola, are included in the same collec- and the whirlwind of sound ' which ushers in
'tion, together with a somewhat pretentious the Dies irae ' produces an eff'ect which, once
work by Pitoni, which scarcely deserves the heard, can never be forgotten. w. s. K.
enthusiastic eulogium bestowed upon it by [Schumann's Requiem, op. 148, is of
comDr. Proske. A far finer composition, of nearly paratively small importance ; more beautiful
similar date, is Colonna's massive Requiem for compositions of his with the same title are the
voices, first printed at Bologna in 1684 'Requiem for Mignon,' and a song includedeight
a copy of which is preserved in the Library of in op. 90. These two have, of course, nothing
the Royal College of Music. to do with the words of the Mass which are
Several modern Requiem Masses have become here under discussion ; nor has the famous
'very celebrated. German Requiem ' of Brahms, which has been
The history of Mozart's last work is noticed in its own place (see vol. i. 384).(1.) p.
which render it scarcely Verdi'sRequiem,written inmemory ofManzoni,surroundedbymysteries
than the startled the purists when it was produced inless interesting to the general reader
enthusiasticmusic itself is to the student. (See vol. iii. 1874, but it gradually won the
ff.) approval even of the most ardent classicists,p. 308
' for it is a masterpiece in its way. Among laterFor Gossec's Messe des Morts see vol.(2.)
mentioned Stanford'sii. 203. Requiem Masses may bep.
importance to Mozart's immortal work in memory of Lord Leighton, given at(3.) Next in
of Birmingham Festival of 1897 Henschel'swork are the two great Requiem Masses the ;
written in memory of hisCherubini. The first of these, in C minor, was expressive Requiem,
of the death of wife, in 1902 and Sgambati's in memory ofwritten for the Anniversary ;
and first King Humbert, published 1906.]King Louis XVI. (Jan. 21, 1793),
Colophane, and Rosin.sung on that occasion at the Abbey Church RESIN. See
it was RESINARIUS, Balthasar, is possibly, butof Saint-Denis in 1817; after which
it not certainly, identical with Balthasar Harzernot again heard until Feb. 14, 1820, when
Jessen earlythe same church at the funeral or Hartzer. He was bom at inwas repeated in
regarded this as the 16th century, took clerical orders and be-of the Due de Berri. Berlioz
Bishop of Leipa in Bohemia about 1543.Cherubini's greatest work. It is undoubtedly came
a chorister in the service of thefull Its general tone is one of He had beenof beauties.
throughout Emperor Maximilian I. He is said to have beenextreme moumfnlness, pervaded
' of Isaac, and he published at Witten-by deep religious feeling. Except in the Dies a pupil
'Responsorium octogintaneverexchanged berg in 1543 numeroirae ' and 'Sanctus' this style is
de tempore et festis . . . libri duo.for a more excited one ; and, even then, the
RESOLUTION is the process of relievingscarcely be called dramatic.treatment can
All dis<movement, inter- dissonance by succeeding consonance.The deep pathos of the little—
sonanoe is irritant, and The firsteajinot be indefinitely to their degrees
'dwelt upon by the mind, but while direction was the use of theit is heard marked step in this
the return to consonance is preparation, whichawaited. To conduct Dominant seventh without
this return to in such amanner a thorough appreciation of thethat showed at least
the connection between the have a more inde-chords may be intel- fact that some discords might
ligible to the hearer is This appearstheproblem of resolution. pendent individuality than others.
The history of the development the occasional discardingof harmonic at first merely in
music shows that the separate delaying the note out ofidea of resolution of the formality of
in the abstract need not have been preceding chord in order to introduce thepresent to a
the earliest composers who introduced itled also towards the considera-discords dissonance ; but
into their works. and ultimatelyThey discoveredcircumstances tion of resolution in the abstract,
in which the flow of the parts, moving to greater latitude in the process of returning toin
consonance with one another, their instinct and the par-might be diversified consonance. Both
by retarding of discordsone part while the others moved ticular manner in which the aspectson
a step, and then waited for that which presented themselves at first led the earlier com-was left
behind to catch them discordant note to theup. This process did not posers to pass from a
invariably produce whereverdissonance, but itdidconduce nearest available note in the scale, the
to variety in the independent nature oftheretardation didnotobviously implymotion of the
parts. The result, degrees to bein the end, was to establish the contrary ; and this came by
the class of discords we call suspensions, accepted as a tolerably general rule. Thus theand
their resolutions were inevitably Dominantseventhisgenerally foundto resolveonimplied by the
very principle on which combined with thethe device is founded. thesemitone below ; and this,
Thus when Josquin diversified a simple succes- factthattheleadingnotewasalreadyin the chord
sion ofchords inwhatwe call their first with the seventh, guided them to the relation ofposition,
as follows-— DominantandTonic chords ; although theyearly
Ex. 1. realised the possibility of resolving on other
har! 1--J- J— monythan that oftheTonic, on special occasions,
EiESE S^a^E without violatingthesupposed lawofmovingthei P
seventhdownasemitone or tone,according to theA A mode, andraisingthe leading whatwouldd note to
have been theTonicon ordinaryoccasions.
However, the ordinarysuccessionbecamebydegrees so
it seems sufficiently familiar thatthe Toniccertain that no such idea as chordgrew toberegarded
resolving a as a sort ofdiscordwaspresent to hismind. The resolution in a lump of the mass of
motion of D to and of to B was predeter- any of the discords which were built on the top
mined, and their being retarded was mainly a ofaDominantmajor concord, as seventh andthe
happy major or minorway ofobtaining variety in the flow ofthe ninth, such as are now often
calledparts, though it must not be ignored that the Fundamental discords. Thuswe find the
early masters had a full appreciation of the following passage in a Haydn Sonata in D
actual function and eff'eot of the few discords Ex. 3.
they did employ.
Some time later the device of overlapping the
succeeding motions of the parts was discovered,
by allowing some or all of those which had gone
on in front to move again while the partwhich
had been left behind passed to its destination
as by substituting for (a) in Ex. 2.(6)
in which the Dominant seventh is not resolved
Bx. 2.
by its passing to a near degree of the scale, but
(a) I, Of)^
I ,
by the mass of the harmony of the Tonic
followingthemass ofthe oftheDominant.
Ex. 4 is an example of a similar use by him of
a Dominant major ninth.
Ex. 4.
I j^
scope forThis complicated matters, and gave
combinations, but it didfresh progressions and
of resolution,not necessarily affect the question
because the destination of thepure and simple,
still predeter-part causing the dissonance was
fre-However, the gradually increasingmined.
consideration A morehearers to their effect and to the eoinmon way of dealing with the
of different groups, and so resolution such wais,of the characteristics of chords. to make the part— — — —
having the discordant note pass to another borated. Onewhichwas more common in early
position in the same harmony before changing, stages music than atof harmonic the present
and allowing another part to supply the con- day was the use of representative progressions,
tiguous note as
; in Ex. 5 from one of Mozart's which were, in fact, the outline of chords which
Fantasias in C minor. would have supplied the complete succession of
Ex. 5. Ex. Set. parts if they been filledhad in. The following
is a remarkable example from the Sarabande of
J. S. Bach's Partita in :SSi^ Bb
" ^Ex. 8. *^ —
Some theorists hold that the passage of the
ninth to the third—as Dl> toE in Ex. 5a (where
the rootC does not appear)—is sufficient to
constitute resolution. That such a form of
resolution is very common is obvious from theorists which might be interpreted as follows :
having noticed it, but it ought to be understood
Ex. 9.
that the mere change of position of the notes of
a discord is not sufficient to constitute
resolution unless a realchange of harmony is implied ^^^by the elimination of the discordant note
; or
unless the change of position leads to fresh
harmony, and thereby satisfies the conditions
of intelligible connection with the discord.
A much more unusual and Another devicewhichremarkable resolu- came early into use, and
tion is such was in great favouras appears at the end of the first with Bach and his sons and
theirmovement of Beethoven's F minor Quartet contemporaries, and is yet an ever-fruitfulas
follows source of variety, is that of interpolating notes
Ex. 6. in the partwhich has what is called the
discordant note, between its sounding and its final
resolution, and either passing direct to the note
whichrelieves the dissonancefromthe digi-ession,
or touching the dissonant note slightly again at
the end of it. The simplest form of this device
was the leap from a suspended note to another
note belonging to the same harmony, and then
back to the note which supplies the resolution,where the chord of the Dominant seventh
conas in Ex. 10 and this form was extremelytracts into the mere single note which it repre- ;
common iu quite the early times ofsents, polyphonicand that proceeds to the note only of the
music.Tonic so that no actual haiinony is heard in
Ex. 10.the movementafter seventhhasbeensounded.the
An example inversion of the &i=of treatment ofan
major ninth of the Dominant, which is as un- m p
usual, is the following from Beethoven's last
Quartet, :in F, op. 135 ^^^^mEx. 7.
But much more elaborate forms of a similar
nature were later.made use of An example
from J. S. Bach will be found in vol. i. p. 3146Ar_ Ar J.r J'"'
of this Dictionary the following example, from
;mmm- a Fantasia by Emanuel Bach, illustrates the
There remain to be noted a few typical devices same point somewhat remarkably, and serves
by which resolutions are either varied or ela- also as an instance of enharmonic resolution :
Ex. 11.— '
The minor seventh on C in this case ia ulti- incredible to people who do not believe in what
mately resolved as if it had been an augmented they are accustomed to, is felt to be obviousnot
sixth composed of the same identical and hencenotes to all when it becomes familiar ; the
according to our system of temperament, but peculiarities which are reserved for special
derived from a different source and having con- often in their turn yieldoccasions at first must
sequently a Thiscontext. manner of the palm of special interest to more complex
using the same group of notes in different senses instinctive generalisations. Such ia the history
is one of the most familiar devices in modern muaical resources inof the development of the
music for varying of future.the course resolutions and past, and such it must be in the The
obtaining fresh aspects of harmonic combina- laws of art require to be based upon the broadest
tions. [For further examples see Modulation, and universal generalisations and inmost ; the
Change, Enharmonic] detail under consideration it appears at present
An inference which follows from the use of that the ultimate test is thorough intelligibility
some forms Enharmonic resolution in the melodic progressions of the partsof is that which
the discordant note need not inevitablymove to constitute the chords, or in a few cases the
resolution, but may be brought into consonant response of the harmony representing one root
relations parts, which to that representingby the motion of other another, between which,
relieve it.of its characteristic dissonant effect as in Examples 3 and 4, there is a recognised
this is illustrated most familiarly by the freedom connection sufficient for the mind to follow
which is the resolution ofthe chord without the express connectionrecognised in of the flow of
ofthe sixth, fifth,and third on the subdominant, the parts. Attempts to catalogue the various
called sometimes the added sixth, sometimes discords and their various resolutions must be
an futile as long injunctioninversion of the supertonic seventh, and as the is added that
sometimes an inversion of the eleventh of the such formulas only are admissible, for this is to
Dominant, or evena double-rooted chord derived insist upon the repetition of what haa been aaid
beforefrom Tonic and Dominant together. ; but they are of value when they are
It is necessary to note shortly the use of conaidered with aufficient generality to help us
vicarious resolutions—that is, of resolutions in to arrive at the ultimate principles which
underwhich one part supplies the discordant note lie the largest circle of their multifarioua
and another the note to which under ordinary varieties. The imagination can live and move
circumstances ought to pass. has been freely withinit This the bounds of comprehensive laws,
alluded to above as common in respect of the but it is only choked by the accumulation of
so-called fundamental discords, but there are precedents. h.c. h. p.
instances of its occurring with less independent RESPOND (Lat. Hespmsorimn) a form of
combinations. The Gigue of Bach's Partita in ecclesiastical chant which gi-ew out of the
E minor is full of remarkable experiments in elaboration of the primitive Eesponsobial
resolution the following is an example which Psalmody.
; Some of the Besponds have- been
illustrates especially the point under considera- frequently treated in the Polyphonic Style, with
:tion very great effect, not only by the Great Masters
of the 16th century,Ex.12. but even as late as the time
of Colonna, whose Eesponsoria of the Office for
the Dead, for eight voices, are written with^^m
intense appreciation of the solemn import of
the text.
A large collection of very fine examples,
including an exquisitely beautiful set for Holy
Week, by Vittoria, will be found in vol. iv. of
'The inference to be drawn from the above ex- Proske's Musica Divina. \v. s. R.
the possible resolutions ofdiscords, RESPONSE,amplesisthat in English church music, is, in
especially of those which have an individual its widest sense, any musical sentence sung by
are Varied, but that it takes time to the choir at the closestatus, of something read or
severer chanteddiscover them, as there can hardly be a by the minister. The term thus
' 'of a true musical instinct in relation to cludes the Amen aftertest ' prayers, the Kyrie
make sure of such a matter. after eachharmony than to commandment in the Communion
As a rule, the old easily recognisable resolutions, Sermce, the 'Doxology' to the Gospel, and
motion of a single degree, or at least by every reply to a Versicle,by or to a Petition, or
in supplying Suffrage. InInterchange of parts of the chord its more limited sense the first
subsequent consonant harmony, must pre- three of the above divisionsthe would be excluded
more peculiar resolutions from the term, andponderate, and the the last-named would fall
force naturally intobe reserved for occasions when greater the followingwill important groups :
are required. But as the paradoxes thosewhichimmediatelyand intensity (1) precede the Psalms,
often the truisms of the called also the Preeesone generation are thoseof ; (2) following the
of discords such as is utterly Apostles' Creedand thenext, so treatment Lord's Prayer those
; (3)— ' — —— .
following the Lord's Prayer in the Litany Creed and the Lord's Prayer. And here we at
; (4)
'and the Responses of the first portion of the oncemeet the final fall ofaminor third,' which
Litany, which, however, are of a special musical is an ancient form — — —of inflec- ft—°~~form which fully explained hereafter. tion ^will be known as the Accentus
Versioles and Responses are either an ancient
'formula of prayer or praise, as, Lord, have This is one of the most characteristic
progresmercy upon us,' etc., 'Glory be to the Father,' sions in plain-song versicles, responses,
conor a quotation from Scripture,etc., Holy as, fessions, etc. It must have already struck the
reader that this is nothing more or less than^ O Loid, open Thou our lips.
'theB; And ourmouth shall shew forth Thy praise. note ' of the cuckoo. This fact was
probably in Shakespeare's mind when he wrote,
which is verse 15 of Psalm li. ; or a quotation
The finch, the sparrow, and the lark,from a church hymn, as,
The ptai/n-song cuckoo gray.
Lord, save Thy/^ O people. This medial accent is only used in Versicles
bless Thine inheritance.^ And
and Responses when the last word is a
polywhich is from the an MedialTeDev/m ; or adaptation of Atxent.syllable : thus
a prayer to the special purpose, as,
Favourably with mercy hear^ our prayers. $
^ And grant us Thy salya-tion.Son of David, have mercyI^ O upon us.
When the last word is a monosyllable or is
The musical treatment of such Versicles and
accented on its
Moderate Accent,Responses offers a wide and interesting field of
last syllable,
study. (There can be little doubt that all the there is an
or cadences to whichinflections they are set
ditional note,
As we do put OUT trust in Thee.have been the gradual development of an ^
original monotonal treatment, which in time
This may be said to be the only law of the
be uninteresting andwas foimd to tedious
Accentus Ikdetiastieiiswhichthe tradition ofour
'(whence our term of contempt monotonous
'), ReformedChurch enforces. It isstrictlyobserved
or was designedly varied for use on special
in most of our cathedrals, and considering its
holy seasons.occasions and duiing [See In- remarkable simplicity, should never be broken.
The word 'prayers' was formerly pronounced
'The word Alleluia ' is found as a Response
as a dissyllable it
in the Prayer-Book of 1549, for use between therefore took the _
Easter and Trinity, immediately before the •^ Favourably .... OUT pi-ay-era.medialaccentthus
Psalms during the remainder of the year the
; but as a monosyllable it should of course
translation of the word was « .^ ^ be treated thus— -9
' Jz*used. Here is Marbeck's n
fmUSioforit (1550) Praye 7° the Lotde. Favourably .... our prayers.
editions convertedWhen this was in later In comparing our Versicles and Responses
into a Versicle and Response, as in our present with the Latin from which they were
transPrayer-Book, the music was, according to some
lated, it is important to bear this rule as to the
between the Versicleand Response,uses, divided ' final word ' in mind. Because the Latin and
thus English of the same Versicle or Response will
'frequently take difiiBrent accents ' in the two
languages. For example, the following Versicle
takes in the Latin the medial accent but in
;* Lord. 1% The Lord'sname be praised.PiBise ye the
the translation will require the moderate accent.
'of fact these Preces' in ourBut as a matter
precede the daily PsalmsPrayer-Book which
lawshave never been strictly bound by the of
chant,' hence, not only are great'ecclesiastical
-Ab inimtcis nostrls defends nos Chris te.
to be met with,varieties of plain-song settings
Englistigathered from Roman and other uses, but form.
in service-form (that is,also actual settings
contrapuntal deviceslike a motet), containing
or more parts. Nearly all the best From ourenemies defend us, four
contain old examples of thiscathedral libraries
It has been just stated that the early part of
and severalelaborate treatment of the Preces,
the Litany does not come under the above laws
'printed by Dr. Jebb in his Choralhave been
' accent.' The pi^incipal melodic progressionof
is, however, closely allied to the above, it
exceptional,then the Preces are somewhatAs having merely an
addipass to the more regular Versicles andwe will
tional note, thus
as those after the Apostles'Responses, such— —— ; —— — —— ;
in our northern cathedrals.sionally to be heardIt ::f:This is the old and com- always entirely ignoredThe plain-song was not
men Response sometimes in-church-musicians, but it wasby
- ra pro no-bis.
mutilatedpart in such a
' cluded in the tenor
and to this are adapted the Responses,
It is gene-be hardly recognisable.state as to
'us, good Lord ' Good Lord, deliver us '; ; which Tallis'sthat the form inrally admitted'We beseech Thee to hear _us, good Lord';
to us is very impure,responses have comedown
'Grant us Thy peace ' Have mercyupon us ';
; extent is this theif not incorrect. To such an
' 'hear us (the first note beingChrist, omitted
' people's part ofedition of the 'case that in an
'as redundant) ; and Lord, have mercyupon us
many years since, theTallis, published not
Christ, have mercy upon us.' At this point,
fairly gave up thecathedral organist)editor (athe entry of the Lord's Prayer brings in the
response,plain-song of thetask of finding the
old law of medial and moderate accents ; the
us, good Lord,' and'We beseech Thee to hear
above simple melody, therefore, is the true
tuneful super-people to sing theordered the
Response forthe whole ofthe first(and principal)
portion ofthe Litany. It is necessary, however,
to return now to the preliminary sentences of
'the Litany, or the Invocations,' as they have
hear us, good Lord.We be seech Thee -tobeen called. Here we find each divided by a
in consequence, the simple melodycolon, and, combinecertainly does appear impossible toIt
last given is lengthened by one note, thus this with
us, good Lord.This is used without variation for all the
InvoThe asterisk shows the added note,cations.
-—appears thatBut it — m-the syllable immediately pre- Jwhich is set to
this ancient form
ceding the colon. It happens that each of the
Invocation contains in our Englishsentences of OhriS'te ex - au - di uqs.
before the colon but itversion a monosyllable ;
if used Tallis, will combine with hisThis, by
not the case in the Latin, therefore both Ver-is harmonies ; thus
Response differ from our use, thussicle and
-^r rT^r r r
We be - seech Thee to hear us, good Lord.
'^XSLT-la-MesUmers.{jasro;}"— {
etc. (FlaiD-song in Tenor.)h
Having now described the Preces, Versiclesde coelis De • us.Pater
and Responses, and Litany, it only remains tomarkedpetitions of the Litany, the noteIn the
say a few words on Amens, Doxology to(1) (2)approached byanother addi-with an asterisk is
Gospel, Responses to the Commandments,(3)
for instead oftion,
all of which we have mentioned as being re-a
1 i--fj sponses of a less important kind.we have fer^1
Since the Reformation two forms of(1)
with UB for ever. Amen have been chiefly used in our church,
standsThe whole sentence of music therefore the monotone, and the approach by a semitone,—thus generally harmonised thus
(Petition chanted by (Response by Choir and
Priest.) People.)
now shortly traced the gradualWe have
of ourgrowth of the plain-song of the whole
The former 'and it is impossible not to admire the of these Amens ' in early timesLitany,
construction. was used when the choir resporidedsimplicity and beauty of its to the priest
fre- the latter, when boththe early English church-musicians priest and choir sangBut
original musical settings of together (as after the Confession,quently composed Lord's Prayer,
number of Creed, etc.). Tallis,whole Litany, a considerable however, always uses thethe
monotonicprinted by Dr. Jebb nearly form, varying the harmonies thrice.which were ;
except that by In more modern uses,however, are now obsolete however, the ancientall,
Minster at system has beenWanless (organist of York actually reversed, and (as atThomas
century), which is occa- St. Paul's Cathedral) the formerclose of the a7th is only usedthe